Sample records for mutually responsive orientation

  1. Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Conscience Development: From Toddler to Early School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Murray, Kathleen T.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the long-term consequences of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience at early school age. Found that mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's conscience, even after controlling for developmental continuity of conscience. Toddler mutually responsive…

  2. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  3. Dominance of Spouse Orientation and Perceived Couple Mutuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Antoinette D.; Dudek, Stephanie Z.

    Interactions between husbands and wives are often assessed in terms of power distribution, based on decision-making outcomes. To examine the association of the dominance of "spouse" over "parents" and "peers" orientation with perceived behavioral and affective mutuality in the couple's financial management, couples (N=30) were randomly chosen from…

  4. Local Dominant Orientation Based Mutual Information for Multisensor Template Matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhuang Yan; Yongbin Zheng; Wanying Xu; Xinsheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Mutual information (MI) has been very successful in multisensor or multimodal image matching. However, it may lead to mismatching due to lack of spacial information. In this paper, based on a local dominant orientation (LDO), which is a stable nature among images of different sensors and is widely used in the relative rotation estimation, an improved MI for multisensor images

  5. Sensorless field orientation control of induction machines based on a mutual MRAS scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhen; Longya Xu

    1998-01-01

    A mutual model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is proposed to implement a position sensorless field-orientation control (FOC) of an induction machine. The reference model and adjustable model used in the mutual MRAS scheme are interchangeable. Therefore, it can be used to identify both rotor speed and the stator resistance of an induction machine. For the rotor speed estimation, one model

  6. Mutualism fails when climate response differs between interacting species.

    PubMed

    Warren, Robert J; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Successful species interactions require that both partners share a similar cue. For many species, spring warming acts as a shared signal to synchronize mutualist behaviors. Spring flowering plants and the ants that disperse their seeds respond to warming temperatures so that ants forage when plants drop seeds. However, where warm-adapted ants replace cold-adapted ants, changes in this timing might leave early seeds stranded without a disperser. We investigate plant seed dispersal south and north of a distinct boundary between warm- and cold-adapted ants to determine if changes in the ant species influence local plant dispersal. The warm-adapted ants forage much later than the cold-adapted ants, and so we first assess natural populations of early and late blooming plants. We then transplant these plants south and north of the ant boundary to test whether distinct ant climate requirements disrupt the ant-plant mutualism. Whereas the early blooming plant's inability to synchronize with the warm-adapted ant leaves its populations clumped and patchy and its seedlings clustered around the parents in natural populations, when transplanted into the range of the cold-adapted ant, effective seed dispersal recovers. In contrast, the mutualism persists for the later blooming plant regardless of location because it sets seed later in spring when both warm- and cold-adapted ant species forage, resulting in effective seed dispersal. These results indicate that the climate response of species interactions, not just the species themselves, is integral in understanding ecological responses to a changing climate. Data linking phenological synchrony and dispersal are rare, and these results suggest a viable mechanism by which a species' range is limited more by biotic than abiotic interactions - despite the general assumption that biotic influences are buried within larger climate drivers. These results show that biotic partner can be as fundamental a niche requirement as abiotic resources. PMID:24399754

  7. Oscillator strength spectrum of hydrogen in strong magnetic and electric fields with arbitrary mutual orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu

    2006-08-01

    We present oscillator strength spectra of the hydrogen Balmer ? series in crossed strong magnetic and electric fields. Field strength regimes of interest ( ??0.02a.u. and F?1×108V/m ) are the characteristic strengths observed on the surface of white dwarf stars. Based on the pseudospectral discretization technique, two independent methods have been developed to achieve reliable oscillator strengths in crossed fields. The effect of relative orientation between the magnetic and electric fields is clarified. Compared to the parallel configuration, we have observed that for the field strength regimes of interest, the perpendicular component of electric fields only results in a weaker coupling between the states belonging to the different subspaces of magnetic quantum numbers. This observation explains why the spectrum of oscillator strengths in crossed electric and magnetic fields with arbitrary mutual orientation shows similar behavior compared to that in parallel fields. However, a careful analysis shows that the two stronger transition lines at 5546 and 5620Å previously attributed to the Balmer ? series are now identified to belong to the Balmer ? series. An effective scheme has also been suggested to calculate the bound-free opacities of hydrogen atoms in crossed fields.

  8. The orienting response in schizophrenia and mania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Schnur; Scott Smith; Adam Smith; Venecia Marte; Elizabeth Horwitz; Harold A. Sackeim; Sukdeb Mukherjee; Alvin S. Bernstein

    1999-01-01

    We examined skin conductance (SCR) and finger pulse amplitude response (PULSE) in 53 schizophrenic, 30 manic, and 28 control subjects to provide information on orienting response (OR) dysfunction in severe psychiatric disorders. SCR and PULSE to neutral and task-relevant tones were measured in acutely ill inpatients and normal control subjects on two occasions separated by a 3-week interval. There were

  9. The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the…

  10. A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

  11. Numerical responses in resource-based mutualisms: A time scale approach.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Tomás A

    2015-08-01

    Many mutualisms involve inter-specific resource exchanges, making consumer-resource approaches ideal for studying their dynamics. Also in many cases these resources are short lived (e.g. flowers) compared with the population dynamics of their producers and consumers (e.g. plants and insects), which justifies a separation of time scales. As a result, we can derive the numerical response of one species with respect to the abundance of another. For resource consumers, the numerical responses can account for intra-specific competition for mutualistic resources (e.g. nectar), thus connecting competition theory and mutualism mechanistically. For species that depend on services (e.g. pollination, seed dispersal), the numerical responses display saturation of benefits, with service handling times related with rates of resource production (e.g. flower turnover time). In both scenarios, competition and saturation have the same underlying cause, which is that resource production occurs at a finite velocity per individual, but their consumption tracks the much faster rates of population growth characterizing mutualisms. The resulting models display all the basic features seen in many models of facultative and obligate mutualisms, and they can be generalized from species pairs to larger communities. PMID:25936757

  12. The orienting response: Stimulus factors and response measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Barry

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the basic ideas of the orienting response (OR) that have developed from the classical writings\\u000a of E.N. Sokolov, in particular the effects of stimulus novelty, intensity, and significance upon the OR, and predictions about\\u000a these effects on a range of physiological measures traditionally associated with the OR. Such measures include the GSR, respiration,\\u000a heart rate,

  13. The nanoindentation responses of nickel surfaces with different crystal orientations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-P. Ju; C.-T. Wang; C.-H. Chien; J. C. Huang; S.-R. Jian

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to elucidate the anisotropic characteristics in the material responses for crystallographic nickel substrates with (100), (110) and (111) surface orientations during nanoindentation, compensating for the experimental limitation of nanoindentation—particularly for pure nickel substrates of three crystallographic orientations. This study examines several factors under indentation: three-dimensional phases of plastic deformation which correspond to atomic stress

  14. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background.

    PubMed

    Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2012-12-01

    Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

  16. Mutual illumination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Forsyth; Andrew Zisserman

    1989-01-01

    The authors report theoretical and experimental results which underline the importance of mutual illumination to visual modules dealing with shape and with surface lightness. The experiments are in good agreement with results obtained with a simple theoretical model. These results show the effects of mutual illumination in pictures of simple objects, and indicate that these effects must be accounted for

  17. Cardiac Tissue Enriched Factors Serum Response Factor and GATA4 Are Mutual Coregulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NARASIMHASWAMY S. BELAGULI; JORGE L. SEPULVEDA; VISHAL NIGAM; FREDERIC CHARRON; MONA NEMER; ROBERT J. SCHWARTZ

    2000-01-01

    Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends

  18. Evaluative Priming of Naming and Semantic Categorization Responses Revisited: A Mutual Facilitation Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The evaluative priming effect (i.e., faster target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) in nonevaluative priming tasks (such as naming or semantic categorization tasks) is considered important for the question of how evaluative connotations are represented in memory. However, the empirical…

  19. Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

  20. Response of the elasmobranch utricle to maintained spatial orientation, transitions and jitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Macadar; G. E. Wolfe; D. P. O'Leary; J. P. Segundo

    1975-01-01

    1.The spike discharges of single first order afferents from the utricle were recorded in the isolated head of the guitarfish and tested for responses to maintained spatial orientation, to transitions and to a small positional jitter representing natural perturbations. Sensitivity to maintained orientation is referred to as “tonic,” and to transitions and jitter as “phasic.”2.Most responsive cells were either phasically,

  1. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. PMID:25651579

  2. Parents Helping Parents: Mutual Parenting Network Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkinson, Charles H.; Redmond, Robert F.

    Guidelines for mutual parenting are provided in this handbook. "Mutual parenting" means that everyone in the community shares the responsibility for the safety and well-being of the community's youngsters. Several topics are discussed in the 15 brief chapters of the handbook. Chapters 1 through 3 focus on the formation of a mutual parenting…

  3. The responses of front-line employees to market-oriented culture change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd C. Harris; Emmanuel Ogbonna

    2000-01-01

    A theme emerging from research into the determinants, content and consequences of market orientation is that developing a market-oriented culture exerts a profound influence on the organizational culture of a company. Explores and describes the manner and forms of front-line employees’ responses to market-oriented culture change initiatives. The paper begins with a brief overview of existing literature discussing the definition

  4. Orientation-dependent shock response of explosive crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Some orientations of PETN crystals have anomalously high shock initiation sensitivity around 4 to 5 GPa. Results of a series of laser interferometry experiments at 4.2 GPa show that this is associated with an elastic-plastic, two-wave structure with large elastic precursors. Implications for the initiation mechanism in single crystals is discussed. Initial work on beta phase, monoclinic HMX is also described.

  5. Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

  6. OUTSTANDING PAPER FIRST RUNNER-UP AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF BUSINESS STUDENTS' DISCRETIONARY SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ORIENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Achua; Robert N. Lussier

    As future business leaders, students' values and belief system will influence the types of decisions they make regarding their organization's role in society. This study examined business students' Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation (CSRO) and their attitudes towards the discretionary component of CSR. The majority of business students have a high CSRO and also believe in the discretionary social responsibility component

  7. Futures Tended: Care and Future-Oriented Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Barbara; Groves, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of technological hazards, whose existence is only revealed many years after they were initially produced, shows that the question of our responsibilities toward future generations is of urgent importance. However, the nature of technological societies means that they are caught in a condition of structural irresponsibility: the…

  8. Adolescents' Attachment Orientation Influences Ambulatory Blood Pressure Responses to Everyday Social Interactions

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Adolescents' Attachment Orientation Influences Ambulatory Blood Pressure Responses to Everyday of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (AmBP and AmHR) monitoring while they tracked social experiences higher in anxious attachment showed augmented ambulatory diastolic and systolic blood pressure (AmDBP, Am

  9. Protocol support for optimized, context sensitive request\\/response communication over connection oriented networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sascha Kümmel; Tino Hutschenreuther

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a research project on specification and implem entation of a fast, reliable and context sensitive transfer system. The design considers the behavi or of various connection oriented networks and the requirements of request\\/response based communication sc hemes. First we describe the current situation. This is based on recent measurements and experi ences with remote procedure call (RPC)

  10. Cortical Activity during Manual Response Inhibition Guided by Color and Orientation Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weidong; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) plays a critical role in manual response inhibition, although neuroimaging studies of healthy adults have also reported widespread activations in other cortical regions during a variety of response inhibition tasks. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to examine whether the activation of the IFG is dependent on the type of visuo-motor associations during response inhibition by varying the feature of the stop signal (color vs. orientation) in the stop-signal task. Results from 12 subjects showed that the bilateral ventral posterior IFG, anterior insula, inferior frontal junction (IFJ), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) are active during response inhibition cued by both color and orientation stop signals. While only the MTG showed differential activity to the two stop signals, both MTG and FG showed significantly stronger activity during successful than unsuccessful stopping of unwanted responses cued by orientation and color, respectively. Our findings suggest that the right ventral posterior IFG may play a more general role in response inhibition regardless of the feature of the visual signal, while successful inhibition may depend on efficient processing of the signal. PMID:19401178

  11. Sharks modulate their escape behavior in response to predator size, speed and approach orientation.

    PubMed

    Seamone, Scott; Blaine, Tristan; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-12-01

    Escape responses are often critical for surviving predator-prey interactions. Nevertheless, little is known about how predator size, speed and approach orientation impact escape performance, especially in larger prey that are primarily viewed as predators. We used realistic shark models to examine how altering predatory behavior and morphology (size, speed and approach orientation) influences escape behavior and performance in Squalus acanthias, a shark that is preyed upon by apex marine predators. Predator models induced C-start escape responses, and increasing the size and speed of the models triggered a more intense response (increased escape turning rate and acceleration). In addition, increased predator size resulted in greater responsiveness from the sharks. Among the responses, predator approach orientation had the most significant impact on escapes, such that the head-on approach, as compared to the tail-on approach, induced greater reaction distances and increased escape turning rate, speed and acceleration. Thus, the anterior binocular vision in sharks renders them less effective at detecting predators approaching from behind. However, it appears that sharks compensate by performing high-intensity escapes, likely induced by the lateral line system, or by a sudden visual flash of the predator entering their field of view. Our study reveals key aspects of escape behavior in sharks, highlighting the modulation of performance in response to predator approach. PMID:25041843

  12. Mutual Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ethylene-responsive Element Binding Protein and a Plant Floral Homeotic Gene, APETALA2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARO OGAWA; HIROFUMI UCHIMIYA; MAKI KAWAI-YAMADA

    2007-01-01

    †Background and Aims It has previously been shown that Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AtEBP) contributed to resistance to abiotic stresses. Interestingly, it has also been reported that expression of ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes including AtEBP were regulated by the activity of APETALA2 (AP2), a floral homeotic factor. AP2 is known to regulate expression of several floral-specific homeo- tic

  13. The corporate social responsiveness orientation of hospital directors: does occupational background make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; Angelidis, J P; Howard, D P

    2000-01-01

    The results of a survey of 184 directors from 15 hospitals are analyzed to determine their corporate social responsiveness orientation. They indicate that board members whose occupational background is not in health care exhibit greater concern for economic performance and the legal component of corporate responsibility than their counterparts whose occupational background is in health care. No significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to the ethical and discretionary dimensions of corporate social responsibility. Some explanations as well as limited generalizations and implications are developed. PMID:10808420

  14. Quantifying Dialect Mutual Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    Measurement of the mutual intelligibility of dialects of a language is discussed. The focus is on several theoretical constructs in measurement, illustrated with data from an earlier study of the mutual intelligibility of 17 Chinese dialects. Measurement procedures are also explained. It is proposed that mutual intelligibility is based on the…

  15. The Brain’s Orienting Response: An Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David; Goldman, Robin; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R.

    2009-01-01

    An important function of the brain’s orienting response is to enable the evaluation of novel, environmental events in order to prepare for potential behavioral action. Here, we assessed the event-related hemodynamic (erfMRI) correlates of this phenomenon using unexpected (i.e., novel) environmental sounds presented within the context of an auditory novelty oddball paradigm. In ERP investigations of the novelty oddball, repetition of the identical novel sound leads to habituation of the novelty P3, an ERP sign of the orienting response. Repetition also leads to an enhancement of a subsequent positivity that appears to reflect semantic analysis of the environmental sounds. In this adaptation for erfMRI recording, frequent tones were intermixed randomly with infrequent target tones and equally infrequent novel, environmental sounds. Subjects responded via speeded button press to targets. To assess habituation, some of the environmental sounds were repeated 2 blocks after their initial presentation. As expected, novel sounds and target tones led to activation of widespread, but somewhat different, neural networks. Contrary to expectation, however, there were no significant areas in which activation was reduced in response to second compared to first presentations of the novel sounds. Conversely, novel sounds relative to target tones engendered activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) consistent with semantic analysis of these events. We conclude that a key concomitant of the orienting response is the extraction of meaning, thereby enabling one to determine the significance of the environmental perturbation and take appropriate goal-directed action. PMID:18465750

  16. Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Claudia C; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-06-01

    The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23678099

  17. Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

  18. Understanding mutualism when there is adaptation to the partner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLAIRE DE MAZANCOURT; MICHEL LOREAU; ULF DIECKMANN

    2005-01-01

    Summary 1 A mutualism is a mutually beneficial interaction between individuals of two species. Here we show that the degree of benefit resulting from an interaction depends on whether adaptation within the mutualism is considered. 2 A species' proximate response measures the short-term effect of addition or removal of the partner species, without allowing for any adaptation. We define a

  19. Stochastic Gravitational Wave Measurements with Bar Detectors: Dependence of Response on Detector Orientation

    E-print Network

    John T Whelan

    2005-09-27

    The response of a cross-correlation measurement to an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background depends on the observing geometry via the overlap reduction function. If one of the detectors being correlated is a resonant bar whose orientation can be changed, the response to stochastic gravitational waves can be modulated. I derive the general form of this modulation as a function of azimuth, both in the zero-frequency limit and at arbitrary frequencies. Comparisons are made between pairs of nearby detectors, such as LIGO Livingston-ALLEGRO, Virgo-AURIGA, Virgo-NAUTILUS, and EXPLORER-AURIGA, with which stochastic cross-correlation measurements are currently being performed, planned, or considered.

  20. The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A Dimensional Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosconi, Matthew W.; Reznick, J. Steven; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of…

  1. Orientation of the fiddler crab, Uca cumulanta: responses to chemical and visual cues.

    PubMed

    Chiussi, Roberto; Diaz, Humberto

    2002-09-01

    Behavioral responses of the fiddler crab Uca cumulanta to flat geometric shapes mimicking natural objects were measured in a circular arena by using zonal recovery as a behavioral measurement. Crabs were tested either in presence or absence of odors from two common predator species, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, and the pufferfish Sphoeroides testudineus. The study tested the hypothesis that U. cumulanta have different behavioral responses to visual cues in the presence of chemical cues associated with predators. Escape direction tests demonstrated that U. cumulanta is able to show zonal recovery behavior based upon astronomical references. When tested in water lacking predator odor, crabs failed to exhibit a consistent orientation if a single silhouette target was interposed in the landward direction. However, when animals were tested in different predator odor concentrations, an orientation response was obtained at 10 and 20 g/liter/hr blue crab odorand 10 g/liter/hr pufferfish odor, demonstrating U. cumulanta ability to detect the potential presence of its natural predators by this odor. Thus, the hypothesis was supported, and the results suggest that behavioral responses to chemical and visual cues are involved in predator avoidance. PMID:12449506

  2. Evolution of mutualism between species

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  3. Primacy effect in orienting responses to auditory stimuli of tones and music.

    PubMed

    Simon, E B

    1976-06-01

    This 25 factorial experiment investigated the primacy effect in the orienting response. The type of stimuli (tone or "music"), stimulus intensities (loud or soft), length of adaptation period (same, 5 or 30 sec; or different, 5 min.), interstimulus intervals (5 or 30 sec.), and sex were studied. College students, 32 males and 32 females were randomly assigned to each group. In the same condition, the tone (or music) was soft (or loud) for 5 sec. (or 30 sec.) in adaptation and was then changed alternately without interruption to loud, soft, etc. (or soft, loud, etc.) for 5 sec. (or 30 sec.). The different condition was identical except for the length of adaptation period in which the stimuli sounded continously for 5 min. Analyses of the GSR manifestation of the orienting responses indicated: (a) an over-all primacy effect with the auditory stimuli and (b) the primacy effect occurred in the 5-sec.-same but not in the 30-sec.-same condition as predicted. PMID:1272739

  4. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  5. Optical Response of Oriented and Highly Anisotropic Subwavelength Metallic Nanostructure Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Danny J.; Mendoza, Albert; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2013-05-23

    Here we describe the optical transmission response of novel coatings with subwavelength metallic structures based on a quasi-open ring resonator design fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering. This offers a relatively simple approach to the fabrication of dense arrays of optically responsive subwavelength structures over large areas with an oriented two-dimensional array of parallel Au nanoshells. The cross-section of the individual lines is “L” shaped with an approximately 95 nm width, 75 nm height, and pitch of 140 nm to yield a resonant optical response in the visible/near infrared spectrum. Along the long axis of the shells, the geometry is wire-like and quasi-infinite in length compared to the cross-section. This highly anisotropic structure has a strongly polarization-dependent optical response. The coatings are characterized via optical transmission measurements as a function of wavelength, polarization, and angle are presented along with complementary numerical modeling results predicting the resonance shift with corresponding changes in fabrication parameters.

  6. Linking Work Design and Corporate Social Responsibility Through an Exploratory Model for the Interdependency of Work Characteristics and Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation 

    E-print Network

    Kurup, Priya Darshini

    2012-02-14

    Characteristics Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation Ergonomics Equipment Use Feedback From Job Feedback From Others Interdependence Interaction Outside the Organization Information Processing Job Complexity... have focused on a narrow set of outcomes that was partially propelled by emphasis on the outcomes determined by the disciplines of interest, such as industrial/organizational psychology, supply chain, biomechanics, and ergonomics (Campion, 1988...

  7. Restricting a Familiar Name in Response to Learning a New One: Evidence for the Mutual Exclusivity Bias in Young Two-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William E.; Stevenson, Colleen M.

    1997-01-01

    Used new test to determine whether 24-month olds interpret novel words in accordance with Mutual Exclusivity Bias. Found that when asked to select exemplars of a familiar noun, they avoided objects from previously read story in which novel nouns were used as atypical exemplars of familiar noun. When pronouns and proper names replaced novel nouns,…

  8. Multisensory integration for orienting responses in humans requires the activation of the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Leo, Fabrizio; Bertini, Caterina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that the superior colliculus (SC) is important for synthesising information from multiple senses into a unified map of space. Here, we tested whether the SC is a critical neural substrate for multisensory spatial integration in humans. To do so, we took advantage of neurophysiological findings revealing that the SC does not receive direct projections from short-wavelength-sensitive S cones. In a simple reaction-time task, participants responded more quickly to concurrent peripheral (extra-foveal) audiovisual (AV) stimuli than to an auditory or visual stimulus alone, a phenomenon known as the redundant target effect (RTE). We show that the nature of this RTE was dependent on the colour of the visual stimulus. When using purple short-wavelength stimuli, to which the SC is blind, RTE was simply explained by probability summation, indicating that the redundant auditory and visual channels are independent. Conversely, with red long-wavelength stimuli, visible to the SC, the RTE was related to nonlinear neural summation, which constitutes evidence of integration of different sensory information. We also demonstrate that when AV stimuli were presented at fixation, so that the spatial orienting component of the task was reduced, neural summation was possible regardless of stimulus colour. Together, these findings provide support for a pivotal role of the SC in mediating multisensory spatial integration in humans, when behaviour involves spatial orienting responses. PMID:18008066

  9. An insecure base: Attachment style and orienting response to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yee, Claire I; Shiota, Michelle N

    2015-07-01

    In adults as in infants, psychological attachment to close others provides a "secure base" for exploration and pursuit of opportunities. Insecure attachment is likely to interfere with this function. The present study examined the association of individual differences in adult attachment style with peripheral physiological measures of automatic orienting to several kinds of positive, rewarding stimuli. Attachment style was largely unrelated to extent of heart rate deceleration in response to the appearance of positive emotion-eliciting images. However, attachment avoidance was associated with reduced skin conductance responding to the onset of several kinds of positive stimuli. These findings suggest that working models of relationships with close others have complex implications for the early stages of responding to opportunities for reward presented by the environment. PMID:25809096

  10. Signature extraction using mutual interdependencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Claussen; Justinian Rosca; Robert I. Damper

    2011-01-01

    Recently, mutual interdependence analysis (MIA) has been successfully used to extract representations, or “mutual features”, accounting for samples in the class. For example, a mutual feature is a face signature under varying illumination conditions or a speaker signature under varying channel conditions. A mutual feature is a linear regression that is equally correlated with all samples of the input class.

  11. Floral scents: their roles in nursery pollination mutualisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Hossaert-McKey; Catherine Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Magali Proffit

    2010-01-01

    Mutualisms are interspecies interactions in which each participant gains net benefits from interacting with its partner. In\\u000a nursery pollination mutualisms, pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. In these systems, each partner\\u000a depends directly on the other for its reproduction. Therefore, the signal responsible for partner encounter is crucial in\\u000a these horizontally transmitted mutualisms, in which the association between specific

  12. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  13. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  14. The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Kellah M.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics…

  15. Quantum Mechanics Measurements, Mutually

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    Quantum Mechanics Measurements, Mutually Unbiased Bases and Finite Geometry Or why six is the first) #12;Quantum Mechanics for Dummies Finite dimensional quantum states are represented by trace one,1 -icS1,1[ ] #12;Quantum systems evolve and are measured. The evolution of a quantum system using

  16. Mutual Interdependence Analysis (MIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Claussen; Justinian Rosca; Robert I. Damper

    2007-01-01

    Functional Data Analysis (FDA) is used for datasets that are more meaningfully represented in the functional form. Functional prin- cipal component analysis, for instance, is used to extract a set of func- tions of maximum variance that can represent the data. In this paper, a method of Mutual Interdependence Analysis (MIA) is proposed that can extract an equally correlated function

  17. Mutual funds under fire: reform initiatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Smith Jr

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To describe the broad range of reform initiatives that has been undertaken in response to a series of mutual fund scandals that have become apparent starting in 2003. This is the second of a two-part article. The first part, in Volume 7, Number 1, is a chronology of developments related to the fund scandals since 1 January 2003.

  18. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options. PMID:25898342

  19. Mutual fund trading and liquidity

    E-print Network

    Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

  20. Effects of bilateral and unilateral ablation of auditory cortex in cats on the unconditioned head orienting response to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Beitel, R E; Kaas, J H

    1993-07-01

    1. Reflexive head orienting responses (ORs) elicited by bursts of wide-band noise were investigated in cats after bilateral or unilateral ablation of the auditory cortex, and the cats' performance was compared with that of control cats. The OR was used as an indication of ability to orient toward the azimuthal direction of a source of sound. 2. To adequately test this ability, a unique combination of stimulus duration and position of the sound source was selected on each trial. Stimulus durations (0.1, 0.3, and 1.5 s) were selected so that the offset of a burst of noise occurred before, during, or after an OR. The stimuli were produced from speakers positioned approximately at the interaural horizontal plane within each quadrant of a cat's auditory field. The ORs were recorded on moving film and analyzed quantitatively. 3. In the control cats, the trajectory of the OR was characterized by a saccadic profile (rapid steplike movement, monophasic velocity, and biphasic acceleration). The accuracy of the OR varied directly with stimulus duration, suggesting that the response was modified by auditory feedback produced by a head movement during the stimulus. Corrective responses executed during long-duration (1.5 s) stimuli reduced residual mean error to < 7 degrees in each of the control animals. The mean error in orientation was smaller for sources located in the frontal sound field than for sources located behind the coronal plane the head (> 90 degrees). When brief (0.1 s) stimuli were presented behind the head, the cats confused back with front directions on most of the trials. 4. Compared with performance in the control cats, bilateral destruction of the auditory geniculocortical system severely impaired a cat's ability to orient consistently and accurately toward a source of sound. Latencies to the onset of ORs were increased, the magnitudes of ORs were reduced, average error in orienting to a sound source was larger under every stimulus duration-source position combination, relatively few corrective responses were executed, and residual mean error was significantly elevated (bilateral = 28.1 degrees; control = 3.1 degrees). Several animals with bilateral lesions also made vertical errors in orienting to azimuthal sources of sound. 5. However, in the bilateral lesion group, ORs were initiated in the correct right or left direction; and, rather than eliminating accurate responses altogether, the lesions reduced the probability of their occurrence. Furthermore, the saccadic profile of the response was preserved, providing evidence that the motor control system for the OR was not perturbed by the bilateral lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8360719

  1. Using item response theory in the development and validation of the College-Oriented Eating Disorders Screen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A Nowak; Roxann Roberson-Nay; David R Strong; Jennifer Bucceri; Carl W Lejuez

    2003-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric characteristics of the College-Oriented Eating Disorders Screen (COEDS), a college-student-focused screening measure to assess and identify individuals at-risk for the development of eating disordered pathology. By screening a large pool of pilot questions and using methods based in item response theory (IRT), seven items were identified with well-targeted contents that discriminated well across the

  2. The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth N; Hawken, Michael J; Shapley, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Form has a strong influence on color perception. We investigated the neural basis of the form-color link in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) by studying orientation selectivity of single V1 cells for pure color patterns. Neurons that responded to color were classified, based on cone inputs and spatial selectivity, into chromatically single-opponent and double-opponent groups. Single-opponent cells responded well to color but weakly to luminance contrast; they were not orientation selective for color patterns. Most double-opponent cells were orientation selective to pure color stimuli as well as to achromatic patterns. We also found non-opponent cells that responded weakly or not at all to pure color; most were orientation selective for luminance patterns. Double-opponent and non-opponent cells' orientation selectivities were not contrast invariant; selectivity usually increased with contrast. Double-opponent cells were approximately equally orientation selective for luminance and equiluminant color stimuli when stimuli were matched in average cone contrast. V1 double-opponent cells could be the neural basis of the influence of form on color perception. The combined activities of single- and double-opponent cells in V1 are needed for the full repertoire of color perception. PMID:18685034

  3. Multi-modal volume registration by maximization of mutual information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Wells III; Paul A. Viola; Hideki Atsumi; Shin Nakajima; Ron Kikinis

    1996-01-01

    A new information-theoretic approach is presented for nding the registration of volumetric medical images of diering modalities. Registration is achieved by adjust- ment of the relative position and orientation until the mutual information between the images is maximized. In our derivation of the registration procedure, few as- sumptions are made about the nature of the imaging process. As a result

  4. Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys – a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (handholding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

  5. Reflectance properties of silicon moth-eyes in response to variations in angle of incidence, polarisation and azimuth orientation.

