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1

Mother-child mutually responsive orientation and conscience development: from toddler to early school age.  

PubMed

We examined whether positive implications of mother-child mutually responsive orientation, demonstrated earlier at toddler and preschool age, extend longitudinally into early school age. The focus of the present study was on the long-term consequences of mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience. Mutually responsive orientation encompassed shared cooperation and shared positive affect between mother and child. It was measured as a composite of those qualities observed in dyadic naturalistic interactions and reported by mothers, at toddler and preschool age. Children's conscience was assessed at early school age (N = 83) using multiple measures, including observations of moral behavior, alone and in the peer context, and moral cognition. Mother-child mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's future conscience, even after controlling for the developmental continuity of conscience. Model-fitting analyses revealed that mutually responsive orientation at toddler age had a direct effect on future conscience, not mediated by such orientation at preschool age. The findings extend those of earlier work that revealed the importance of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for socialization, and they confirm the value of the relationship approach to social development, including long-term outcomes. PMID:10834474

Kochanska, G; Murray, K T

2000-01-01

2

Mutual Aid Agreements: Essential Legal Tools for Public Health Preparedness and Response  

PubMed Central

Mutual aid is the sharing of supplies, equipment, personnel, and information across political boundaries. States must have agreements in place to ensure mutual aid to facilitate effective responses to public health emergencies and to detect and control potential infectious disease outbreaks. The 2005 hurricanes triggered activation of the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), a mutual aid agreement among the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. Although EMAC facilitated the movement of an unprecedented amount of mutual aid to disaster areas, inadequacies in the response demonstrated a need for improvement. Mutual aid may also be beneficial in circumstances where EMAC is not activated. We discuss the importance of mutual aid, examine obstacles, and identify legal “gaps” that must be filled to strengthen preparedness. PMID:17413085

Stier, Daniel D.; Goodman, Richard A.

2007-01-01

3

Evolution of plant–pollinator mutualisms in response to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change has the potential to desynchronize the phenologies of interdependent species, with potentially catastrophic effects on mutualist populations. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plant–pollinator mutualism under climate change. How the populations evolve, and thus whether the populations and the mutualism persist, depends not only on the rate of climate change but also on the densities and phenologies of other species in the community. Abundant alternative mutualist partners with broad temporal distributions can make a mutualism more robust to climate change, while abundant alternative partners with narrow temporal distributions can make a mutualism less robust. How community composition and the rate of climate change affect the persistence of mutualisms is mediated by two-species Allee thresholds. Understanding these thresholds will help researchers to identify those mutualisms at highest risk owing to climate change. PMID:25568025

Gilman, R Tucker; Fabina, Nicholas S; Abbott, Karen C; Rafferty, Nicole E

2012-01-01

4

The architecture of interdependent minds: A Motivation-management theory of mutual responsiveness.  

PubMed

A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the interpersonal mind to function in ways that coordinate trust and commitment across partners. The authors describe a system of procedural or "if... then" rules that foster mutuality in responsiveness by informing and motivating trust and commitment. The authors further argue that tuning rule accessibility and enactment to match the situations encountered in a specific relationship shapes its personality. By imposing a procedural structure on the interdependent mind, the proposed model of mutual responsiveness reframes interdependence theory and generates important research questions for the future. PMID:19839690

Murray, Sandra L; Holmes, John G

2009-10-01

5

The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the…

Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

2009-01-01

6

Overt responses during covert orienting.  

PubMed

A distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain areas controls our oculomotor behavior. This network includes the superior colliculus (SC), which coordinates an ancient visual grasp reflex via outputs that ramify widely within the brainstem and spinal cord, accessing saccadic and other premotor and autonomic circuits. In this Review, we discuss recent results correlating subliminal SC activity in the absence of saccades with diverse components of the visual grasp reflex, including neck and limb muscle recruitment, pupil dilation, and microsaccade propensity. Such subtle manifestations of covert orienting are accessible in the motor periphery and may provide the next generation of oculomotor biomarkers in health and disease. PMID:24945769

Corneil, Brian D; Munoz, Douglas P

2014-06-18

7

The orienting response in schizophrenia and mania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined skin conductance (SCR) and finger pulse amplitude response (PULSE) in 53 schizophrenic, 30 manic, and 28 control subjects to provide information on orienting response (OR) dysfunction in severe psychiatric disorders. SCR and PULSE to neutral and task-relevant tones were measured in acutely ill inpatients and normal control subjects on two occasions separated by a 3-week interval. There were

David B. Schnur; Scott Smith; Adam Smith; Venecia Marte; Elizabeth Horwitz; Harold A. Sackeim; Sukdeb Mukherjee; Alvin S. Bernstein

1999-01-01

8

What matters for socially responsible investment (SRI) in the natural resources sectors? SRI mutual funds and forestry in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially responsible investment mutual funds have played an active role in encouraging sustainability in the natural resources sectors, particularly in North America's forest industry which tends to be reactive in adopting sustainable practices. A survey of socially responsible investment mutual funds in Canada and the US was first undertaken in 2006 and then replicated in 2010–11 to understand the implications

William Nikolakis; David H. Cohen; Harry W. Nelson

2012-01-01

9

Levisohn's Orientations: A Response from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn has made a significant contribution to the scholarship of teaching in his article proposing that the teaching of rabbinic literature is most successfully accomplished when teachers think about…

Lehman, Marjorie

2010-01-01

10

Influence of the surface crack concentration and crack orientation in concrete subjected to a pulsed mechanical action on the electrical response parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A correlation between the parameters of an electrical response to an elastic impact excitation of sand-cement samples and the surface crack concentration is studied. It is found that as the crack concentration grows, the damping coefficient of the electrical signal spectral energy linearly increases irrespective of the mutual orientation of the cracks.

Fursa, T. V.; Dann, D. D.; Demikhova, A. A.

2014-12-01

11

Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background  

PubMed Central

Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

2012-01-01

12

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

2011-01-01

13

Buckling response of laminates with spatially varying fiber orientations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buckling response of a symmetrically laminated composite panel with a spatially varying fiber orientation has been analyzed. Variation of the fiber orientation angle as a function of the position in the panel results in a composite laminate with stiffness properties that are functions of the panel coordinates. The laminates are therefore termed variable stiffness panels. The fiber orientation is assumed to vary only in one spatial direction, although the analysis can be extended to fiber orientations that vary in two spatial directions. The Ritz Method has been used to find the buckling loads and buckling modes for the variable stiffness panels for two different cases. In one of the cases the fiber orientation is assumed to change in the direction of the applied load. The other case is the one in which the fiber orientation varies in a direction perpendicular to the loading direction. Improvements in the buckling load of up to 80 percent over straight fiber configurations were found. Results for three different panel aspect ratios are presented.

Olmedo, Reynaldo; Gurdal, Zafer

1993-01-01

14

Responses of neurons in the inferior colliculus to binaural disparities: insights from the use of Fisher information and mutual information.  

PubMed

The minimal change in a stimulus property that is detectable by neurons has been often quantified using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, but recent studies introduced the use of the related Fisher information (FI). Whereas ROC analysis and FI quantify the information available for discriminating between two stimuli, global aspects of the information carried by a neuron are quantified by the mutual information (MI) between stimuli and responses. FI and MI have been shown to be related to each other when FI is large. Here the responses of neurons recorded in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs in response to ensembles of sounds differing in their interaural time differences (ITDs) or binaural correlation (BC) were analyzed. Although the FI is not uniformly large, there are strong relationships between MI and FI. Information-theoretic measures are used to demonstrate the importance of the non-Poisson statistics of these responses. These neurons may reflect the maximization of the MI between stimuli and responses under constraints on the coded stimulus range and the range of firing rates. Remarkably, whereas the maximization of MI, in conjunction with the non-Poisson statistics of the spike trains, is enough to create neurons whose ITD discrimination capabilities are close to the behavioral limits, the same rule does not achieve single-neuron BC discrimination that is as close to behavioral performance. PMID:18093660

Gordon, Noam; Shackleton, Trevor M; Palmer, Alan R; Nelken, Israel

2008-04-30

15

Estimate of mutual information carried by neuronal responses from small data samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculation of information carried by neuronal responses evoked by external stimuli has proven to be an effective tool to study the behaviour of evoluted nervous systems. The major problem that arises in this analysis is that the number of stimulus\\/response pairs available from an experiment is limited, while the calculation of the true information would ideally require an infinite number

Pasquale Gurzi; Gabriele Biellayzk; Arnaldo Spalvieri

1996-01-01

16

Selective Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses During Live Mutual Gaze Interactions in Human Infants: An fNIRS Study.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in processing multimodal communicative ostensive signals in infants, we measured cerebral hemodynamic responses by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the social interactive play "peek-a-boo", in which both visual (direct gaze) and auditory (infant-directed speech) stimuli were presented. The infants (mean age, around 7 months) sat on their mother's lap, equipped with an NIRS head cap, and looked at a partner's face during "peek-a-boo". An eye-tracking system simultaneously monitored the infants' visual fixation patterns. The results indicate that, when the partner presented a direct gaze, rather than an averted gaze, toward an infant during social play, the infant fixated on the partner's eye region for a longer duration. Furthermore, hemodynamic activity increased more prominently dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to social play with a partner's direct gaze compared to an averted gaze. In contrast, hemodynamic activity increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (R-lPFC) regardless of a partner's eye gaze direction. These results indicate that a partner's direct gaze shifts an infant's attention to the partner's eyes for interactive communication, and specifically activates the mPFC. The differences in hemodynamic responses between the mPFC and R-lPFC suggest functional differentiation within the PFC, and a specific role of the mPFC in the perception of face-to-face communication, especially in mutual gaze, which is essential for social interaction. PMID:25367848

Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

2014-11-01

17

A Technique to Eliminate Cross-Polarization Responses and Mutual Interactions between Circularly Polarized Antennas  

E-print Network

Polarized Antennas Bill Erickson ­ April 2005 bill.erickson@utas.edu.au Abstract Cross-polarized responses. The Technique This technique makes use of the simple fact that, if a circularly polarized antenna is rotated. If the antenna is rotated such that the phase of the desired polarization is advanced by /2 radians and

Ellingson, Steven W.

18

Responses to Orientation Discontinuities in V1 and V2: Physiological Dissociations and Functional Implications  

PubMed Central

Segmenting the visual image into objects is a crucial stage of visual processing. Object boundaries are typically associated with differences in luminance, but discontinuities in texture also play an important role. We showed previously that a subpopulation of neurons in V2 in anesthetized macaques responds to orientation discontinuities parallel to their receptive field orientation. Such single-cell responses could be a neurophysiological correlate of texture boundary detection. Neurons in V1, on the other hand, are known to have contextual response modulations such as iso-orientation surround suppression, which also produce responses to orientation discontinuities. Here, we use pseudorandom multiregion grating stimuli of two frame durations (20 and 40 ms) to probe and compare texture boundary responses in V1 and V2 in anesthetized macaque monkeys. In V1, responses to texture boundaries were observed for only the 40 ms frame duration and were independent of the orientation of the texture boundary. However, in transient V2 neurons, responses to such texture boundaries were robust for both frame durations and were stronger for boundaries parallel to the neuron's preferred orientation. The dependence of these processes on stimulus duration and orientation indicates that responses to texture boundaries in V2 arise independently of contextual modulations in V1. In addition, because the responses in transient V2 neurons are sensitive to the orientation of the texture boundary but those of V1 neurons are not, we suggest that V2 responses are the correlate of texture boundary detection, whereas contextual modulation in V1 serves other purposes, possibly related to orientation “pop-out.” PMID:24599456

Purpura, Keith P.; Victor, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

19

The spatial pattern of response magnitude and selectivity for orientation and direction in cat visual cortex.  

PubMed

Optical imaging studies of orientation and direction preference in visual cortex have typically used vector averaging to obtain angle and magnitude maps. This method has shown half-rotation orientation singularities (pinwheels) located within regions of low orientation vector magnitude. Direction preference is generally orthogonal to orientation preference, but often deviates from this, particularly in regions of low direction vector magnitude. Linear regions of rapid change in direction preference terminate in or near orientation singularities. The vector-averaging method is problematic however because it does not clearly disambiguate spatial variation in orientation tuning width from variation in height. It may also wrongly estimate preferred direction in regions where preference is weak. In this paper we analyze optical maps of cat visual cortex by fitting model tuning functions to the responses. This new method reveals features not previously evident. Orientation tuning height and width vary independently across the map: tuning height is always low near singularities, however regions of broad and narrow orientation tuning width can be found in regions of low tuning height, often alternating in a spoke-like fashion around singularities. Orientation and direction preference angles are always closely orthogonal. Reversals in direction preference form lines that originate precisely in orientation singularities. PMID:12571113

Swindale, Nicholas V; Grinvald, Amiram; Shmuel, Amir

2003-03-01

20

Domain Orientation in the Inactive Response Regulator Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrA Provides a Barrier to Activation†‡  

PubMed Central

The structure of MtrA, an essential gene product for the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been solved to a resolution of 2.1 Å. MtrA is a member of the OmpR/PhoB family of response regulators and represents the fourth family member for which a structure of the protein in its inactive state has been determined. As is true for all OmpR/PhoB family members, MtrA possesses an N-terminal regulatory domain and a C-terminal winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain, with phosphorylation of the regulatory domain modulating the activity of the protein. In the inactive form of MtrA these two domains form an extensive interface that is composed of the ?4-?5-?5 face of the regulatory domain and the C-terminal end of the positioning helix, the trans-activation loop, and the recognition helix of the DNA-binding domain. This domain orientation suggests a mechanism of mutual inhibition by the two domains. Activation of MtrA would require a disruption of this interface to allow the ?4-?5-?5 face of the regulatory domain to form the inter-molecule interactions that are associated with the active state and to allow the recognition helix to interact with DNA. Furthermore, the interface appears to stabilize the inactive conformation of MtrA, potentially reducing the rate of phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain. This combination of effects may form a switch regulating the activity of MtrA. The domain orientation exhibited by MtrA also provides a rationale for the variation in linker length that is observed within the OmpR/PhoB family of response regulators. PMID:17511470

Friedland, Natalia; Mack, Timothy R.; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Stock, Ann M.

2008-01-01

21

Coevolution in variable mutualisms.  

PubMed

Many mutualistic interactions are probably not mutualistic across all populations and years. This article explores consequences of this observation with a series of genetic models that consider how variable mutualisms coevolve. The first models, previously introduced in a general coevolutionary context, consider two coevolving species whose fitness interactions change between beneficial and antagonistic in response to independent spatial or temporal variation in the abiotic or biotic environment. The results demonstrate that both temporal and spatial variability in fitness interactions can cause partner species with tightly matched traits favored by unconditional mutualisms to be vulnerable to evolutionary invasion by alternative types. A new model presented here shows that an additional mutualistic species can have a similar effect and can even cause fitness interactions between the other two species to evolve. Under some conditions, the pairwise interactions can change unidirectionally from mutualistic to antagonistic, with virtually no evolutionary change in either partner species. In other cases, fitness interactions between the species pair can oscillate between mutualism and antagonism as a result of coevolution in the third species. Taken as a whole, these theoretical results suggest that many features of mutualistic coevolution can best be understood by considering spatial, temporal, and community-dependent patterns of fitness interactions. PMID:14583859

Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Nuismer, Scott L; Thompson, John N

2003-10-01

22

Feature-Based Attention Modulates Orientation-Selective Responses in Human Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary How does feature-based attention modulate neural responses? We used adaptation to quantify the effect of feature-based attention on orientation-selective responses in human visual cortex. Observers were adapted to two superimposed oblique gratings while attending to one grating only. We measured the magnitude of attention-induced orientation-selective adaptation both psychophysically, by the behavioral tilt aftereffect, and physiologically, using fMRI response adaptation. We found evidence for orientation-selective attentional modulation of neuronal responses—a lower fMRI response for the attended than the unattended orientation—in multiple visual areas, and a significant correlation between the magnitude of the tilt aftereffect and that of fMRI response adaptation in V1, the earliest site of orientation coding. These results show that feature-based attention can selectively increase the response of neuronal subpopulations that prefer the attended feature, even when the attended and unattended features are coded in the same visual areas and share the same retinotopic location. PMID:17640531

Liu, Taosheng; Larsson, Jonas; Carrasco, Marisa

2009-01-01

23

Mutual Funds Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutual Funds Interactive is provided by Brill Editorial Services, Inc. The aim of the site is to provide independent financial advice to investors. The highlight of the site is the expert's corner, where leading mutual fund experts provide market analysis, opinions and recommendations. There are also profiles of mutual funds managers and columns on mutual funds. For new investors, there is Funds 101, which helps explain what a mutual fund is. The site also features discussion groups, a glossary of mutual fund terms and a list of mutual funds.

1998-01-01

24

Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

2011-01-01

25

Orientational Dynamics and Dielectric Response of Nanopore Water  

SciTech Connect

We present numerical calculations, simulation results, and analytical considerations for the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of single-file water in narrow nanopores, described by a recently developed dipole lattice model. We find Debye relaxation over all length scales with relaxation times that strongly depend on pore length. This behavior is analyzed in terms of the dynamics of orientational defects leading to simple quantitative expressions for the static dielectric susceptibility and the relaxation time in the limits of short and long pores. Based on these formulas, we suggest how the predicted macroscopic order of nanopore water can be probed via dielectric spectroscopy and explain how the excitation energy, diffusion constant, and effective interaction of the defects that destroy the order can be extracted from such measurements.

Koefinger, Juergen; Dellago, Christoph [Faculty of Physics and Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

2009-08-21

26

Effect of grain orientation on mechanical properties and thermomechanical response of Sn-based solder interconnects  

SciTech Connect

The thermomechanical response of Sn-based solder interconnects with differently oriented grains was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction technique under thermal cycling and thermal shock testing in this study. The results showed that deformation and cracking of solder interconnects have a close relationship with the unique characteristics of grain orientation and boundaries in each solder interconnect, and deformation was frequently confined within the high-angle grain boundaries. The micro Vickers hardness testing results showed that the hardness varied significantly depending on the grain orientation and structure, and deformation twins can be induced around the indents by the indentation testing. - Highlights: • Thermomechanical response shows a close relationship with the grain structure. • Deformation was frequently confined within the high-angle grain boundaries. • Different grain orientations exhibit different hardness. • Deformation twins can be induced around the indents in SAC105 solder interconnects.

Chen, Hongtao [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Yan, Bingbing [College of Mechanical Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi, 154007 (China); Yang, Ming; Ma, Xin [Yik Shing Tat Industrial Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, 518101 (China); Li, Mingyu, E-mail: myli@hit.edu.cn [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

2013-11-15

27

Futures Tended: Care and Future-Oriented Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of technological hazards, whose existence is only revealed many years after they were initially produced, shows that the question of our responsibilities toward future generations is of urgent importance. However, the nature of technological societies means that they are caught in a condition of structural irresponsibility: the…

Adam, Barbara; Groves, Chris

2011-01-01

28

Montana Fire Services' Mutual Aid, Command, and  

E-print Network

Montana Fire Services' Mutual Aid, Command, and Field Operations Guide 3/01/11 ­28th Edition for help." (from the Montana Fire Service Mutual Aid Mission Statement) "There is no such thing as `It can ­ Guest and Host 16 Notes for Responding Command Staff 18 Pre-Response Checklist 19 Montana MA Authorities

Dratz, Edward A.

29

Effects of the Resistivity and Crystal Orientation of the Silicon PIN Detector on the Dark Current and Radiation Response Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the resistivity and crystal orientation on the leakage current and radiation response characteristics have been studied. The detector with (111) oriented substrate shows higher leakage current than (100) orientation due to the higher interface trap density at the Si\\/SiO2 interface. And high resistive substrate shows larger leakage current than low resistive one because of its wider depletion

Kun-Sik Park; Jong-Moon Park; Yong-Sun Yoon; Jin-Gun Koo; Bo-Woo Kim; Chang-Joo Yoon; Kwang-Soo No

2006-01-01

30

Blobs versus bars: Psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision  

E-print Network

color vision Mina Gheiratmand $ McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, UK Kathy T. Mullen # $ McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University of psychophysical studies has demonstrated that color vision has orientation-tuned responses and little impairment

Mullen, Kathy T.

31

An Item Response Theory Examination of Two Popular Goal Orientation Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used item response theory to provide a detailed examination of the psychometric properties of scores from two goal orientation instruments popular in the work motivation literature: Button, Mathieu, and Zajac (1996) and VandeWalle (1997). In general, the results of these analyses indicated that all scales except Button et al.'s…

Hafsteinsson, Leifur Geir; Donovan, John J.; Breland, B. Tyson

2007-01-01

32

Orientational Dynamics and Dielectric Response of Nanopore Water Jurgen Kofinger and Christoph Dellago  

E-print Network

Orientational Dynamics and Dielectric Response of Nanopore Water Ju¨rgen Ko¨finger and Christoph considerations for the frequency- dependent dielectric constant of single-file water in narrow nanopores macroscopic order of nanopore water can be probed via dielectric spectroscopy and explain how the excitation

Dellago, Christoph

33

Real Distribution of Response Time Instability in Service-Oriented Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports our practical experience of benchmarking a complex System Biology Web Service, and investigates the instability of its behaviour and the delays induced by the communication medium. We present the results of our statistical data analysis and distributions which fit and predict the response time instability typical of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs) built over the Internet. Our experiment has

Anatoliy Gorbenko; Vyacheslav S. Kharchenko; Seyran Mamutov; Olga Tarasyuk; Yuhui Chen; Alexander Romanovsky

2010-01-01

34

Inductive response of oriented UPt sub 3 in the superconducting state  

SciTech Connect

The inductive response of single crystals of UPt{sub 3} have been studied from 1 K to 70 mK using mutual inductance techniques to measure {chi}{prime} and {chi}{prime}{prime} at 31.7 and 317 Hz and tunnel-diode resonant methods at 3 and 16 MHz, for the excitation fields parallel to the symmetry axis of the crystal. A double bump in the {chi}{prime}{prime} measurements is clearly distinguishable and is consistent with the {ital H}=0 phase diagrams of other workers. The temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth has been extracted from the measurements, which indicate that the low-frequency results are linear for {ital T}/{ital T}{sub {ital c}}{lt}0.5, while the high-frequency data indicate a power-law dependence close to {ital T}{sup 2}.

Signore, P.J.C.; Koster, J.P.; Knetsch, E.A.; van Woerkens, C.M.C.M.; Meisel, M.W.; Brown, S.E. (Department of Physics and Center for Ultra-Low Temperature Research, University of Florida, 215 Williamson Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)); Fisk, Z. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1992-05-01

35

Interhemispheric Geomagnetic Field Response to Sudden Change in Solar Wind Pressure and IMF Orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary investigation of geomagnetic field response to sudden change in solar wind pressure and IMF orientation is presented using data from satellite and ground magnetometer array in both northern and southern hemispheres. Some data sets in this study have been provided by AGO (Automatic Geophysical Observatory) and AAL-PIP (Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform) stations deployed in Antarctica along the 40° magnetic meridian. These stations facilitate high-latitude multi-point magnetic conjugate observation pairs to the Greenland West Coast magnetometer chain for interhemispheric investigations, which have been rarely made because of the difficulty in accessing the Antarctic regions. Geomagnetic field perturbations in response to solar wind pressure impulse events, in which the solar wind pressure changes are more than ˜5 nPa in less than ~16 minutes and the pressures are steady for ~1 hour before and ~20 minutes after the pressure changes, have been examined using the data sets obtained from 1998 to 2010 to show global local time distribution of the ground response, timing response between the two hemispheres and its seasonal variation, and the relationship between IMF orientation and the ground response accompanied by the solar wind sudden pressure change.

Kim, H.; Cai, X.; Clauer, C. R.; Stolle, C.; Matzka, J.

2011-12-01

36

Evolution of mutualism between species  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

1980-01-01

37

Unexpected novelty and familiarity orienting responses in lateral parietal cortex during recognition judgment  

PubMed Central

The role of lateral parietal cortex during recognition memory is heavily debated. We examined parietal activation during an Explicit Memory Cueing recognition paradigm that biases participants towards expecting novel or familiar stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis using anticipatory cues (“Likely Old”, “Likely New”), compared to trials with neutral cues (“????”). Three qualitatively distinct patterns were observed in the left lateral parietal cortex. An unexpected novelty response occurred in left anterior intraparietal cortex (IPS)/post-central gyrus (PoCG) in which greater activation was observed for new versus old materials following the “Likely Old” cue, but not following the “Likely New” cue. In contrast, anterior angular gyrus demonstrated an unexpected familiarity response with greater activation for old versus new materials following the “Likely New” cue, but not the “Likely Old” cue. Thus these two regions demonstrated increased responses that were selective for either new or old materials respectively, but only when they were unexpected. In contrast, a mid IPS area demonstrated greater response for whichever class of memoranda was unanticipated given the cue condition (an unexpected memory response). Analogous response patterns in regions outside of parietal cortex, and the results of a resting state connectivity analysis, suggested these three response patterns were associated with visuo-spatial orienting following unexpected novelty, source monitoring operations following unexpected familiarity, and general executive control processes following violated expectations. These findings support a Memory Orienting Model of the left lateral parietal cortex in which the region is linked to the investigation of unexpected novelty or familiarity in the environment. PMID:23499719

Jaeger, Antonio; Konkel, Alex

2013-01-01

38

The shark Chiloscyllium griseum can orient using turn responses before and after partial telencephalon ablation.  

PubMed

This study assessed spatial memory and orientation strategies in Chiloscyllium griseum. In the presence of visual landmarks, six sharks were trained in a fixed turn response. Group 1 started from two possible compartments approaching two goal locations, while group 2 started from and approached only one location, respectively. The learning criterion was reached within 9 ± 5.29 (group 1) and 8.3 ± 3.51 sessions (group 2). Transfer tests revealed that sharks had applied a direction strategy, possibly in combination with some form of place learning. Without visual cues, sharks relied solely on the former. To identify the underlying neural substrate(s), telencephalic were lesioned and performance compared before and after surgery. Ablation of the dorsal and medial pallia only had an effect on one shark (group 1), indicating that the acquisition and retention of previously gained knowledge were unaffected in the remaining four individuals. Nonetheless, the shark re-learned the task. In summary, C. griseum can utilize fixed turn responses to navigate to a goal; there is also some evidence for the use of external visual landmarks while orienting. Probably, strategies can be used alone or in combination. Neither the dorsal nor medial pallium seems to be responsible for the acquisition and processing of egocentric information. PMID:24114617

Fuss, Theodora; Bleckmann, Horst; Schluessel, Vera

2014-01-01

39

Service-oriented architecture for disaster response: integration of AID-N, MICHAELS, WISER, and ESSENCE.  