    PubMed

    Asadollahbaik, Asa; Boden, Stuart A; Charlton, Martin D B; Payne, David N R; Cox, Simon; Bagnall, Darren M

    2014-03-10

    We report a study of the optical properties of silicon moth-eye structures using a custom-made fully automated broadband spectroscopic reflectometry system (goniometer). This measurement system is able to measure specular reflectance as a function of wavelength, polar incidence angle and azimuth orientation angle, from normal to near-parallel polar incidence angle. The system uses a linear polarized broadband super-continuum laser light source. It is shown that a moth-eye structure composed of a regular array of protruding silicon rods, with finite sidewall angle reduces reflectance and sensitivity to incident wavelength in comparison to truly cylindrical rods with perpendicular sidewalls. It is also shown that moth-eye structures have omnidirectional reflectance properties in response to azimuth orientation of the sample. The importance of applying the reflectometer setup to study the optical properties of solar cell antireflective structures is highlighted. PMID:24922250

  6. Leaf orientation and the response of the xanthophyll cycle to incident light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Adams; M. Volk; A. Hoehn; B. Demmig-Adams

    1992-01-01

    Leaves from two species, Euonymus kiautschovicus and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, with a variety of different orientations and exposures, were examined in the field with regard to the xanthophyll cycle (the interconversion of three carotenoids in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes). East-, south-, and west-facing leaves of E. kiautschovicus were sampled throughout the day and all exhibited a pronounced and progressive conversion of

  7. Covariant mutually unbiased bases

    E-print Network

    Claudio Carmeli; Jussi Schultz; Alessandro Toigo

    2015-05-08

    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in even-prime power dimension covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.

  8. Efficient and timely mutual authentication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Otway; Owen Rees

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol for efficient mutual authentication (via a mutually trusted third party) that assures both principal parties of the timeliness of the interaction without the use of clocks or double encipherment. The protocol requires a total of only four messages to be exchanged between the three parties concerned.

  9. Quantum correlations and mutual synchronization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Luca Giorgi; Fernando Galve; Gonzalo Manzano; Pere Colet; Roberta Zambrini

    2011-01-01

    We consider the phenomenon of mutual synchronization in a fundamental quantum system, two detuned quantum harmonic oscillators dissipating into the environment. We identify the conditions leading to this spontaneous phenomenon showing that the ability of the system to synchronize is related to the existence of disparate decay rates and is accompanied by robust quantum discord and mutual information between the

  10. [Biological mutualism, concepts and models].

    PubMed

    Perru, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market. PMID:22288336

  11. Theories of sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Storms

    1980-01-01

    Various theories assume that sexual orientation is related to sex role orientation or to erotic orientation. Hypotheses derived from these 2 assumptions were tested. Heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual undergraduates (185 Ss) were administered measures of their masculine and feminine attributes (determined by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire) and their erotic fantasies (measured by the Erotic Response and Orientation Scale). Results generally

  12. Mutual Fund Compliance Officer Independence and Corporate Governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Michael Hoffman; John D. Neill; O. Scott Stovall

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACTManuscript Type: EmpiricalResearch Question/Issue: We examine recent SEC regulations that are intended to increase the independence of mutual fund compliance officers.Research Findings/Insights: The new SEC regulations require mutual fund compliance officers to report directly to the board of directors. The board is also now responsible for hiring/firing, and for approving the compliance officer's compensation. After a literature review and a

  13. Sex Differences in Orienting to Pictures with and without Humans: Evidence from the Cardiac Evoked Response (ECR) and the Cortical Long Latency Parietal Positivity (LPP)

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; van der Schaft, Lutske; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tucha, Oliver; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of social relevance in affective pictures on two orienting responses, i.e. the evoked cardiac response (ECR), and a long latency cortical evoked potential (LPP) and whether this effect would differ between males and females. Assuming that orienting to affective social information is fundamental to experiencing affective empathy, associations between self-report measures of empathy and the two orienting responses were investigated. Method ECRs were obtained from 34 female and 30 male students, and LPPs from 25 female and 27 male students viewing 414 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Pictures portrayed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Results Both the ECR and LPP showed the largest response to pictures with humans in unpleasant situations. For both measures, the responses to pictures with humans correlated with self-report measures of empathy. While we found a greater male than female responsiveness to the pictures without humans in the ECR, a greater female than male responsiveness was observed in the LPP response to pictures with humans. Conclusion and Significance The sensitivity of these orienting responses to social relevance and their differential contribution to the prediction of individual differences underline the validity of their combined use in clinical studies investigating individuals with social disabilities. PMID:25330003

  14. Orientation-Cue Invariant Population Responses to Contrast-Modulated and Phase-Reversed Contour Stimuli in Macaque V1 and V2

    PubMed Central

    An, Xu; Gong, Hongliang; Yin, Jiapeng; Wang, Xiaochun; Pan, Yanxia; Zhang, Xian; Lu, Yiliang; Yang, Yupeng; Toth, Zoltan; Schiessl, Ingo; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Visual scenes can be readily decomposed into a variety of oriented components, the processing of which is vital for object segregation and recognition. In primate V1 and V2, most neurons have small spatio-temporal receptive fields responding selectively to oriented luminance contours (first order), while only a subgroup of neurons signal non-luminance defined contours (second order). So how is the orientation of second-order contours represented at the population level in macaque V1 and V2? Here we compared the population responses in macaque V1 and V2 to two types of second-order contour stimuli generated either by modulation of contrast or phase reversal with those to first-order contour stimuli. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we found that the orientation of second-order contour stimuli was represented invariantly in the orientation columns of both macaque V1 and V2. A physiologically constrained spatio-temporal energy model of V1 and V2 neuronal populations could reproduce all the recorded population responses. These findings suggest that, at the population level, the primate early visual system processes the orientation of second-order contours initially through a linear spatio-temporal filter mechanism. Our results of population responses to different second-order contour stimuli support the idea that the orientation maps in primate V1 and V2 can be described as a spatial-temporal energy map. PMID:25188576

  15. Strategic Orientation and Nursing Home Response to Public Reporting of Quality Measures: An Application of the Miles and Snow Typology

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, Jacqueline S; Spector, William D; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess whether differences in strategic orientation of nursing homes as identified by the Miles and Snow typology are associated with differences in their response to the publication of quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare website. Data Sources Administrator survey of a national 10 percent random sample (1,502 nursing homes) of all facilities included in the first publication of the Nursing Home Compare report conducted in May–June 2004; 724 responded, yielding a response rate of 48.2 percent. Study Design The dependent variables are dichotomous, indicating whether or not action was taken and the type of action taken. Four indicator variables were created for each of the four strategic types: Defender, Analyzer, Prospector, and Reactor. Other variables were included in the seven logistic regression models to control for factors other than strategic type that could influence nursing home response to public disclosure of their quality of care. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey data were merged with data on quality measures and organizational characteristics from the first report (November 2002). Principal Findings About 43 percent of surveyed administrators self-typed as Defenders, followed by Analyzers (33 percent), and Prospectors (19 percent). The least self-selected strategic type was the Reactor (6.6 percent). In general, results of the regression models indicate differences in response to quality measure publication by strategic type, with Prospectors and Analyzers more likely, and Reactors less likely, to respond than Defenders. Conclusions While almost a third of administrators took no action at all, our results indicate that whether, when, and how nursing homes reacted to publication of federally reported quality measures is associated with strategic orientation. PMID:18370969

  16. Interactive effects of citalopram and serotonin transporter genotype on neural correlates of response inhibition and attentional orienting.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Adrian G; Endrass, Tanja; Goebel, Ingrid; Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Kubisch, Christian; Ullsperger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The brain's serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in controlling impulsive behavior and attentional orienting and linked to impulse control and anxiety related disorders. However, interactions between genotypical variation and responses to serotonergic drugs impede both treatment efficacy and neuroscientific research. We examine behavioral and electrophysiological responses to acute intravenous administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) while controlling for major genetic differences regarding 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) genotypes. Out of a genotyped sample of healthy Caucasian subjects (n=878) two extreme-groups regarding 5-HTT genotypes were selected (n=32). A homozygous high-expressing group based on tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR and rs25532 (LAC/LAC=LL) was compared to homozygous S allele carriers (SS). Both groups were administered a low dose of citalopram (10mg) intravenously in a double blind crossover fashion and performed a novelty NoGo paradigm while high density EEG was recorded. Interactions between drug and genotype were seen on both behavioral and neurophysiological levels. Reaction slowing following inhibitory events was decreased by the administration of citalopram in the LL but not SS group. This was accompanied by decreases in the amplitude of the inhibitory N2 EEG component and the P3b in the LL group, which was not seen in the SS group. SS subjects showed an increase in P3a amplitudes following SSRI administration to any type of deviant stimulus possibly reflecting increased attentional capture. The acute SSRI response on inhibitory processes and attentional orienting interacts with genotypes regulating 5-HTT gene expression. SS subjects may show increased attentional side effects reflected in increases in P3a amplitudes which could contribute to treatment discontinuation. Inhibitory processes and their neural correlates are affected only in LL subjects. These findings may indicate an underlying mechanism that could relate genotypical differences to altered side effect profiles and drug responses and are compatible with a non-monotonic relationship between 5-HT levels and optimal functioning. PMID:25957993

  17. The function of secretory IgA in the context of the intestinal continuum of adaptive immune responses in host-microbial mutualism.

    PubMed

    Geuking, M B; McCoy, K D; Macpherson, A J

    2012-02-01

    The large production of immunoglobulin (Ig)A is energetically costly. The fact that evolution retained this apparent luxury of intestinal class switch recombination to IgA within the human population strongly indicates that there must be a critical specific function of IgA for survival of the species. The function of IgA has been investigated in a series of different models that will be discussed here. While IgA has clear protective functions against toxins or in the context of intestinal viral infections, the function of IgA specific for non-pathogenic commensal bacteria remains unclear. In the context of the current literature we present a hypothesis where secretory IgA integrates as an additional layer of immune function into the continuum of intestinal CD4 T cell responses, to achieve a mutualistic relationship between the intestinal commensal microbiota and the host. PMID:22138187

  18. Approach- and Withdrawal-Oriented Responses to Social Rejection: The Role of Asymmetrical Frontal Cortical Activity 

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carly Kathryn

    2011-02-22

    Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies seek to fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional...

  19. Piezoelectric Responses of Highly-Oriented Tetragonal Pb(Zr 0.4 Ti 0.6 )O 3 Thin Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desheng Fu; Kazumi Kato; Kenji Ishikawa; Yasutaka Yoshimi; Hisao Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    [111]-and[001]&[100]-highly-oriented Pb(Zr 0.4 Ti 0.6 )O 3 (PZT40\\/60) thin films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition on Si substrates. The influences of orientations on the piezoelectric responses of the thin films have been investigated by a charge integration technique based on the direct piezoelectric effect. A piezoelectric relaxation has been observed in the thin films. Contributions of relaxation have

  20. Trying to fit in: are patterns of orientation of a keystone grazer set by behavioural responses to ecosystem engineers or wave action?

    PubMed

    Fraser, Clarissa M L; Coleman, Ross A; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of animals varies at different temporal and spatial scales. At the smallest scale, distribution may be orientated in regard to particular environmental variables or habitat features. For animals on the rocky intertidal, the processes which set and maintain patterns of distribution and abundance in wave-exposed areas are well studied, with explanatory models focused on wave action and, more recently, the role of biogenic habitats. In contrast, patterns of orientation by intertidal animals have received less attention, although having ecological and fitness consequences. Here, we report tests of competing models to explain the observation that limpets on steeply sloped surfaces orientate downwards. A greater proportion of downwards-facing limpets was found in sheltered sites and areas without barnacles and this pattern was consistent across many shores and sampling occasions. Additionally, the frequency at which limpets were dislodged after a storm was independent of orientation. To test whether orientation is a behavioural response to habitat-forming barnacles, barnacles were removed and/or killed from patches of substrata and the change in proportion of downwards-facing limpets measured. The proportion increased with barnacle removal and this behaviour was a response to the structure of the barnacles, not a biotic effect associated with the living organism. Our study suggests that biogenic habitat not wave action sets patterns of limpet orientation and barnacle shells, regardless of whether the barnacle is alive or not, limit the ability of limpets to adopt a downward orientation. PMID:23996227

  1. Repeatability of functional anisotropy in navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation - coil-orientation versus response.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Könönen, Mervi; Julkunen, Petro

    2015-06-17

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used for evaluating the function of motor pathways. According to the principles of electromagnetism and electrophysiology, TMS activates those neurons that are suitably oriented with respect to the TMS-induced electric field. We hypothesized that TMS could potentially be able to evaluate the neuronal structure, although until now, this putative application has not been exploited. We have developed a TMS-based method to evaluate the function and structure of the motor cortex concurrently in a quantitative manner. This method produced a measure, the anisotropy index (AI), which is based on the motor-evoked potentials induced at different coil orientations. The AI was demonstrated to exhibit an association with both motor cortex excitability and neuronal structure. In the present study, we evaluated the repeatability (intrasession and intersession) of AI in three consecutive measurements. In addition, we studied the repeatability of the optimal coil angle in inducing motor-evoked potentials. Two of the measurements were conducted on the same stimulation target and the third on a remapped target. The coefficient of repeatability of the AI was 0.022 for intrasession and 0.040 for intersession assessments. For the optimal stimulation angle, the coefficients of repeatability were 3.7° and 5.1°, respectively. Both the AI and the optimal stimulation angle demonstrated good repeatability (Cronbach's ?>0.760). In conclusion, the results indicate that the AI can provide a reliable estimation of local functional anisotropy changes under conditions affecting the cortex, such as during stroke or focal dysplasia. PMID:26011386

  2. Quantum correlations and mutual synchronization

    E-print Network

    Gian Luca Giorgi; Fernando Galve; Gonzalo Manzano; Pere Colet; Roberta Zambrini

    2012-05-07

    We consider the phenomenon of mutual synchronization in a fundamental quantum system of two detuned quantum harmonic oscillators dissipating into the environment. We identify the conditions leading to this spontaneous phenomenon showing that the ability of the system to synchronize is related to the existence of disparate decay rates and is accompanied by robust quantum discord and mutual information between the oscillators, preventing the leak of information from the system.

  3. Normalized Mutual Information Feature Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo A. Estévez; Michel Tesmer; Claudio A. Perez; Jacek M. Zurada

    2009-01-01

    A filter method of feature selection based on mu- tual information, called normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), is presented. NMIFS is an enhancement over Battiti's MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR methods. The average normalized mutual information is proposed as a measure of re- dundancy among features. NMIFS outperformed MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR on several artificial and benchmark data sets without

  4. A cross-functional service-oriented architecture to support real-time information exchange in emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Hauenstein, Logan; Gao, Tia; Sze, Tsz Wo; Crawford, David; Alm, Alex; White, David

    2006-01-01

    Real-time information communication presents a persistent challenge to the emergency response community. During a medical emergency, various first response disciplines including Emergency Medical Service (EMS), Fire, and Police, and multiple health service facilities including hospitals, auxiliary care centers and public health departments using disparate information technology systems must coordinate their efforts by sharing real-time information. This paper describes a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that uses shared data models of emergency incidents to support the exchange of data between heterogeneous systems. This architecture is employed in the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) system, a testbed investigating information technologies to improve interoperation among multiple emergency response organizations in the Washington DC Metropolitan region. This architecture allows us to enable real-time data communication between three deployed systems: 1) a pre-hospital patient care reporting software system used on all ambulances in Arlington County, Virginia (MICHAELS), 2) a syndromic surveillance system used by public health departments in the Washington area (ESSENCE), and 3) a hazardous material reference software system (WISER) developed by the National Library Medicine. Additionally, we have extended our system to communicate with three new data sources: 1) wireless automated vital sign sensors worn by patients, 2) web portals for admitting hospitals, and 3) PDAs used by first responders at emergency scenes to input data (SIRP). PMID:17959430

  5. An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity

    E-print Network

    Rudgers, Jennifer

    the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium impacts of mutualism (May 1982). Finally, many mutualisms, like many diseases, involve microbes (e in multiple mutualisms during their lifetimes. Plants, for example, host diverse assemblages of microbes

  6. Integrating Addiction Treatment and Mutual Aid Recovery Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Ann Kaskutas; Meenakshi Subbaraman

    \\u000a The most widely used source of help for alcohol problems is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and much formal treatment has adapted\\u000a AA’s methods and concepts. Usually many people seek help from AA at the recommendation of a treatment professional. Even treatment\\u000a programs that historically have not been 12-step-oriented, such as Therapeutic Communities, may recommend AA or mutual help\\u000a alternatives post-treatment. Because

  7. Spatial cueing, sensory gating and selective response preparation: an ERP study on visuo-spatial orienting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Eimer

    1993-01-01

    Summary Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a visuo-spatial attention task where the position of an imperative stimulus was indicated either validly or invalidly by a central arrow (trial-by-trial cueing). Subjects had to perform choice RT tasks with the response being dependent either on the identity of the target stimulus or on its position. When target identity was relevant

  8. Orienting-defense responses and psychophysiological reactivity in isolated clinic versus sustained hypertension.

    PubMed

    García-Vera, María Paz; Sanz, Jesús; Labrador, Francisco J

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether patients with white-coat or isolated clinic hypertension (ICH) show, in comparison to patients with sustained hypertension (SH), a defense response pattern to novel stimuli and an enhanced psychophysiological reactivity to stress. Forty-three patients with essential hypertension were divided into two groups after 16 days of self-monitoring blood pressure (BP): ICH (24 men; self-measured BP < 135/85 mmHg) and SH (19 men; self-measured BP >or= 135/85 mmHg). Defense responses were measured as the cardiac changes to phasic non-aversive auditory stimuli. Psychophysiological reactivity (heart and breath rate, blood volume pulse, electromyography, and skin conductance) was measured during mental arithmetic and video game tasks. The standard deviation of self-measured BPs and the difference between mean BPs at work and at home were used as indicators of cardiovascular reactivity to daily stress. No significant differences were seen in defense responses or psychophysiological reactivity to laboratory or naturally occurring stressors. These results do not support the hypothesis that ICH can be explained in terms of a generalized hyperreactivity to novel or stressful stimuli. PMID:17497344

  9. Item response theory analysis of the life orientation test-revised: age and gender differential item functioning analyses.

    PubMed

    Steca, Patrizia; Monzani, Dario; Greco, Andrea; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties. The equivalence of the items across gender and age was assessed by analyzing differential item functioning. Discrimination and severity parameters indicated that all items were able to distinguish people with different levels of optimism and adequately covered the spectrum of the latent trait. Additionally, the LOT-R appears to be gender invariant and, with minor exceptions, age invariant. Results provided evidence that the LOT-R is a reliable and valid measure of dispositional optimism. PMID:25078402

  10. Quantum correlations and mutual synchronization

    E-print Network

    Giorgi, Gian Luca; Manzano, Gonzalo; Colet, Pere; Zambrini, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    We consider the phenomenon of mutual synchronization in a fundamental quantum system, two detuned quantum harmonic oscillators dissipating into the environment. We identify the conditions leading to this spontaneous phenomenon and show that different oscillators synchronize only for a common thermal bath and in a range of frequencies detunings and couplings, but not for separate baths. We then consider synchronization within a quantum information perspective analyzing the time evolution of quantum discord and mutual information. We show that the ability of the system to synchronize is accompanied by robust correlations between the oscillators, preventing the leak of both classical and quantum information from the system.

  11. Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

  12. Insect mutualisms buffer warming effects on multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Michael; Del Toro, Israel; Pelini, Shannon L

    2014-01-01

    Insect mutualisms can have disproportionately large impacts on local arthropod and plant communities and their responses to climatic change. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of insect mutualisms affects host plant and herbivore responses to warming. Using open-top warming chambers at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, we manipulated temperature and presence of ants and Chaitophorus populicola aphids on Populus tremuloides host plants and monitored ant attendance and persistence of C. populicola, predator abundance, plant stress, and abundance of Myzus persicae, a pest aphid that colonized plants during the experiment. We found that, regardless of warming, C. populicola persistence was higher when tended by ants, and some ant species increased aphid persistence more than others. Warming had negligible direct but strong indirect effects on plant stress. Plant stress decreased with warming only when both ants and C. populicola aphids were present and engaged in mutualism. Plant stress was increased by warming-induced reductions in predator abundance and increases in M. persicae aphid abundance. Altogether, these findings suggest that insect mutualisms could buffer the effects of warming on specialist herbivores and plants, but when mutualisms are not intact, the direct effects of warming on predators and generalist herbivores yield strong indirect effects of warming on plants. PMID:24649640

  13. Waveform diversity via mutual information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime R. Roman; Dennis W. Davis; John W. Garnham; Paul Antonik

    2009-01-01

    A novel criterion for waveform diversity in radar systems is presented that is based on the information theoretic concept of Shannon mutual information (MI). In general, waveform diversity refers to adaptively changing a transmitted waveform based on the target and interference environment. MI is a measure of the information in a random variable or vector about another random variable or

  14. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT. PMID:25997025

  15. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H.; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT. PMID:25997025

  16. Parent-Child Dyadic Mutuality and Child Behavior Problems: An Investigation of Gene-Environment Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Parent-child mutuality is comprised of emotional reciprocity, co-responsiveness, and cooperation, which together represent aspects of co-regulation of emotion and behavior that may be important in the etiology of children's behavior problems. Furthermore, individual differences in children's mutuality and behavior problems involve…

  17. Cross-Kingdom Chemical Communication Drives a Heritable, Mutually Beneficial

    E-print Network

    Cross-Kingdom Chemical Communication Drives a Heritable, Mutually Beneficial Prion in complex communities. We report a system for cross-kingdom communication by which bacteria heritably value. By heritably transforming growth and survival strategies in response to the selective pressures

  18. Developing a Short Form of Benton’s Judgment of Line Orientation Test: An Item Response Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Calamia, Matthew; Markon, Kristian; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton’s words, “as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived.” The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test-retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct validity as shown through neuroanatomical localization studies (Tranel, Vianna, Manzel, Damasio, & Grabowski, 2009). Despite its popularity and strong psychometric properties, the full-length version of the test (30 items) has been criticized as being unnecessarily long (Straus, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006). There have been many attempts at developing short forms; however, these forms have been limited in their ability to estimate scores accurately. Taking advantage of a large sample of JLO performances from 524 neurological patients with focal brain lesions, we used techniques from Item Response Theory (IRT) to estimate each item’s difficulty and power to discriminate among various levels of ability. A random item IRT model was used to estimate the influence of item stimulus properties as predictors of item difficulty. These results were used to optimize the selection of items for a shorter method of administration which maintained comparability with the full form using significantly fewer items. This effectiveness of this method was replicated in a second sample of 82 healthy elderly participants. The findings should help broaden the clinical utility of the JLO and enhance its diagnostic applications. PMID:21469016

  19. Median fin function during the escape response of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). I: Fin-ray orientation and movement.

    PubMed

    Chadwell, Brad A; Standen, Emily M; Lauder, George V; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2012-08-15

    The fast-start escape response is critically important to avoid predation, and axial movements driving it have been studied intensively. Large median dorsal and anal fins located near the tail have been hypothesized to increase acceleration away from the threat, yet the contribution of flexible median fins remains undescribed. To investigate the role of median fins, C-start escape responses of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were recorded by three high-speed, high-resolution cameras at 500 frames s(-1) and the 3-D kinematics of individual dorsal and anal fin rays were analyzed. Movement and orientation of the fin rays relative to the body axis were calculated throughout the duration of the C-start. We found that: (1) timing and magnitude of angular displacement varied among fin rays based on position within the fin and (2) kinematic patterns support the prediction that fin rays are actively resisting hydrodynamic forces and transmitting momentum into the water. We suggest that regions within the fins have different roles. Anterior regions of the fins are rapidly elevated to increase the volume of water that the fish may interact with and transmit force into, thus generating greater total momentum. The movement pattern of all the fin rays creates traveling waves that move posteriorly along the length of the fin, moving water as they do so. Flexible posterior regions ultimately act to accelerate this water towards the tail, potentially interacting with vortices generated by the caudal fin during the C-start. Despite their simple appearance, median fins are highly complex and versatile control surfaces that modulate locomotor performance. PMID:22837461

  20. Construction of mutually unbiased bases in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Tao, Yuan-Hong; Nan, Hua; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2015-07-01

    We study mutually unbiased bases in . A systematic way of constructing mutually unbiased maximally entangled bases (MUMEBs) in from MUMEBs in and a general approach to construct mutually unbiased unextendible maximally entangled bases (MUUMEBs) in from MUUMEBs in have been presented. Detailed examples are given.

  1. Group Mutual Exclusion in Token Rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Cantarell; Ajoy Kumar Datta; Franck Petit; Vincent Villain

    2001-01-01

    The group mutual exclusion (GME) problem was introduced by Joung (6). The GME solution allows n processes to share m mutually exclusive resources. We first present a group mutual exclusion algorit hm (Algorithm GME ) for anonymous token rings. The space requirement and the size of messages of this algorithm depend only on the number of shared resources (O log

  2. Senate Orientation Activities Review Board Orientation Week Policy Manual

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Senate Orientation Activities Review Board Orientation Week Policy Manual Approving Body: Queen's University Senate Sponsor(s) Responsible for the Policy Manual: Voting members of the Senate Orientation;SOARB Orientation Week Policies and Procedures Manual Page 2 of 41 Last Edited: April 21, 2014 Contents

  3. Holographic Mutual Information is Monogamous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Hayden; Matthew Headrick; Alexander Maloney

    2011-01-01

    We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A,B,C obey the inequality I(A:BC) >= I(A:B)+I(A:C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic

  4. Pluto-charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Binzel, R.P. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  5. Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

  6. Multidimensional steric effects for the XeI* (B, C) formations in the oriented Xe* (3P2,MJ=2)+oriented CF3I reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohoyama, H.; Kubo, F.; Kasai, T.

    2009-10-01

    Steric effects for the XeI? (B) and XeI? (C) formations in the oriented Xe? (P32,MJ=2)+oriented CF3I reaction have been observed as a function of the mutual configuration between molecular orientation and atomic alignment in the collision frame. The mutual configuration exercises the significant influences on the stereoanisotropy for both the reactivity and the branching to the XeI? (B) and XeI? (C) channels.

  7. Multidimensional steric effects for the XeI* (B, C) formations in the oriented Xe* (3P(2),M(J) = 2) + oriented CF3I reaction.

    PubMed

    Ohoyama, H; Kubo, F; Kasai, T

    2009-10-01

    Steric effects for the XeI(*) (B) and XeI(*) (C) formations in the oriented Xe(*) ((3)P(2),M(J)=2)+oriented CF(3)I reaction have been observed as a function of the mutual configuration between molecular orientation and atomic alignment in the collision frame. The mutual configuration exercises the significant influences on the stereoanisotropy for both the reactivity and the branching to the XeI(*) (B) and XeI(*) (C) channels. PMID:19814552

  8. Orientation of apical and basal actin stress fibers in isolated and subconfluent endothelial cells as an early response to cyclic stretching.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Ando, Hirokazu

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the response of apical and basal actin stress fibers (SFs) and its dependency on cell confluency for endothelial cells subjected to cyclic stretching. Porcine aortic endothelial cells from the 2nd and 5th passages were transferred to a fibronectin-coated silicone chamber with 5000-8000 cells/cm2 (isolated condition), positioning the cells apart, or with 25,000-27,000 cells/cm2 (subconfluent condition), allowing cell-to-cell contact. The substrate was stretched cyclically by 0.5 Hz for 2 h with a peak strain on the substrate that was 15% in the stretch direction and -4% in the transverse direction. The actin filaments (AFs) were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and their orientations were examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope. In the basal region, SFs formed in all of the cells under both the isolated and subconfluent conditions. We observed an average of 5 and 9 SFs per cell under the isolated and subconfluent conditions, respectively, in the fluorescent images of the apical region. We also observed cells that were bush-like without apical AFs or apical SFs. On average, the SFs in the subconfluent cells oriented in the direction of minimal strain, while the SFs in the isolated cells oriented in the direction of a 2% compressive strain. These results suggest that such differential response may be due to differences in the transmission of mechanical stretching to the central and apical regions of the cell through the SFs. We also speculate that cell-to-cell contact might change the strength, orientation, and anchorage of apical AFs and play a critical role in mechanical signal transduction. PMID:17879767

  9. A wind-oriented sticky trap for evaluating the behavioural response of diabrotica speciosa (germar) to bitter cucurbit extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbitacins attract many species of Luperini leaf beetles, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Males and females feed avidly on these compounds, but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. A wind oriented baited sticky trap was...

  10. Orienting responses and vocalizations produced by microstimulation in the superior colliculus of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doreen E. Valentine; Shiva R. Sinha; Cynthia F. Moss

    2002-01-01

    An echolocating bat actively controls the spatial acoustic information that drives its behavior by directing its head and ears and by modulating the spectro-temporal structure of its outgoing sonar emissions. The superior colliculus may function in the coordination of these orienting components of the bat's echolocation system. To test this hypothesis, chemical and electrical microstimulation experiments were carried out in

  11. Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically, development (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance (minimizing negative judgments). Children (N = 373; M age = 7.97, SD = 0.34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grades. Validity of…

  12. The cognitive, affective and behavioural responses of self-oriented perfectionists following successive failure on a muscular endurance task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Hill; Howard K. Hall; Joan L. Duda; Paul R. Appleton

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that self-oriented perfectionism may be a positive dimension of perfectionism. However, Flett and Hewitt (2005, 2006) have argued that while this dimension may appear to have some desirable consequences, it renders those high in the disposition vulnerable to psychological and motivational difficulties when personal standards are not met. The present investigation sought to examine this assertion by

  13. GnRH neuron firing and response to GABA in vitro depend on acute brain slice thickness and orientation.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Stephanie; Piet, Richard; Iremonger, Karl; Hwa Yeo, Shel; Clarkson, Jenny; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-08-01

    The GnRH neurons exhibit long dendrites and project to the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to generate an acute brain slice preparation that enabled recordings to be undertaken from GnRH neurons maintaining the full extent of their dendrites or axons. A thick, horizontal brain slice was developed, in which it was possible to record from the horizontally oriented GnRH neurons located in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA). In vivo studies showed that the majority of AHA GnRH neurons projected outside the blood-brain barrier and expressed c-Fos at the time of the GnRH surge. On-cell recordings compared AHA GnRH neurons in the horizontal slice (AHAh) with AHA and preoptic area (POA) GnRH neurons in coronal slices [POA coronal (POAc) and AHA coronal (AHAc), respectively]. AHAh GnRH neurons exhibited tighter burst firing compared with other slice orientations. Although ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) excited GnRH neurons in all preparations, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was excitatory in AHAc and POAc but inhibitory in AHAh slices. GABA(A) receptor postsynaptic currents were the same in AHAh and AHAc slices. Intriguingly, direct activation of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors respectively stimulated and inhibited GnRH neurons regardless of slice orientation. Subsequent experiments indicated that net GABA effects were determined by differences in the ratio of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects in "long" and "short" dendrites of GnRH neurons in the different slice orientations. These studies document a new brain slice preparation for recording from GnRH neurons with their extensive dendrites/axons and highlight the importance of GnRH neuron orientation relative to the angle of brain slicing in studying these neurons in vitro. PMID:22719049

  14. Holographic Mutual Information is Monogamous

    E-print Network

    Patrick Hayden; Matthew Headrick; Alexander Maloney

    2013-02-02

    We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A,B,C obey the inequality I(A:BC) >= I(A:B)+I(A:C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic theories arise primarily from entanglement rather than classical correlations. We also show that the Ryu-Takayanagi formula is consistent with all known general inequalities obeyed by the entanglement entropy, including an infinite set recently discovered by Cadney, Linden, and Winter; this constitutes strong evidence in favour of its validity.

  15. Large families of mutually singular Radon measures

    E-print Network

    Plebanek, Grzegorz

    Large families of mutually singular Radon measures David H. Fremlin & Grzegorz Plebanek \\Lambda mutually singular Radon probability measures. 1. Introduction. We present here a partial answer with a family (¯ s ) s2S of mu­ tually singular Radon measures on X such that #(S) ? #(X)? In section 2 we

  16. BASIC PROPERTIES OF MUTUAL MAGNETIC HELICITY

    E-print Network

    Demoulin, Pascal

    BASIC PROPERTIES OF MUTUAL MAGNETIC HELICITY P. DEMOULIN1, E. PARIAT1, M.A. BERGER2 1 Observatoire flux tubes weighted by their magnetic fluxes. We emphasize that these mutual helicities have properties Abstract. We derive the magnetic helicity for configurations formed by flux tubes contained fully or only

  17. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-09-01

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

  18. Program computes mutual coupling in slot arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sembiam R. Rengarajan

    1993-01-01

    External mutual coupling is a critical factor in the design and analysis of slot arrays. A novel design method is presented that simplifies the calculation of external mutual coupling, thus expediting the design of slot arrays. Using a novel FORTRAN program, the coupling effects can be evaluated quickly and accurately in terms of numerical single integrals, or double integrals for

  19. Hierarchical Classifier Design Using Mutual Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. K. Sethi; G. P. R. Sarvarayudu

    1982-01-01

    A nonparametric algorithm is presented for the hierarchical partitioning of the feature space. The algorithm is based on the concept of average mutual information, and is suitable for multifeature multicategory pattern recognition problems. The algorithm generates an efficient partitioning tree for specified probability of error by maximizing the amount of average mutual information gain at each partitioning step. A confidence

  20. An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Rudgers; Keith Clay

    2008-01-01

    Ecological theory holds that competition and predation are the most important biotic forces affecting the composition of communities. Here, we expand this framework by demonstrating that mutualism can fundamentally alter community and food web structure. In large, replicated field plots, we manipulated the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum). The presence of the

  1. Affine Constellations Without Mutually Unbiased Counterparts

    E-print Network

    Stefan Weigert; Thomas Durt

    2010-07-22

    It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations, mostly in dimension six. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

  2. Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2012-01-01

    For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

  3. Mutualisms and population regulation: mechanism matters.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2012-01-01

    For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

  4. Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined infants’ negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) on children’s self-regulation (N=102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months. Self-regulation was measured at 25 months in effortful control battery and as self-regulated compliance to parental requests and prohibitions. Negative emotionality moderated the effects of mother-child MRO. Highly negative infants were less self-regulated when they were in unresponsive relationships (low MRO), but more self-regulated when in responsive relationships (high MRO). For infants not prone to negative emotionality, there was no link between MRO and self-regulation. The “regions-of-significance” analysis supported the differential susceptibility model not the diathesis-stress model. PMID:22670684

  5. Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (?196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 ?m) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 ?m. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

  6. MINI REVIEW Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    MINI REVIEW Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group; inclusive fitness; kin selection; reciprocal altruism; social evolution; social selection. Abstract From) discuss confusion over the terms kin selection, mutualism, mutual benefit, cooperation, altruism

  7. Breakdown and delayed cospeciation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Breakdown and delayed cospeciation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism Vincent Merckx1 The ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal association between the vast majority of plants and the fungal phylum Glomeromycota is a dominant nutritional mutualism worldwide. In the mycorrhizal mutualism, plants exchange

  8. 77 FR 48566 - The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...File No. 812-14024] The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application August 8, 2012...instruments. Applicants: The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., The Hartford Mutual Funds II, Inc., Hartford Series Fund, Inc., Hartford...

  9. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed. PMID:25928677

  10. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: Buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, James L.; Erickson, Thane M.; Mayer, Stefanie E.; Crocker, Jennifer; Briggs, Hedieh; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical mediator linking stress to health. Understanding how to modulate its reactivity could potentially help reduce the detrimental health effects of HPA axis activation. Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of this system. Access to control and coping responses can reduce its reactivity to pharmacological activation. Compassionate or affiliative behaviors may also moderate stress reactivity. Impact of these moderators on social evaluative threat is unknown. Here, we tested the hypotheses that interventions to increase control, coping, or compassionate (versus competitive) goals could reduce HPA-axis response to social evaluative threat. Methods Healthy participants (n = 54) were exposed to social evaluative threat using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). They were randomly assigned to receive one of four different instructions prior to the stressor: Standard TSST instructions (SI), standard instructions with access to “control” (SI Control), or one of two cognitive interventions (CI) that (1) increased familiarity and helped participants prepare coping strategies (CI Coping), or (2) shifted goal orientation from self-promotion to helping others (CI Compassionate Goals). ACTH and Cortisol were obtained before and after stress exposure via intravenous catheter. Results Control alone had no effect. CI Compassionate Goals significantly reduced ACTH and Cortisol responses to the TSST; CI Coping raised baseline levels. Compassionate Goals reduced hormonal responses without reducing subjective anxiety, stress or fear, while increasing expression of pro-social intentions and focus on helping others. Conclusions Brief intervention to shift focus from competitive self-promotion to a goal orientation of helping-others can reduce HPA-axis activation to a potent psychosocial stressor. This supports the potential for developing brief interventions as inoculation tools to reduce the impact of predictable stressors and lends support to growing evidence that compassion and altruistic goals can moderate the effects of stress. PMID:24767620

  11. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. PMID:22011186

  12. Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions. PMID:25883391

  13. College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

  14. The effect of target orientation on the visual acuity and the spatial frequency response of the locust eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Catton

    1999-01-01

    The eye of the locust was shown to distinguish between vertical and horizontal alignments of narrow slit targets, and responded more strongly with horizontal alignments. In all cases the response increased as slit width decreased, to a limit of about 0.1°. Similarly the eye responded more strongly to gratings in horizontal alignment, with a peak in response close to a

  15. Classifying all mutually unbiased bases in Rel

    E-print Network

    Julia Evans; Ross Duncan; Alex Lang; Prakash Panangaden

    2009-09-25

    Finding all the mutually unbiased bases in various dimensions is a problem of fundamental interest in quantum information theory and pure mathematics. The general problem formulated in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is open. In the categorical approach to quantum mechanics one can find examples of categories which behave ``like'' the category of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces in various ways but are subtly different. One such category is the category of sets and relations, $\\mathbf{Rel}$. One can formulate the concept of mutually unbiased bases here as well. In this note we classify all the mutually unbiased bases in this category by relating it to a standard question in combinatorics.

  16. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

  17. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

  18. Mutual features for robust identification and verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Claussen; Justinian Rosca; Robert I. Damper

    2008-01-01

    Noisy or distorted video\\/audio training sets represent constant challenges in automated identification and verification tasks. We propose the method of Mutual Interdependence Analy- sis (MIA) to extract \\

  19. Policy on dignity and mutual respect

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    1 Policy on dignity and mutual respect The University's Policy against bullying, harassment ............................................................................................................................7 3.5 Of any person (student or staff member) who is accused of harassment, bullying, bullying or victimisation

  20. Mutual Dependence for Secret Key Agreement

    E-print Network

    Chan, Chung

    A mutual dependence expression is established for the secret key agreement problem when all users are active. In certain source networks, the expression can be interpreted as certain notions of connectivity and network ...

  1. Holographic Mutual Information at Finite Temperature

    E-print Network

    Willy Fischler; Arnab Kundu; Sandipan Kundu

    2013-07-08

    Using the Ryu-Takayanagi conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of gauge-gravity duality, we investigate properties of mutual information between two disjoint rectangular sub-systems in finite temperature relativistic conformal field theories in d-spacetime dimensions and non-relativistic scale-invariant theories in some generic examples. In all these cases mutual information undergoes a transition beyond which it is identically zero. We study this transition in detail and find universal qualitative features for the above class of theories which has holographic dual descriptions. We also obtain analytical results for mutual information in the specific regime of the parameter space. This demonstrates that mutual information contains the quantum entanglement part of the entanglement entropy, which is otherwise dominated by the thermal entropy at large temperatures.

  2. Immunization of Mice by BCG Formulated HCV Core Protein Elicited Higher Th1-Oriented Responses Compared to Pluronic-F127 Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanian, Maryam; Memarnejadian, Arash; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Motevali, Fatemeh; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Khanahmad, Hossein; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Roohvand, Farzin

    2013-01-01

    Background A supreme vaccine for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should elicit strong Th1-oriented cellular responses. In the absence of a Th1-specific adjuvant, immunizations by protein antigens generally induce Th2-type and weak cellular responses. Objectives To evaluate the adjuvant effect of BCG in comparison with nonionic copolymer-Pluronic F127 (F127) as a classic adjuvant in the formulation of HCV core protein (HCVcp) as a candidate vaccine for induction of Th1 immune responses. Materials and Methods Expression of N-terminally His-Tagged HCVcp (1-122) by pIVEX2.4a-core vector harboring the corresponding gene under the control of arabinose-inducible (araBAD) promoter was achieved in BL21-AI strain of E.coli and purified through application of nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography. Mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) in base of the tail with 100 ?l of immunogen (F127+HCVcp or BCG+HCVcp; 5 ?gHCVcp/mouse/dose) or control formulations (PBS, BCG, F127) at weeks 0, 3, 6. Total and subtypes of IgG, as well as cellular immune responses (Proliferation, In vivo CTL and IFN-?/IL-4 ELISpot assays against a strong and dominant H2-d restricted, CD8+-epitopic peptide, core 39-48; RRGPRLGVRA of HCVcp) were compared in each group of immunized animals. Results Expression and purification of core protein around the expected size (21 kDa) was confirmed by Western blotting. The HCVcp + BCG vaccinated mice showed significantly higher lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? production but lower levels of cell lysis (45% versus 62% in CTL assay) than the HCVcp+F127 immunized animals. “Besides, total anti-core IgG and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in HCVcp + F127 immunized mice as compared to HCVcp + BCG vaccinated animals, indicating relatively higher efficacy of F127 for the stimulation of humoral and Th2-oriented immune responses”. Conclusions Results showed that HCVcp + BCG induced a moderate CTL and mixed Th1/Th2 immune responses with higher levels of cell proliferation and IFN-? secretion, indicating that BCG may have a better outcome when formulated in HCVcp-based subunit vaccines. PMID:24348641

  3. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  4. WOZ experiments for understanding mutual adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Xu; Kazuhiro Ueda; Takanori Komatsu; Takeshi Okadome; Takashi Hattori; Yasuyuki Sumi; Toyoaki Nishida

    2009-01-01

    A robot that is easy to teach not only has to be able to adapt to humans but also has to be easily adaptable to. In order\\u000a to develop a robot with mutual adaptation ability, we believe that it will be beneficial to first observe the mutual adaptation\\u000a behaviors that occur in human–human communication. In this paper, we propose a

  5. Holographic Mutual Information at small separations

    E-print Network

    Cesar A. Agon; Howard J. Schnitzer

    2015-02-10

    The holographic mutual information for the small separation of two circles and two strips in 2+1 dimensional space-time is considered based on the known exact minimal surfaces spanning the boundaries on AdS4. The results suggest a universality for the leading term in the short-distance expansion of holographic mutual information. A conjecture for a similar result for d > 2 is also presented, as well as comments about the analogous expansion in conformal field theory.

  6. Danish orientalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Zerlang

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth?century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations – Great Britain, France, Germany – it differed from these orientalisms in that the Danes, who were not in the same way involved in the project of colonizing the East, were less hostile, looking for similarities with the

  7. Mutually unbiased bases with free parameters

    E-print Network

    Dardo Goyeneche; Santiago Gomez

    2015-06-27

    We present a systematic method to introduce free parameters in sets of mutually unbiased bases. In particular, we demonstrate that any set of m real mutually unbiased bases in dimension N>2 admits the introduction of (m-1)N/2 free parameters which cannot be absorbed by a global unitary operation. As consequence, there are m=k+1 mutually unbiased bases in every dimension N=k^2 with k^3/2 free parameters, where k is even. We construct the maximal set of triplets of mutually unbiased bases for two-qubits systems and triplets, quadruplets and quintuplets of mutually unbiased bases with free parameters for three-qubits systems. Furthermore, we study the richness of the entanglement structure of such bases and we provide the quantum circuits required to implement all these bases with free parameters in the laboratory. Finally, we find the upper bound for the maximal number of real and complex mutually unbiased bases existing in every dimension. This proof is simple, short and it considers basic matrix algebra.

  8. Strategic management, corporate responsibility and stakeholder management Integrating corporate responsibility principles and stakeholder approaches into mainstream strategy: a stakeholder-oriented and integrative strategic management framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takis Katsoulakos; Yannis Katsoulacos

    Purpose - The purpose of this article is to establish a strategic management framework that supports the integration of corporate social responsibility principles and stakeholder approaches into mainstream business strategy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - A top-down and bottom-up approach was used to develop the proposed framework. The top-down approach focused on analyzing the main strategic management theories including social responsibility movements to

  9. A system for intravascular, radially orientation-independent electromagnetic flow- and diameter-sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kolin

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty of optimally orienting an intravascular loop probe of an extracorporeal field electromagnetic flow meter is circumvented by uniting 2 mutually perpendicular loop sensors into a single flow-diameter probe. When one of the loops is unfavorably oriented in the magnetic field, the orientations of the other loop is more favorable. The most unfavorable case is a 45° angle between

  10. 1. RESPONSIBILITIES: I am responsible for reading and understanding the content of all pre-departure and orientation materials. Further, I understand I am required to participate fully in all portions of the program and I am aware that any deviation I mak

    E-print Network

    the group at an assigned time, I will bear all responsibility to seek out, contact, and reach the group1. RESPONSIBILITIES: I am responsible for reading and understanding the content of all pre-departure and orientation materials. Further, I understand I am required to participate fully in all portions of the program

  11. Chaotic Communications withChaotic Communications with Mutually Coupled Ring LasersMutually Coupled Ring Lasers

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Chaotic Communications withChaotic Communications with Mutually Coupled Ring LasersMutually Coupled Ring Lasers Adam Cohen, Elizabeth Rogers, and Rajarshi RoyAdam Cohen, Elizabeth Rogers, and Rajarshi of one another #12;Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Lasers 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 150 160 170

  12. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    PubMed

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with ?-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate the evolutionary designs of biomineralized microstructures and understand the tolerance to fracture and damage of chiton radular teeth. PMID:25913610

  13. Analysis of the orientational order effect on n-alkanes: Evidences on experimental response functions and description using Monte Carlo molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Bessières, D; Piñeiro, M M; De Ferron, G; Plantier, F

    2010-08-21

    Short-range correlations of the molecular orientations in liquid n-alkanes have been extensively studied from depolarized Rayleigh scattering and thermodynamic measurements. These correlations between segments induce structural anisotropy in the fluid bulk. This phenomenon, which is characteristic of linear chain molecules when the constituting segments are nor freely jointed, but interact through a given angular potential, is then present in the linear n-Cn series, increasing its magnitude with chain length, and it is therefore less relevant or even completely absent in branched alkanes. This intermolecular effect is clearly revealed in second-order excess magnitudes such as heat capacities when the linear molecule is mixed with one whose structure approaches sphericity. The mixing process of different aspect ratio chain molecules is thought to modify the original pure fluid structure, by producing a diminution of the orientational order previously existing between pure n-alkane chains. However, second-order thermodynamics quantities of pure liquids C(P), ( partial differentialv/ partial differentialT)(P), and ( partial differentialv/ partial differentialP)(P) are known to be very sensitive to the specific interactions occurring at the microscopic level. In other words, the behavior of these derived properties versus temperature and pressure can be regarded as response functions of the complexity of the microscopic interactions. Thus, the purpose of the present work is to rationalize the orientational order evolution with both temperature and molecular chain length from the analysis of pure fluid properties. To this aim, we focused on two linear alkanes, n-octane (n-C(8)) and n-hexadecane (n-C(16)), and two of their branched isomers, i.e., 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (br-C(8)) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (br-C(16)). For each compound, we propose a combined study from direct experimental determination of second-order derivative properties and Monte Carlo simulations. We performed density rho, speed of sound c, and isobaric heat capacity C(P) measurements in broad ranges of pressure and temperature allowing a complete thermodynamic characterization of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations provide a link between the molecular scale model and the experimental thermodynamic properties. Additional information about the microscopic structure of the simulated fluid model was derived, through the calculation of the radius of gyration and average end-to-end distances. Orientational order is clearly revealed by the experimental residual heat capacity trend of pure linear alkanes. The close agreement observed between this experimental macroscopic property and the calculated theoretical structural parameters support the conclusion that the orientational order between segments of linear molecules should be regarded as a conformational effect due to the flexibility of the chain. PMID:20726652

  14. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Jung, C; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

    2015-02-01

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations. PMID:25234707

  15. Mutual Causation in Highway Construction and Economic

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Mutual Causation in Highway Construction and Economic Development Michael Iacono David Levinson Temporal relationships (e.g. highways, employment) State/province level Sectoral disaggregation County productivity #12;Present Study Builds on previous approaches More spatial detail (county-level) Highway

  16. Mutual information, Fisher information and population coding

    E-print Network

    Nadal, Jean-Pierre

    Mutual information, Fisher information and population coding Nicolas Brunel and Jean­Pierre Nadal estimation and model selection, it is only quite recently that a direct link between the Fisher information is naturally related to the Fisher information. In the light of this result we consider the optimization

  17. Mutual Information, Fisher Information and Population Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Brunel; Jean-pierre Nadal

    1998-01-01

    In the context of parameter estimation and model selection, it is only quite recently that a direct link between the Fisher information and information-theoretic quantities has been exhibited. We give an interpretation of this link within the standard framework of information theory. We show that in the context of population coding, the mutual information between the activity of a large

  18. The communication requirements of mutual exclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Cypher

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the amount of communication that is required for performingmutual exclusion. It is assumed that n processors communicate via accesses to a sharedmemory that is physically distributed among the processors. We consider the possibilityof creating a scalable mutual exclusion protocol that requires only a constant amountof communication per access to a critical section.We present two main results. First,

  19. Learning From Examples with Quadratic Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    NeuroEngineering Laboratory NEB 486, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University or Gram-Charlier expansion for the marginal probability density func- tion (pdf) estimation, which imposes of "learning from examples" is the search for a practical mea- sure of entropy and mutual information, just

  20. The Dread of Mutual Creation of Meaning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boaz Shalgi

    2008-01-01

    Anthony Bass's and Ilana Laor's papers are viewed through the lens of the modern philosophical discussion regarding the ways meaning is created. A distinction is thus made, between “the setting” and the meaning of the setting, seeing the latter as inevitably created by the intersubjective dyad. The encounter with an Other, with whom we mutually create the meaning of our

  1. Mutual Event Observations of Io's Sodium Corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Burger; N. M. Schneider; I. de Pater; M. E. Brown; A. H. Bouchez; L. M. Trafton; Y. Sheffer; E. S. Barker; A. Mallama

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the column density profile of Io's sodium corona using 10 mutual eclipses between the Galilean satellites. This approach circumvents the problem of spatially resolving Io's corona directly from Io's bright continuum in the presence of atmospheric seeing and telescopic scattering. The primary goal is to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of Io's corona. Spectra from the

  2. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  3. Estimation of Entropy and Mutual Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liam Paninski

    2003-01-01

    We present some new results on the nonparametric estimation of entropy and mutual information. First, we use an exact local expansion of the entropy function to prove almost sure consistency and central limit the- orems for three of the most commonly used discretized information esti- mators. The setup is related to Grenander's method of sieves and places no assumptions on

  4. A Philological Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonrobert, Charlotte Elisheva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." As someone who is experimenting not only with how to teach rabbinic texts but with which texts to select in virtually every course the author teaches for American undergraduate as well as graduate…

  5. Process Oriented Power Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Miyakawa; Yutaka Ishikawa

    2007-01-01

    Though modern operating systems have a capable of controlling the power consumption using the DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling) mechanism, it is controlled for some duration according to the runtime statistics. Thus, some interactive process suffers its response time when the system is slowed. This paper proposes the Process-Oriented Power Management Mechanism (POPM), that controls the operating speed of

  6. Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects. PMID:22381679

  7. Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding James A. Coana

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    (Ditzen et al., 2007). The frequency of hugs in married couples is associated with lower blood pressure- holding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even

  8. The origin of a mutualism: a morphological trait promoting the evolution of ant-aphid mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Shingleton, Alexander W; Stern, David L; Foster, William A

    2005-04-01

    Mutualisms are mutually beneficial interactions between species and are fundamentally important at all levels of biological organization. It is not clear, however, why one species participates in a particular mutualism whereas another does not. Here we show that pre-existing traits can dispose particular species to evolve a mutualistic interaction. Combining morphological, ecological, and behavioral data in a comparative analysis, we show that resource use in Chaitophorus aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) modulates the origin of their mutualism with ants. We demonstrate that aphid species that feed on deeper phloem elements have longer mouthparts, that this inhibits their ability to withdraw their mouthparts and escape predators and that, consequently, this increases their need for protection by mutualist ants. PMID:15926702

  9. THE ORIGIN OF A MUTUALISM: A MORPHOLOGICAL TRAIT PROMOTING THE EVOLUTION OF ANT-APHID MUTUALISMS

    PubMed Central

    Shingleton, Alexander W.; Stern, David L.; Foster, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualisms are mutually beneficial interactions between species and are fundamentally important at all levels of biological organization. It is not clear, however, why one species participates in a particular mutualism whereas another does not. Here we show that pre-existing traits can dispose particular species to evolve a mutualistic interaction. Combining morphological, ecological, and behavioral data in a comparative analysis, we show that resource use in Chaitophorus aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) modulates the origin of their mutualism with ants. We demonstrate that aphid species that feed on deeper phloem elements have longer mouthparts, that this inhibits their ability to withdraw their mouthparts and escape predators and that, consequently, this increases their need for protection by mutualist ants. PMID:15926702

  10. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation of Agreements § 550.13 Mutuality of interest. The REE Agency shall document both parties interest in the project. Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same...

  11. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation of Agreements § 550.13 Mutuality of interest. The REE Agency shall document both parties interest in the project. Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same...

  12. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation of Agreements § 550.13 Mutuality of interest. The REE Agency shall document both parties interest in the project. Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same...

  13. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation of Agreements § 550.13 Mutuality of interest. The REE Agency shall document both parties interest in the project. Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same...

  14. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation of Agreements § 550.13 Mutuality of interest. The REE Agency shall document both parties interest in the project. Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same...