PubMed

This paper describes a service-oriented architecture that uses a shared data model of the disaster scenario to support the exchange of data between heterogeneous systems. This architecture is employed in the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) system to facilitate interoperation between existing emergency response information technologies used in the Washington DC Metropolitan region. We will discuss the integration of three disparate systems into AID-N: a pre-hospital patient care reporting software system (MICHAELS), a syndromic surveillance system (ESSENCE), and a hazardous material reference software system (WISER). PMID:17238563

Hauenstein, Logan; Gao, Tia; White, David

2006-01-01

40

The influence of primary and secondary orientations on the elastic response of a nickel-base single-crystal superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of primary orientation on the elastic response of a (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical, thermal, and combined thermal and mechanical loading conditions using finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed using the MARC finite element code on a square plate of PWA 1480 material. Primary orientation of the single crystal superalloy was varied in increments of 2 deg, from 0 to 10 deg, from the (001) direction. Two secondary orientations (0 and 45 deg) were considered, with respect to the global coordinate system, as the primary orientation angle was varied. The stresses developed within the single crystal plate were determined for each loading condition. In this paper, the influence of the angular offset between the primary crystal orientation and the loading direction on the elastic stress response of the PWA 1480 plate is presented for different loading conditions. The influence of primary orientation angle, when constrained between the bounds considered, was not found to be as significant as the influence of the secondary orientation angle, which is not typically controlled.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

1993-01-01

41

Elicitation and habituation of the electrodermal orienting response in a short interstimulus interval paradigm.  

PubMed

The present experiment was carried out to investigate elicitation and habituation of the electrodermal Orienting Response with stimulus trains utilising a short interstimulus interval (ISI) of 1.1 s. We sought evidence for within-train response decrement to repeated stimulus presentation, response recovery to a change stimulus and dishabituation following the change stimulus--the three properties necessary to unequivocally identify a decremental process as habituation. No autonomic study could be found using such a short ISI. Autonomic studies on this time scale are necessary if these measures are to be integrated with central event-related potential (ERP) measures of electrical brain function. Overcoming this paradigm gap required the development of novel measurement procedures to estimate the small electrodermal responses obtained, usually occurring on the recovery slope of the response to the previous stimulus in the train. With our novel measurement procedures, evidence was found indicating that electrodermal activity in such a paradigm exhibited the three classic criteria of habituation. PMID:8119843

Barry, R J; Feldmann, S; Gordon, E; Cocker, K I; Rennie, C

1993-11-01

42

Dynamic modulation of an orientation preference map by GABA responsible for age-related cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive declines in old (healthy) animals could arise from depression of intracortical inhibition, for which a decreased ability to produce GABA during senescence might be responsible. By simulating a neural network model of a primary visual cortical (V1) area, we investigated whether and how a lack of GABA affects cognitive performance of the network: detection of the orientation of a visual bar-stimulus. The network was composed of pyramidal (P) cells and GABAergic interneurons such as small (S) and large (L) basket cells. Intrasynaptic GABA-release from presynaptic S or L cells contributed to reducing ongoing-spontaneous (background) neuronal activity in a different manner. Namely, the former exerted feedback (S-to-P) inhibition and reduced the frequency (firing rate) of action potentials evoked in P cells. The latter reduced the number of saliently firing P cells through lateral (L-to-P) inhibition. Non-vesicular GABA-release, presumably from glia and/or neurons, into the extracellular space reduced the both, activating extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and providing P cells with tonic inhibitory currents. By this combinatorial, spatiotemporal inhibitory mechanism, the background activity as noise was significantly reduced, compared to the stimulus-evoked activity as signal, thereby improving signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Interestingly, GABA-spillover from the intrasynaptic cleft into the extracellular space was effective for improving orientation selectivity (orientation bias), especially when distractors interfered with detecting the bar-stimulus. These simulation results may provide some insight into how the depression of intracortical inhibition due to a reduction in GABA content in the brain leads to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22990592

Miyamoto, Ai; Hasegawa, Jun; Hoshino, Osamu

2012-11-01

43

Floral scents: their roles in nursery pollination mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms are interspecies interactions in which each participant gains net benefits from interacting with its partner. In\\u000a nursery pollination mutualisms, pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. In these systems, each partner\\u000a depends directly on the other for its reproduction. Therefore, the signal responsible for partner encounter is crucial in\\u000a these horizontally transmitted mutualisms, in which the association between specific

Martine Hossaert-McKey; Catherine Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Magali Proffit

2010-01-01

44

Response of amphibian egg cytoplasm to novel gravity orientation and centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of inversion and centrifugation on the compartmentalization of cytoplasm in Xenopus laevis eggs are investigated experimentally. The rearrangement of yolk-platelet compartments (YPC) characterized by morphology, density, and viscosity differences is studied in fertilized, unfertilized, and unfertilized electrically activated eggs in normal, and inverted positions and with and without centrifugation at 10-183 x g for 5 min. The eggs are fixed and embedded in plastic or paraffin prior to sagittal sectioning (0.5, 4, or 8 microns) and microscopic examination; the results are presented in a diagram and discussed. A density-compartment model combining both animal/vegetal and dorsal/ventral polarities is proposed: YPC determined without gravity orientation during oogenesis respond to both sperm entrance point and gravity after fertilization, and the response involves breaking of the radial symmetry of the egg. It is predicted that Xenopus eggs in a microgravity environment will encounter difficulties in establishing a primary embryonic axis.

Neff, A. W.; Wakahara, M.; Jurand, A.; Malacinski, G. M.

1983-01-01

45

Asymmetric magnetospheric response to solar wind pressure: orientation effects and differential timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in solar wind dynamic pressure can drive similar variations in magnetospheric properties. One well known example of this is the magnetic field at geosynchronous orbit. Previous studies have shown that there is often an asymmetric response which occurs first near noon-dusk and several minutes later in the morning sector. This pattern is broadly consistent with expectations based on the dominant Parker spiral IMF configuration. In this work we use a very large set of solar wind and geosynchronous data to obtain a more detailed picture of response timing. First, results from two-satellite correlation analysis are grouped according to solar wind orientation. This eliminates most, but not all, of the observed asymmetry. It seems likely that the remainder may correspond to true azimuthal structure in physical properties which affect propagation speed. Second, we introduce a three-satellite analysis technique which provides differential timing between pairs of GOES satellites. Averaging large amounts of data with 1-minute time resolution can be used to determine time differences with uncertainties less than 10-seconds. These results are extremely well ordered over most of the dayside, giving a clear picture of the typical propagation pattern at geosynchronous orbit.

Jackel, B. J.

2013-12-01

46

Influence of turbulence, orientation, and site configuration on the response of buildings to extreme wind.  

PubMed

Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

Aly, Aly Mousaad

2014-01-01

47

A distributed mutual exclusion algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed algorithm is presented that realizes mutual exclusion among N nodes in a computer network. The algorithm requires at most N message exchanges for one mutual exclusion invocation. Accordingly, the delay to invoke mutual exclusion is smaller than in an algorithm of Ricart and Agrawala, which requires 2*(N - 1) message exchanges per invocation. A drawback of the algorithm

Ichiro Suzuki; Tadao Kasami

1985-01-01

48

Kinematic Responses to Changes in Walking Orientation and Gravitational Load in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects. PMID:25350743

Mendes, César S.; Rajendren, Soumya V.; Bartos, Imre; Márka, Szabolcs; Mann, Richard S.

2014-01-01

49

Fast Response, vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electric double layer capacitors synthesized from C(2)H(2).  

PubMed

The growth and electrical characteristics of vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from C2H2 feedstock on nickel substrates and used as electrodes in symmetric electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) are presented. The nanosheets exhibited 2.7 times faster growth rate and much greater specific capacitance for a given growth time than CH4 synthesized films. Raman spectra showed that the intensity ratio of the D band to G band versus temperature initially decreased to a minimum value of 0.45 at a growth temperature of 750 °C, but increased rapidly with further temperature increase (1.15 at 850 °C). The AC specific capacitance at 120 Hz of these EDLC devices increased in a linear fashion with growth temperature, up to 265 ?F/cm(2) (2 ?m high film, 850 °C with 10 min growth). These devices exhibited ultrafast frequency response: the frequency response at -45° phase angle reached over 20 kHz. Consistent with the increase in D band to G band ratio, the morphology of the films became less vertical, less crystalline, and disordered at substrate temperatures of 800 °C and above. This deterioration in morphology resulted in an increase in graphene surface area and defect density, which, in turn, contributed to the increased capacitance, as well as a slight decrease in frequency response. The low equivalent series resistance varied from 0.07 to 0.08 ? and was attributed to the significant carbon incorporation into the Ni substrate. PMID:24797018

Cai, Minzhen; Outlaw, Ronald A; Quinlan, Ronald A; Premathilake, Dilshan; Butler, Sue M; Miller, John R

2014-06-24

50

Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: Differences between exposure in E and H orientation  

SciTech Connect

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm{sup 2} for E and 45 mW/cm{sup 2} for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5{degrees}C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur.

Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Padilla, J.M. (Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

51

A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.

Li, W.; Ren, Y.

2013-12-01

52

A mutual coupling study of linear and circular polarized microstrip antennas for diversity wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an analysis of mutual coupling is presented to examine the benefits of orthogonal polarizations and patterns for adjacent microstrip antennas. The mutual coupling between two linear polarized antennas orientated in parallel polarizations (E and H plane) is reduced using low dielectric constant materials. The mutual coupling can be reduced an additional 20-35dB at the same inter-element spacing

Raul Ricardo Ramirez; Franco De Flaviis

2003-01-01

53

Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages. PMID:17370812

Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

2007-02-01

54

Multi-modal volume registration by maximization of mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new information-theoretic approach is presented for nding the registration of volumetric medical images of diering modalities. Registration is achieved by adjust- ment of the relative position and orientation until the mutual information between the images is maximized. In our derivation of the registration procedure, few as- sumptions are made about the nature of the imaging process. As a result

William M. Wells III; Paul A. Viola; Hideki Atsumi; Shin Nakajima; Ron Kikinis

1996-01-01

55

Feature-level Fusion for Object Segmentation using Mutual Information Vinay Sharma James W. Davis  

E-print Network

Feature-level Fusion for Object Segmentation using Mutual Information Vinay Sharma James W. Davis,jwdavis}@cse.ohio-state.edu Abstract We present a new feature-level image fusion technique for object segmentation based on mutual-oriented mid-level fusion technique that utilizes contour-based features. As will be shown, these fea- tures

Davis, James W.

56

Effect of fast electron irradiation on the dielectric and pyroelectric response of radially-oriented PVDF film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-induced functionalization of ferroelectric P(VDF\\/TrFE) copolymers has been found to be effective in the production of polymer relaxors attractive for applications. We studied radiation-induced changes in the dielectric relaxation and pyroelectric response of radially oriented PVDF film irradiated with 1 MeV and 1.5 MeV electrons. Radiation damage to the samples was characterized by ESR and IR spectroscopy. The radiation-induced

B. Hilczer; H. Smogor; J. Kulek; J. Goslar

2006-01-01

57

The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1.  

PubMed

Form has a strong influence on color perception. We investigated the neural basis of the form-color link in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) by studying orientation selectivity of single V1 cells for pure color patterns. Neurons that responded to color were classified, based on cone inputs and spatial selectivity, into chromatically single-opponent and double-opponent groups. Single-opponent cells responded well to color but weakly to luminance contrast; they were not orientation selective for color patterns. Most double-opponent cells were orientation selective to pure color stimuli as well as to achromatic patterns. We also found non-opponent cells that responded weakly or not at all to pure color; most were orientation selective for luminance patterns. Double-opponent and non-opponent cells' orientation selectivities were not contrast invariant; selectivity usually increased with contrast. Double-opponent cells were approximately equally orientation selective for luminance and equiluminant color stimuli when stimuli were matched in average cone contrast. V1 double-opponent cells could be the neural basis of the influence of form on color perception. The combined activities of single- and double-opponent cells in V1 are needed for the full repertoire of color perception. PMID:18685034

Johnson, Elizabeth N; Hawken, Michael J; Shapley, Robert

2008-08-01

58

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys – a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (handholding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

Coan, James A.; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

59

Efficient and timely mutual authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a protocol for efficient mutual authentication (via a mutually trusted third party) that assures both principal parties of the timeliness of the interaction without the use of clocks or double encipherment. The protocol requires a total of only four messages to be exchanged between the three parties concerned.

David J. Otway; Owen Rees

1987-01-01

60

Differential Responsiveness of Cortical Microtubule Orientation to Suppression of Cell Expansion among the Developmental Zones of Arabidopsis thaliana Root Apex  

PubMed Central

?he bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

2013-01-01

61

Differential responsiveness of cortical microtubule orientation to suppression of cell expansion among the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex.  

PubMed

?he bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

2013-01-01

62

Reflectance properties of silicon moth-eyes in response to variations in angle of incidence, polarisation and azimuth orientation.  