  15. Introduction Mutualisms are common in nature, and organisms frequently

    E-print Network

    Whitney, Kenneth

    mutualism at a time.1-3 For instance, plants can form mutualisms with mycorrhizal fungi, endophytic fungi, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, pollinators and seed dispersers. Yet, the majority of research has focused

  16. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  17. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  18. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  19. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  20. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  1. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  2. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  3. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  4. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES

    E-print Network

    ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

  5. A mutualism-parasitism system modeling host and parasite with mutualism at low density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanshi; Deangelis, Donald L

    2012-04-01

    A mutualism-parasitism system of two species is considered, where mutualism is the dominant interaction when the predators (parasites) are at low density while parasitism is dominant when the predators are at high density. Our aim is to show that mutualism at low density promotes coexistence of the species and leads to high production of the prey (host). The mutualism-parasitism system presented here is a combination of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. By comparing dynamics of this system with those of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we present the mechanisms by which the mutualism improves the coexistence of the species and production of the prey. Then the parameter space is divided into six regions, which correspond to the four outcomes of mutualism, commensalism, predation/parasitism and neutralism, respectively. When the parameters are varied continuously among the six regions, it is shown that the interaction outcomes of the system transition smoothly among the four outcomes. By comparing the dynamics of the specific system with those of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model, we show that the parasitism at high density promotes stability of the system. A novel aspect of this paper is the simplicity of the model, which allows rigorous and thorough analysis and transparency of the results. PMID:22901072

  6. Plant invasions--the role of mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D M; Allsopp, N; D'Antonio, C M; Milton, S J; Rejmánek, M

    2000-02-01

    Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal-mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are well served by generalist pollinators (insects and birds), and pollinator limitation does not appear to be a major barrier for the spread of introduced plants (special conditions relating to Ficus and orchids are described). Seeds of many of the most notorious plant invaders are dispersed by animals, mainly birds and mammals. Our review supports the view that tightly coevolved, plant-vertebrate seed dispersal systems are extremely rare. Vertebrate-dispersed plants are generally not limited reproductively by the lack of dispersers. Most mycorrhizal plants form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which, because of their low specificity, do not seem to play a major role in facilitating or hindering plant invasions (except possibly on remote islands such as the Galapagos which are poor in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi). The lack of symbionts has, however, been a major barrier for many ectomycorrhizal plants, notably for Pinus spp. in parts of the southern hemisphere. The roles of nitrogen-fixing associations between legumes and rhizobia and between actinorhizal plants and Frankia spp. in promoting or hindering invasions have been virtually ignored in the invasions literature. Symbionts required to induce nitrogen fixation in many plants are extremely widespread, but intentional introductions of symbionts have altered the invasibility of many, if not most, systems. Some of the world's worst invasive alien species only invaded after the introduction of symbionts. Mutualisms in the new environment sometimes re-unite the same species that form partnerships in the native range of the plant. Very often, however, different species are involved, emphasizing the diffuse nature of many (most) mutualisms. Mutualisms in new habitats usually duplicate functions or strategies that exist in the natural range of the plant. Occasionally, mutualisms forge totally novel combinations, with profound implications for the behaviour of the introduced plant in the new environment (examples are seed dispersal mutualisms involving wind-dispersed pines and cockatoos in Australia; and mycorrhizal associations involving plant roots and fungi). Many ecosystems are becoming more susceptible to invasion by introduced plants because: (a) they contain an increasing array of potential mutualistic partners (e.g. generalist frugivores and pollinators, mycorrhizal fungi with wide host ranges, rhizobia strains with infectivity across genera); and (b) conditions conductive for the establishment of various alien/alien synergisms are becoming more abundant. Incorporating perspectives on mutualisms in screening protocols will improve (but not perfect) our ability to predict whether a given plant species could invade a particular habitat. PMID:10740893

  7. Mutual information for stochastic signals and Lévy processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyrone E. Duncan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, some relations between estimation and mutual information are given by expressing two mutual information calculations in terms of two distinct estimation errors. Specifically the mutual information between a stochastic signal and a pure jump Levy process whose rate function depends on the signal is expressed in terms of a filtering error and the rate of change of

  8. Factory Mutual Approval or Intrinsically Safe Electrical Equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Factory Mutual began testing and approval of intrinsically safe equipment in 1964. Approval requirements were developed using the Instrument Society of America Recommended Practice RP12.2 and data from European test agencies having extensive background in this subject. Since 1964, many instrument manufacturers have received Factory Mutual approval. Listings of approved equipment are published in the Factory Mutual Approval Guide.

  9. Mutual information based on Renyi's entropy feature selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Can-Tao; Hu Bao-Gang

    2009-01-01

    Feature selection problem has become the focus of much pattern classification research and mutual information is more and more important in the feature selection algorithms. We proposed normalized mutual information based on Renyi's quadratic entropy feature selection, which reduces the computational complexity, relying on the efficient estimation of the mutual information. Then we combine NMIFS with wrappers into a two-stage

  10. Remaining Flexible in Old Alliances: Functional Plasticity in Constrained Mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Diana E.

    2009-01-01

    Central to any beneficial interaction is the capacity of partners to detect and respond to significant changes in the other. Recent studies of microbial mutualists show their close integration with host development, immune responses, and acclimation to a dynamic external environment. While the significance of microbial players is broadly appreciated, we are just beginning to understand the genetic, ecological, and physiological mechanisms that generate variation in symbiont functions, broadly termed “symbiont plasticity” here. Some possible mechanisms include shifts in symbiont community composition, genetic changes via DNA acquisition, gene expression fluctuations, and variation in symbiont densities. In this review, we examine mechanisms for plasticity in the exceptionally stable mutualisms between insects and bacterial endosymbionts. Despite the severe ecological and genomic constraints imposed by their specialized lifestyle, these bacteria retain the capacity to modulate functions depending on the particular requirements of the host. Focusing on the mutualism between Blochmannia and ants, we discuss the roles of gene expression fluctuations and shifts in bacterial densities in generating symbiont plasticity. This symbiont variation is best understood by considering ant colony as the host superorganism. In this eusocial host, the bacteria meet the needs of the colony and not necessarily the individual ants that house them. PMID:19435425

  11. Mutual antagonism between antigen- and lipopolysaccharide-induced antibody production.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C C; Rahimpour, R; Sinclair, N R

    1993-12-01

    B cells are induced to antibody production by antigens or by mitogens, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We observed a mutually antagonistic relationship between activation through the antigen-receptor (AgR) and LPS-receptor (LPSR) in vitro. Prior exposure of B cells to AgR-ligating antibody prevented antibody forming cell (AFC) production induced by LPS, but not that induced by specific antigen (SRBC, TNP-Ficoll, or TNP-LPS). AFC production induced by antigen could be abrogated by concomitant exposure to LPS; the shutdown of the antigen-driven response was apparent when LPS-induced AFC were prevented by pre-exposure to antibody against the AgR. The ability of signaling through the AgR to inhibit antibody production stimulated by LPS was seen in DBA/2 and BALB/c mouse strains, and not in the New Zealand Black (NZB) strain. The results suggest that mutual antagonism is distinct from other forms of immune hyporesponsiveness, and that defects in antagonism may be a factor in the development of autoimmune disease. PMID:7507885

  12. Partner manipulation stabilises a horizontally transmitted mutualism.

    PubMed

    Heil, Martin; Barajas-Barron, Alejandro; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Svatos, Ales

    2014-02-01

    Mutualisms require protection from non-reciprocating exploiters. Pseudomyrmex workers that engage in an obligate defensive mutualism with Acacia hosts feed exclusively on the sucrose-free extrafloral nectar (EFN) that is secreted by their hosts, a behaviour linking ant energy supply directly to host performance and thus favouring reciprocating behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that Acacia hosts manipulate this digestive specialisation of their ant mutualists. Invertase (sucrose hydrolytic) activity in the ant midguts was inhibited by chitinase, a dominant EFN protein. The inhibition occurred quickly in cell-free gut liquids and in native gels and thus likely results from an enzyme-enzyme interaction. Once a freshly eclosed worker ingests EFN as the first diet available, her invertase becomes inhibited and she, thus, continues feeding on host-derived EFN. Partner manipulation acts at the phenotypic level and means that one partner actively controls the phenotype of the other partner to enhance its dependency on host-derived rewards. PMID:24188323

  13. Consumer Evaluation of Dual Focus Mutual Aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Magura; Cherie L. Villano; Andrew Rosenblum; Howard S. Vogel; Thomas Betzler

    2008-01-01

    Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a “dual focus,” 12 step-based mutual aid program tailored to assist recovery from co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. Objective: To determine consumers' perceptions of DTR's usefulness for their recoveries and the relationships between perceived DTR usefulness and self-help processes, self-efficacy to cope with problems in recovery, and changes in behaviors conducive to dual

  14. Mutual diffusion in a miscible polymer blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. L. Jones; J. Klein; A. M. Donald

    1986-01-01

    Self-diffusion in polymer melts has been extensively studied and is reasonably well understood in terms of the reptation model1-4 the related phenomenon of mutual diffusion in miscible blends of chemically different polymers has received little attention, despite its practical relevance and implications for physical processes, such as phase separation kinetics. In such blends, attractive interactions between the monomers, when summed

  15. Are ETFs Replacing Index Mutual Funds?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Guedj; Jennifer Huang

    Flows to an Open-Ended Mutual Fund (OEF) can signiflcantly hamper its sub- sequent performance due to ?ow-induced trading costs. An Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) is designed not to have this cost and hence is advertised as the more e-cient in- dex vehicle. We develop an equilibrium model to investigate whether the ETF structure is indeed the dominant organizational form. We flnd

  16. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W. (Catania Universita (Italy); Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin (Italy))

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  17. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Sexual Orientation

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Sexual Orientation INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to sexual orientation and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of an individual's sexual orientation or gender

  18. Theory of Orientation Tuning in Visual Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ben-Yishai; R. Lev Bar-Or; H. Sompolinsky

    1995-01-01

    The role of intrinsic cortical connections in processing sensory input and in generating behavioral output is poorly understood. We have examined this issue in the context of the tuning of neuronal responses in cortex to the orientation of a visual stimulus. We analytically study a simple network model that incorporates both orientation-selective input from the lateral geniculate nucleus and orientation-specific

  19. Ecological causes and consequences of bird orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Alerstam

    1990-01-01

    Summary An advanced orientation capability offers possibilities for birds to optimize movement patterns in a wide variety of ecological situations. The adaptive significance of different patterns of angular dispersion and of orientation responses to topography and sociality are elucidated. The orientation capacity is characterized by flexibility, exemplified by reorientation promoting safety and restoration of fat reserves during migration. There are

  20. High-Schoolers' Peer Orientation Priorities: A Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Crispin

    2002-01-01

    Reports a set of research findings that reveal something of the peer orientation priorities of 462 British high schoolers. Offering a snapshot of young people's current social and relational priorities, data point to their overriding concern for mutuality and "hanging" itself; boys' single-minded preference for sport; girls' consistent attunement…

  1. Accurate matching method of multimodal image based on phase congruency and local mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyang; Zhao, Huaici; Zhao, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Multimodal image matching is difficult because of the contrast and intensity difference of the images. For solving this problem, a new matching method based on the phase congruency, histograms of oriented gradients and local normalized mutual information was proposed. The proposed method first extract feature points and edge map based on monogenic signal and phase congruency method which is insensitivity to variations in illumination and contrast. Then, the Monogenic Phase Congruency Edge Descriptor based on edge orientation histogram was generated by gathering the edge information of orientations from edge map around the feature point. For increasing the matched point-pair number, the Multi Candidate Point Matching Method by selecting multi better candidate matching points for each feature point was presented. Finally, the location accuracy was refined using local normalized mutual information method. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method could achieve higher performance in heterogonous image matching, the average matching correct rate up to 88%, is about 3 times of SURF matching method.

  2. MIRA: mutual information-based reporter algorithm for metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Cicek, A. Ercument; Roeder, Kathryn; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Discovering the transcriptional regulatory architecture of the metabolism has been an important topic to understand the implications of transcriptional fluctuations on metabolism. The reporter algorithm (RA) was proposed to determine the hot spots in metabolic networks, around which transcriptional regulation is focused owing to a disease or a genetic perturbation. Using a z-score-based scoring scheme, RA calculates the average statistical change in the expression levels of genes that are neighbors to a target metabolite in the metabolic network. The RA approach has been used in numerous studies to analyze cellular responses to the downstream genetic changes. In this article, we propose a mutual information-based multivariate reporter algorithm (MIRA) with the goal of eliminating the following problems in detecting reporter metabolites: (i) conventional statistical methods suffer from small sample sizes, (ii) as z-score ranges from minus to plus infinity, calculating average scores can lead to canceling out opposite effects and (iii) analyzing genes one by one, then aggregating results can lead to information loss. MIRA is a multivariate and combinatorial algorithm that calculates the aggregate transcriptional response around a metabolite using mutual information. We show that MIRA’s results are biologically sound, empirically significant and more reliable than RA. Results: We apply MIRA to gene expression analysis of six knockout strains of Escherichia coli and show that MIRA captures the underlying metabolic dynamics of the switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. We also apply MIRA to an Autism Spectrum Disorder gene expression dataset. Results indicate that MIRA reports metabolites that highly overlap with recently found metabolic biomarkers in the autism literature. Overall, MIRA is a promising algorithm for detecting metabolic drug targets and understanding the relation between gene expression and metabolic activity. Availability and implementation: The code is implemented in C# language using .NET framework. Project is available upon request. Contact: cicek@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online PMID:24931981

  3. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  4. Unobservable mutual events of the Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sôma, M.

    2002-11-01

    Mutual eclipses and occultations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter which will occur in 2002-2003 were predicted independently by J.-E. Arlot and by K. Aksnes, and information on the visibility of the events from any site on the Earth is provided on the IMCCE web site based on Arlot's predictions. However, many unobservable events, such as the eclipsed satellites are in the shadow of Jupiter, are included in Arlot's predictions and there is no way of eliminating of such unobservable events from his predictions. This paper lists all such events.

  5. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics. PMID:17995458

  6. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  7. Understanding the differential thermal behaviour of an oriented polymeric film, in response to the modulated differential scanning calorimetry variables, for determination of the degree of crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambardekar, Rohan; Karandikar, Hrushikesh; Kelly, Adrian; Caton-Rose, Phil; Coates, Phil; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-05-01

    The degree and the nature of crystallinity determine several key properties of an oriented polymeric system. Thermal analysis, although widely used for crystallinity determination, may have limited precision with oriented polymers, due to the differential nature and overlap of multiple thermal events (cold-crystallisation, chain-relaxation, etc). In this paper we have studied, how MDSC (Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry) variables manipulate the thermal behaviour of oriented materials, so that the degree and the nature of crystallisation can be well defined. MDSC curves suggested that the thermal events were significantly shaped by the amplitude (?) and the period (?) of thermal modulations. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of the oriented PLA film lead to generation of an error in the calculation of non-reversible signal, seen as an artefact in the crystallisation exotherm. Higher amplitude increased the sensitivity of the method. However, when the rise in the amplitude lead to a shift from a `heat-only' to a `heat-cool-heat' cycle, contribution from a poor baseline resulted in the low estimate of the crystallinity. For the `heat-only' cycles, measured crystallinity decreased inversely with the heating rate and ?, due to time dependent crystallisation and melting. Heat-cool-heat cycles lead to crystallisation of some part of the polymer in a more perfected crystal form, whose melting was visible as a non-reversible event. The observations suggested that the heat-only cycles with longer period and faster heating rates favour estimation of the crystallinity, whereas heat-cool-heat cycles with higher amplitude help in understanding pre-melting thermal events associated with polymer orientation. A clear understanding of such an effect is necessary to establish the suitability of MDSC in rapid estimation of crystallinity of the oriented polymers. Accuracy of the method was evaluated by studying the films oriented to different draw ratios and comparison to other established methods. However, this part is not included in this brief communication.

  8. Orientation-Independent Measures of Ground Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Boore; Jennie Watson-Lamprey; Norman A. Abrahamson

    2006-01-01

    The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori- zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation

  9. Generalized mutual informations of quantum critical chains

    E-print Network

    F. C. Alcaraz; M. A. Rajabpour

    2015-04-15

    We study the R\\'enyi mutual information $\\tilde{I}_n$ of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The R\\'enyi mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the R\\'enyi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete $Z(Q)$ symmetries (Q-state Potts model with $Q=2,3,4$ and $Z(Q)$ parafermionic models with $Q=5,6,7,8$ and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the $U(1)$ continuous symmetries(Klein-Gordon field theory, XXZ and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wavefunctions in two special basis. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter $n$ that defines $\\tilde{I}_n$. For a system, with total size $L$ and subsystem sizes $\\ell$ and $L-\\ell$, the$\\tilde{I}_n$ has a logarithmic leading behavior given by $\\frac{\\tilde{c}_n}{4}\\log(\\frac{L}{\\pi}\\sin(\\frac{\\pi \\ell}{L}))$ where the coefficient $\\tilde{c}_n$ is linearly dependent on the central charge $c$ of the underlying conformal field theory (CFT) describing the system's critical properties.

  10. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-01-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. PMID:25855249

  11. A geometrical relation between symmetric operators and mutually unbiased operators

    E-print Network

    Amir Kalev

    2013-05-26

    In this work we study the relation between the set of symmetric operators and the set of mutually unbiased operators from finite plane geometry point of view. Here symmetric operators are generalization of symmetric informationally complete probability-operator measurements (SIC POMs), while mutually unbiased operators are the operator generalization of mutually unbiased bases (MUB). We also discuss the implication of this relation to the particular cases of rank-1 SIC POMs and MUB.

  12. Detecting companions to extrasolar planets using mutual events

    E-print Network

    J. Cabrera; J. Schneider

    2007-03-23

    We investigate a new approach to the detection of companions to extrasolar planets beyond the transit method. We discuss the possibility of the existence of binary planets. We develop a method based on the imaging of a planet-companion as an unresolved system (but resolved from its parent star). It makes use of planet-companion mutual phenomena, namely mutual transits and mutual shadows. We show that companions can be detected and their radius measured down to lunar sizes.

  13. Quality assurance, benchmarking, assessment and mutual international recognition of qualifications.

    PubMed

    Hobson, R; Rolland, S; Rotgans, J; Schoonheim-Klein, M; Best, H; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M; Dymock, D; Essop, R; Hupp, J; Kundzina, R; Love, R; Memon, R A; Moola, M; Neumann, L; Ozden, N; Roth, K; Samwel, P; Villavicencio, J; Wright, P; Harzer, W

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this report is to provide guidance to assist in the international convergence of quality assurance, benchmarking and assessment systems to improve dental education. Proposals are developed for mutual recognition of qualifications, to aid international movement and exchange of staff and students including and supporting developing countries. Quality assurance is the responsibility of all staff involved in dental education and involves three levels: internal, institutional and external. Benchmarking information provides a subject framework. Benchmarks are useful for a variety of purposes including design and validation of programmes, examination and review; they can also strengthen the accreditation process undertaken by professional and statutory bodies. Benchmark information can be used by institutions as part of their programme approval process, to set degree standards. The standards should be developed by the dental academic community through formal groups of experts. Assessment outcomes of student learning are a measure of the quality of the learning programme. The goal of an effective assessment strategy should be that it provides the starting point for students to adopt a positive approach to effective and competent practice, reflective and lifelong learning. All assessment methods should be evidence based or based upon research. Mutual recognition of professional qualifications means that qualifications gained in one country (the home country) are recognized in another country (the host country). It empowers movement of skilled workers, which can help resolve skills shortages within participating countries. These proposals are not intended to be either exhaustive or prescriptive; they are purely for guidance and derived from the identification of what is perceived to be 'best practice'. PMID:18289272

  14. Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes About Treating Patients With Alcohol Addiction After Attending a Required Mutual Support Group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction. Design. Third-year (P3) pharmacy students enrolled in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory course were required to watch an introductory video about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and then attend 2 “open meetings” during the semester. Students submitted a written reflection as proof of attendance. Assessment. Pharmacy students who agreed to participate in the study completed the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) during the course orientation and again at the end of the semester. Mutual support group attendance significantly affected the students’ attitudes within the domains of role adequacy, task specific self-esteem, and work satisfaction. Significant changes were not observed within the domains of motivation and role legitimacy. Conclusion. Mutual support group attendance exposed pharmacy students to the negative effects of alcohol abuse and increased their self-confidence to provide care to patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:24672072

  15. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application...the Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved...mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless Communications Services. (b)...

  16. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application...the Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved...mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless Communications Services. (b)...

  17. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application...the Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved...mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless Communications Services. (b)...

  18. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application...the Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved...mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless Communications Services. (b)...

  19. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application...the Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved...mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless Communications Services. (b)...

  20. On the Mutual Coupling between Circular Resonant Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovshy, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2007-01-01

    For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such an array is impaired by the existing mutual coupling between the radiating elements or in this case circular slots. The mutual coupling problem imposes a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and the overall system sensitivity and dynamic range. In this paper, the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane is investigated both numerically and experimentally. In particular, the mutual coupling in the E- and H-plane configurations of two identical slots is studied.

  1. On the Mutual Coupling Between Circular Resonant Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2007-01-01

    For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such array probes is impaired by the mutual coupling present between the radiating elements. The mutual coupling problem poses a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and its sensitivity. In this paper, we investigate the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane both numerically and experimentally. Based on the analysis of the dominant coupling mechanism, i.e., the surface currents, various remedies to reduce the slots' mutual coupling are proposed and verified.

  2. The roles of sensory traps in the origin, maintenance, and breakdown of mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Edwards; Douglas W. Yu

    2007-01-01

    Sensory traps are signal mimics that elicit out-of-context behaviors by exploiting the adaptive, neural responses of signal\\u000a receivers. Sensory traps have long been invoked in studies of mate and prey attraction, but the possible roles of sensory\\u000a traps in mutualisms (cooperation between species) have yet to be thoroughly examined. Our review identifies four candidate\\u000a roles for sensory traps in the

  3. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  4. Can horizontally oriented breast tomosynthesis image volumes or the use of a systematic search strategy improve interpretation? An eye tracking and free response human observer study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Lång; Sophia Zackrisson; Kenneth Holmqvist; Marcus Nyström; Ingvar Andersson; Daniel Förnvik; Anders Tingberg; Pontus Timberg

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate if there is a benefit in diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of viewing breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes presented horizontally oriented, but also to evaluate the use of a systematic search strategy where the breast is divided, and analyzed consecutively, into two sections. These image presentations were compared to regular vertical image presentation. All methods were

  5. Finite Temperature Critical Behavior of Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Rajiv R. P. Singh; Matthew B. Hastings; Ann B. Kallin; Roger G. Melko

    2011-03-04

    We study mutual information for Renyi entropy of arbitrary index n, in interacting quantum systems at finite-temperature critical points, using high-temperature expansion, quantum Monte Carlo simulations and scaling theory. We find that for n>1, the critical behavior is manifest at two temperatures T_c and n*T_c. For the XXZ model with Ising anisotropy, the coefficient of the area-law has a t*ln(t) singularity, whereas the subleading correction from corners has a logarithmic divergence, with a coefficient related to the exact results of Cardy and Peschel. For T

  6. Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

  7. Putin's India Policy: Mutual Gains for Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biju Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The importance of India in the foreign policy of Russia increased after Putin became the president. Despite Putin's westward orientation much of the contradictions remain. In the east, the improvement of relations with China is accompanied by views of China's possible geopolitical domination in Far East and Central Asia. Putin's policy is to retain India as a major strategic partner

  8. A general model for the evolution of mutualisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. FOSTER; T. WENSELEERS

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of mutualisms presents a puzzle. Why does selection favour cooperation among species rather than cheaters that accept benefits but provide nothing in return? Here we present a general model that predicts three key factors will be important in mutualism evolution: (i) high benefit to cost ratio, (ii) high within-species relatedness and (iii) high between-species fidelity. These factors operate

  9. Mutual inductance between partially wound tori and a bifilar conductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanaga Sabapathy Mylvaganam

    1992-01-01

    The solution of the three dimensional magnetostatic problem in cylindrical and toroidal coordinates is used to develop analytic expressions for the mutual inductance between bifilar current carrying conductors and partially wound tori of rectangular and circular cross sections. The double series containing associated Legendre functions obtained for the mutual inductance in the case of toroid with circular cross section was

  10. A novel mutual authentication scheme for Internet of Things

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanglei Zhao; Xianping Si; Jingcheng Wang; Xiao Long; Ting Hu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel mutual identity authenti- cation scheme which can be applied securely in Internet of Things. Based on secure hash algorithm(SHA), feature extraction and elliptic curve cryptography(ECC), we propose an asymmetric mutual authentication scheme between the platform and the terminal node, which imposes light computation and communic- ation cost, through security analysis it is also shown that

  11. The permutation test for feature selection by mutual information.

    E-print Network

    Verleysen, Michel

    -parametric hypothesis test to select the relevant features and to build a Feature Rel- evance Diagram that visually-parametric). Hence, the estimation of the mutual information can be noisy, unreliable, biased, in cases of small the mutual information with a forward-backward subset search strategy [2, 3]. This approach is not considered

  12. A Statistical Test for Information Leaks Using Continuous Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Chothia, Tom

    A Statistical Test for Information Leaks Using Continuous Mutual Information Tom Chothia School information leaks in systems with continuous outputs. We use continuous mutual information to detect new test to analyse a number of possible fixes for a time-based information leak in e-passports. We

  13. ON THE MUTUAL COUPLING BETWEEN CIRCULAR RESONANT SLOTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed A. Abou-Khousa; Sergey Kharkovsky; Reza Zoughi

    2007-01-01

    For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such an array is impaired by the existing mutual coupling between the radiating elements or in this case circular slots. The mutual coupling problem imposes a design tradeoff between the

  14. Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

    1989-01-01

    This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

  15. Mutual information, bit error rate and security in Wójcik's scheme

    E-print Network

    Zhanjun Zhang

    2004-02-21

    In this paper the correct calculations of the mutual information of the whole transmission, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) are presented. Mistakes of the general conclusions relative to the mutual information, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and the security in W\\'{o}jcik's paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90}, 157901(2003)] have been pointed out.

  16. Impact of Mutual Coupling in Leaky Wave Enhanced Imaging Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Llombart; Andrea Neto; Giampiero Gerini; Magnus Bonnedal; Peter De Maagt

    2008-01-01

    The impact of mutual coupling between neighboring radiators in an imaging array configuration in the presence of a dielectric super-layer is investigated. The super-layer generally aims at increasing the directivity of each element of the array. However, here it is shown that the directivity of the embedded element patterns are reduced by a high level of mutual coupling. Thus a

  17. Mutually singular functions and computation of the lengths of curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Dovgoshei; O. Martio

    2006-01-01

    We study rectifiable curves given by mutually singular coordinate functions in finite-dimensional normed spaces. We describe these curves in terms of the behaviour of approximative tangents and find a simple formula for their lengths. We deduce from these results new necessary and sufficient conditions for the mutual singularity of finitely many functions of bounded variation. Bibtex entry for this abstract

  18. Blog Community Discovery and Evolution Based on Mutual Awareness Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-ru Lin; Hari Sundaram; Yun Chi; Jun'ichi Tatemura; Belle L. Tseng

    2007-01-01

    There are information needs involving costly decisions that cannot be efficiently satisfied through conventional web search engines. Alternately, community centric search can provide multiple viewpoints to facilitate decision making. We propose to discover and model the temporal dynamics of thematic communities based on mutual awareness, where the awareness arises due to observable blogger actions and the expansion of mutual awareness

  19. Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion

    E-print Network

    Muller, Melanie JI; Nelson, David R; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions benefit both partners, promoting coexistence and genetic diversity. Spatial structure can promote cooperation, but spatial expansions may also make it hard for mutualistic partners to stay together, since genetic drift at the expansion front creates regions of low genetic and species diversity. To explore the antagonism between mutualism and genetic drift, we grew cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae on agar surfaces as a model for mutualists undergoing spatial expansions. By supplying varying amounts of the exchanged nutrients, we tuned strength and symmetry of the mutualistic interaction. Strong mutualism suppresses genetic demixing during spatial expansions and thereby maintains diversity, but weak or asymmetric mutualism is overwhelmed by genetic drift even when mutualism is still beneficial, slowing growth and reducing diversity. Theoretical modeling using experimentally measured parameters predicts the size of demixed regions and how strong mutualism must be ...

  20. Independent neurons representing a finite set of stimuli: dependence of the mutual information on the number of units sampled

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Samengo

    2002-01-01

    We study the capacity with which a system of independent neuron-like units represents a given set of stimuli. We assume that each neuron provides a fixed amount of information, and that the information provided by different neurons has a random overlap. We derive analytically the dependence of the mutual information between the set of stimuli and the neural responses on

  1. MUTUAL NON-DISCLOSURE AND CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT This Mutual Non-Disclosure and Confidentiality Agreement (the "Agreement"), effective as of

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    MUTUAL NON-DISCLOSURE AND CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT This Mutual Non-Disclosure and Confidentiality information (the "Confidential Information") that the disclosing party deems confidential and/or proprietary"). The parties agree that Confidential Information should be kept confidential and be used only for the Stated

  2. Mutual inhibition among neural command systems as a possible mechanism for behavioral choice in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D H

    1991-05-01

    Mutual inhibition among behavioral command systems frequently has been suggested as a possible mechanism for switching between incompatible behaviors. Several neural circuits in crayfish that mediate incompatible behaviors have been found to interact through inhibition; this accounts for increased stimulus threshold of one behavior (e.g., escape tailflip) during performance of others (eating, walking, defense). To determine whether mutual inhibition between command systems can provide a mechanism that produces adaptive behavior, I developed a model crayfish that uses this mechanism to govern its behavioral choices in a simulated world that contains a predator, a shelter, and a food source. The crayfish uses energy that must be replaced by eating while it avoids capture by the predator. The crayfish has seven command systems (FORAGE, EAT, DEFENSE, RETREAT, ESCAPE, SWIM, HIDE) that compete through mutual inhibition for control of its behavior. The model crayfish was found to respond to changing situations by making adaptive behavioral choices at appropriate times. Choice depends on internal and external stimuli, and on recent history, which determines the pattern of those stimuli. The model's responses are unpredictable: small changes in the initial conditions can produce unexpected patterns of behavior that are appropriate alternate responses to the stimulus conditions. Despite this sensitivity, the model is robust; it functions adaptively over a large range of internal and external parameter values. PMID:2027043

  3. 47 CFR 22.717 - Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. 22.717 Section...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service § 22.717 ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. Mutually...

  4. 47 CFR 22.717 - Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. 22.717 Section...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service § 22.717 ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. Mutually...

  5. 47 CFR 22.717 - Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. 22.717 Section...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service § 22.717 ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. Mutually...

  6. 47 CFR 22.717 - Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. 22.717 Section...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service § 22.717 ...for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. Mutually...

  7. 47 CFR 22.717 - Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone...Procedure for mutually exclusive applications in the Rural Radiotelephone Service. Mutually exclusive applications in the Rural...

  8. 47 CFR 22.509 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications in the Paging and Radiotelephone Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Procedures for mutually exclusive applications in the Paging and Radiotelephone...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone...Procedures for mutually exclusive applications in the Paging and Radiotelephone...Service. Mutually exclusive applications in the Paging and...

  9. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive...applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a geographic...

  10. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive...applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a geographic...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive...applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a geographic...

  12. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section...bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive...applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a geographic...

  13. Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds),

    E-print Network

    Segrè, Daniel

    Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds), Exobiology: Matter Publishers, The Netherlands, 1998. MUTUALLY CATALYTIC AMPHIPHILES: SIMULATED CHEMICAL EVOLUTION in which the mutually catalytic molecules are spontaneously aggregating amphiphiles. When such amphiphiles

  14. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

  15. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  16. Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones : Recruitment and orientation effects of cembrene-A inNasutitermes costalis (Isoptera: Termitidae) and discussion of factors affecting termite response in experimental contexts.

    PubMed

    Hall, P; Traniello, J F

    1985-11-01

    The monocyclic 14-membered ring diterpene, cembrene-A, previously identified as a nasutitermitine trail pheromone, was tested for its effectiveness as a trail pheromone inNasutitermes costalis. Artificial trails prepared from serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A over a concentration range of 10(-1)-10(-6) mg/ml were ineffective in recruiting termites. Serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A ranging in concentration from 10(-1) to 10(-5) mg/ml produced an orientation effect. Chiral cembrene-A produced recruitment in soldiers at 10(-1) and 10(-3) mg/ml and was less ineffective in recruiting workers. Soldiers always showed a lower and more variable recruitment response to chiral cembrene-A than to sternal gland extracts. The behavioral response to both chiral and racemic cembrene-A was different in quantity and quality from that observed for sternal gland extract. Based on the results of these behavioral tests, cembrene-A appears to be a generalized nasute orientation pheromone which may show recruitment properties at unnaturally high concentrations. PMID:24311243

  17. Reconnection Dynamics and Mutual Friction in Quantum Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Jason; Baggaley, Andrew W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the mutual friction force in finite temperature quantum turbulence in He, paying particular attention to the role of quantized vortex reconnections. Through the use of the vortex filament model, we produce three experimentally relevant types of vortex tangles in steady-state conditions, and examine through statistical analysis, how local properties of the tangle influence the mutual friction force. Finally, by monitoring reconnection events, we present evidence to indicate that vortex reconnections are the dominant mechanism for producing areas of high curvature and velocity leading to regions of high mutual friction, particularly for homogeneous and isotropic vortex tangles.

  18. A mutual information estimator with exponentially decaying bias.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyi; Zheng, Lukun

    2015-06-01

    A nonparametric estimator of mutual information is proposed and is shown to have asymptotic normality and efficiency, and a bias decaying exponentially in sample size. The asymptotic normality and the rapidly decaying bias together offer a viable inferential tool for assessing mutual information between two random elements on finite alphabets where the maximum likelihood estimator of mutual information greatly inflates the probability of type I error. The proposed estimator is illustrated by three examples in which the association between a pair of genes is assessed based on their expression levels. Several results of simulation study are also provided. PMID:25941916

  19. Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfarth, Ulrich; Ranade, Kedar S.

    2012-06-01

    We relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i.e., mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator, in power-of-two dimensions to the problem of finding a symmetric matrix over {F}_2 with an irreducible characteristic polynomial that has a given Fibonacci index. For dimensions of the form 2^{2^k}, we present a solution that shows an analogy to an open conjecture of Wiedemann in finite field theory. Finally, we discuss the equivalence of mutually unbiased bases.

  20. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  1. Mutually connected component of networks of networks with replica nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the emergence of the giant mutually connected component in networks of networks in which each node has a single replica node in any layer and can be interdependent only on its replica nodes in the interdependent layers. We prove that if, in these networks, all the nodes of one network (layer) are interdependent on the nodes of the same other interconnected layer, then, remarkably, the mutually connected component does not depend on the topology of the network of networks. This component coincides with the mutual component of the fully connected network of networks constructed from the same set of layers, i.e., a multiplex network.

  2. Multivariate analysis of TLD orientation effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. Archer; S. C. Bushong; J. I. Thornby

    1980-01-01

    The effect of orientation on extruded thermoluminescent dosimeters has been investigated. TLD's placed on the surface and within a phantom were exposed separately to five diagnostic beam qualities and to ⁶°Co ..gamma.. rays. The resulting data were subjected to analysis of variance and examined for significant correlations. The response of dosimeters on the phantom surface varied with orientation and was

  3. Can horizontally oriented breast tomosynthesis image volumes or the use of a systematic search strategy improve interpretation? An eye tracking and free response human observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lång, Kristina; Zackrisson, Sophia; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Ingvar; Förnvik, Daniel; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2011-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate if there is a benefit in diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of viewing breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes presented horizontally oriented, but also to evaluate the use of a systematic search strategy where the breast is divided, and analyzed consecutively, into two sections. These image presentations were compared to regular vertical image presentation. All methods were investigated using viewing procedures consisting of free scroll volume browsing, and a combination of initial cine loops at three different frame rates (9, 14, 25 fps) terminated upon request followed by free scroll volume browsing if needed. Fifty-five normal BT image volumes in MLO view were collected. In these, simulated lesions (20 masses and 20 clusters of microcalcifications) were randomly inserted, creating four unique image sets for each procedure. Four readers interpreted the cases in a random order. Their task was to locate the lesions, mark and assign a five level confidence scale. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using Jackknife Free Receiver Operating Characteristics (JAFROC). Time efficiency and visual search behavior were also investigated using eye tracking. Results indicate there was no statistically significant difference in JAFROC FOM between the different image presentations, although visual search was more time efficient when viewing horizontally oriented image volumes in medium cine loops.

  4. Orientation selective DEER measurements on vinculin tail at X-band frequencies reveal spin label orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abé, Christoph; Klose, Daniel; Dietrich, Franziska; Ziegler, Wolfgang H.; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Double electron electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has been established as a valuable method to determine distances between spin labels bound to protein molecules. Caused by selective excitation of molecular orientations DEER primary data also depend on the mutual orientation of the spin labels. For a doubly spin labeled variant of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin tail strong orientation selection can be observed already at X-band frequencies, which allows us to reduce the problem to the relative orientation of two molecular axes and the spin-spin axis parameterized by three angles. A full grid search of parameter space reveals that the DEER experiment introduces parameter-space symmetry higher than the symmetry of the spin Hamiltonian. Thus, the number of equivalent parameter sets is twice as large as expected and the relative orientation of the two spin labels is ambiguous. Except for this inherent ambiguity the most probable relative orientation of the two spin labels can be determined with good confidence and moderate uncertainty by global fitting of a set of five DEER experiments at different offsets between pump and observer frequency. The experiment provides restraints on the angles between the z axis of the nitroxide molecular frame and the spin-spin vector and on the dihedral between the two z axes. When using the same type of label at both sites, assignment of the angle restraints is ambiguous and the sign of the dihedral restraint is also ambiguous.

  5. Motion detection in insect orientation and navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandyam V. Srinivasan; Michael Poteser; Karl Kral

    1999-01-01

    The visual systems of insects are exquisitely sensitive to motion. Over the past 40 years or so, motion processing in insects has been studied and characterised primarily through the optomotor response. This response, which is a turning response evoked by the apparent movement of the visual environment, serves to stabilise the insect’s orientation with respect to the environment. Research over

  6. Motion detection in insect orientation and navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandyam V. Srinivasan; Michael Poteser; Karl Kral

    The visual systems of insects are exquisitely sensitive to motion. Over the past 40 years or so, motion processing in insects has been studied and characterised primarily through the optomotor response. This response, which is a turning response evoked by the apparent movement of the visual environment, serves to stabilise the insect's orientation with respect to the environment. Research over

  7. 47 CFR 24.431 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Interim Application, Licensing and Processing Rules for Narrowband PCS § 24.431 Mutually exclusive applications. ...applications filed on Form 175 for the initial provision of narrowband PCS service are subject to competitive bidding in accordance...

  8. A Rorschach assessment of children's mutuality of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R M; Avery, R R; Grolnick, W S

    1985-02-01

    Explored the construct validity of the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist, 1977), which assesses the developmental level of object relations based upon Rorschach percepts, within a nonclinical child population. Mutuality of Autonomy was found to be related to teacher ratings of interpersonal functioning in the classroom, and to academic grades but not to either standardized achievement or intelligence. In addition, the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale demonstrated predicted correlations with children's perceived control. Children with developmentally lower object relations scores were more likely to perceive "powerful others" or "unknown" sources as controlling outcomes, particularly within the social domain. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale, and the significance of object relations for personality functioning. PMID:3989653

  9. Gaining (mutual) information about quark/gluon discrimination

    E-print Network

    Thaler, Jesse

    Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon ...

  10. Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gong, Shaogang

    Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan for facial expression recognition by boosting Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based classifiers. Low-cost LBP a classifier of improved classification per- formance. 1 Introduction Automatic facial expression recognition

  11. COOPERATION: Non-relatives Mutualism, Conditional Cooperation, Reciprocal Altruism

    E-print Network

    Caraco, Thomas

    COOPERATION: Non-relatives Mutualism, Conditional Cooperation, Reciprocal Altruism Evolution Tempted to "Cheat" Requires Repeated Interaction Reciprocal Altruism Alternating Roles, Altruist (All) Players Benefit Simultaneously Unstable Without Probabilistically Repeated Play Altruism: One

  12. Professional investor psychology and investment performance: evidence from mutual funds 

    E-print Network

    Eshraghi, Arman

    2012-06-26

    In the seven decades following the Investment Company Act of 1940 coming into force in the United States, the mutual fund industry has undergone dramatic changes including, some argue, a transition from stewardship to ...

  13. 76 FR 20459 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the...

  14. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  15. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  16. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  17. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  18. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  19. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  20. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  1. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  2. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  3. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of...

  4. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP 1906: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP - 1906: ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PATERSON, N.J. (4x5 NEGATIVE) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  5. Quantum correlation in degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections

    E-print Network

    Takata, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the quantum dynamics of two degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections. The cavity mode in the optical coupling path between the two oscillator facets is explicitly considered. Stochastic equations for the oscillators and mutual injection path based on the positive $P$ representation are derived. The system of two gradually pumped oscillators with out-of-phase mutual injections are simulated, and their quantum states are investigated. When the incoherent loss of the oscillators other than the mutual injections is small, the squeezed quadratic amplitudes $\\hat{p}$ in the oscillators are positively correlated near the oscillation threshold. It indicates finite quantum correlation, and the entanglement between the intracavity subharmonic fields. When with a small loss of the injection path, each oscillator around the phase transition point forms macroscopic superposition for a small pump noise. It suggests that the low-loss injection path works as a sq...

  6. Group Routing: a Reliable Mutual Anonymous Approach in Dynamic Overlay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Tang; Qingyi Gao

    2009-01-01

    As an important component of online privacy, anonymity is concerned by all users of P2P system. Many methods are proposed to provide mutual anonymity and most of them are path-based: an anonymous path should be constructed by source peer before transmission. Although those proposals perform well in providing mutual anonymity, the pre-constructed paths suffer from node churn and make anonymous

  7. Mutually refining DPCM system with applications in frame erasure channels

    E-print Network

    Sutharsan, Thirunathan

    1996-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: V. A. Vai ham ayan (Chair of Co mittee) Georghiades D. R. Halverson (Member) N. Vsidya (Member) N. Griswold Head of partment) December 1996 Major Subject.... Single Channel DPCM System . . C. Odd-Even Sample MD-DPCM . . D. Arithmetic Coding II MUTUALLY REFINING DPCM: DESIGN AND PERFOR- MANCE A. Entropy Constrained MR-DPCM, Case of the Optimal System . . 1. Mutually Refining Quantizers...

  8. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles is presented as a summation of several exponential integrals with complex arguments. Mathematical models are developed to show the near-zone field of the sinusoidal dipole. The mutual impedance of coupled dipoles is expressed as the sum of four monopole-mobopole impedances to simplify the analysis procedure. The subroutines for solving the parameters of the dipoles are discussed.

  9. Strategies of a parasite of the ant– Acacia mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars W. Clement; Stephan C. W. Köppen; Willi A. Brand; Martin Heil

    2008-01-01

    Mutualisms can be exploited by parasites—species that obtain resources from a partner but provide no services. Though the\\u000a stability of mutualisms in the presence of such parasites is under intensive investigation, we have little information on\\u000a life history traits that allow a species to be a successful mutualist or rather a parasite, particularly in cases where both\\u000a are closely related.

  10. Chemical communication and coevolution in an ant–plant mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Heil; Domancar Orona-Tamayo; Sascha Eilmus; Stefanie Kautz; Marcia González-Teuber

    2010-01-01

    Protective ant–plant interactions provide valuable model systems to study mutualisms. Here, we summarise our recent research\\u000a on chemical and physiological adaptations that contribute to the stabilisation of the mutualism between Mesoamerican Acacia host plants and their Pseudomyrmex ant inhabitants against exploiters, that is, species using host-derived rewards without rendering a service. Acacia hosts produce food bodies (FBs) and extrafloral nectar

  11. Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric binary ionic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, Sorin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric binary ionic mixture. We compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. For the case of viscosity we propose a predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion we discuss some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann-equation-based models.

  12. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  13. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures. PMID:16043055

  14. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Exclusive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    E-print Network

    D. M. Snyder

    2001-08-12

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics either one of two different wave functions predicting specific values for quantities represented by non-commuting Hermitian operators can characterize the same physical existent, without a physical interaction responsible for which wave function occurs. This result means that one can make predictions regarding mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena. Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people may have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive physical phenomena, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is addressed at the end of the paper.

  15. Entanglement patterns in mutually unbiased basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States) and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    A few simply stated rules govern the entanglement patterns that can occur in mutually unbiased basis sets (MUBs) and constrain the combinations of such patterns that can coexist in full complements of MUBs. We consider Hilbert spaces of prime power dimensions (D=p{sup N}), as realized by systems of N prime-state particles, where full complements of D+1 MUBs are known to exist, and we assume only that MUBs are eigenbases of generalized Pauli operators, without using any particular construction. The general rules include the following: (1) In any MUB, a given particle appears either in a pure state or totally entangled and (2) in any full MUB complement, each particle is pure in (p+1) bases (not necessarily the same ones) and totally entangled in the remaining (p{sup N}-p). It follows that the maximum number of product bases is p+1 and, when this number is realized, all remaining (p{sup N}-p) bases in the complement are characterized by the total entanglement of every particle. This ''standard distribution'' is inescapable for two-particle systems (of any p), where only product and generalized Bell bases are admissible MUB types. This and the following results generalize previous results for qubits [Phys. Rev. A 65. 032320 (2002); Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)] and qutrits [Phys. Rev. A 70, 012302 (2004)], drawing particularly upon [Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)]. With three particles there are three MUB types, and these may be combined in (p+2) different ways to form full complements. With N=4, there are 6 MUB types for p=2, but new MUB types become possible with larger p, and these are essential to realizing full complements. With this example, we argue that new MUB types that show new entanglement patterns should enter with every step in N and, also, when N is a prime plus 1, at a critical p value, p=N-1. Such MUBs should play critical roles in filling complements.

  16. Assessing ecological specialization of an ant-seed dispersal mutualism through a wide geographic range.

    PubMed

    Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Specialization in species interactions is of central importance for understanding the ecological structure and evolution of plant-animal mutualisms. Most plant-animal mutualisms are facultative and strongly asymmetric. In particular, myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) has been regarded as a very generalized interaction. Although some recent studies have suggested that only a few ant species are really important for dispersal, no rigorous measurement of the specialization in ant-seed dispersal mutualisms has been performed. Here, we use individual plants as basic units for replication to investigate the generalization-specialization of the herb Helleborus foetidus on its ant dispersers over a considerable part of its geographical range. We define generalization in terms of diversity components (species richness and evenness) of the ant visitor that realizes dispersal by removing diaspores. We obtain truly comparable values of ant visitor diversity, distinguishing among different functional groups of visitors and identifying incidental visitors and real ant dispersers. Using null model approaches, we test the null hypothesis that ant-mediated dispersal is a generalized mutualism. At least two premises should be confirmed to validate the hypothesis: (1) diaspores are dispersed by multiple ant-visitor species, and (2) diaspore dispersal is significantly equitable. Though up to 37 ant species visited diaspores across 10 populations, only two large formicines, Camponotus cruentatus and Formica lugubris, were responsible for the vast majority of visits resulting in dispersal in most populations and years, which strongly suggests that ant seed dispersal in H. foetidus is ecologically specialized. Interestingly, specialization degree was unrelated to dispersal success across populations. Our study offers new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of myrmecochory. We propose the existence of an alternative scenario to extensive generalization. In this new scenario, generalization is replaced by ecological specialization, which is determined by the intrinsic traits of the plant species rather than by the ecological context in which the interaction takes place. PMID:19967857

  17. Mutual influence of rotations and vibrations of a strongly ‘kicked’ diatomic heteronuclear molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, V. Yu; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2014-07-01

    The interaction of a diatomic heteronuclear molecule with strong ultrashort electromagnetic pulses is investigated by direct numerical integration of the nonstationary Schroedinger equation. The direct action of the pulse on the nuclear subsystem of a molecule is considered and both rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom are taken into account. The strong mutual influence of rotational and vibrational dynamics on each other is found and the possibility to provide an efficient rotational excitation and molecular orientation is established. In the case of the ‘?-pulse’ action, an analytical approach is developed to describe the ro-vibrational behaviour of the molecule in the after-pulse regime. The features of the field-induced coherent ro-vibrational wave packet are analyzed and the polarization signal at teraherz frequencies is found.

  18. Professionalism: orientation exercises for incoming osteopathic medical students and developing class vision statements.

    PubMed

    Fresa-Dillon, Kerin L; Cuzzolino, Robert G; Veit, Kenneth J

    2004-06-01

    The Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine has developed an exercise to introduce professional ethics and behavior at the earliest stages of medical education. During orientation, each incoming class creates a class vision statement. After small group discussions on professional ethics, honesty, and responsibilities, representatives from each group collated student input and constructed a class vision statement reflective of student consensus on these issues. Each vision statement was recited as an oath during the white coat ceremony at the conclusion of the orientation program. Despite the fact that previous vision statements were unavailable to each incoming class, there were many commonalities among the statements created. Central elements of all vision statements include commitment to altruism, compassionate treatment of patients, and honesty and integrity in all professional interactions. Humility, the capacity to recognize and accept one's limitations in knowledge and skills, was also a key element in each statement. Three of four statements specifically recognized the teamwork and mutual respect that should be engendered among all members of the health care team. Each vision statement had prominent statements regarding the learning process during osteopathic medical school and acknowledged the importance of active and lifelong learning in the students' career paths. Student evaluation of this exercise has been positive, especially the recitation of the statement during the white coat ceremony. Results suggest that the development of a class vision statement represents a powerful mechanism for addressing the importance of professional attitudes, behaviors, and ethics at the earliest stages of medical education. PMID:15233332

  19. Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner’s Dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN C. CLEMENTS; DAVID W. STEPHENS

    1995-01-01

    Since 1981, the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has dominated studies of non-kin cooperation. Alternative models have received relatively little attention. The simplest alternative is mutualism, in which mutual cooperation always pays best. The behaviour of three pairs of blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata, was tested in precisely controlled iterated mutualism and Prisoner's Dilemma games. Although the jays readily cooperated in the mutualism game,

  20. 2011 Orientation Leader Position Description Portland State University

    E-print Network

    2011 Orientation Leader Position Description Portland State University Summary of Responsibilities and Duties As a representative of Portland State University, Orientation Leaders (OLs) will work with diverse. This position reports to: Johnathan Luster Coordinator, New Student Programs (503) 725-5555 orientation

  1. Finding Purpose in New Faculty Orientation: The Education Dean's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Nader, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a study of 23 (response rate 86%) California State University system deans of education, regarding the purpose and usefulness of new faculty orientation programs. Reports that deans generally agreed with the focus of orientation programs and that they perceived orientation to be of value to social integration of the new faculty members.…

  2. Microbial Factor-Mediated Development in a Host-Bacterial Mutualism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Science Magazine scholarly article explores the function of bacterial signal molecule Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) in the mutualistic symbiosis between the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the squid Euprymna scolopes. TCT is the factor responsible for the extensive tissue damage characteristic of whooping cough and gonorrhea infections in humans, however this article demonstrates that it triggers tissue development in the squid host. These findings show that host interpretation of such bacterial signal molecules is context-dependent. Such differences in interpretation can lead to either inflammation and disease or to the establishment of a mutually beneficial animal-microbe association.

  3. Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo

    2001-10-01

    In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

  4. Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential chemoprevention through nuclear factor kappa B and p53 mutual antagonism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- ?B) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is largely considered as a critical determinant in the initiation and progression of various forms of cancer. Mechanistically, NF- ?B favors this process by inducing various genes responsible for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion while at the same time antagonizing growth regulators including tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown by various independent investigations that a down regulation of NF- ?B activity directly, or indirectly through the activation of the p53 pathway reduces tumor growth substantially. Therefore, there is a huge effort driven by many laboratories to understand the NF- ?B signaling pathways to intervene the function of this crucial player in inflammation and tumorigenesis in order to find an effective inhibitor directly, or through the p53 tumor suppressor. We discuss here on the role of NF- ?B in chronic inflammation and cancer, highlighting mutual antagonism between NF- ?B and p53 pathways in the process. We also discuss prospective pharmacological modulators of these two pathways, including those that were already tested to affect this mutual antagonism. PMID:25152696

  5. The Effect of Temperature and Moisture Content on the Flexural Response of Kevlar\\/Epoxy Laminates: Part I. [0\\/90] Filament Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Allred

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the effects of moisture and temperature on the flexural response of [0\\/90] Kevlar 49 fabric-reinforced epoxy laminates. Two high temperature (190°C) cure commercially available epoxies, Narmco 5208 and Ferro CE-9000, were used as matrix materials. Results indicate that the mechanical properties of Kevlar 49\\/epoxy laminates are temperature dependent over the range -55°C to 150°C. The addition of

  6. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described. PMID:22398886

  7. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

  8. On the oriented chromatic index of oriented graphs

    E-print Network

    Ochem, Pascal

    On the oriented chromatic index of oriented graphs Pascal Ochem1, Alexandre Pinlou2, and ´Eric, 2007 Abstract A homomorphism from an oriented graph G to an oriented graph H is a mapping from the set. The oriented chromatic index of an oriented graph G is the minimum number of vertices in an oriented graph H

  9. Mutualism–parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models

    PubMed Central

    Mandyam, Keerthi G.; Jumpponen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSEs) that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures – melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the “mutualism-parasitism-continuum” paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi – environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization. PMID:25628615

  10. Mutual impedance of parallel and perpendicular coplanar surface monopoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koksal, Adnan; Kauffman, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    One dimensional integral formulas are derived for mutual impedance of arbitrary size, coplanar, parallel, and perpendicular surface monopoles. The integrals in formulas are expressed as exponential integrals where possible. The mutual impedance expression for parallel monopoles is a summation of exponential integrals and one-dimensional integrals. For perpendicular monopoles, the mutual impedance is in closed form, containing exponential integrals only. The final expressions are in a form suitable for numerical computation. Since the expressions contain at most one-dimensional integrals, they can be utilized to reduce the matrix filling time in the moment method formulations, especially when inhomogeneous sectioning is preferred. Additionally, they can be used in rectangular surface patch modeling of conducting surfaces with edges which are at an angle to the surface patches, providing the angle is small. To this end, the expressions were utilized in the moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas. Very good accuracy was obtained with a reduction in computer time.

  11. Lessons learned from two peer-led mutual support groups.

    PubMed

    Viverito, Kristen M; Cardin, Scott A; Johnson, Leigh Ann; Owen, Richard R

    2013-10-01

    This case report and analysis describe the formation of two peer-led mutual support groups conducted within the context of a Veterans Administration Medical Center. Based on our assessment of the success of one of these groups and the failure of the other, we offer several recommendations and suggestions to help promote this modality. More specifically, we hypothesize that such groups are more likely to be successful (1) if participants are transferred en masse from another group, (2) that, at least initially, housing the group in the same context as formal clinician-led groups or overlapping clinician-led and peer-led groups may help smooth the transition from authority-led treatment to a mutual peer support format, and finally, (3) that prior experiences in interpersonal process groups may promote the skills and cohesion to promote successful transition to mutual support. PMID:24004015

  12. Comprehensive analysis of mutually exclusive alternative splicing in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Takei, Satomi; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Mutually exclusive selection of one exon in a cluster of exons is a rare form of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, yet suggests strict regulation. However, the repertoires of regulation mechanisms for the mutually exclusive (ME) splicing in vivo are still unknown. Here, we experimentally explore putative ME exons in C. elegans to demonstrate that 29 ME exon clusters in 27 genes are actually selected in a mutually exclusive manner. Twenty-two of the clusters consist of homologous ME exons. Five clusters have too short intervening introns to be excised between the ME exons. Fidelity of ME splicing relies at least in part on nonsense-mediated mRNA decay for 14 clusters. These results thus characterize all the repertoires of ME splicing in this organism. PMID:25254147

  13. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  14. Mutual impedance of parallel and perpendicular coplanar surface monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksal, Adnan; Kauffman, J. F.

    1991-08-01

    One dimensional integral formulas are derived for mutual impedance of arbitrary size, coplanar, parallel, and perpendicular surface monopoles. The integrals in formulas are expressed as exponential integrals where possible. The mutual impedance expression for parallel monopoles is a summation of exponential integrals and one-dimensional integrals. For perpendicular monopoles, the mutual impedance is in closed form, containing exponential integrals only. The final expressions are in a form suitable for numerical computation. Since the expressions contain at most one-dimensional integrals, they can be utilized to reduce the matrix filling time in the moment method formulations, especially when inhomogeneous sectioning is preferred. Additionally, they can be used in rectangular surface patch modeling of conducting surfaces with edges which are at an angle to the surface patches, providing the angle is small. To this end, the expressions were utilized in the moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas. Very good accuracy was obtained with a reduction in computer time.

  15. Algorithmic significance, mutual information, and DNA sequence comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Milosavljevic, A.