PubMed

We report a study of the optical properties of silicon moth-eye structures using a custom-made fully automated broadband spectroscopic reflectometry system (goniometer). This measurement system is able to measure specular reflectance as a function of wavelength, polar incidence angle and azimuth orientation angle, from normal to near-parallel polar incidence angle. The system uses a linear polarized broadband super-continuum laser light source. It is shown that a moth-eye structure composed of a regular array of protruding silicon rods, with finite sidewall angle reduces reflectance and sensitivity to incident wavelength in comparison to truly cylindrical rods with perpendicular sidewalls. It is also shown that moth-eye structures have omnidirectional reflectance properties in response to azimuth orientation of the sample. The importance of applying the reflectometer setup to study the optical properties of solar cell antireflective structures is highlighted. PMID:24922250

Asadollahbaik, Asa; Boden, Stuart A; Charlton, Martin D B; Payne, David N R; Cox, Simon; Bagnall, Darren M

2014-03-10

63

Leaf orientation and the response of the xanthophyll cycle to incident light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves from two species, Euonymus kiautschovicus and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, with a variety of different orientations and exposures, were examined in the field with regard to the xanthophyll cycle (the interconversion of three carotenoids in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes). East-, south-, and west-facing leaves of E. kiautschovicus were sampled throughout the day and all exhibited a pronounced and progressive conversion of

W. W. Adams; M. Volk; A. Hoehn; B. Demmig-Adams

1992-01-01

64

"With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do students from privileged communities respond to educational efforts encouraging them to become justice-oriented citizens? Observational and interview data collected during a semester-long case study of eleven high school students in a social studies class at an elite private school reveal four markedly different interpretations of their…

Swalwell, Katy

2013-01-01

65

Displaying Orientation in the Classroom: Students' Multimodal Responses to Teacher Instructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the displays of orientation that students use to participate in the classroom. It is argued that students use their direction of gaze, body posture, gesture and other modes of communication to realize such displays and respond to what goes on when they are not nominated speakers. The focus of the paper is on the silent but…

Bezemer, Jeff

2008-01-01

66

YIELD RESPONSE TO PEANUT ROW ORIENTATION AND SEEDING RATE WHEN IRRIGATED USING SDI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are typically planted in a single or twin row orientation, however, research indicates that peanut planted at equidistance between rows and plants in alternating rows (diamond shape) and using the same planting rate can increase pod yield. A study was conducted to eval...

67

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth to the monoterpenoid citral alone and in combination with sex pheromone.  

PubMed

The monoterpenoid citral synergized the electroantennogram (EAG) response of male Grapholita molesta (Busck) antennae to its main pheromone compound Z8-12:OAc. The response to a 10-?g pheromone stimulus increased by 32, 45, 54, 71 and 94% with the addition of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 ?g of citral, respectively. There was no detectable response to 0.1, 1, or 10 ?g of citral; the response to 100 and 1,000 ?g of citral was 31 and 79% of the response to 10 ?g of Z8-12:OAc. In a flight tunnel, citral affected the mate-seeking behavior of males. There was a 66% reduction in the number of males orientating by flight to a virgin calling female when citral was emitted at 1,000 ng/min ?1 cm downwind from a female. Pheromone and citral induced sensory adaptation in male antennae, but citral did not synergize the effect of pheromone. The exposure of antennae to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc/m(3) air, 1 ng citral/m3 air, 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 1 ng citral/m3 air, or to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 100 ng citral/m3 air for 15 min resulted in a similar reduction in EAG response of 47-63%. The exposure of males to these same treatments for 15 min had no effect on their ability to orientate to a virgin calling female in a flight tunnel. The potential for using citral to control G. molesta by mating disruption is discussed. PMID:23575022

Faraone, N; D'Errico, G; Caleca, V; Cristofaro, A De; Trimble, R M

2013-04-01

68

Uncertainty relation for mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting that the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

2014-12-01

69

Uncertainty Relation for Mutual Information  

E-print Network

We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

James Schneeloch; Curtis J. Broadbent; John C. Howell

2014-12-17

70

SEC Mutual Fund Cost Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because "every investor should know what he or she is paying for a mutual fund," the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) provides this cost calculator. Two versions in Windows 3.1/95/98/NT or JavaScript format allow investors to easily estimate and compare mutual fund costs, and the SEC hopes this information will reveal "how costs add up over time."

71

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962....

2014-04-01

72

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962....

2013-04-01

73

Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

1986-01-01

74

Orientation-Cue Invariant Population Responses to Contrast-Modulated and Phase-Reversed Contour Stimuli in Macaque V1 and V2  

PubMed Central

Visual scenes can be readily decomposed into a variety of oriented components, the processing of which is vital for object segregation and recognition. In primate V1 and V2, most neurons have small spatio-temporal receptive fields responding selectively to oriented luminance contours (first order), while only a subgroup of neurons signal non-luminance defined contours (second order). So how is the orientation of second-order contours represented at the population level in macaque V1 and V2? Here we compared the population responses in macaque V1 and V2 to two types of second-order contour stimuli generated either by modulation of contrast or phase reversal with those to first-order contour stimuli. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we found that the orientation of second-order contour stimuli was represented invariantly in the orientation columns of both macaque V1 and V2. A physiologically constrained spatio-temporal energy model of V1 and V2 neuronal populations could reproduce all the recorded population responses. These findings suggest that, at the population level, the primate early visual system processes the orientation of second-order contours initially through a linear spatio-temporal filter mechanism. Our results of population responses to different second-order contour stimuli support the idea that the orientation maps in primate V1 and V2 can be described as a spatial-temporal energy map. PMID:25188576

An, Xu; Gong, Hongliang; Yin, Jiapeng; Wang, Xiaochun; Pan, Yanxia; Zhang, Xian; Lu, Yiliang; Yang, Yupeng; Toth, Zoltan; Schiessl, Ingo; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

75

Attentional orienting toward social stress stimuli predicts increased cortisol responsivity to psychosocial stress irrespective of the early socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

The principal aim of the study was to examine how the natural tendency to shift attention toward or away from social stress stimuli during a restful state, relates to the magnitude of cortisol elicited in response to a stressful context. It also assessed whether any relationship that did emerge between attentional biases and cortisol responsivity would be associated with the childhood socioeconomic status (SES). Twenty-five healthy normal controls rested for 45min during which time they completed an adaptation of Posner's attentional orienting paradigm comprising social stress words as cues. Immediately following, participants were exposed to a public stressful speech task adapted from the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results indicated that a rapid attentional engagement in the direction of social stress words prior to stress exposure related to a pronounced cortisol response to the stress task, while a slow attentional engagement toward social stress words was related to a weak cortisol response to the stress task. It was also found that fast engagers of social stress information displayed lower self-esteem than slow engagers. Groups did not differ in terms of their reported past SES. These findings demonstrate that attentional biases for social stress stimuli at rest predict the magnitude of cortisol likely to be elicited in response to a subsequent stressor. A natural tendency to rapidly shift attention toward social stress-related information may be the driving force behind cortisol reactivity when handling psychological forms of stress, independent of the early SES environment. PMID:19854001

Pilgrim, Kamala; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J

2010-05-01

76

Sex Differences in Orienting to Pictures with and without Humans: Evidence from the Cardiac Evoked Response (ECR) and the Cortical Long Latency Parietal Positivity (LPP)  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the effect of social relevance in affective pictures on two orienting responses, i.e. the evoked cardiac response (ECR), and a long latency cortical evoked potential (LPP) and whether this effect would differ between males and females. Assuming that orienting to affective social information is fundamental to experiencing affective empathy, associations between self-report measures of empathy and the two orienting responses were investigated. Method ECRs were obtained from 34 female and 30 male students, and LPPs from 25 female and 27 male students viewing 414 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Pictures portrayed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Results Both the ECR and LPP showed the largest response to pictures with humans in unpleasant situations. For both measures, the responses to pictures with humans correlated with self-report measures of empathy. While we found a greater male than female responsiveness to the pictures without humans in the ECR, a greater female than male responsiveness was observed in the LPP response to pictures with humans. Conclusion and Significance The sensitivity of these orienting responses to social relevance and their differential contribution to the prediction of individual differences underline the validity of their combined use in clinical studies investigating individuals with social disabilities. PMID:25330003

Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; van der Schaft, Lutske; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tucha, Oliver; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.

2014-01-01

77

Response of liquid scintillator assemblies as a function of angular orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid scintillator detector assemblies contain an inert nitrogen expansion volume to allow for expansion of the liquid with changing temperature. Measurements and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the dependence of pulse height distribution shapes as a function of detector angle for two liquid scintillators assemblies filled with 97% organic-liquid cocktail and a 3% expansion volume. A 12.7-cm diameter by 12.7-cm long and a 7.6-cm diameter by 9.1-cm long EJ-309 liquid scintillator assemblies are investigated using a 137Cs gamma-ray source. Aside from the differences in dimensions, the detector assemblies also differed in the design of the active detector volume: there is no light guide in the 12.7-cm-diameter detector assembly, whereas the 7.6-cm-diameter detector contains a BK7 light guide between the scintillation liquid and optical coupling to the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 12.7-cm-diameter detector show a decrease in the position of the Compton edge ranges from 4% to 40% at detector orientations where the expansion volume exists between scintillating medium and the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 7.6-cm-diameter detector show that the position of the Compton edge is relatively unaffected at all detector orientations due to the presence of light guide.

Naeem, S. F.; Scarpelli, M.; Miller, E.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.

2014-06-01

78

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

79

Integrating Addiction Treatment and Mutual Aid Recovery Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most widely used source of help for alcohol problems is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and much formal treatment has adapted\\u000a AA’s methods and concepts. Usually many people seek help from AA at the recommendation of a treatment professional. Even treatment\\u000a programs that historically have not been 12-step-oriented, such as Therapeutic Communities, may recommend AA or mutual help\\u000a alternatives post-treatment. Because

Lee Ann Kaskutas; Meenakshi Subbaraman

80

Trying to fit in: are patterns of orientation of a keystone grazer set by behavioural responses to ecosystem engineers or wave action?  

PubMed

The distribution of animals varies at different temporal and spatial scales. At the smallest scale, distribution may be orientated in regard to particular environmental variables or habitat features. For animals on the rocky intertidal, the processes which set and maintain patterns of distribution and abundance in wave-exposed areas are well studied, with explanatory models focused on wave action and, more recently, the role of biogenic habitats. In contrast, patterns of orientation by intertidal animals have received less attention, although having ecological and fitness consequences. Here, we report tests of competing models to explain the observation that limpets on steeply sloped surfaces orientate downwards. A greater proportion of downwards-facing limpets was found in sheltered sites and areas without barnacles and this pattern was consistent across many shores and sampling occasions. Additionally, the frequency at which limpets were dislodged after a storm was independent of orientation. To test whether orientation is a behavioural response to habitat-forming barnacles, barnacles were removed and/or killed from patches of substrata and the change in proportion of downwards-facing limpets measured. The proportion increased with barnacle removal and this behaviour was a response to the structure of the barnacles, not a biotic effect associated with the living organism. Our study suggests that biogenic habitat not wave action sets patterns of limpet orientation and barnacle shells, regardless of whether the barnacle is alive or not, limit the ability of limpets to adopt a downward orientation. PMID:23996227

Fraser, Clarissa M L; Coleman, Ross A; Seebacher, Frank

2014-01-01

81

Piezoelectric Responses of Highly-Oriented Tetragonal Pb(Zr 0.4 Ti 0.6 )O 3 Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

[111]-and[001]&[100]-highly-oriented Pb(Zr 0.4 Ti 0.6 )O 3 (PZT40\\/60) thin films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition on Si substrates. The influences of orientations on the piezoelectric responses of the thin films have been investigated by a charge integration technique based on the direct piezoelectric effect. A piezoelectric relaxation has been observed in the thin films. Contributions of relaxation have

Desheng Fu; Kazumi Kato; Kenji Ishikawa; Yasutaka Yoshimi; Hisao Suzuki

2003-01-01

82

Ideology-oriented translations in China: a reader-response study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between ideology and translation is not a new topic in translation studies. But most of the previous research has explored the topic from the perspective of translators, commissioners of translations or patrons. This paper attempts to study the relationship from the perspective of the response of the TL readers. The study argues that TL readers have the power

Ping Li

2012-01-01

83

Ideology-oriented translations in China: a reader-response study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between ideology and translation is not a new topic in translation studies. But most of the previous research has explored the topic from the perspective of translators, commissioners of translations or patrons. This paper attempts to study the relationship from the perspective of the response of the TL readers. The study argues that TL readers have the power

Ping Li

2011-01-01

84

Client-therapist intimacy: responses of psychotherapy clients to a consumer-oriented brochure.  

PubMed

Psychotherapy clients read two consumer-oriented brochures: a general brochure on psychology and a brochure on the topic of client-therapist intimacy. Half of the participants read the general brochure first and the brochure on client-therapist intimacy second, and half the participants did the reverse. Participants reported favorable reactions to the brochures, indicating they thought both should be made available to psychotherapy clients; that neither were too long, too sensitive, or too difficult to read; and that the brochures should be made available early during the therapeutic process. After reading the client-therapist intimacy brochure, participants also showed some changes in Likert-type scores measuring attitudes regarding intimate contact between clients and therapists. Although participants were more negative about issues of sexual misconduct after reading the client-therapist intimacy brochure, they did not indicate a decrease in trust of therapists, nor did they indicate a greater likelihood of filing a false complaint. We concluded that therapists' reservations about presenting clients with factual information regarding therapist sexual exploitation of clients are not empirically founded. PMID:11660242

Thorn, Beverly E; Rubin, Nancy J; Holderby, Angela J; Shealy, R Clayton

1996-01-01

85

A cross-functional service-oriented architecture to support real-time information exchange in emergency medical response.  