    1993-12-31

    The newly proposed algorithmic significance method [6] enables recognition of patterns in DNA sequences at prespecified significance levels via minimal length encoding. We extend the method to provide a formal framework for DNA sequence comparisons via mutual information. While in this paper we restrict our discussion to DNA sequence analysis, the methods that are presented are potentially applicable in many other domains. Under a few simplifying assumptions, we show that significance of sequence similarity depends exponentially on mutual information. In addition to this estimate of significance, the concept of mutual information provides solutions to the following two problems in DNA sequence comparisons: Factoring out contribution of shared repetitive patterns and factoring out bias due to partial sequencing.

  16. Orientation and lever responding in auditory discriminations in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J M; Briggs, R M

    1977-01-01

    Head orientation during auditory discriminations was studies in squirrel monkeys using a two-lever trial-by-trial procedure. Animals were studied using auditory discriminations based on the position of the sound and on the spectral content differences between a pure tone and a noise. After the percentage of correct responses reached asymptote, head orientation was measured using videotape recordings. Orientation occurred on virtually every trial and was under the control of the position of the sound under all conditions. Lever responding was controlled by the same parameters of the sound under some conditions, and by different parameters in others. Orientation and lever responding were correlated (a level response could be predicted from the direction of orientation) when both responses were under the control of the same parameters of the sound. The two responses were uncorrelated when they were controlled by different parameters of the sound. Orientation and lever responding were not functionally related. PMID:411870

  17. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I?(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.

  18. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    E-print Network

    Utsunomiya, Shoko; Takata, Kenta; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Inoue, Shuichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or p even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser.

  19. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Shoko; Namekata, Naoto; Takata, Kenta; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Inoue, Shuichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-03-01

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or ? even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser. PMID:25836827

  20. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    E-print Network

    Shoko Utsunomiya; Naoto Namekata; Kenta Takata; Daisuke Akamatsu; Shuichiro Inoue; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2015-04-02

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or p even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser.

  1. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  2. Mutual coupling between parallel columns of periodic slots in a ground plane surrounded by dielectric slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. P.; Munk, Benedikt A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrays of slots with arbitrary orientation in a conducting plane which are infinitely periodic in one dimension and finitely periodic in another dimension are considered. The perfect conducting plane extends infinitely and is bounded on each side by dielectric slabs of finite thickness and infinite extent. Single columns of slots are represented by equivalent magnetic scattering currents, which are solved for via the moment method. The mutual coupling (admittance) between slot columns in the presence of the stratified media is found by the array scanning method (ASM), which expresses the admittance as the average of the scan admittance of an artificially constructed doubly infinite array of slots over all real scan angles. The technique avoids the use of Sommerfeld integrals, but still gives rise to singularities at scan angles corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface waves. An analytical approximation is made to remove these surface wave singularities, thus making numerical implementation of the method practical. The method is quite general and may be extended to thin slot elements of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  3. Mutual Authentication for Low-Power Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    , such as payment schemes, access control schemes, medical surveillance, and cellular billing schemes. Outline: We for applications with strict power consumption restrictions, such as wireless medical implants and contact- less power, medical informatics, mutual authentication, gap problem. 1 Introduction Computers can

  4. Mutuality: a key gap in the move to telecare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Hanif Ahmad Baharin; Ralf Mühlberger; Andrew Loch

    2009-01-01

    Telecare is thought to be a solution for the increasing healthcare cost of an aging population. We want to identify possible issues in telecare implementations to inform technology design. By analysing telecare literature using the Locales Framework it was found that there is a gap in telecare technology research in designing awareness or presence (known as the mutuality aspect in

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  6. Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

  7. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  8. The mutual information: Detecting and evaluating dependencies between variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. Steuer; Jürgen Kurths; Carsten O. Daub; Janko Weise; Joachim Selbig

    2002-01-01

    Motivation: Clustering co-expressed genes usually requires the definition of 'distance' or 'similarity' between measured datasets, the most common choices being Pearson correlation or Euclidean distance. With the size of available datasets steadily increasing, it has become feasible to consider other, more general, definitions as well. One alternative, based on information theory, is the mutual information, providing a general measure of

  9. Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

  10. On the Mutual Coupling of the Finite Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wang; D. G. Fang; Y. P. Xi; C. Z. Luan; B. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Mutual coupling between radiation frequency (RF) components, antenna elements in a microstrip antenna array or between two microstrip antenna arrays is a potential source of the performance degradation. The degradation includes the impedance mismatching, the increased side-lobe level, the deviation of the radiation pattern from the desired one, and the decrease of gain due to the excitation of the surface

  11. Anti-money laundering compliance for the mutual fund industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Robertson; Monique S. Delhomme

    2002-01-01

    The USA Patriot Act and its implementing regulations required mutual funds to implement anti-money laundering (AML) programs by July 24, 2002. This legislation, which substantially amended the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), no doubt will have the most far-reaching affect on the fund industry since the Investment Company Act was adopted in 1940. It also will present new challenges to fund

  12. Mutual braiding and the band presentation of braid groups

    E-print Network

    Morton, Hugh

    Mutual braiding and the band presentation of braid groups H. R. Morton and M. Rampichini June 29], and by John Salkeld [8] who showed that a braid fi is exchangeable if and only if fi 2 closes to a fibred link

  13. Outage Mutual Information of Space-Time MIMO Channels

    E-print Network

    Giannakis, Georgios

    Outage Mutual Information of Space-Time MIMO Channels Zhengdao Wang Georgios B. Giannakis Dept distributed (i.i.d.) multiple- input multiple-output (MIMO) channel, assuming that the transmitted signals achievable when deploying multiple antennas: the capacity. In wireless links, the fading multiple- input

  14. Multimodality Image Registration by Maximization of Mutual Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederik Maes; André Collignon; Dirk Vandermeulen; Guy Marchal; Paul Suetens

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of multimodality medical image registration is proposed, using a basic concept from information theory, mutual information (MI), or relative entropy, as a new matching criterion. The method presented in this paper applies MI to measure the statistical dependence or information redundancy between the image intensities of corresponding voxels in both images, which is assumed

  15. Mutual adaptive interface: laboratory experiments for human state estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Kubo; Makoto Takahashi; Hidekazu Yoshikawa

    1993-01-01

    The validity of the human state estimation method based on the physiological measures as the source information for the mutual adaptive interface (MADI) proposed in the preceding paper has been shown through the laboratory experiments. The neural network has been adopted as the real-time estimation method for the short term state. The statistical properties of the physiological measures are shown

  16. A Practical Array Pattern Synthesis Approach Including Mutual Coupling Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiwen Yang; Zaiping Nie; Yujiang Wu

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the pattern synthesis of antenna arrays including mutual coupling effects, based on the combination of the differential evolution (DE) algorithm and the complex embedded element patterns, which can be obtained either by measurement or by full wave simulation of the array. The proposed approach has the advantage of taking into account many non-ideal

  17. Mutual interaction of soil moisture state and atmospheric processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara Entekhabi; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe; Fabio Castelli

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the pathways through which soil moisture and meteorological phenomena mutually influence one another at local, regional and global scales. This constitutes two-way land-atmosphere interaction, as meteorological phenomena both act as the forcing and react to the forcing by the soil moisture state. Land surface modification of the atmospheric environment and the atmospheric

  18. Maximum mutual information SPLICE transform for seen and unseen conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasha Droppo; Alex Acero

    2005-01-01

    SPLICE is a front-end technique for automatic speech recog- nition systems. It is a non-linear feature space transformation meant to increase recognition accuracy. Our previous work has shown how to train SPLICE to perform speech feature en- hancement. This paper evaluates a maximum mutual informa- tion (MMI) based discriminative training method for SPLICE. Discriminative techniques tend to excel when the

  19. Ecosystem engineers activate mycorrhizal mutualism in salt marshes

    E-print Network

    Bertness, Mark D.

    fungi, salt marshes, soil invertebrates­mycorrhizae interactions. Ecology Letters (2007) 10: 902­908 I N to the fungi (Smith & Read 1997). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (thereafter AMF) are critical in terrestrial otherwise suppress or limit them. Mutualisms between mycorrhizal fungi and plants are key determinants

  20. International Mutual Recognition: Progress and Prospects. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    Increasing the mobility of service providers, including professionals, via mutual recognition (of regulatory systems) agreements (MRAs) has become a significant issue worldwide. Despite increasing interest in MRAs, it may be argued that MRAs are but one of a larger range of major developments that have fueled current interest in occupational…

  1. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  2. Mutuality as a Means of Overcoming Student Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Mutuality practice in the composition classroom attempts to create equal subject positions between teachers and students, mitigating the effects of dominant power structures inherent to an authority-driven classroom while showing teachers that their students are fully capable, though fledgling, members of an academic community. Understanding how…

  3. Chinese and American Women: Issues of Mutual Concern. Wingspread Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    This article briefly describes a conference of Chinese and American women held to discuss womens' issues and promote mutual understanding between the two groups. The cultural exchange of information at the conference focused on discussion of the All China Womens' Federation (ACWF); the roles of women in China and the United States in the areas of…

  4. Mutual Information Based Registration of Medical Images: A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josien P. W. Pluim; J. B. Antoine Maintz; Max A. Viergever

    2003-01-01

    An overview is presented of the medical image processing literature on mutual information based registra- tion. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. Methods are classified according to the different aspects of

  5. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

  6. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

  7. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

  8. Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms

    E-print Network

    Traveset, Anna

    Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms Anna Traveset1 and David M, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain 2 Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany & Zoology, University Biological invasions threaten global biodiversity by altering the structure and functioning of ecosystems [1

  9. Day Trading International Mutual Funds: Evidence And Policy Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Goetzmann; Zoran Ivkovich; K. Geert Rouwenhorst

    2000-01-01

    Daily pricing of mutual funds provides liquidity to investors but is subject to valuation errors due to the inability to observe synchronous, fair security prices at the end of the trading day. This may hurt fund investors if speculators strategically seek to exploit mispricing or if the net flow of money into funds is correlated with these pricing errors. We

  10. The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

    1991-01-01

    The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

  11. Optimization of mutual information for multiresolution image registration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Thévenaz; Michael Unser

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new method for the intermodal reg- istration of images using a criterion known as mutual informa- tion. Our main contribution is an optimizer that we specifically de- signed for this criterion. We show that this new optimizer is well adapted to a multiresolution approach because it typically con- verges in fewer criterion evaluations than other optimizers. We

  12. Analysis of an E cient Distributed Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion

    E-print Network

    Lavault, Christian

    , or some very close tree-based data structures. They usually also provide e#30;cient (possibly fault distributed algorithm to solve the mutual exclusion problem in complete networks by using a dynamic logical tree structure as its basic distributed data structure, viz. a path reversal transformation in rooted n

  13. Mutual coupling between microstrip dipoles in multielement arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pisti B. Katehi

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method for evaluating mutual coupling in multielement microstrip arrays is discussed. The elements of the array are strip dipoles covered by an overlayer and excited by microstrip lines embedded in the substrate. In addition, two different ways of excitation are considered to evaluate the effect of the feeding lines on the coupling between the dipoles. Throughout the analysis,

  14. Attraction and Social Coordination: Mutual Entrainment of Vocal Activity Rhythms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. McGarva; Rebecca M. Warner

    2003-01-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did

  15. Mutual Information-based Fitness Functions for Evolutionary Circuit Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Mutual Information-based Fitness Functions for Evolutionary Circuit Synthesis Arturo Hern. The conclusions we draw are applicable to any evolutionary system for Boolean function synthesis based on entropy been done using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Genetic Programming is also included in this review, since

  16. REVIEW Open Access HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    REVIEW Open Access HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times), anal

  17. Discovery of Blog Communities based on Mutual Awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ru Lin; Hari Sundaram; Yun Chi; Jun Tatemura; Belle Tseng

    2006-01-01

    Blogs have many fast growing communities on the Internet. Discovering such communities in the blogosphere is important for sustaining and encouraging new blogger participation. We focus on extracting communities based on two key insights - (a) communities form due to individual blogger actions that are mutually observable; (b) semantics of the hyperlink structure are different from traditional web analysis problems.

  18. Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott

    E-print Network

    Scott, Clayton

    Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott Universit¨at Potsdam distributions are nonseparable and po- tentially quite complex. We develop a pro- cedure for decontamination technique for "decontamination" of the contaminated models. In particular, we show that under the sufficient

  19. Figs and fig pollinators: evolutionary conflicts in a coevoled mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Charlotte Anstett; Martine Hossaert-McKey; Finn Kjellberg

    1997-01-01

    Figs and fig wasps form one of the best known examples of species-specific mutualism and coevolution. Recent experiments and observations have led to a better understanding of the evolutionary processes involved in the origin and maintenance of species interactions. The observed fine-tuned traits involve not only coevolution but also selection acting on only one of the partners. Furthermore, some of

  20. Orientation Spectrum Algorithm Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brianskiy, S. A.; Sidyakin, S. V.; Vizilter, Y. V.

    2015-05-01

    A morphological orientation spectra is proposed. This spectrum describes basic directions of shape parts. Fast discrete-continuous algorithm for computing orientation spectrum is presented. It is based on usage of continuous skeleton that is constructed from polygonal shape contour. A definition for disc orientation map is given. Comparison experiments for binary shapes with the usage of orientation spectra are carried out. Cyclic shift and EMD-L1 distance are used for spectra comparison. The obtained results indicate that the aggregation of the thickness spectra with orientation spectra increases the quality of inter-class recognition.

  1. Orientation 2011 Report 1 Report on 2011 Orientation Activities

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    Orientation 2011 Report 1 Report on 2011 Orientation Activities #12;Orientation 2011 Report 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Purpose of the Orientation Program Page 3 Orientation Program Components Page 3 University Welcome Page 3 International Orientation Page 4 First-Year Book Club

  2. Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2013-01-01

    1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

  3. Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

  4. Mutualism breakdown by amplification of Wolbachia genes.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

  5. 31 CFR 1024.210 - Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds...Programs § 1024.210 Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds...and implement a written anti-money laundering program reasonably...

  6. 31 CFR 1024.210 - Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds...Programs § 1024.210 Anti-money laundering programs for mutual funds...and implement a written anti-money laundering program reasonably...

  7. Propagation of a mutually incoherent optical vortex pair in anisotropic nonlinear media

    E-print Network

    Mamaev, A V; Zozulya, A A

    2003-01-01

    We study propagation of a pair of oppositely charged and mutually incoherent vortices in anisotropic nonlinear optical media. Mutual interactions retard the delocalization of the vortex core observed for isolated vortices.

  8. Propagation of a mutually incoherent optical vortex pair in anisotropic nonlinear media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Mamaev; M. Saffman; A. A. Zozulya

    2004-01-01

    We study propagation of a pair of oppositely charged and mutually incoherent vortices in anisotropic nonlinear optical media. Mutual interactions retard the delocalization of the vortex core observed for isolated vortices.

  9. DRAMMS: Deformable registration via attribute matching and mutual-saliency weighting.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yangming; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Paragios, Nikos; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-08-01

    A general-purpose deformable registration algorithm referred to as "DRAMMS" is presented in this paper. DRAMMS bridges the gap between the traditional voxel-wise methods and landmark/feature-based methods with primarily two contributions. First, DRAMMS renders each voxel relatively distinctively identifiable by a rich set of attributes, therefore largely reducing matching ambiguities. In particular, a set of multi-scale and multi-orientation Gabor attributes are extracted and the optimal components are selected, so that they form a highly distinctive morphological signature reflecting the anatomical and geometric context around each voxel. Moreover, the way in which the optimal Gabor attributes are constructed is independent of the underlying image modalities or contents, which renders DRAMMS generally applicable to diverse registration tasks. A second contribution of DRAMMS is that it modulates the registration by assigning higher weights to those voxels having higher ability to establish unique (hence reliable) correspondences across images, therefore reducing the negative impact of those regions that are less capable of finding correspondences (such as outlier regions). A continuously-valued weighting function named "mutual-saliency" is developed to reflect the matching uniqueness between a pair of voxels implied by the tentative transformation. As a result, voxels do not contribute equally as in most voxel-wise methods, nor in isolation as in landmark/feature-based methods. Instead, they contribute according to the continuously-valued mutual-saliency map, which dynamically evolves during the registration process. Experiments in simulated images, inter-subject images, single-/multi-modality images, from brain, heart, and prostate have demonstrated the general applicability and the accuracy of DRAMMS. PMID:20688559

  10. 77 FR 5089 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Name Change: American Hardware Mutual Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Name Change: American Hardware Mutual Insurance Company AGENCY...Hardware Mutual Insurance Company (NAIC 13331) has changed its name to Motorists Commercial Mutual Insurance Company,...

  11. The Relationship Between Substance Abuse Performance Measures and Mutual-Help Group Participation after Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail K. Strickler; Sharon Reif; Constance M. Horgan; Andrea Acevedo

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between treatment quality, using during-treatment process measures, and mutual-help group (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous) attendance after outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for 739 clients in the Alcohol and Drug Services Study. Logistic regression models estimated any and regular mutual-help attendance after treatment. Clients referred to mutual-help groups were significantly more likely to attend any mutual

  12. Antagonisms, mutualisms and commensalisms affect outbreak dynamics of the southern pine beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Hofstetter; James T. Cronin; Kier D. Klepzig; John C. Moser; Matthew P. Ayres

    2006-01-01

    Feedback from community interactions involving mutualisms are a rarely explored mechanism for generating complex population\\u000a dynamics. We examined the effects of two linked mutualisms on the population dynamics of a beetle that exhibits outbreak dynamics.\\u000a One mutualism involves an obligate association between the bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis and two mycangial fungi. The second mutualism involves Tarsonemus mites that are phoretic

  13. Visual orientation and spatial frequency discrimination: a comparison of single neurons and behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bradley; B C Skottun; I Ohzawa; G Sclar; R D Freeman

    1987-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex respond selectively to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency. Changes in response amplitudes of these neurons could be the neurophysiological basis of orientation and spatial frequency discrimination. We have estimated the minimum differences in stimulus orientation and spatial frequency that can produce reliable changes in the responses of individual neurons in cat visual cortex. We compare

  14. PET image reconstruction using anatomical information through mutual information based priors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeetha Somayajula; Evren Asma; Richard M. Leahy

    2005-01-01

    We propose a non-parametric method for incorporating information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction through priors based on mutual information. Mutual information between feature vectors extracted from the anatomical and functional images is used as a priori information in a Bayesian framework for the reconstruction of the PET image. The computation of mutual information requires an estimate of

  15. Fidelity versus Vanguard: Comparing the Performance of the Two Largest Mutual Fund Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Tower; Wei Zheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the risk and return of investing in equity mutual funds provided by the world's two largest mutual fund families: Fidelity and Vanguard over a long horizon. We believe this will help guide investors; this study is an example of the calculations that mutual fund companies should facilitate by being required to provide accurate, accessible and free data.

  16. Portfolio optimization of equity mutual funds with fuzzy return rates and risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang-hsuan Chen; Lindsay Huang

    2009-01-01

    Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. Focusing on equity mutual funds, this paper proposes a basic portfolio selection model in which future return rates and future risks of mutual funds are represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. Firstly, a cluster analysis is proposed to categorize the huge amount of equity mutual funds into several groups based on

  17. Preferences for Stock Characteristics as Revealed by Mutual Fund Portfolio Holdings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G Falkenstein

    1996-01-01

    This investigation of the cross-section of mutual fund equity holdings for the years 1991 and 1992 shows that mutual funds have a significant preference towards stocks with high visibility and low transaction costs, and are averse to stocks with low idiosyncratic volatility. These findings are relevant to theories concerning investor recognition, a potential agency problem in mutual funds, tests of

  18. A Mutual Anonymous Peer-to-peer Protocol Design Jinsong Han1

    E-print Network

    A Mutual Anonymous Peer-to-peer Protocol Design Jinsong Han1 , Yunhao Liu1 , Li Xiao2 , Renyi Xiao1 to deploy the anonymity on its peers. In this paper, we propose a mutual anonymity protocol, called Secret-sharing-based Mutual Anonymity Protocol (SSMP), for decentralized P2P systems. SSMP employs Shamirs' secret sharing

  19. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  20. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  1. A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-08-22

    Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

  2. A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-01-01

    Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

  3. A meta-analysis of an implicit measure of personality functioning: the mutuality of autonomy scale.

    PubMed

    Graceffo, Robert A; Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    The Mutuality of Autonomy scale (MA) is a Rorschach variable designed to capture the degree to which individuals mentally represent self and other as mutually autonomous versus pathologically destructive (Urist, 1977). Discussions of the MA's validity found in articles and chapters usually claim good support, which we evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis of its construct validity. Overall, in a random effects analysis across 24 samples (N = 1,801) and 91 effect sizes, the MA scale was found to maintain a relationship of r =.20, 95% CI [.16,.25], with relevant validity criteria. We hypothesized that MA summary scores that aggregate more MA response-level data would maintain the strongest relationship with relevant validity criteria. Results supported this hypothesis (aggregated scoring method: r =.24, k = 57, S = 24; nonaggregated scoring methods: r =.15, k = 34, S = 10; p =.039, 2-tailed). Across 7 exploratory moderator analyses, only 1 (criterion method) produced significant results. Criteria derived from the Thematic Apperception Test produced smaller effects than clinician ratings, diagnostic differentiation, and self-attributed characteristics; criteria derived from observer reports produced smaller effects than clinician ratings and self-attributed characteristics. Implications of the study's findings are discussed in terms of both research and clinical work. PMID:24854965

  4. Agent Oriented Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Shoham

    1992-01-01

    Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

  5. An Efficient Algorithm for Direction Finding against Unknown Mutual Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijiang; Ren, Shiwei; Ding, Yingtao; Wang, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs) with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively. PMID:25347587

  6. Effects of financial incentives on the breakdown of mutual trust.

    PubMed

    Parco, James E; Rapoport, Amnon; Stein, William E

    2002-05-01

    Disagreements between psychologists and economists about the need for and size of financial incentives continue to be hotly discussed. We examine the effects of financial incentives in a class of interactive decision-making situations, called centipede games, in which mutual trust is essential for cooperation. Invoking backward induction, the Nash equilibrium solution for these games is counterintuitive. Our previous research showed that when the number of players in the centipede game is increased from two to three, the game is iterated in time, the players are rematched, and the stakes are unusually high, behavior approaches equilibrium play. Results from the present study show that reducing the size of the stakes elicits dramatically different patterns of behavior. We argue that when mutual trust is involved, the magnitude of financial incentives can induce a considerable difference. PMID:12009054

  7. Driven diffusive systems with mutually interactive Langmuir kinetics

    E-print Network

    Vuijk, H D; Vahabi, M; MacKintosh, F C; Sharma, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the simple one-dimensional driven model, the totally asymmetric exclusion process, coupled to mutually interactive Langmuir kinetics. This model is motivated by recent studies on clustering of motor proteins on microtubules. In the proposed model, the attachment and detachment rates of a particle are modified depending upon the occupancy of neighbouring sites. We first obtain continuum mean-field equations and in certain limiting cases obtain analytic solutions. We show how mutual interactions increase (decrease) the effects of boundaries on the phase behavior of the model. We perform Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrate that our analytical approximations are in good agreement with the numerics over a wide range of model parameters. We present phase diagrams over a selective range of parameters.

  8. Driven diffusive systems with mutually interactive Langmuir kinetics.

    PubMed

    Vuijk, H D; Rens, R; Vahabi, M; MacKintosh, F C; Sharma, A

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the simple one-dimensional driven model, the totally asymmetric exclusion process, coupled to mutually interactive Langmuir kinetics. This model is motivated by recent studies on clustering of motor proteins on microtubules. In the proposed model, the attachment and detachment rates of a particle are modified depending upon the occupancy of neighboring sites. We first obtain continuum mean-field equations and in certain limiting cases obtain analytic solutions. We show how mutual interactions increase (decrease) the effects of boundaries on the phase behavior of the model. We perform Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrate that our analytical approximations are in good agreement with the numerics over a wide range of model parameters. We present phase diagrams over a selective range of parameters. PMID:25871090

  9. Driven diffusive systems with mutually interactive Langmuir kinetics

    E-print Network

    H. D. Vuijk; R. Rens; M. Vahabi; F. C. MacKintosh; A. Sharma

    2015-01-06

    We investigate the simple one-dimensional driven model, the totally asymmetric exclusion process, coupled to mutually interactive Langmuir kinetics. This model is motivated by recent studies on clustering of motor proteins on microtubules. In the proposed model, the attachment and detachment rates of a particle are modified depending upon the occupancy of neighbouring sites. We first obtain continuum mean-field equations and in certain limiting cases obtain analytic solutions. We show how mutual interactions increase (decrease) the effects of boundaries on the phase behavior of the model. We perform Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrate that our analytical approximations are in good agreement with the numerics over a wide range of model parameters. We present phase diagrams over a selective range of parameters.

  10. Testing the mutual consistency of different supernovae surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenka, N. V.; Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.

    2015-05-01

    It is now common practice to constrain cosmological parameters using supernovae (SNe) catalogues constructed from several different surveys. Before performing such a joint analysis, however, one should check that parameter constraints derived from the individual SNe surveys that make up the catalogue are mutually consistent. We describe a statistically-robust mutual consistency test, which we calibrate using simulations, and apply it to each pairwise combination of the large surveys making up, respectively, the UNION2 catalogue and the very recent JLA (joint light-curve analysis) compilation by Betoule et al. We find no inconsistencies in the latter case, but conclusive evidence for inconsistency between some survey pairs in the UNION2 catalogue.

  11. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  12. Mutual information as an order parameter for quantum synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameri, V.; Eghbali-Arani, M.; Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Kheirandish, F.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon, important in many theoretical studies and applications. Recently, this effect has been analyzed and observed in a number of physical systems close to the quantum-mechanical regime. In this work we propose mutual information as a useful order parameter which can capture the emergence of synchronization in very different contexts, ranging from semiclassical to intrinsically quantum-mechanical systems. Specifically, we first study the synchronization of two coupled Van der Pol oscillators in both classical and quantum regimes and later we consider the synchronization of two qubits inside two coupled optical cavities. In all these contexts, we find that mutual information can be used as an appropriate figure of merit for determining the synchronization phases independently of the specific details of the system.

  13. No effect of diffraction on Pluto-Charon mutual events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholen, D. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    1988-10-01

    Mulholland and Gustafson (1987) made the interesting suggestion that observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events might show significant dependence on both wavelength and telescope aperture because of diffraction effects. In this letter, the authors present observations that show the predicted effects to be absent and demonstrate that the parameters of the system are such that the events can be accurately analyzed with geometrical optics.

  14. Mutual inductance between partially wound tori and a bifilar conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylvaganam, Kanaga Sabapathy

    1992-09-01

    The solution of the three dimensional magnetostatic problem in cylindrical and toroidal coordinates is used to develop analytic expressions for the mutual inductance between bifilar current carrying conductors and partially wound tori of rectangular and circular cross sections. The double series containing associated Legendre functions obtained for the mutual inductance in the case of toroid with circular cross section was evaluated for certain dimensions of the toroid, after introducing a gemetrical factor dependent only on the dimensions of the toroid. To solve Laplace equations using only cylindrical coordinates, the rectangular toroid was viewed as one element of an infinite number of tori located symmetrically to the axis rotation and placed parallel to the flat surfaces of the original toroid. The mutual inductance in the case of the toroid with the rectangular cross-section was calculated using matrix formulation of the solution to the potential problem and the double series obtained for the mutual inductance was evaluated for the rectangular toroid dimensioned in such a way that both types of tori have the same average diameter and cross sectional area. To check the results from the two boundary value problems involving circular and rectangular tori, various special configurations of the rectangular toroid in the field of the bifilar lines were studied. The first configuration was that of an infinitely long toroid, on the surface of which the magnetic field was calculated and compared with the values obtained from the general solution. For two tori with almost equal cross sections the induced voltages in the windings were measured and calculated, whereby the results are found totally well within the experimental errors. For rough estimation of the induced voltage, some approximate expressions were given and numerically and experimentally verified.

  15. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura K. Finkes; Alan B. Cady; Juliana C. Mulroy; Keith Clay; Jennifer A. Rudgers

    2006-01-01

    Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch

  16. Encryption via Entangled states belonging to Mutually Unbiased Bases

    E-print Network

    M. Revzen; F. C. Khanna

    2008-09-11

    We consider particular entanglement of two particles whose state vectors are in bases that are mutually unbiased (MUB), i.e. "that exhibit maximum degree of incompatibility" (J.Schwinger,Nat. Ac. Sci. (USA), 1960)). We use this link between entanglement and MUB to outline a protocol for secure key distribution among the parties that share these entangled states. The analysis leads to an association of entangled states and states in an MUB set: both carry the same labels.

  17. Frequency-domain blind deconvolution based on mutual information rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Larue; Jérôme I. Mars; Christian Jutten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind single-input single-output (SISO) deconvolution method based on the minimization of the mutual information rate of the deconvolved output is proposed. The method works in the frequency domain and requires estima- tion of the signal probability density function. Thus, the algorithm uses higher order statistics (except for Gaussian source) and al- lows non-minimum-phase filter estimation.

  18. MUTUAL AND SHARED NEIGHBOR PROBABILITIES: FINITE AND INFINITEDIMENSIONAL RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. SCHILLING

    1986-01-01

    Let X, .. * , Xn be i.i.d. random variables defined in Wd having common continuous density f(x), and let Rij be the rank of Xj in the ordered list of distances from Xi. Both the mutual neighbor probabilities pl(r, s) = P(R12 = r, R21 = s) and the neighbor-sharing probabilities p2(r, s) = P(R13 = r, R23 =

  19. Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique has been applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been extensively applied to antennas. In this short paper calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained using the Method of Moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

  20. Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique was applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been exclusively applied to antennas. Here, calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained during the method of moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

  1. Pluto-Charon mutual event predictions for 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholen, D. J.

    1985-12-01

    Circumstances are tabulated for 81 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1986 opposition. The deepest and longest events will occur in February and reach a depth of about 0.15 mag. Observations of these events will lead to an accurate determination of the satellite's orbit, the diameters of the two bodies, the mean density of the system, and crude albedo maps of one hemisphere on each object.

  2. Cooperative Transmission for Wireless Networks Using Mutual-Information Accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stark C. Draper; Lingjia Liu; Andreas F. Molisch; Jonathan S. Yedidia

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between the nodes of wireless multihop networks can increase communication reliability, reduce energy consumption,anddecreaselatency.Thepossibleimprovementsare even greater when nodes perform mutual information accumula- tion. In this paper, we investigate resource allocation for unicast and multicast transmission in such networks. Given a network, a source, and a destination, our objective is to minimize end-to-end transmission delay under energy and bandwidth constraints.

  3. Routing in Cooperative Wireless Networks with Mutual-Information Accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stark C. Draper; Lingjia Liu; Andreas F. Molisch; Jonathan S. Yedidia

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between the nodes of wireless multihop networks can increase communication re- liability, reduce energy consumption, and decrease latency. The possible improvements are even greater when nodes perform mutual-information accumulation, e.g., by using rateless codes. In this paper, we investigate routing problems in such networks. Given a network, a source and a destination, our objective is to minimize end-to-end transmission

  4. Multiclass Microarray Gene Expression Analysis Based on Mutual Dependency Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, Girija; Chetty, Madhu

    In this paper a novel feature selection technique based on mutual dependency modelling between genes is proposed for multiclass microarray gene expression classification. Several studies on analysis of gene expression data has shown that the genes (whether or not they belong to the same gene group) get co-expressed via a variety of pathways. Further, a gene may participate in multiple pathways that may or may not be co-active for all samples. It is therefore biologically meaningful to simultaneously divide genes into functional groups and samples into co-active categories. This can be done by modeling gene profiles for multiclass microarray gene data sets based on mutual dependency models, which model complex gene interactions. Most of the current works in multiclass microarray gene expression studies are based on statistical models with little or no consideration of gene interactions. This has led to lack of robustness and overly optimistic estimates of accuracy and noise reduction. In this paper, we propose multivariate analysis techniques which model the mutual dependency between the features and take into account complex interactions for extracting a subset of genes. The two techniques, the cross modal factor analysis (CFA) and canonical correlation analysis(CCA) show a significant reduction in dimensionality and class-prediction error, and improvement in classification accuracy for multiclass microarray gene expression datasets.

  5. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person’s interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks. PMID:25114228

  6. Dispersal Mutualism Incorporated into Large-Scale, Infrequent Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Parker, V. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Because of their influence on succession and other community interactions, large-scale, infrequent natural disturbances also should play a major role in mutualistic interactions. Using field data and experiments, I test whether mutualisms have been incorporated into large-scale wildfire by whether the outcomes of a mutualism depend on disturbance. In this study a seed dispersal mutualism is shown to depend on infrequent, large-scale disturbances. A dominant shrubland plant (Arctostaphylos species) produces seeds that make up a persistent soil seed bank and requires fire to germinate. In post-fire stands, I show that seedlings emerging from rodent caches dominate sites experiencing higher fire intensity. Field experiments show that rodents (Perimyscus californicus, P. boylii) do cache Arctostaphylos fruit and bury most seed caches to a sufficient depth to survive a killing heat pulse that a fire might drive into the soil. While the rodent dispersal and caching behavior itself has not changed compared to other habitats, the environmental transformation caused by wildfire converts the caching burial of seed from a dispersal process to a plant fire adaptive trait, and provides the context for stimulating subsequent life history evolution in the plant host. PMID:26151560

  7. Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

    1992-01-01

    The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

  8. Orientations to reflective practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bud Wellington; Patricia Austin

    1996-01-01

    Researchers, teacher educators and practitioners involved with reflective practice tend to think and write about those things they perceive as practical. This paper delineates and details five orientations to reflective practice: the immediate, the technical, the deliberative, the dialectic and the transpersonal. Each orientation represents a notion of the practical derived not only from specific social science paradigms, but also

  9. Model for UV irradiance on arbitrarily oriented surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mech, M.; Koepke, P.

    Erythemal weighted solar UV irradiances, responsible for damage to human skin, need to be known for arbitrarily oriented surfaces, since human skin has various orientations to the sun. A model for determining such irradiances is presented with the results in good agreement with measurements. The model gives spectral or biologically weighted irradiances for any user-defined orientation of a flat receiver and for selectable atmospheric and surface conditions.

  10. Mutual replacement reactions in alkali feldspars I: microtextures and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ian; Lee, Martin R.

    2009-05-01

    Intracrystal microtextures formed by a process of mutual replacement in alkali feldspars record fluid-rock reactions that have affected large volumes of the Earth’s crust. Regular, ?1 ?m-scale ‘strain-controlled’ perthitic microtextures coarsen, by up to 103, by a dissolution-reprecipitation process, producing microporous patch or vein perthites on scales >100 ?m. We have developed earlier studies of such reactions in alkali feldspar cm-scale primocrysts in layered syenites from the Klokken intrusion, South Greenland. We present new hyperspectral CL, SEM images, and laser ICPMS analytical data, and discuss the mechanism of such replacement reactions. The feldspars grew as homogeneous sodic sanidines which unmixed and ordered by volume diffusion during cooling into the microcline field at 450°C, giving regular, fully coherent ‘braid’ cryptoperthite. At ?450°C the crystals reacted with a circulating post-magmatic aqueous fluid. The braid perthite behaved as a single reactant ‘phase’ which was replaced by two product phases, incoherent subgrains of low albite and microcline, with micropores at their boundaries. The driving force for the reactions was coherency strain energy, which was greater than the surface energy in the subgrain mosaic. The external euhedral crystal shapes and bulk major element composition of the primocrysts were unchanged but they became largely pseudomorphs composed of subgrains usually with the ‘pericline’ and ‘adularia’ habits (dominant {110} and subordinate {010} morphology) characteristic of low T growth. The subgrains have an epitactic relationship with parent braid perthite. Individual subgrains show oscillatory zoning in CL intensity, mainly at blue wavelengths, which correlates with tetrahedral Ti. Regular zoning is sometimes truncated by irregular, discordant surfaces suggesting dissolution, followed by resumption of growth giving regular zoning. Zones can be traced through touching subgrains, of both albite and microcline, for distances up to 500 ?m. At ?340°C, the microcline subgrains underwent a third stage of unmixing to give straight lamellar film perthites with periodicities of 1 ?m, which with further cooling became semicoherent by the development of spaced misfit dislocations. Sub-grain growth occurred in fluid films that advanced through the elastically strained braid perthite crystals, which dissolved irreversibly. Braid perthite was more soluble than the strain-free subgrain mosaics which precipitated from the supersaturated solution. Some volumes of braid texture have sharp surfaces that suggest rapid dissolution along planes with low surface energies. Others have complex, diffuse boundaries that indicate a phase of coherent lamellar straightening by volume diffusion in response to strain relief close to a slowly advancing interface. Nucleation of strain-free subgrains was the overall rate-limiting step. To minimise surface energy subgrains grew with low energy morphologies and coarsened by grain growth, in fluid films whose trace element load (reflected in the oscillatory zoning) was dictated by the competitive advance of subgrains over a range of a few tens of mm. The cross-cutting dissolution surfaces suggest influxes of fresh fluid. Removal of feldspar to give 2 vol% porosity would require a feldspar:fluid ratio of 1:26 (by wt). The late reversion to strain-controlled exsolution in microcline subgrains is consistent with loss of fluid above 340°C following depressurization of the intrusion. A second paper (Part II) describes trace element partitioning between the albite and microcline subgrains, and discusses the potential of trace elements as a low- T geothermometer.

  11. Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL #12;#12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Reminders Parking: Wall · Last Chance Info Fair ­ SUB Courtyard and Matador Room #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Raiderlink www · View bills · Register for classes #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Reminder about

  12. Optimal estimator model for human spatial orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, J.; Young, L. R.; Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A model is being developed to predict pilot dynamic spatial orientation in response to multisensory stimuli. Motion stimuli are first processed by dynamic models of the visual, vestibular, tactile, and proprioceptive sensors. Central nervous system function is then modeled as a steady-state Kalman filter which blends information from the various sensors to form an estimate of spatial orientation. Where necessary, this linear central estimator has been augmented with nonlinear elements to reflect more accurately some highly nonlinear human response characteristics. Computer implementation of the model has shown agreement with several important qualitative characteristics of human spatial orientation, and it is felt that with further modification and additional experimental data the model can be improved and extended. Possible means are described for extending the model to better represent the active pilot with varying skill and work load levels.

  13. Earth's Plasmasphere Seen by the Mutual Impedance Probe Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft During its Third Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, Jean Gabriel

    To reach Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft must undergo four planet gravity assistances. The fourth one, an Earth fly-by, occurred in mid-November 2009. At closest approach, on 13 November at 07:45 U.T., Rosetta passed at about 2500 km over a point off the south coast of the Indonesian island of Java, at about 109E and 8S. The mutual impedance probe, MIP, and the 4 other instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the event. Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth's space environment have actually been made, in particular by the MIP in the plasmasphere, the high electron-density region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field. An alternating current, I, with a frequency lying in the frequency range that contains the plasma frequency resonance, is driven through a transmitting electrode. The induced difference in voltage, V, measured on open circuit between two receiving electrodes is fed into a high input impedance amplifier. The mutual impedance, Z, which is computed onboard, is equal to the ratio of V to I. As Z depends essentially on the properties of the surrounding plasma, the frequency response of the mutual impedance probe may then be used for plasma diagnosis. As the CLUSTER/WHISPER relaxation sounder probed the Earth's plasmasphere just before and after the ROSETTA visit, the WHISPER observations are also presented.

  14. Aspect-Oriented Requirements with UML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Araújo; Ana Moreira; Isabel Brito; Awais Rashid

    2002-01-01

    Crosscutting concerns are responsible for producing spread and tangled representations throughout the software life cycle. Effective separation of such concerns is essential to improve understandability and maintainability of artefacts at the various software development stages. Aspect-oriented software development holds promise for the purpose. However, to date, most of the work in this area has concentrated on the implementation level. While

  15. The Role of New Hire Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale

    2009-01-01

    A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…

  16. A laboratory for teaching object oriented thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent Beck; Ward Cunningham

    1989-01-01

    It is difficult to introduce both novice and experienced procedural programmers to the anthropomorphic perspective necessary for object-oriented design. We introduce CRC cards, which characterize objects by class name, responsibilities, and collaborators, as a way of giving learners a direct experience of objects. We have found this approach successful in teaching novice programmers the concepts of objects, and in introducing

  17. Assessment of mutual understanding of physician patient encounters: development and validation of a mutual understanding scale (MUS) in a multicultural general practice setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. M. Harmsen; R. M. D. Bernsen; L. Meeuwesen; D. Pinto; M. A. Bruijnzeels

    2005-01-01

    Mutual understanding between physician and patient is essential for good quality of care; however, both parties have different views on health complaints and treatment. This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of mutual understanding (MU) in a multicultural setting.The study included 986 patients from 38 general practices. GPs completed a questionnaire and patients were interviewed after the consultation.

  18. University of British Columbia Workplace Safety Orientation Requirements

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Steven S.

    and young workers are significantly higher than for mature and experienced workers. In response. The orientation must be documented and signed off by the worker and the training records kept for possible review and a Personal Safety Checklist template for new workers to complete as part of their orientation. Note

  19. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  20. Characterization of actinobacteria associated with three ant-plant mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Hanshew, Alissa S; McDonald, Bradon R; Díaz Díaz, Carol; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Ant-plant mutualisms are conspicuous and ecologically important components of tropical ecosystems that remain largely unexplored in terms of insect-associated microbial communities. Recent work has revealed that ants in some ant-plant systems cultivate fungi (Chaetothyriales) within their domatia, which are fed to larvae. Using Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. from French Guiana and Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana and Crematogaster margaritae/Keetia hispida, both from Cameroon, as models, we tested the hypothesis that ant-plant-fungus mutualisms co-occur with culturable Actinobacteria. Using selective media, we isolated 861 putative Actinobacteria from the three systems. All C. margaritae/K. hispida samples had culturable Actinobacteria with a mean of 10.0 colony forming units (CFUs) per sample, while 26 % of P. penetrator/Tachigali samples (mean CFUs 1.3) and 67 % of P. phylax/L. africana samples (mean CFUs 3.6) yielded Actinobacteria. The largest number of CFUs was obtained from P. penetrator workers, P. phylax alates, and C. margaritae pupae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four main clades of Streptomyces and one clade of Nocardioides within these three ant-plant mutualisms. Streptomyces with antifungal properties were isolated from all three systems, suggesting that they could serve as protective symbionts, as found in other insects. In addition, a number of isolates from a clade of Streptomyces associated with P. phylax/L. africana and C. margaritae/K. hispida were capable of degrading cellulose, suggesting that Streptomyces in these systems may serve a nutritional role. Repeated isolation of particular clades of Actinobacteria from two geographically distant locations supports these isolates as residents in ant-plant-fungi niches. PMID:25096989

  1. Orientation-and frequency-modulated textures at low depths of modulation are processed by off-orientation

    E-print Network

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    Orientation- and frequency-modulated textures at low depths of modulation are processed by off-orientation and off-frequency texture mechanisms Nicolaas Prins *, Frederick A.A. Kingdom McGill Vision Research, Mc) and frequency-modulated (FM) textures are processed utilizing the first-order channels that are most responsive

  2. Reconstruction of the mutual coherence function for a moving source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic radiation of a randomly fluctuating source in motion is characterized analytically to determine the mutual coherence function (MCF). A far-field relation is derived via a series of invertible transformations, and a higher-dimension Radon transformation is performed to reconstruct the MCF; explicit formulas for computing the MCF from the transformed radiation data are provided. The technique is applied to the cases of an axisymmetric line source of finite extent moving at constant velocity along a line and a spatially incoherent line source. Applications to X-ray tomography and analysis of the noise emitted by a moving jet aircraft are suggested.

  3. Mutual replacement reactions in alkali feldspars I: microtextures and mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Parsons; Martin R. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Intracrystal microtextures formed by a process of mutual replacement in alkali feldspars record fluid–rock reactions that\\u000a have affected large volumes of the Earth’s crust. Regular, ?1 ?m-scale ‘strain-controlled’ perthitic microtextures coarsen,\\u000a by up to 103, by a dissolution–reprecipitation process, producing microporous patch or vein perthites on scales >100 ?m. We have developed\\u000a earlier studies of such reactions in alkali feldspar cm-scale primocrysts

  4. Synchronization and basin bifurcations in mutually coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Akinlade, O.

    2007-05-01

    Synchronization behaviour of two mutually coupled double-well Duffing oscillators exhibiting cross-well chaos is examined. Synchronization of the subsystems was observed for coupling strength k > 0.4. It is found that when the oscillators are operated in the regime for which two attractors coexist in phase space, basin bifurcation sequences occur leading to n+1, n ? 2 basins as the coupling is varied -- a signature of Wada structure and final-state sensitivity. However, in the region of complete synchronization, the basins structure is identical with that of the single oscillators and retains its essential features including fractal basin boundaries.

  5. Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E. (31 Portola Ct., Danville, CA 94506); Nelson, Drew V. (840 Cabot Ct., San Carlos, CA 94070)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

  6. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also not considered a mental disorder or abnormality. Despite myths and misconceptions, there is no evidence ... their sexual orientation secret, even from friends and family who might be supportive. It can take time ...

  7. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  8. Investigations in Orientation Behavior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jon C. Glase (Cornell University; )

    1992-01-01

    This resource is a manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in behavior and behavioral ecology, in which students have the opportunity to explore various aspects of orientation behavior in a variety of study organisms.

  9. Detection of Non-Random Galaxy Orientations in X-ray Subclusters of the Coma Cluster

    E-print Network

    M. G. Kitzbichler; W. Saurer

    2003-04-09

    This study on the Coma cluster suggests that there are deviations from a completely random galaxy orientation on small scales. Since we found a significant coincidence of hot-gas features identified in the latest X-ray observations of Coma with these local anisotropies, they may indicate regions of recent mutual interaction of member galaxies within subclusters which are currently falling in on the main cluster.

  10. UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of an on-line isotope separator and a dilution refrigerator has increased the applicability of the nuclear orientation technique to a wide range of nuclei, especially those very far from stability. The UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility (UNISOR/NOF) is among the two (the other being NICOLE at CERN) that have recently become operational. The following is an overall view of the UNISOR system and recent results. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  11. [Vulvoplethysmographic reaction in homosexually-oriented women].

    PubMed

    Tichý, P

    1990-09-21

    The author examined, using an electrocapacitance VPG apparatus, 50 women reporting homosexual orientation. The results were compared with a control group of 50 women volunteers who reported a defined heterosexual orientation and had no marked complaints and problems in their sexual life. The general vasomotor reactivity in response to erotic stimuli did not differ in the two groups of women (the number of recorded vasomotor reactions differed only insignificantly). During evaluation of the total number of positive reactions to heterosexual and homosexual categories of stimuli the difference between the two groups was highly significant (similarly as during evaluation of the number of positive reactions which were described as major reactions). Women of the homosexually oriented group responded as expected, significantly more frequently and more markedly to homosexual stimuli. As compared with the control group of heterosexually oriented women, they had a generally poorer capacity to differentiate between different categories of erotic stimuli and a lower reactivity during projection of slides of homosexual partnership activities than during projection of slides of homosexual objects (nudes). In all examined women of the control group an unequivocal heterosexual orientation was recorded, in the group of homosexual women a more or less defined homosexual orientation was confirmed. In both groups was a high correlation between the subjectively reported sexual orientation and the results of the VPG examination. The authors confirmed that it is possible to use electrocapacitance vulvoplethysmography as evidence of the homosexual orientation in women and that this psychophysiological examination method is relatively reliable in the diagnosis of female homosexuality. PMID:2224989

  12. Orientation selection in lamellar phases by oscillatory shears

    E-print Network

    Zhi-Feng Huang; Jorge Vinals

    2006-01-17

    In order to address the selection mechanism that is responsible for the unique lamellar orientation observed in block copolymers under oscillatory shears, we use a constitutive law for the dissipative part of the stress tensor that respects the uniaxial symmetry of a lamellar phase. An interface separating two domains oriented parallel and perpendicular to the shear is shown to be hydrodynamically unstable, a situation analogous to the thin layer instability of stratified fluids under shear. The resulting secondary flows break the degeneracy between parallel and perpendicular lamellar orientation, leading to a preferred perpendicular orientation in certain ranges of parameters of the polymer and of the shear.

  13. Tight data-robust bounds to mutual information combining shuffling and model selection techniques.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, M A; Senatore, R; Panzeri, S

    2007-11-01

    The estimation of the information carried by spike times is crucial for a quantitative understanding of brain function, but it is difficult because of an upward bias due to limited experimental sampling. We present new progress, based on two basic insights, on reducing the bias problem. First, we show that by means of a careful application of data-shuffling techniques, it is possible to cancel almost entirely the bias of the noise entropy, the most biased part of information. This procedure provides a new information estimator that is much less biased than the standard direct one and has similar variance. Second, we use a nonparametric test to determine whether all the information encoded by the spike train can be decoded assuming a low-dimensional response model. If this is the case, the complexity of response space can be fully captured by a small number of easily sampled parameters. Combining these two different procedures, we obtain a new class of precise estimators of information quantities, which can provide data-robust upper and lower bounds to the mutual information. These bounds are tight even when the number of trials per stimulus available is one order of magnitude smaller than the number of possible responses. The effectiveness and the usefulness of the methods are tested through applications to simulated data and recordings from somatosensory cortex. This application shows that even in the presence of strong correlations, our methods constrain precisely the amount of information encoded by real spike trains recorded in vivo. PMID:17883346

  14. NEW STUDENT ORIENTATION (NSO) 2015 ORIENTATION LEADER APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    NEW STUDENT ORIENTATION (NSO) 2015 ORIENTATION LEADER APPLICATION POSITION DESCRIPTION The Orientation Leader (OL) position provides students the unique leadership opportunity to officially welcome new representatives of the Office of New Student Orientation, the Division of Student Life, and the University

  15. Spatial orientation in weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements were used, including eye movements, postural control, perception of orientation, and susceptibility to space sickness.

  16. In situ control of As dimer orientation on Ge(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brueckner, Sebastian; Doescher, Henning [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Institut fuer Physik, Postfach 10 05 65, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Supplie, Oliver; Luczak, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Barrigon, Enrique; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kleinschmidt, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Institut fuer Physik, Postfach 10 05 65, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

    2012-09-17

    We investigated the preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces in a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor. In situ reflection anisotropy spectra (RAS) of vicinal substrates change when arsenic is supplied either by tertiarybutylarsine or by background As{sub 4} during annealing. Low energy electron diffraction shows mutually perpendicular orientations of dimers, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals distinct differences in the step structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms differences in the As coverage of the Ge(100):As samples. Their RAS signals consist of contributions related to As dimer orientation and to step structure, enabling precise in situ control over preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces.

  17. When the beat goes off: Mutually interacting complex systems

    E-print Network

    Holger Hennig

    2014-02-21

    While musical performances are determined by many factors such as the musical genre and interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction of two humans when playing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals (IBIs) of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other persons IBIs on time scales up to several minutes. A general stochastic model for Mutually Interacting Complex Systems (MICS) is introduced which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. In addition, The MICS model may be applicable to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series and collective behavior of animal flocks. The interdisciplinary study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the inter-brain level and leads directly to applications in audio engineering.

  18. Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep latency (MSLT) tests alternated throughout the day from patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. A group of 20 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60-s EEG windows in waking state. Measures obtained from cross-mutual information function (CMIF) and auto-mutual-information function (AMIF) were calculated in the EEG. These functions permitted a quantification of the complexity properties of the EEG signal and the non-linear couplings between different zones of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were found in ? band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). WDS group presented more complexity than EDS in the occipital zone, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between occipital and frontal zones was detected in EDS patients than in WDS. The AMIF and CMIF measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and AUC of ROC above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. PMID:25638417

  19. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

  20. Mutual learning and reverse innovation--where next?

    PubMed

    Crisp, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal's ongoing thematic series, "Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries" illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly "global innovation flow", although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

  1. Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.

    2012-01-01

    Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

  2. Discourses of student orientation to medical education programs

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Rachel H.; Cooper, Gerry; Al-Idrissi, Tracy; Dubé, Tim; Graves, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Although medical students’ initial orientation is an important point of transition in medical education, there is a paucity of literature on the subject and major variations in the ways that different institutions orient incoming medical students to their programs. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of medical education orientation in the literature and on data from a survey of peer institutions’ approaches to orientation. Results These two discourses of orientation had clear similarities, in particular, the critical role of ceremony and symbols, and the focus on developing professionalism and physician identities. There were also differences between them, in particular, in the way that the discourse in the literature focused on the symbolic and professional aspects of orientation; something we have called ‘cultural orientation’. Meanwhile, those who were responsible for orientation in their own institutions tended to focus on the practical and social dimensions. Conclusion By examining how orientation has been described and discussed, we identify three domains of orientation: cultural, social, and practical. These domains are relatively distinct in terms of the activities associated with them, and in terms of who is involved in organizing and running these activities. We also describe orientation as a liminal activity system on the threshold of medical school where incoming students initially cross into the profession. Interestingly, this state of ambiguity also extends to the scholarship of orientation with only some of its aspects attracting formal enquiry, even though there is a growing interest in transitions in medical education as a whole. We hope, therefore, that this study can help to legitimize enquiry into orientation in all its forms and that it can begin to situate the role of orientation more firmly within the firmament of medical education practice and research. PMID:24646440

  3. Density-dependent outcomes in a digestive mutualism between carnivorous Roridula plants and their associated hemipterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Anderson; Jeremy J. Midgley

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mutualisms often have variable outcomes in space and time. In particular, the outcomes may\\u000a be dependent on the density of the partners with unimodal or saturating outcomes providing stability to the mutualism. We\\u000a examine density-dependent outcomes of an obligate, species-specific mutualism between a South African carnivorous plant (Roridula dentata) and a hemipteran (Pameridea) that facilitates

  4. Mutual injection locking and coherent beam combining of two thulium doped fiber lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zhou; X. L. Wang; Y. X. Ma; K. Han; Z. J. Liu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate which we believe the first investigation on mutual injection-locking and coherent combining of two thulium-doped\\u000a fiber lasers. Mutual coherence between the two fiber lasers is established by means of mutual coupling through two 3 dB couplers.\\u000a High combining efficiency of 99% for two fiber laser has been obtained, and the fringe contrast of the intensity pattern at\\u000a the

  5. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence. PMID:24115661

  6. Cardinal rules: Visual orientation perception reflects knowledge of environmental statistics

    PubMed Central

    Girshick, Ahna R.; Landy, Michael S.; Simoncelli, Eero P.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are remarkably good at performing visual tasks, but experimental measurements reveal substantial biases in the perception of basic visual attributes. An appealing hypothesis is that these biases arise through a process of statistical inference, in which information from noisy measurements is fused with a probabilistic model of the environment. But such inference is optimal only if the observer’s internal model matches the environment. Here, we provide evidence that this is the case. We measured performance in an orientation-estimation task, demonstrating the well-known fact that orientation judgements are more accurate at cardinal (horizontal and vertical) orientations, along with a new observation that judgements made under conditions of uncertainty are strongly biased toward cardinal orientations. We estimate observers’ internal models for orientation and find that they match the local orientation distribution measured in photographs. We also show how a neural population could embed probabilistic information responsible for such biases. PMID:21642976

  7. Network Orientation Gerard Tel \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Network Orientation Gerard Tel \\Lambda Department of Computer Science, University of Utrecht, P orientation problem. The orientation of cliques, hypercubes and tori is the problem of assigning labels. In this paper the prob­ lem of network orientation for these two topologies is studied under the assumption

  8. On the Orientability of Shapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jovisa D. Zunic; Paul L. Rosin; Lazar Kopanja

    2006-01-01

    The orientation of a shape is a useful quantity, and has been shown to affect performance of object recognition in the human visual system. Shape orientation has also been used in computer vision to provide a properly oriented frame of reference, which can aid recognition. However, for certain shapes, the standard moment-based method of orientation estimation fails. We introduce as

  9. Inter Individual Variations of the Fish Skin Microbiota: Host Genetics Basis of Mutualism?

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    strain Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the non-pathogenic strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum explained Flavobacterium and Methylobacterium, suggesting a mutually competitive relationship. Finally, after considering

  10. Spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuko; Yakushin, Sergei B; Dai, Mingjia; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Cohen, Bernard