PubMed

Real-time information communication presents a persistent challenge to the emergency response community. During a medical emergency, various first response disciplines including Emergency Medical Service (EMS), Fire, and Police, and multiple health service facilities including hospitals, auxiliary care centers and public health departments using disparate information technology systems must coordinate their efforts by sharing real-time information. This paper describes a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that uses shared data models of emergency incidents to support the exchange of data between heterogeneous systems. This architecture is employed in the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) system, a testbed investigating information technologies to improve interoperation among multiple emergency response organizations in the Washington DC Metropolitan region. This architecture allows us to enable real-time data communication between three deployed systems: 1) a pre-hospital patient care reporting software system used on all ambulances in Arlington County, Virginia (MICHAELS), 2) a syndromic surveillance system used by public health departments in the Washington area (ESSENCE), and 3) a hazardous material reference software system (WISER) developed by the National Library Medicine. Additionally, we have extended our system to communicate with three new data sources: 1) wireless automated vital sign sensors worn by patients, 2) web portals for admitting hospitals, and 3) PDAs used by first responders at emergency scenes to input data (SIRP). PMID:17959430

Hauenstein, Logan; Gao, Tia; Sze, Tsz Wo; Crawford, David; Alm, Alex; White, David

2006-01-01

86

Directionally drilled crossings require mutual responsibility  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the various aspects of directional drilling of pipeline routes including: regulatory coordination, environmental effects, permitting, and waste disposal techniques. It discusses the potential risks involved with this type of drilling and the liabilities of the contractor. It also describes the methods to coordinate between the various regulatory and permitting personnel to ensure a pre-installation approval which will minimize the potential problems.

Skonberg, E.R. (Costain Land Marine, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-06-01

87

Distributed learning and mutual adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

If distributed cognition is to become a general analytic frame, it needs to handle more aspects of cognition than just highly efficient problem solving. It should also handle learning. We identify four classes of distributed learning: induction, repurposing, symbiotic tuning, and mutual adaptation. The four classes of distributed learning fit into a two-dimensional space defined by the stability and adaptability

Daniel L. Schwartz; Taylor Martin

2006-01-01

88

Approach- and Withdrawal-Oriented Responses to Social Rejection: The Role of Asymmetrical Frontal Cortical Activity  

E-print Network

directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right- hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative... left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as during ostracism. Also, right- hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations...

Peterson, Carly Kathryn

2011-02-22

89

Galvanic skin response-orienting reflex and semantic conditioning and generalization with different unconditioned stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

280 college students served in a semantic conditioning and generalization experiment where GSR and cephalic vasomotor response measures were obtained as well as semantic differential (SD) ratings of the control words and the critical CS and generalization test words. Different groups of Ss received either 110-db white noise, 95-db white noise, 80-db white noise, 110-db tone, or an 80-db tone

Irving Maltzman; Barry Langdon; Mary Pendery; Craig Wolff

1977-01-01

90

Orienting-defense responses and psychophysiological reactivity in isolated clinic versus sustained hypertension.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine whether patients with white-coat or isolated clinic hypertension (ICH) show, in comparison to patients with sustained hypertension (SH), a defense response pattern to novel stimuli and an enhanced psychophysiological reactivity to stress. Forty-three patients with essential hypertension were divided into two groups after 16 days of self-monitoring blood pressure (BP): ICH (24 men; self-measured BP < 135/85 mmHg) and SH (19 men; self-measured BP >or= 135/85 mmHg). Defense responses were measured as the cardiac changes to phasic non-aversive auditory stimuli. Psychophysiological reactivity (heart and breath rate, blood volume pulse, electromyography, and skin conductance) was measured during mental arithmetic and video game tasks. The standard deviation of self-measured BPs and the difference between mean BPs at work and at home were used as indicators of cardiovascular reactivity to daily stress. No significant differences were seen in defense responses or psychophysiological reactivity to laboratory or naturally occurring stressors. These results do not support the hypothesis that ICH can be explained in terms of a generalized hyperreactivity to novel or stressful stimuli. PMID:17497344

García-Vera, María Paz; Sanz, Jesús; Labrador, Francisco J

2007-04-01

91

Insect mutualisms buffer warming effects on multiple trophic levels.  

PubMed

Insect mutualisms can have disproportionately large impacts on local arthropod and plant communities and their responses to climatic change. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of insect mutualisms affects host plant and herbivore responses to warming. Using open-top warming chambers at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, we manipulated temperature and presence of ants and Chaitophorus populicola aphids on Populus tremuloides host plants and monitored ant attendance and persistence of C. populicola, predator abundance, plant stress, and abundance of Myzus persicae, a pest aphid that colonized plants during the experiment. We found that, regardless of warming, C. populicola persistence was higher when tended by ants, and some ant species increased aphid persistence more than others. Warming had negligible direct but strong indirect effects on plant stress. Plant stress decreased with warming only when both ants and C. populicola aphids were present and engaged in mutualism. Plant stress was increased by warming-induced reductions in predator abundance and increases in M. persicae aphid abundance. Altogether, these findings suggest that insect mutualisms could buffer the effects of warming on specialist herbivores and plants, but when mutualisms are not intact, the direct effects of warming on predators and generalist herbivores yield strong indirect effects of warming on plants. PMID:24649640

Marquis, Michael; Del Toro, Israel; Pelini, Shannon L

2014-01-01

92

Plant—carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and carnivorous arthropods can interact mutualistically. A recent discovery is that such mutualisms can be mediated by volatile compounds — produced by plants in response to herbivore damage — that attract carnivores. However, after emission of these attractants, the plant has no control over their use. Thus, exploitation of the information may occur, to the detriment of the plant,

Junji Takabayashi; Marcel Dicke

1996-01-01

93

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed Central

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-01-01

94

Pluto-charon mutual events  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

Binzel, R.P. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-11-01

95

Medical evaluation of children with chronic abdominal pain: Impact of diagnosis, physician practice orientation, and maternal trait anxiety on mothers’ responses to the evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of diagnosis (functional versus organic), physician practice orientation (biomedical versus biopsychosocial), and maternal trait anxiety (high versus low) on mothers’ responses to a child’s medical evaluation for chronic abdominal pain. Mothers selected for high (n=80) and low (n=80) trait anxiety imagined that they were the mother of a child with chronic abdominal pain described in

Sara E. Williams; Craig A. Smith; Stephen P. Bruehl; Joseph Gigante; Lynn S. Walker

2009-01-01

96

Mutual information challenges entropy bounds  

E-print Network

We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.

H. Casini

2006-09-27

97

Median fin function during the escape response of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). I: Fin-ray orientation and movement.  

PubMed

The fast-start escape response is critically important to avoid predation, and axial movements driving it have been studied intensively. Large median dorsal and anal fins located near the tail have been hypothesized to increase acceleration away from the threat, yet the contribution of flexible median fins remains undescribed. To investigate the role of median fins, C-start escape responses of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were recorded by three high-speed, high-resolution cameras at 500 frames s(-1) and the 3-D kinematics of individual dorsal and anal fin rays were analyzed. Movement and orientation of the fin rays relative to the body axis were calculated throughout the duration of the C-start. We found that: (1) timing and magnitude of angular displacement varied among fin rays based on position within the fin and (2) kinematic patterns support the prediction that fin rays are actively resisting hydrodynamic forces and transmitting momentum into the water. We suggest that regions within the fins have different roles. Anterior regions of the fins are rapidly elevated to increase the volume of water that the fish may interact with and transmit force into, thus generating greater total momentum. The movement pattern of all the fin rays creates traveling waves that move posteriorly along the length of the fin, moving water as they do so. Flexible posterior regions ultimately act to accelerate this water towards the tail, potentially interacting with vortices generated by the caudal fin during the C-start. Despite their simple appearance, median fins are highly complex and versatile control surfaces that modulate locomotor performance. PMID:22837461

Chadwell, Brad A; Standen, Emily M; Lauder, George V; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

2012-08-15

98

Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: Early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.  

PubMed

Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25401483

Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

2015-02-01

99

Role of mutual inhibition in binocular rivalry.  

PubMed

Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon that occurs when a different image is presented to each eye. The observer generally perceives just one image at a time, with perceptual switches occurring every few seconds. A natural assumption is that this perceptual mutual exclusivity is achieved via mutual inhibition between populations of neurons that encode for either percept. Theoretical models that incorporate mutual inhibition have been largely successful at capturing experimental features of rivalry, including Levelt's propositions, which characterize perceptual dominance durations as a function of image contrasts. However, basic mutual inhibition models do not fully comply with Levelt's fourth proposition, which states that percepts alternate faster as the stimulus contrasts to both eyes are increased simultaneously. This theory-experiment discrepancy has been taken as evidence against the role of mutual inhibition for binocular rivalry. Here, we show how various biophysically plausible modifications to mutual inhibition models can resolve this problem. PMID:21775721

Seely, Jeffrey; Chow, Carson C

2011-11-01

100

Induction logging device with a pair of mutually perpendicular bucking coils  

DOEpatents

An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

Koelle, Alfred R. (Los Alamos, NM); Landt, Jeremy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

101

Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

1991-01-01

102

A distributed K-mutual exclusion algorithm  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new token-based K-mutual exclusion algorithm for distributed systems. The proposed algorithm uses K tokens to achieve K-mutual exclusion. The system of N nodes is organized as a logical forest, with the node possessing...

Bulgannawar, Shailaja Gurupad

1994-01-01

103

Mutual Private Set Intersection with Linear Complexity  

E-print Network

151-747, Korea {msunkim,htsm1138,jhcheon}@snu.ac.kr Abstract. A private set intersection (PSI the client can obtain the intersection, the mutual PSI protocol en- ables all players to get the desired result. In this work, we construct a mutual PSI protocol that is significantly more efficient than

104

Large families of mutually singular Radon measures  

E-print Network

Large families of mutually singular Radon measures David H. Fremlin & Grzegorz Plebanek \\Lambda mutually singular Radon probability measures. 1. Introduction. We present here a partial answer with a family (¯ s ) s2S of mu­ tually singular Radon measures on X such that #(S) ? #(X)? In section 2 we

Plebanek, Grzegorz

105

Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism  

PubMed Central

Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host–symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume–rhizobia and yucca–moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

Weyl, E. Glen; Frederickson, Megan E.; Yu, Douglas W.; Pierce, Naomi E.

2010-01-01

106

Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense Ang Cui and Salvatore J. Stolfo on perpetual mutation and diversity, driven by symbiotic defensive mutualism can fundamentally change the `cat propose this new `clean slate design' principle and conjecture that this defensive strategy can also

Yang, Junfeng

107

Affine Constellations Without Mutually Unbiased Counterparts  

E-print Network

It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations, mostly in dimension six. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

Stefan Weigert; Thomas Durt

2010-07-22

108

Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

2010-09-01

109

Medical evaluation of children with chronic abdominal pain: impact of diagnosis, physician practice orientation, and maternal trait anxiety on mothers' responses to the evaluation.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of diagnosis (functional versus organic), physician practice orientation (biomedical versus biopsychosocial), and maternal trait anxiety (high versus low) on mothers' responses to a child's medical evaluation for chronic abdominal pain. Mothers selected for high (n=80) and low (n=80) trait anxiety imagined that they were the mother of a child with chronic abdominal pain described in a vignette. They completed questionnaires assessing their negative affect and pain catastrophizing. Next, mothers were randomly assigned to view one of four video vignettes of a physician-actor reporting results of the child's medical evaluation. Vignettes varied by diagnosis (functional versus organic) and physician practice orientation (biomedical versus biopsychosocial). Following presentation of the vignettes, baseline questionnaires were re-administered and mothers rated their satisfaction with the physician. Results indicated that mothers in all conditions reported reduced distress pre- to post-vignette; however, the degree of the reduction differed as a function of diagnosis, presentation, and anxiety. Mothers reported more post-vignette negative affect, pain catastrophizing, and dissatisfaction with the physician when the physician presented a functional rather than an organic diagnosis. These effects were significantly greater for mothers with high trait anxiety who received a functional diagnosis presented by a physician with a biomedical orientation than for mothers in any other condition. Anxious mothers of children evaluated for chronic abdominal pain may be less distressed and more satisfied when a functional diagnosis is delivered by a physician with a biopsychosocial rather than a biomedical orientation. PMID:19767148

Williams, Sara E; Smith, Craig A; Bruehl, Stephen P; Gigante, Joseph; Walker, Lynn S

2009-12-01

110

Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters  

PubMed Central

For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

2012-01-01

111

Orienting responses and vocalizations produced by microstimulation in the superior colliculus of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An echolocating bat actively controls the spatial acoustic information that drives its behavior by directing its head and ears and by modulating the spectro-temporal structure of its outgoing sonar emissions. The superior colliculus may function in the coordination of these orienting components of the bat's echolocation system. To test this hypothesis, chemical and electrical microstimulation experiments were carried out in

Doreen E. Valentine; Shiva R. Sinha; Cynthia F. Moss

2002-01-01

112

Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically, development (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance (minimizing negative judgments). Children (N = 373; M age = 7.97, SD = 0.34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grades. Validity of…

Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

2011-01-01

113

The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) onboard ROSETTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ROSETTA mission will reach the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and enable, for the first time, the in situ survey of a comet activity during along orbit. On board the ROSETTA orbiter, the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) is one of the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) that aims at monitoring the cometary plasma environment. MIP is a quadrupolar probe that measures the frequency response of the coupling impedance between two emitting and two receiving dipoles. The electron density and temperature are derived from the resonance peak and the interference pattern of the mutual impedance spectrum. We will describe this instrument and discuss the preliminary results obtained during the third ROSETTA Earth flyby to show its expected capabilities. The RPC switch ON for the post-hibernation recommissioning is planned at the end of March. The health status of the instrument will be discussed.

Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Béghin, Christian; Décréau, Pierrette; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Mazelle, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Schmidt, Walter; Winterhalter, Daniel; Aouad, Youcef; Lagoutte, Dominique; Vallières, Xavier

2014-05-01

114

Oriented responses of grapevine moth larvae Lobesia botrana to volatiles from host plants and an artificial diet on a locomotion compensator.  

PubMed

Larvae of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are a major pest of vine, Vitis vinifera. As larvae have limited energy reserves and are in danger of desiccation and predation an efficient response to plant volatiles that would guide them to food and shelter could be expected. The responses of starved 2nd or 3rd instar larvae to volatile emissions from their artificial diet and to single host plant volatiles were recorded on a locomotion compensator. Test products were added to an air stream passing over the 30cm diameter servosphere. The larvae showed non-directed walks of low rectitude in the air stream alone but changed to goal-oriented upwind displacement characterised by relatively straight tracks when the odour of the artificial diet and vapours of methyl salicylate, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were added to the air stream. This chemoanemotactic targeted displacement illustrates appetence for certain volatile cues from food by starved Lobesia larvae. Analysis of the larval behaviour indicates dose dependent responses to some of the host plant volatiles tested with a response to methyl salicylate already visible at 1ng, the lowest source dose tested. These behavioural responses show that Lobesia larvae can efficiently locate mixtures of volatile products released by food sources as well as single volatile constituents of their host plants. Such goal-oriented responses with shorter travel time and reduced energy loss are probably of importance for larval survival as it decreases the time they are exposed to biotic and abiotic hazards. PMID:19192482

Becher, Paul G; Guerin, Patrick M

2009-04-01

115

The preset grating effect for mutually pumped phase conjugator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the four-wave mixing mechanism and light fanning effect, a mutually pumped phase conjugator(MPPC) model is proposed to analyze the variation of MPPC output response with time for different scattering seed value. It shows that preset grating can enhance the fan light intensity when it satisfies Bragg condition and also can shorten MPPC response time. In experiment the bird-wings MPPC is done with or without the preset grating and the variation of MPPC reflectivity with time is obtained in two cases, and simulation conclusion is in agreement with the experimental result. These results have importance for applications of MPPC on optical heterodyne detection.

Ma, Lin; Kang, Zhihua; Zhang, Ninghua; Liu, Jifang; Shi, Shunxiang

2014-11-01

116

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1.831-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2010-04-01

117

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1.831-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2013-04-01

118

Reflexive orienting in response to short- and long-duration gaze cues in young, young-old, and old-old adults.  

PubMed

Shifting visual focus on the basis of the perceived gaze direction of another person is one form of joint attention. In the present study, we investigated whether this socially relevant form of orienting is reflexive and whether it is influenced by age. Green and Woldorff (Cognition 122:96-101, 2012) argued that rapid cueing effects (i.e., faster responses to validly than to invalidly cued targets) were limited to conditions in which a cue overlapped in time with a target. They attributed slower responses following invalid cues to the time needed to resolve the incongruent spatial information provided by the concurrently presented cue and target. In the present study, we examined the orienting responses of young (18-31 years), young-old (60-74 years), and old-old (75-91 years) adults following uninformative central gaze cues that overlapped in time with the target (Exp. 1) or that were removed prior to target presentation (Exp. 2). When the cue and target overlapped, all three groups localized validly cued targets more quickly than invalidly cued targets, and validity effects emerged earlier for the two younger groups (at 100 ms post-cue-onset) than for the old-old group (at 300 ms post-cue-onset). With a short-duration cue (Exp. 2), validity effects developed rapidly (by 100 ms) for all three groups, suggesting that validity effects resulted from reflexive orienting based on the gaze cue information rather than from cue-target conflict. Thus, although old-old adults may be slow to disengage from persistent gaze cues, attention continues to be reflexively guided by gaze cues late in life. PMID:24170377

Gayzur, Nora D; Langley, Linda K; Kelland, Chris; Wyman, Sara V; Saville, Alyson L; Ciernia, Annie T; Padmanabhan, Ganesh

2014-02-01

119

A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

2010-01-01

120

76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the...

2011-04-12

121

Analysis of four alternative energy mutual funds.  

E-print Network

??We analyze four alternative energy mutual funds using a multi-factor capital asset pricing model with generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic errors (CAPM-GARCH). Our findings will help… (more)

Selik, Michael Andrew

2010-01-01

122

Cheating and the evolutionary stability of mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific mutualisms have been playing a central role in the functioning of all ecosystems since the early history of life. Yet the theory of coevolution of mutualists is virtually nonexistent, by contrast with well-developed coevolutionary theories of competition, predator-prey and host-parasite interactions. This has prevented resolution of a basic puzzle posed by mutualisms: their persistence in spite of apparent evolutionary

Regis Ferriere; Judith L. Bronstein; Sergio Rinaldi; Richard Law; Mathias Gauduchon

2002-01-01

123

Lateral Inhibition between Orientation Detectors in the Human Visual System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment has shown that two lines of different orientation interact with each other so that they seem to be displaced from one another in orientation. This could be explained in terms of mutual inhibition between neighbouring columns in the visual cortex.

Colin Blakemore; Roger H. S. Carpenter; MARK A. GEORGESON

1970-01-01

124

Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (?196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 ?m) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 ?m. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

2010-01-01

125

College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

126

Relative orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before corresponding points in images taken with two cameras can be used to recover distances to objects in a scene, one has to determine the position and orientation of one camera relative to the other. This is the classic photogrammetric problem of relative orientation, central to the interpretation of binocular stereo information. Iterative methods for determining relative orientation were developed

Berthold K. P. Horn

1990-01-01

127

Analysis of the orientational order effect on n-alkanes: Evidences on experimental response functions and description using Monte Carlo molecular simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-range correlations of the molecular orientations in liquid n-alkanes have been extensively studied from depolarized Rayleigh scattering and thermodynamic measurements. These correlations between segments induce structural anisotropy in the fluid bulk. This phenomenon, which is characteristic of linear chain molecules when the constituting segments are nor freely jointed, but interact through a given angular potential, is then present in the linear n-Cn series, increasing its magnitude with chain length, and it is therefore less relevant or even completely absent in branched alkanes. This intermolecular effect is clearly revealed in second-order excess magnitudes such as heat capacities when the linear molecule is mixed with one whose structure approaches sphericity. The mixing process of different aspect ratio chain molecules is thought to modify the original pure fluid structure, by producing a diminution of the orientational order previously existing between pure n-alkane chains. However, second-order thermodynamics quantities of pure liquids CP, (?v/?T)P, and (?v/?P)P are known to be very sensitive to the specific interactions occurring at the microscopic level. In other words, the behavior of these derived properties versus temperature and pressure can be regarded as response functions of the complexity of the microscopic interactions. Thus, the purpose of the present work is to rationalize the orientational order evolution with both temperature and molecular chain length from the analysis of pure fluid properties. To this aim, we focused on two linear alkanes, n-octane (n-C8) and n-hexadecane (n-C16), and two of their branched isomers, i.e., 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (br-C8) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (br-C16). For each compound, we propose a combined study from direct experimental determination of second-order derivative properties and Monte Carlo simulations. We performed density ?, speed of sound c, and isobaric heat capacity CP measurements in broad ranges of pressure and temperature allowing a complete thermodynamic characterization of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations provide a link between the molecular scale model and the experimental thermodynamic properties. Additional information about the microscopic structure of the simulated fluid model was derived, through the calculation of the radius of gyration and average end-to-end distances. Orientational order is clearly revealed by the experimental residual heat capacity trend of pure linear alkanes. The close agreement observed between this experimental macroscopic property and the calculated theoretical structural parameters support the conclusion that the orientational order between segments of linear molecules should be regarded as a conformational effect due to the flexibility of the chain.

Bessières, D.; Piñeiro, M. M.; De Ferron, G.; Plantier, F.

2010-08-01

128

Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.  

PubMed Central

The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

Maxwell, C

1982-01-01

129

Mutual information rate and bounds for it  

E-print Network

The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two data sets (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

M. S. Baptista; R. M. Rubinger; E. R. V. Junior; J. C. Sartorelli; U. Parlitz; C. Grebogi

2011-04-18

130

Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It  

PubMed Central

The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, José C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

2012-01-01

131

Subgroup 4 R2R3-MYBs in conifer trees: gene family expansion and contribution to the isoprenoid- and flavonoid-oriented responses.  

PubMed

Transcription factors play a fundamental role in plants by orchestrating temporal and spatial gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Several R2R3-MYB genes of the Arabidopsis subgroup 4 (Sg4) share a C-terminal EAR motif signature recently linked to stress response in angiosperm plants. It is reported here that nearly all Sg4 MYB genes in the conifer trees Picea glauca (white spruce) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) form a monophyletic clade (Sg4C) that expanded following the split of gymnosperm and angiosperm lineages. Deeper sequencing in P. glauca identified 10 distinct Sg4C sequences, indicating over-representation of Sg4 sequences compared with angiosperms such as Arabidopsis, Oryza, Vitis, and Populus. The Sg4C MYBs share the EAR motif core. Many of them had stress-responsive transcript profiles after wounding, jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, or exposure to cold in P. glauca and P. taeda, with MYB14 transcripts accumulating most strongly and rapidly. Functional characterization was initiated by expressing the P. taeda MYB14 (PtMYB14) gene in transgenic P. glauca plantlets with a tissue-preferential promoter (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) and a ubiquitous gene promoter (ubiquitin). Histological, metabolite, and transcript (microarray and targeted quantitative real-time PCR) analyses of PtMYB14 transgenics, coupled with mechanical wounding and JA application experiments on wild-type plantlets, allowed identification of PtMYB14 as a putative regulator of an isoprenoid-oriented response that leads to the accumulation of sesquiterpene in conifers. Data further suggested that PtMYB14 may contribute to a broad defence response implicating flavonoids. This study also addresses the potential involvement of closely related Sg4C sequences in stress responses and plant evolution. PMID:20732878

Bedon, Frank; Bomal, Claude; Caron, Sébastien; Levasseur, Caroline; Boyle, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

2010-09-01

132

Subgroup 4 R2R3-MYBs in conifer trees: gene family expansion and contribution to the isoprenoid- and flavonoid-oriented responses  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors play a fundamental role in plants by orchestrating temporal and spatial gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Several R2R3-MYB genes of the Arabidopsis subgroup 4 (Sg4) share a C-terminal EAR motif signature recently linked to stress response in angiosperm plants. It is reported here that nearly all Sg4 MYB genes in the conifer trees Picea glauca (white spruce) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) form a monophyletic clade (Sg4C) that expanded following the split of gymnosperm and angiosperm lineages. Deeper sequencing in P. glauca identified 10 distinct Sg4C sequences, indicating over-represention of Sg4 sequences compared with angiosperms such as Arabidopsis, Oryza, Vitis, and Populus. The Sg4C MYBs share the EAR motif core. Many of them had stress-responsive transcript profiles after wounding, jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, or exposure to cold in P. glauca and P. taeda, with MYB14 transcripts accumulating most strongly and rapidly. Functional characterization was initiated by expressing the P. taeda MYB14 (PtMYB14) gene in transgenic P. glauca plantlets with a tissue-preferential promoter (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) and a ubiquitous gene promoter (ubiquitin). Histological, metabolite, and transcript (microarray and targeted quantitiative real-time PCR) analyses of PtMYB14 transgenics, coupled with mechanical wounding and JA application experiments on wild-type plantlets, allowed identification of PtMYB14 as a putative regulator of an isoprenoid-oriented response that leads to the accumulation of sesquiterpene in conifers. Data further suggested that PtMYB14 may contribute to a broad defence response implicating flavonoids. This study also addresses the potential involvement of closely related Sg4C sequences in stress responses and plant evolution. PMID:20732878

Bedon, Frank; Bomal, Claude; Caron, Sébastien; Levasseur, Caroline; Boyle, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

2010-01-01

133

Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

1977-01-01

134

Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

Sanders, Shirley

135

An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity  

E-print Network

at a broad community scale. Keywords Community structure, endophyte, food web, indirect effects, insect the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium nearly 20%, shifted arthropod species composition relative to endophyte-free plots and suppressed

Rudgers, Jennifer

136

Simultaneous Water Filling in Mutually Interfering Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate properties of simultaneous water filling for a wireless system with two mutually interfering transmitters and receivers with non- cooperative coding strategies. This is slightly different from the traditional interference channel probl em which assumes that transmitters cooperate in their respective coding strategies, and that interference cancellation can be performed at the receivers. In this non-cooperative

Otilia Popescu; Dimitrie C. Popescu; Christopher Rose

2007-01-01

137

Mutual coherence of optical and matter waves  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme to measure the cross-correlations and mutual coherence of optical and matter fields. It relies on the combination of a matter-wave detector operating by photoionization of the atoms and a traditional absorption photodetector. We show that the double-detection signal is sensitive to cross-correlation functions of light and matter waves.