    2002-04-01

    The spatial orientation of the slow-phase eye velocity of caloric nystagmus was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys after all six semicircular canals had been plugged. Normal animals generate responses that have dominant convective components produced by movement of the endolymph in the lateral canal toward or away from gravity. As a result, the direction of horizontal slow-phase velocity induced by cold-water irrigation changes direction with changes in head position with regard to gravity. Plugging produced a dense overgrowth of bone that blocked the flow of endolymph, but the end organs were intact. Robust caloric nystagmus was elicited after recovery, but the horizontal (yaw) component was now always toward the stimulated (ipsilateral) side, regardless of head position re gravity. The induced caloric nystagmus had strong spatial orientation properties after canal plugging. With animals upright, the three-dimensional velocity vector of the caloric nystagmus was close to the yaw axis with small vertical and roll components. Roll components became stronger in supine and prone positions and vertical components were enhanced in the right- and left-side down positions. In each instance, the addition of the roll and vertical components moved the velocity vector of the nystagmus closer to the spatial vertical. Modeling supported the postulate that the caloric nystagmus after canal plugging is influenced by three factors: (1) a reduction in neural activity in the ampullary nerves on the stimulated side due to cooling of the nerves; (2) contraction of the endolymph in the closed space between the cupula and the plug due to cooling, which resulted in deflection of the cupula and hair cells toward the plug (ampullofugal deflection); and (3) alignment of eye velocity to gravity due to the orientation properties of velocity storage. Although convection is the most prominent factor in producing caloric responses in the normal state, our results suggest that alteration of nerve activity due to thermal effects, endolymph contraction or expansion, and velocity storage are also likely to contribute to the total response. PMID:11960804

  11. The Orients of Gertrude Stein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Nock-Hee Park

    2009-01-01

    “The Orients of Gertrude Stein” reads two well-known texts by Stein in which the Orient makes a significant appearance: Stein’s portrait-poem “Susie Asado” (1913) and her opera Four Saints in Three Acts (written in 1927). The first case features an intimate, eroticized Orient at its heart, while the second presents an astonishing moment of Oriental exclusion: the Orient is both

  12. Rearrangement of microtubule polarity orientation during conversion of dendrites to axons in cultured pyramidal neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Takahashi; Wenqian Yu; Peter W. Baas; Rika Kawai-Hirai; Kensuke Hayashi

    2007-01-01

    Axons and dendrites of neurons differ in the polarity orientation of their microtu- bules. Whereas the polarity orientation of microtubules in axons is uniform, with all plus ends distal, that in dendrites is nonuniform. The mechanisms responsible for establishment and maintenance of microtubule polarity orientation in neuronal proc- esses remain unclear, however. We previously described a culture system in which

  13. Heterospecific call recognition and phonotaxis in the orientation behavior of the marbled newt, Triturus marmoratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Javier Diego-Rasilla; Rosa M. Luengo

    2004-01-01

    The role of acoustic cues as reference cues for orientation by amphibians has been demonstrated in anurans, the only amphibian group that engages in acoustic communication, but not in urodeles. Orientation responses of marbled newts, Triturus marmoratus, were studied to determine whether heterospecific calls elicited positive phonotaxis. The orientation tests consisted in presenting either a familiar acoustic stimulus, the advertisement

  14. Thermal deformations of oriented noncrystalline poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers in the presence of mesophase structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Kahk Keum; Hyun Hoon Song

    2005-01-01

    Thermally induced dimensional changes, thermal shrinkage and elongation, in oriented noncrystalline PET fibers were investigated. The fibers exhibited two very distinct thermal responses depending on the fiber orientation. The local structure of the oriented noncrystalline PET chains as studied by the X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy revealed the mesophase structure with the well extended chain conformation in some fibers of

  15. Input Supply System and Services for Market-oriented Livestock Production in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azage Tegegne; Berhanu Gebremedhin; Dirk Hoekstra

    Livestock production in Ethiopia has, for long, remained subsistence with limited market- orientation and poor institutional support. Farmers and pastoralists produce and keep animals for various valid reasons, with little market-orientation. However, producing for the market requires re-orientation of the production system and development of a knowledge based and responsive institutional support services. Institutional support services of extension, research, input

  16. Fuzzy logic enhanced speed control of an indirect field-oriented induction machine drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Heber; Longya Xu; Yifan Tang

    1997-01-01

    Field orientation control (FOC) of induction machines has permitted fast transient response by decoupled torque and flux control. However, field orientation detuning caused by parameter variations is a major difficulty for indirect FOC methods. Traditional probability density function (PID) controllers have trouble meeting a wide range of speed tracking performance even when proper field orientation is achieved. PID controller performance

  17. The Oriented Graph Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willwacher, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The oriented graph complexes are complexes of directed graphs without directed cycles. They govern, for example, the quantization of Lie bialgebras and infinite dimensional deformation quantization. Similar to the ordinary graph complexes GC n introduced by Kontsevich they come in two essentially different versions, depending on the parity of n. It is shown that, surprisingly, the oriented graph complex is quasi-isomorphic to the ordinary commutative graph complex of opposite parity GC n-1, up to some known classes. This yields in particular a combinatorial description of the action of on Lie bialgebras, and shows that a cycle-free formality morphism in the sense of Shoikhet can be constructed rationally without reference to configuration space integrals. Curiously, the obstruction class in the oriented graph complex found by Shoikhet corresponds to the well known theta graph in the ordinary graph complex.

  18. Peer pressure: enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment. PMID:25768472

  19. Lactobacilli-Host mutualism: "learning on the fly"

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metazoans establish with microorganisms complex interactions for their mutual benefits. Drosophila, which has already proven useful host model to study several aspects of innate immunity and host-bacteria pathogenic associations has become a powerful model to dissect the mechanisms behind mutualistic host-microbe interactions. Drosophila microbiota is composed of simple and aerotolerant bacterial communities mostly composed of Lactobacillaceae and Acetobactereaceae. Drosophila mono- or poly-associated with lactobacilli strains constitutes a powerful model to dissect the complex interplay between lactobacilli and host biologic traits. Thanks to the genetic tractability of both Drosophila and lactobacilli this association model offers a great opportunity to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we review our current knowledge about how the Drosophila model is helping our understanding of how lactobacilli shapes host biology. PMID:25186369

  20. Application of Mutual Information Methods in Time-Distance Helioseismology

    E-print Network

    Keys, Dustin; Pevtsov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We apply a new technique, the mutual information (MI) from information theory, to time-distance helioseismology, and demonstrate that it can successfully reproduce several classic results based on the widely used cross-covariance method. MI quantifies the deviation of two random variables from complete independence, and represents a more general method for detecting dependencies in time series than the cross-covariance function, which only detects linear relationships. We provide a brief description of the MI-based technique and discuss the results of the application of MI to derive the solar differential profile, a travel-time deviation map for a sunspot and a time-distance diagram from quiet Sun measurements.

  1. The body-size dependence of mutual interference

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The parameters that drive population dynamics typically show a relationship with body size. By contrast, there is no theoretical or empirical support for a body-size dependence of mutual interference, which links foraging rates to consumer density. Here, I develop a model to predict that interference may be positively or negatively related to body size depending on how resource body size scales with consumer body size. Over a wide range of body sizes, however, the model predicts that interference will be body-size independent. This prediction was supported by a new dataset on interference and consumer body size. The stabilizing effect of intermediate interference therefore appears to be roughly constant across size, while the effect of body size on population dynamics is mediated through other parameters. PMID:24919702

  2. Efficient algorithm to compute mutually connected components in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S.; Choi, S.; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, B.

    2015-02-01

    Mutually connected components (MCCs) play an important role as a measure of resilience in the study of interdependent networks. Despite their importance, an efficient algorithm to obtain the statistics of all MCCs during the removal of links has thus far been absent. Here, using a well-known fully dynamic graph algorithm, we propose an efficient algorithm to accomplish this task. We show that the time complexity of this algorithm is approximately O (N1.2) for random graphs, which is more efficient than O (N2) of the brute-force algorithm. We confirm the correctness of our algorithm by comparing the behavior of the order parameter as links are removed with existing results for three types of double-layer multiplex networks. We anticipate that this algorithm will be used for simulations of large-size systems that have been previously inaccessible.

  3. Orbital Evolution in Resonance Lock. II. Two Mutually Perturbing Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. S.

    1998-08-01

    I investigate the orbital evolution of two mutually perturbing bodies affected by nonconservative forces and locked in a mean motion resonance. This is a generalization of a previous work for the restricted three-body problem. General equations constraining the secular variations of the semimajor axes, eccentricities, and inclinations of both bodies are deduced. For well-separated resonances, specific variations for any orbital element can be computed. The theory is applied to the tidal evolution of natural satellites in resonance lock, where the equations are validated through an example for a specific librating angle. Tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites in their present and possible past resonance configurations is revisited. Some results obtained by Yoder & Peale are reproduced, thus further validating the method.

  4. Color filter arrays based on mutually exclusive blue noise patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei A.; Parker, Kevin J.; Kriss, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    The ordered color filter arrays (CFA) used in single sensor, color digital still cameras introduce distracting color artifacts. These artifacts are due to the phase shifted, aliased signals introduced by the sparse sampling by the CFAs. This work reports the results of an investigation on the possibility of using random patterns as a CFA for single sensor, digital still cameras. From a single blue noise mask pattern, three mutually exclusive, random CFAs are constructed representing the red, green, and blue color filters. An edge adaptive method consisting of missing-pixel edge detection and boundary sensitive interpolation is employed to reconstruct the entire image. Experiments have shown that the random CFA alleviates the problem of the low-frequency color banding associated with ordered arrays. This method also has the advantage of better preserving color free, sharp neutral edges, and results in less deviation from neutral on high frequency, monochrome information.

  5. Mutuality and solidarity: assessing risks and sharing losses.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, D

    1997-01-01

    Mutuality is the principle of private, commercial insurance; individuals enter the pool for sharing losses, and pay according to the best estimate of the risk they bring with them. Solidarity is the sharing of losses with payment according to some other scheme; this is the principle of state social insurance; essential features of solidarity are comprehensiveness and compulsion. Private insurance is subject to the uberrima fides principle, or utmost good faith; each side declares all it knows about the risk. The Disability Discrimination Act requires insurers to justify disability discrimination on the basis of relevant information, acturial, statistical or medical, on which it is reasonable to rely. It could be very damaging to private insurance to abandon uberrima fides. However, although some genetic information is clearly useful to underwriters, other information may be so general as to be of little use. The way in which mortality rates are assessed is also explained. PMID:9304668

  6. PAKE-based mutual HTTP authentication for preventing phishing attacks

    E-print Network

    Oiwa, Yutaka; Takagi, Hiromitsu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new password-based mutual authentication protocol for Web systems which prevents various kinds of phishing attacks. This protocol provides a protection of user's passwords against any phishers even if dictionary attack is employed, and prevents phishers from imitating a false sense of successful authentication to users. The protocol is designed considering interoperability with many recent Web applications which requires many features which current HTTP authentication does not provide. The protocol is proposed as an Internet Draft submitted to IETF, and implemented in both server side (as an Apache extension) and client side (as a Mozilla-based browser and an IE-based one). The paper also proposes a new user-interface for this protocol which is always distinguishable from fake dialogs provided by phishers.

  7. Orienteering and Rogaining Server

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Orienteering and Rogaining WWW Server is now on-line with information on clubs and federations from around the world, including schedules, results, maps and people to contact for more information. Orienteering is the use of a highly detailed map and a compass to find one's way through unknown surroundings and, if done competitively, in the least possible time. Rogaining is the sport of long distance cross-country navigation in which teams of two to five members, on foot using map and compass, visit as many checkpoints as possible in up to twenty-four hours.

  8. Topography and pigeon orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G.

    1972-01-01

    Two types of homing experiments with pigeons to determine the influence of topographical features on the orientation behavior of the birds are discussed. The releases and following were conducted by ground experiments in which the birds are tracked by visual observation at points of topographical interest and the helicopter method by which the birds are tracked throughout the entire flight. The ground experiments showed a strong influence of topographical features on initial orientation. The helicopter experiments showed that the ground experiments do not provide adequate information on the manner in which homing occurs.

  9. Mutual Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities responsible for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the mutual information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the mutual information of RMCAB. As expected, it was found that the stations with average concentrations close to the network mean tend to have larger mutual information, whereas stations with atypical values share less information. The degree of dispersion around the mean of the RMCAB measurements does not exhibit a strong correlation with the tendencies observed for the mutual information. In general, the stations around the geographical center of Bogota or close to areas of large emissions, i.e. industrial areas, share the most information, while the stations located on the city outskirts are particularly singular. This degree of correlation as well as its underlying variables provides an approach to identifying the distribution of the pollutants over the city, which in turn gives insight into the spatial influence on monitoring networks. Moreover, it has the potential to contribute to the reconfiguration of existing networks in order to both improve their influence and optimize operational costs. Finally, the results of this method shall be compared with those obtained by diagnostic atmospheric dispersion models in order to improve our understanding of the pollution phenomena and to reduce uncertainties. This is an ongoing research topic.

  10. Solvation of polymers as mutual association. I. General theory.

    PubMed

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-04-28

    A Flory-Huggins (FH) type lattice theory of self-assembly is generalized to describe the equilibrium solvation of long polymer chains B by small solvent molecules A. Solvation is modeled as a thermally reversible mutual association between the polymer and a relatively low molar mass solvent. The FH Helmholtz free energy F is derived for a mixture composed of the A and B species and the various possible mutual association complexes AiB, and F is then used to generate expressions for basic thermodynamic properties of solvated polymer solutions, including the size distribution of the solvated clusters, the fraction of solvent molecules contained in solvated states (an order parameter for solvation), the specific heat (which exhibits a maximum at the solvation transition), the second and the third osmotic virial coefficients, and the boundaries for phase stability of the mixture. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the "entropic" contribution ?(s) to the FH interaction parameter ? of polymer solutions, both with and without associative interactions. The entropic ?(s) parameter arises from correlations associated with polymer chain connectivity and disparities in molecular structure between the components of the mixture. Our analysis provides the first explanation of the longstanding enigma of why ?(s) for polymer solutions significantly exceeds ?(s) for binary polymer blends. Our calculations also reveal that ?(s) becomes temperature dependent when interactions are strong, in sharp contrast to models currently being used for fitting thermodynamic data of associating polymer-solvent mixtures, where ?(s) is simply assumed to be an adjustable constant based on experience with solutions of homopolymers in nonassociating solvents. PMID:23635165

  11. Solvation of polymers as mutual association. I. General theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2013-04-01

    A Flory-Huggins (FH) type lattice theory of self-assembly is generalized to describe the equilibrium solvation of long polymer chains B by small solvent molecules A. Solvation is modeled as a thermally reversible mutual association between the polymer and a relatively low molar mass solvent. The FH Helmholtz free energy F is derived for a mixture composed of the A and B species and the various possible mutual association complexes AiB, and F is then used to generate expressions for basic thermodynamic properties of solvated polymer solutions, including the size distribution of the solvated clusters, the fraction of solvent molecules contained in solvated states (an order parameter for solvation), the specific heat (which exhibits a maximum at the solvation transition), the second and the third osmotic virial coefficients, and the boundaries for phase stability of the mixture. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the "entropic" contribution ?s to the FH interaction parameter ? of polymer solutions, both with and without associative interactions. The entropic ?s parameter arises from correlations associated with polymer chain connectivity and disparities in molecular structure between the components of the mixture. Our analysis provides the first explanation of the longstanding enigma of why ?s for polymer solutions significantly exceeds ?s for binary polymer blends. Our calculations also reveal that ?s becomes temperature dependent when interactions are strong, in sharp contrast to models currently being used for fitting thermodynamic data of associating polymer-solvent mixtures, where ?s is simply assumed to be an adjustable constant based on experience with solutions of homopolymers in nonassociating solvents.

  12. A novel plant-fungal mutualism associated with fire.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Melissa; Newcombe, George; Dixon, Linley; Castlebury, Lisa; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Bromus tectorum, or cheatgrass, is native to Eurasia and widely invasive in western North America. By late spring, this annual plant has dispersed its seed and died; its aboveground biomass then becomes fine fuel that burns as frequently as once every 3-5 y in its invaded range. Cheatgrass has proven to be better adapted to fire there than many competing plants, but the contribution of its fungal symbionts to this adaptation had not previously been studied. In sampling cheatgrass endophytes, many fire-associated fungi were found, including Morchella in three western states (New Mexico, Idaho, and Washington). In greenhouse experiments, a New Mexico isolate of Morchella increased both the biomass and fecundity of its local cheatgrass population, thus simultaneously increasing both the probability of fire and survival of that event, via more fuel and a greater, belowground seed bank, respectively. Re-isolation efforts proved that Morchella could infect cheatgrass roots in a non-mycorrhizal manner and then grow up into aboveground tissues. The same Morchella isolate also increased survival of seed exposed to heat typical of that which develops in the seed bank during a cheatgrass fire. Phylogenetic analysis of Eurasian and North American Morchella revealed that this fire-associated mutualism was evolutionarily novel, in that cheatgrass isolates belonged to two phylogenetically distinct species, or phylotypes, designated Mel-6 and Mel-12 whose evolutionary origin appears to be within western North America. Mutualisms with fire-associated fungi may be contributing to the cheatgrass invasion of western North America. PMID:22208608

  13. Induced lateral orientation and persuasibility.

    PubMed

    Drake, R A; Bingham, B R

    1985-04-01

    It was hypothesized from three different lines of evidence that relative activation of the left cerebral hemisphere of right-handers would increase resistance to a persuasive message as compared to relative activation of the right hemisphere. An experiment was performed using 22 subjects who heard the counterattitudinal message in only one ear and filled in response measures while their body was turned toward that same side. Subjects who listened and turned toward the left agreed more with the views of the message (p less than .05) and produced more thought favorable to the message (p less than .05) than those induced to orient rightward. It was concluded that these results may be due to asymmetries in selective attention, counterarguing, consistency, self-awareness, and perseveration between the cerebral hemispheres of the normal human brain. PMID:4015872

  14. Flower visitors and pollination in the Oriental (Indomalayan) Region.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Richard T

    2004-08-01

    Current knowledge of flower visitors and pollination in the Oriental Region is summarised. Much less is known about pollination than seed dispersal and the coverage of habitats and taxa in the region is very uneven. The available evidence suggests that pollination in lowland forests is dominated by highly social bees (mainly Trigona and Apis species), with beetles probably the next most important group, followed by other bees and flies. In comparison with the better-studied Neotropics, large solitary bees, moths, Lepidoptera and vertebrates are relatively less important. These differences are greatest in the canopy of the lowland dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia, where they probably reflect the unique temporal pattern of floral resource availability resulting from 'general flowering' at supra-annual intervals. Apis bees (but not Trigona species) are also important in most montane, subtropical and non-forest habitats. Apart from the figs (Ficus spp.), there are few well-documented examples of plant species visited by a single potential pollinator and most plant-pollinator relationships in the region appear to be relatively generalised. The small sizes of most pollinators and the absence of direct human exploitation probably make pollination mutualisms less vulnerable to failure as a result of human impacts than dispersal mutualisms, but more subtle impacts, as a result of altered gene flows, are likely to be widespread. On current evidence, pollination systems in the Oriental Region do not require any specific conservation action, but this review reinforces arguments for making the preservation (or restoration) of habitat connectivity the major focus of Oriental conservation. PMID:15366761

  15. Adverse Information and Mutual Fund Runs* Meijun Qian and A. Basak Tanyeri

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    .S. over market-timing and late-trading practices, we find that runs start as early as six months before analysis suggests that a pro-rata ownership design is not sufficient to prevent runs in mutual funds. Keywords: Adverse event, mutual fund flows, runs, and returns JEL classification code: G23 G14 Meijun Qian

  16. Conceptualising Hy-Bivalent Subjectivities to Facilitate an Examination of Australian Government Mutual Obligations Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the work of feminist theorists Valerie Walkerdine, Helen Lucey and June Melody, Beverly Skeggs, and Nancy Fraser were used together to examine the lived effects of Australian government Mutual Obligations policies. As "active" welfare policies, Mutual Obligations construct particular relations between themselves and…

  17. Performance of mutual information similarity measure for registration of multitemporal remote sensing images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Mei Chen; Pramod K. Varshney; Manoj K. Arora

    2003-01-01

    Accurate registration of multitemporal remote sensing images is essential for various change detection applications. Mutual information has recently been used as a similarity measure for registration of medical images because of its generality and high accuracy. Its application in remote sensing is relatively new. There are a number of algorithms for the estimation of joint histograms to compute mutual information,

  18. Rotor position sensing in switched reluctance motor drives by measuring mutually induced voltages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqbal Husain; Mehrdad Ehsani

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of indirect rotor position sensing for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. The principle is based on measuring the mutually induced voltage in an inactive phase which is either adjacent or opposite to the energized phase of an SRM. The mutual voltage in the “off” phase, induced due to the current in the active phase,

  19. A switched reluctance motor model with mutual coupling and multi-phase excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Preston; J. P. Lyons

    1991-01-01

    A novel switched reluctance motor (SRM) magnetic equivalent circuit model with mutual coupling and multiphase excitation is presented which successfully predicts the magnetic behavior of an SRM with multiple phase at a time excitation. The model is new in that it spreads the saturable elements throughout the machine rather than at the tooth tips. This allows the dominant mutual coupling

  20. Feature Evaluation using QuadraticMutual Information Dongming Xu and Jose C .Principe,Fellow, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Feature Evaluation using QuadraticMutual Information Dongming Xu and Jose C .Principe,Fellow, IEEE quadratic mutual information (QMI)forfeature evaluation. The concept of information potential leads and cross information potential (CIP)[4]. 2 Feature evaluation 2.1 Evaluation functions Given a set of M

  1. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c...Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions...

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c...Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions...

  3. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c...Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions...

  4. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c...Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions...

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c...Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions...

  6. Mutualism and asexual reproduction influence recognition genes in a fungal symbiont

    E-print Network

    Mutualism and asexual reproduction influence recognition genes in a fungal symbiont Magriet A. VAN a b s t r a c t Mutualism between microbes and insects is common and alignment of the reproductive interests of microbial symbionts with this lifestyle typically involves clonal reproduction and vertical

  7. On the Fluctuation of Mutual Information in Double Scattering MIMO Channels

    E-print Network

    Müller, Ralf R.

    since MIMO is seen as the most credible way to increase link level capacity. Extensive works haveOn the Fluctuation of Mutual Information in Double Scattering MIMO Channels Zhong Zheng, Lu Wei-scattering MIMO channels. Based on techniques from free probability theory, the asymptotic variance of the mutual

  8. On the Fluctuation of Mutual Information in Double Scattering MIMO Channels

    E-print Network

    Müller, Ralf R.

    since MIMO is seen as the most credible way to increase link level capacity. Extensive works haveOn the Fluctuation of Mutual Information in Double Scattering MIMO Channels Zhong Zheng # , Lu Wei­scattering MIMO channels. Based on techniques from free probability theory, the asymptotic variance of the mutual

  9. A novel approach to control of switched reluctance motors considering mutual inductance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Kyung Bae; R. Krishnan

    2000-01-01

    Torque control algorithms for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives, hitherto have neglected mutual coupling between phases. Significant torque ripple in the magnitude of 6 to 10% is contributed by the mutual coupling effects of the phase windings. That is an unacceptable magnitude of torque ripple in high performance SRM drive systems. A novel torque control algorithm, which adopts simultaneous excitation

  10. Can Mutual Fund Managers Pick Stocks? Evidence From Their Trades Prior to Earnings Announcements

    E-print Network

    Kahana, Michael J.

    Can Mutual Fund Managers Pick Stocks? Evidence From Their Trades Prior to Earnings Announcements measures of trading skill based on how the stocks held and traded by fund managers perform at subsequent research finds that the stocks that mutual fund managers buy outperform the stocks that they sell (e

  11. Home Bias, Foreign Mutual Fund Holdings, and the Voluntary Adoption of International Accounting Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VICENTIU M. COVRIG; MARK L. DEFOND; MINGYI HUNG

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe test the assertion that a consequence of voluntarily adopting International Accounting Standards (IAS) is the enhanced ability to attract foreign capital. Using a unique database that reports firm-level holdings of over 25,000 mutual funds from around the world, our multivariate tests find that average foreign mutual fund ownership is significantly higher among IAS adopters. We also find that IAS

  12. JAG-196; No of Pages 7 Classification of radio elements using mutual information

    E-print Network

    Phoha, Vir V.

    : Kumar, P.T.K., et al., Classification of radio elements using mutual information: A tool for geological+ Models JAG-196; No of Pages 7 Classification of radio elements using mutual information: A tool for geological mapping P.T. Krishna Kumar a,*, V.V. Phoha c , S.S. Iyengar b,1 a Room No: 114, Central Design

  13. Conflicting selection in the course of adaptive diversification: the interplay between mutualism and intraspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Rafael L G; Gibert, Jean P; Hembry, David H; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2014-03-01

    Adaptive speciation can occur when a population undergoes assortative mating and disruptive selection caused by frequency-dependent intraspecific competition. However, other interactions, such as mutualisms based on trait matching, may generate conflicting selective pressures that constrain species diversification. We used individual-based simulations to explore how different types of mutualism affect adaptive diversification. A magic trait was assumed to simultaneously mediate mate choice, intraspecific competition, and mutualisms. In scenarios of intimate, specialized mutualisms, individuals interact with one or few individual mutualistic partners, and diversification is constrained only if the mutualism is obligate. In other scenarios, increasing numbers of different partners per individual limit diversification by generating stabilizing selection. Stabilizing selection emerges from the greater likelihood of trait mismatches for rare, extreme phenotypes than for common intermediate phenotypes. Constraints on diversification imposed by increased numbers of partners decrease if the trait matching degree has smaller positive effects on fitness. These results hold after the relaxation of various assumptions. When trait matching matters, mutualism-generated stabilizing selection would thus often constrain diversification in obligate mutualisms, such as ant-myrmecophyte associations, and in low-intimacy mutualisms, including plant-seed disperser systems. Hence, different processes, such as trait convergence favoring the incorporation of nonrelated species, are needed to explain the higher richness of low-intimacy assemblages--shown here to be up to 1 order of magnitude richer than high-intimacy systems. PMID:24561599

  14. Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

  15. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters Anna K. Simonsen1

    E-print Network

    Stinchcombe, John

    Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters Anna K. Simonsen1 and John R hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context- dependent. Exploitative

  16. Evidence for a Form of Mutual Exclusivity During Label Acquisition by Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus )?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene M. Pepperberg; Sarah E. Wilcox

    2000-01-01

    The authors present context-dependent evidence for a form of mutual exclusivity during label learning by Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). For human children, mutual exclusivity refers to their assumption during early word learning that an object has one and only one label. Along with the whole-object assumption (that a label likely refers to an entire object rather than some partial aspect),

  17. Development of Anthropomorphic Multi-D.O.F. Master-Slave Arm for Mutual Telexistence

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    Development of Anthropomorphic Multi-D.O.F. Master-Slave Arm for Mutual Telexistence Riichiro--We developed a robotic arm for a master-slave system to support "mutual telexistence," which realizes remote. In this paper, we describe the specifications of the experimental setup of the master-slave arm to demonstrate

  18. MUTUAL INFORMATION RELEVANCE NETWORKS: FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC CLUSTERING USING PAIRWISE ENTROPY MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. BUTTE; I. S. KOHANE

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of methodologies are available to find functional genomic clusters in RNA expression data. We describe a technique that computes comprehensive pair-wise mutual information for all genes in such a data set. An association with a high mutual information means that one gene is non-randomly associated with another; we hypothesize this means the two are related biologically. By picking

  19. 2001-2002 NATIONAL SURVEY OF MENTAL HEALTH MUTUAL SUPPORT GROUPS AND SELF HELP ORGANIZATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the Mutual Support/Self-Help Survey are to provide a national estimate of the number of mutual support groups, self-help organizations, and businesses and services run by and for consumers and/or their family members and to describe their structure, types of activiti...

  20. Effect of mutual coupling on the performance of GPS AJ antennas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadir A. Griffith; Inder J. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effects of mutual coupling on the performance of GPS anti-jam (AJ) antennas. The physical size of the antenna is decreased while keeping the number of antenna elements fixed. It is shown that for a given distribution of antenna elements, the mutual coupling hardly degrades the nulling performance of an antenna array. For CW interfering