G. A. Prataviera; E. V. Goldstein; P. Meystre

1999-07-15

138

Temporal Planning with Mutual Exclusion Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many planning domains require a richer no­ tion of time in which actions can overlap and have different durations. The key to fast per­ formance in classical planners (e.g., Graphplan, IPP, and Blackbox) has been the use of a dis­ junctive representation with powerful mutual exclusion reasoning. This paper presents TGP, a new algorithm for temporal planning. TGP operates by

David E. Smith; Daniel S. Weld

1999-01-01

139

Mutual Causation in Highway Construction and Economic  

E-print Network

Mutual Causation in Highway Construction and Economic Development Michael Iacono David Levinson Temporal relationships (e.g. highways, employment) State/province level Sectoral disaggregation County productivity #12;Present Study Builds on previous approaches More spatial detail (county-level) Highway

Minnesota, University of

140

Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication  

PubMed Central

During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

2012-01-01

141

Electro-optical response of homeotropic-oriented nematic having DeltaE>0 in an inhomogeneous electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) deformation near the pore in a metal-dielectric-NLC-ITO structure under the action of positive polarity of voltage is studied. Experiments indicate that deformation of NLC is observed over any size ores. Character time of relaxation depends on the size or pre and takes more than ten minutes for large (> 20 micrometers ) pores and less than a second for small (< 10 micrometers ) ones respectively. It is shown, that the electrically driven transferring of lecithin can be responsible for a long period of time relaxation.

Gritsenko, Ivanovich M.; Kucheev, Sergey I.

1998-09-01

142

THE ORIGIN OF A MUTUALISM: A MORPHOLOGICAL TRAIT PROMOTING THE EVOLUTION OF ANT-APHID MUTUALISMS  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms are mutually beneficial interactions between species and are fundamentally important at all levels of biological organization. It is not clear, however, why one species participates in a particular mutualism whereas another does not. Here we show that pre-existing traits can dispose particular species to evolve a mutualistic interaction. Combining morphological, ecological, and behavioral data in a comparative analysis, we show that resource use in Chaitophorus aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) modulates the origin of their mutualism with ants. We demonstrate that aphid species that feed on deeper phloem elements have longer mouthparts, that this inhibits their ability to withdraw their mouthparts and escape predators and that, consequently, this increases their need for protection by mutualist ants. PMID:15926702

Shingleton, Alexander W.; Stern, David L.; Foster, William A.

2010-01-01

143

Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects. PMID:22381679

Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

144

Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations. PMID:25234707

Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

2015-02-01

145

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES  

E-print Network

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

146

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding James A. Coana  

E-print Network

in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response; neuroscience; attachment; couples Social support promotes physical health (Dekkers et al., 2001; Yarcheski

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

147

Prisoners or Volunteers: Developing Mutual Respect in the Elementary Science Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate how teacher educators might help preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course understand the need for mutual respect rather than coercion between pupil and teacher in an elementary classroom. An evaluation instrument was developed that consisted of a pre and post open-ended response to a…

Huber, Richard A.; And Others

148

Response-oriented measuring inequalities in Tehran: second round of UrbanHealth Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2), concepts and framework  

PubMed Central

Background Current evidence consistently confirm inequalities in health status among socioeconomic none, gender,ethnicity, geographical area and other social determinants of health (SDH), which adversely influence health ofthe population. SDH refer to a wide range of factors not limited to social component, but also involve economic, cultural,educational, political or environmental problems. Measuring inequalities, improving daily living conditions, andtackling inequitable distribution of resources are highly recommended by international SDH commissioners in recentyears to ‘close the gaps within a generation’. To measure inequalities in socio-economic determinants and core healthindicators in Tehran, the second round of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2)was conducted in November 2011, within the main framework of WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe Centre). Method For ‘assessment’ part of the project, 65 indicators in six policy domains namely ‘physical and infrastructure’,‘human and social’, ‘economic’, ‘governance’, ‘health and nutrition’, and also ‘cultural’ domain were targetedeither through a population based survey or using routine system. Survey was conducted in a multistage random sampling,disaggregated to 22 districts and 368 neighborhoods of Tehran, where data of almost 35000 households(118000 individuals) were collected. For ‘response’ part of the project, widespread community based development(CBD) projects were organized in all 368 neighborhoods, which are being undertaken throughout 2013. Conclusion Following the first round of Urban HEART project in 2008, the second round was conducted to trackchanges over time, to institutionalize inequality assessment within the local government, to build up community participationin ‘assessment’ and ‘response’ parts of the project, and to implement appropriate and evidence-based actionsto reduce health inequalities within all neighborhoods of Tehran. PMID:24926187

Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Cherghian, Bahman; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Golmakani, Mehdi; Haeri-Mehrizi, Ali-Asghar; Hesari, Hossein; Kalantari, Naser; Kamali, Mohammad; Kordi, Ramin; Malek-Afzali, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Motevallian, Abbas; Noorbala, Ahmad; Raghfar, Hossein; Razzaghi, Emran

2013-01-01

149

A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism.  

PubMed

Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer-resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant-mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general. PMID:20503862

Holland, J Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L

2010-05-01

150

12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...number of a class of mutual capital certificates, or the number of a class of mutual capital certificates ranking prior to or on parity with another class of mutual capital certificates; or (F) Action is sought which would authorize the issuance of an...

2010-01-01

151

Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1993-01-01

152

Derivatives Do Affect Mutual Funds Returns : How and When?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first to present evidence on the magnitude of derivative use by mutual funds. Using a unique data set of detailed balance sheet information on open-end mutual funds, we characterize the nature of derivative use by these funds. Most mutual funds using derivatives do so to a very limited extent that has little discernable impact on returns.

Charles Cao; Eric Ghysels; Frank Hatheway

2001-01-01

153

Mutual coherence of gravitationally lensed images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual coherence of two images of a distant source, both focussed into a telescope by an intervening gravitational lens, is investigated for the case of stellar-mass lenses. The degree of coherence is given as a function of the source's physical parameters (extent and shape, intensity distribution over surface, sharpness of edge) and its detectability is discussed. The lensing configuration is likened to a VLBI experiment of extremely long baseline. Effects of inhomogeneous intergalactic plasma on coherence, and of lensing amplification on source counts are studied. It is stressed that a measurement of the mutual coherence could prove the existence of dark stellar mass objects (missing mass problem) and of an inhomogeneous intergalactic matter.

Schneider, P.; Schmid-Burgk, J.

1985-07-01

154

Mutual information on the fuzzy sphere  

E-print Network

We numerically calculate entanglement entropy and mutual information for a massive free scalar field on commutative (ordinary) and noncommutative (fuzzy) spheres. We regularize the theory on the commutative geometry by discretizing the polar coordinate, whereas the theory on the noncommutative geometry naturally posseses a finite and adjustable number of degrees of freedom. Our results show that the UV-divergent part of the entanglement entropy on a fuzzy sphere does not follow an area law, while the entanglement entropy on a commutative sphere does. Nonetheless, we find that mutual information (which is UV-finite) is the same in both theories. This suggests that nonlocality at short distances does not affect quantum correlations over large distances in a free field theory.

Philippe Sabella-Garnier

2014-09-24

155

Hardware device binding and mutual authentication  

DOEpatents

Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

2014-03-04

156

Mutually altruistic trends in resources allocation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions to a series of apparent paradoxes arising in problems dealing with resources allocation under mutually altruistic conditions are presented. In particular, Bergstrom's lovers’ dilemma (J. Econ. Perspect. 3 (1989) 165) is dealt with as an explicit example of such apparent paradoxes. Bergstrom's discovery of a transition point in utility functions that express altruistic relationships is shown to apply generally to any non-indifferent relationship (and not necessarily altruistic) between consumers, and to general utility functions.

Vadasz, Peter

2005-03-01

157

Consumer Evaluation of Dual Focus Mutual Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a “dual focus,” 12 step-based mutual aid program tailored to assist recovery from co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. Objective: To determine consumers' perceptions of DTR's usefulness for their recoveries and the relationships between perceived DTR usefulness and self-help processes, self-efficacy to cope with problems in recovery, and changes in behaviors conducive to dual

Stephen Magura; Cherie L. Villano; Andrew Rosenblum; Howard S. Vogel; Thomas Betzler

2008-01-01

158

Mutual Friction in Superfluid Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We discuss vortex-mediated mutual friction in the two-fluid model for superfluid neutron star cores. Our discussion is based on the general formalism developed by Carter and collaborators, which makes due distinction between transport velocity and momentum for each fluid. This is essential for an implementation of the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the flow of one fluid imparts momentum in the other and vice versa. The mutual friction follows by balancing the Magnus force that acts on the quantised neutron vortices with a resistive force due to the scattering of electrons off of the magnetic field with which each vortex core is endowed. We derive the form of the macroscopic mutual friction force which is relevant for a model based on smooth-averaging over a collection of vortices. We discuss the coefficients that enter the expression for this force, and the timescale on which the two interpenetrating fluids in a neutron star core are coupled. This discussion confirms that our new formulation accords well with previous work in this area.

N. Andersson; T. Sidery; G. L. Comer

2005-10-03

159

Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events  

SciTech Connect

As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W. (Catania Universita (Italy); Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin (Italy))

1989-07-01

160

Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.  

PubMed

The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

2013-02-01

161

Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.  

PubMed

A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. PMID:24428169

Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

2014-04-01

162

Analyzing Orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

163

Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields.  

PubMed

Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch biomass, a habitat feature of known importance to spiders. The richness of both spider families and morphospecies was greater in the absence of the endophyte, although total spider abundance was not affected. Thatch removal reduced both spider abundance and richness, and endophyte and thatch effects were largely additive. Spider families differed in responses, with declines in Linyphiidae and Thomisidae due to the endophyte and declines in Lycosidae due to thatch removal. Results demonstrate that the community impacts of non-native plants can depend on plants' mutualistic associates, such as fungal endophytes. PMID:16958901

Finkes, Laura K; Cady, Alan B; Mulroy, Juliana C; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2006-03-01

164

Cosmetic Surgeries and Non-Orientable Surfaces Kazuhiro ICHIHARA  

E-print Network

169 Cosmetic Surgeries and Non-Orientable Surfaces Kazuhiro ICHIHARA Accepted November 14, 2012 Proceedings of the Institute of Natural Sciences, Nihon University No.48 2013 pp.169 174 1 COSMETIC SURGERIES/3- and -10/3-Dehn surgeries on the 2-bridge knot 927 are not cosmetic, i.e., they give mutually non

Ichihara, Kazuhiro

165

Theory of Orientation Tuning in Visual Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of intrinsic cortical connections in processing sensory input and in generating behavioral output is poorly understood. We have examined this issue in the context of the tuning of neuronal responses in cortex to the orientation of a visual stimulus. We analytically study a simple network model that incorporates both orientation-selective input from the lateral geniculate nucleus and orientation-specific

R. Ben-Yishai; R. Lev Bar-Or; H. Sompolinsky

1995-01-01

166

Mutually injection locked lasers for enhanced frequency response  

DOEpatents

Semiconductor light-emitting devices; methods of forming semi-conductor light emitting devices, and methods of operating semi-conductor light emitting devices are provided. A semiconductor light-emitting device includes a first laser section monolithically integrated with a second laser section on a common substrate. Each laser section has a phase section, a gain section and at least one distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure. The first laser section and the second laser section are optically coupled to permit optical feedback therebetween. Each phase section is configured to independently tune a respective one of the first laser section and second laser section relative to each other.

Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A; Chow, Weng W

2014-04-01

167

Generalized mutual informations of quantum critical chains  

E-print Network

We study the R\\'enyi mutual information $\\tilde{I}_n$ of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The R\\'enyi mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the R\\'enyi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete $Z(Q)$ symmetries (Q-state Potts model with $Q=2,3,4$ and $Z(Q)$ parafermionic models with $Q=5,6,7,8$ and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the $U(1)$ continuous symmetries(Klein-Gordon field theory, XXZ and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wavefunctions in two special basis. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter $n$ that defines $\\tilde{I}_n$. For a system, with total size $L$ and subsystem sizes $\\ell$ and $L-\\ell$, the$\\tilde{I}_n$ has a logarithmic leading behavior given by $\\frac{\\til...

Alcaraz, F C

2015-01-01

168

Detecting companions to extrasolar planets using mutual events  

E-print Network

We investigate a new approach to the detection of companions to extrasolar planets beyond the transit method. We discuss the possibility of the existence of binary planets. We develop a method based on the imaging of a planet-companion as an unresolved system (but resolved from its parent star). It makes use of planet-companion mutual phenomena, namely mutual transits and mutual shadows. We show that companions can be detected and their radius measured down to lunar sizes.

J. Cabrera; J. Schneider

2007-03-23

169

On the Mutual Coupling Between Circular Resonant Slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such array probes is impaired by the mutual coupling present between the radiating elements. The mutual coupling problem poses a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and its sensitivity. In this paper, we investigate the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane both numerically and experimentally. Based on the analysis of the dominant coupling mechanism, i.e., the surface currents, various remedies to reduce the slots' mutual coupling are proposed and verified.

Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

2007-01-01

170

On the Mutual Coupling between Circular Resonant Slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such an array is impaired by the existing mutual coupling between the radiating elements or in this case circular slots. The mutual coupling problem imposes a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and the overall system sensitivity and dynamic range. In this paper, the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane is investigated both numerically and experimentally. In particular, the mutual coupling in the E- and H-plane configurations of two identical slots is studied.

Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovshy, S.; Zoughi, R.

2007-01-01

171

The stability and persistence of mutualisms embedded in community interactions.  

PubMed

In this paper we argue that two-species models of mutualism may be oversimplifications of the real world that lead to erroneous predictions. We present a four-species model of a pollination mutualism embedded in other types of community interactions. Conclusions derived from two-species models about the destabilizing effect of mutualisms are misleading when applied to the present scenario; although the mutualisms are locally destabilizing, the effect is more than canceled by an increased chance of feasibility. The crucial difference is the interaction of the mutualists with other species in a larger web. Furthermore, community persistence (without unrealistic population explosion), arguably a superior ecological criterion, is greatly enhanced by the presence of mutualisms. Therefore, we predict that mutualisms should be common in the real world, a prediction matching empirial findings and in contrast to the predictions from local stability analysis of basic two-species models. This method of stabilizing a mutualism appears superior in some ways to the often-used method of introducing density dependence in the strength of the mutualism, because it permits obligate mutualisms to exist even at low densities, again matching empirical findings. Lastly, this study is an example of how complex model assemblages can behave qualitatively differently from analogous simpler ones. PMID:9000491

Ringel, M S; Hu, H H; Anderson, G

1996-12-01

172

Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes About Treating Patients With Alcohol Addiction After Attending a Required Mutual Support Group  

PubMed Central

Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction. Design. Third-year (P3) pharmacy students enrolled in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory course were required to watch an introductory video about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and then attend 2 “open meetings” during the semester. Students submitted a written reflection as proof of attendance. Assessment. Pharmacy students who agreed to participate in the study completed the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) during the course orientation and again at the end of the semester. Mutual support group attendance significantly affected the students’ attitudes within the domains of role adequacy, task specific self-esteem, and work satisfaction. Significant changes were not observed within the domains of motivation and role legitimacy. Conclusion. Mutual support group attendance exposed pharmacy students to the negative effects of alcohol abuse and increased their self-confidence to provide care to patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:24672072

2014-01-01

173

Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

174

Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.  

PubMed

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

2014-11-24

175

The roles of sensory traps in the origin, maintenance, and breakdown of mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory traps are signal mimics that elicit out-of-context behaviors by exploiting the adaptive, neural responses of signal\\u000a receivers. Sensory traps have long been invoked in studies of mate and prey attraction, but the possible roles of sensory\\u000a traps in mutualisms (cooperation between species) have yet to be thoroughly examined. Our review identifies four candidate\\u000a roles for sensory traps in the

David P. Edwards; Douglas W. Yu

2007-01-01

176

Orientation-Independent Measures of Ground Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori- zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation

David M. Boore; Jennie Watson-Lamprey; Norman A. Abrahamson

2006-01-01

177

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

178

Mutual coupling reduction between closely-packed MIMO PIFA arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel solution for reducing the mutual coupling between two closely packed Planar inverted-F antennas (PIFAs) positioned on a compact ground plane is presented. A single miniaturised convoluted slit with optimised dimensions is introduced between the two PIFAs. The presence of the slit leads to a significant reduction of the mutual coupling in the antennas' operation frequency band. The proposed

Qian Li; Alexandros P. Feresidis

2011-01-01

179

Orchestrating fair exchanges between mutually distrustful web services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a modular and fully decentralized protocol to orchestrate fair exchanges between mutually distrustful yet collaborating web services. Our motivation roots in the observation that fair exchange is a key problem in settings where mutually distrustful entities are willing to exchange critical digital items in the absence of a trusted third party, which is typically the

Benoît Garbinato; Ian Rickebusch

2006-01-01

180

The Ethics of Mutuality and Feminist Relational Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper articulates the compatibility of Aristotle's ethics and the Stone Center's relational model of therapy that recognizes our need for “growth-fostering relationships.” To Aristotle, the achievement of mutuality in genuine friendships is the highest expression of moral excellence. Since mutuality is so important for us, both psychologically and morally, we need to understand whatever hampers its actual achievement. Four

Susan S. Stocker

2005-01-01

181

Compilation -Build Automation Posix Threads Mutual Exclusion , 19 , 2010  

E-print Network

Compilation - Build Automation Posix Threads Mutual Exclusion µ µ 5o µ, µ , 19 µ, 2010 4 µ /, 19 µ 2010 1 / 47 #12;Compilation - Build Automation Posix Threads Mutual Exclusion µ / ­ -1 µ µ / - µµ / ­ -1 µ µ /, 19 µ 2010 2 / 47 #12;Compilation - Build Automation Posix Threads

Triantafillou, Peter

182

Nonatomic Mutual Exclusion with Local Spinning # (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

. This algorithm is derived from Yang and Anderson's atomic tree­based local­spin algorithm in a way that preservesNonatomic Mutual Exclusion with Local Spinning # (Extended Abstract) James H. Anderson and Yong}@cs.unc.edu ABSTRACT We present an N­process local­spin mutual exclusion algorithm, based on nonatomic reads and writes

Anderson, James

183

Nonatomic Mutual Exclusion with Local Spinning (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

. This algorithm is derived from Yang and Anderson's atomic tree-based local-spin algorithm in a way that preservesNonatomic Mutual Exclusion with Local Spinning (Extended Abstract) James H. Anderson and Yong}@cs.unc.edu ABSTRACT We present an N-process local-spin mutual exclusion algorithm, based on nonatomic reads and writes

Anderson, James

184

Orientation selectivity in pinwheel centers in cat striate cortex.  

PubMed

In primary visual cortex of higher mammals neurons are grouped according to their orientation preference, forming "pinwheels" around "orientation centers." Although the general structure of orientation maps is largely resolved, the microscopic arrangement of neuronal response properties in the orientation centers has remained elusive. The tetrode technique, enabling multiple single-unit recordings, in combination with intrinsic signal imaging was used to reveal the fine-grain structure of orientation maps in these locations. The results show that orientation centers represent locations where orientation columns converge containing normal, sharply tuned neurons of different orientation preference lying in close proximity. PMID:9171056

Maldonado, P E; Gödecke, I; Gray, C M; Bonhoeffer, T

1997-06-01

185

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

186

LOCAL ATTRACTION AND FEEDING RESPONSE OF MELON FLIES AND ORIENTAL FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO VARIOUS PROTEIN BAITS WITH AND WITHOUT SPINOSAD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

187

Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants  

PubMed Central

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

2010-01-01

188

Quantum mutual information along unitary orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyze the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system's state with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimization problem for the smallest system of two qubits and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward for equal-sized subsystems, however their minimization displays nontrivial structures. We characterize a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides: a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular “Young tableau” form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with respect to individual marginal entropies, and the presence of a “see-saw effect” for these entropies forces a finer analysis to determine the optimal tableau.

Jevtic, Sania; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

2012-05-01

189

31 CFR 1024.220 - Customer identification programs for mutual funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customer identification programs for mutual funds. 1024.220 Section 1024.220...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MUTUAL FUNDS Programs § 1024.220 Customer identification programs for mutual funds. (a) Customer identification...

2011-07-01

190

77 FR 73700 - Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...File No. 812-14059] Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of...APPLICANTS: Mutual of America Life Insurance Company (``Mutual of America''), Wilton Reassurance Life Company of New York...

2012-12-11

191

63 FR 17744 - Mutual Recognition of the Food and Drug Administration and European Community Member State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...toward acceptance of a mutual recognition agreement. III. Environmental...higher trade volumes, mutual recognition or equivalence-based agreements...consumer protection in the face of a changing global marketplace...earmarked for achieving mutual recognition agreements. FDA,...

1998-04-10

192

63 FR 31685 - Streamlining the Equipment Authorization Process; Implementation of Mutual Recognition Agreements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...United States and the EC should face comparable requirements with...certification activity. Mutual Recognition Agreements 16. The Office...years to develop a mutual recognition agreement for product approvals...be prepared for full mutual recognition of product...

1998-06-10

193

Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds),  

E-print Network

Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds), Exobiology: Matter Publishers, The Netherlands, 1998. MUTUALLY CATALYTIC AMPHIPHILES: SIMULATED CHEMICAL EVOLUTION in which the mutually catalytic molecules are spontaneously aggregating amphiphiles. When such amphiphiles

Segrè, Daniel

194

Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics  

E-print Network

After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.

Masanori Ohya

2004-06-30

195

Mutually unbiased bases and semi-definite programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Gröbner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan

2010-11-01

196

Mutually connected component of networks of networks with replica nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the emergence of the giant mutually connected component in networks of networks in which each node has a single replica node in any layer and can be interdependent only on its replica nodes in the interdependent layers. We prove that if, in these networks, all the nodes of one network (layer) are interdependent on the nodes of the same other interconnected layer, then, remarkably, the mutually connected component does not depend on the topology of the network of networks. This component coincides with the mutual component of the fully connected network of networks constructed from the same set of layers, i.e., a multiplex network.

Bianconi, Ginestra; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

2015-01-01

197

From Ethical Responsibility to Corporate Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility is a concept on the rise, but also a heavily criticized one. Basically, it suffers from a crucial weakness: it has no generally accepted, common framework. Consequently, it remains an amalgam of descriptive, instrumental and normative proposals, based on mutually incompatible ethical, sociological and economic theories. This article starts from the concept of responsibility as a moral

Antonio Argandoña

198

Sexual sterilization of oriental fruit flies and Mediterranean fruit flies by thiotepa: Dosage?response, mating competitiveness, and resistance to deprivation of food and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

When oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, of mixed sex were supplied with sugar treated with 0.026% thiotepa for 3 days after eclosion no eggs hatched. Only 0.2% hatched when the dose was 0.0065% thiotepa. A dose of 0.10% was toxic to the insects. Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were not completely sterilized at any dose tested although eggs

Mohammad Ashraf; Irving Keiser; Ernest J. Harris

1976-01-01

199

Spatial Analysis of Drumlin Orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns in the orientations of drumlins may hold insight into their formation, but have received limited attention in the literature. Conventional statistical methods can not be applied to orientation data, so techniques for circular statistics must be used. Specifically, we use geographically weighted techniques as in Brunsdon and Charlton (2006) to assess the spatial structure in the orientations of the Chautauqua drumlin field. The field is located in North Western Pennsylvania and Western New York State and contains 755 drumlins, mapped from a 10m DEM, in an area of approximately 2500 square kilometers (Norton and Lanier, 2007). We also consider regression trees for a circular response, as in Lund (2002), to build predictive models for the orientations using both the drumlin locations and other morphometric characteristics to explain the spatial variability of these subglacial landforms.

Gilstrap, C. R.; Greenwood, M. C.; Norton, K. P.

2007-12-01

200

Mutualism with plants drives primate diversification.  

PubMed

Understanding the origin of diversity is a fundamental problem in biology. Evolutionary diversification has been intensely explored during the last years due to the development of molecular tools and the comparative method. However, most studies are conducted using only information from extant species. This approach probably leads to misleading conclusions, especially because of inaccuracy in the estimation of extinction rates. It is critical to integrate the information generated by extant organisms with the information obtained from the fossil record. Unfortunately, this integrative approach has been seldom performed, and thus, our understanding of the factors fueling diversification is still deficient. Ecological interactions are a main factor shaping evolutionary diversification by influencing speciation and extinction rates. Most attention has focused on the effect of antagonistic interactions on evolutionary diversification. In contrast, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping diversification has been much less explored. In this study, by combining phylogenetic, neontological, and paleontological information, we show that a facultative mutualistic plant-animal interaction emerging from frugivory and seed dispersal has most likely contributed to the diversification of our own lineage, the primates. We compiled diet and seed dispersal ability in 381 extant and 556 extinct primates. Using well-established molecular phylogenies, we demonstrated that mutualistic extant primates had higher speciation rates, lower extinction rates, and thereby higher diversification rates than nonmutualistic ones. Similarly, mutualistic fossil primates had higher geological durations and smaller per capita rates of extinction than nonmutualistic ones. As a mechanism underlying this pattern, we found that mutualistic extinct and extant primates have significantly larger geographic ranges, which promotes diversification by hampering extinction and increasing geographic speciation. All these outcomes together strongly suggest that the establishment of a facultative mutualism with plants has greatly benefited primate evolution and fueled its taxonomic diversification. PMID:22228798

Gómez, José M; Verdú, Miguel

2012-07-01

201

EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

2008-11-01

202

Parasponia: a novel system for studying mutualism stability.  

PubMed

Understanding how mutualistic interactions are stabilized in the presence of cheaters is a major question in evolutionary biology. The legume-rhizobia mutualism has become a model system for studying how plants control cheating partners. However, the generality and evolutionary origins of these control mechanisms are intensely debated. In this Opinion article, we argue that a novel system--the Parasponia-rhizobia mutualism--will significantly advance research in mutualism stability. Parasponia is the only non-legume lineage to have evolved a rhizobial symbiosis, which provides an evolutionary replicate to test how rhizobial exploitation is controlled. Evidence also suggests that this symbiosis is young. This allows studies at an earlier evolutionary stage in mutualisms, so the origin of control mechanisms can be better understood. PMID:25239777

Behm, Jocelyn E; Geurts, Rene; Kiers, E Toby

2014-12-01

203

7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE...Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of the agreement. If one party to...

2014-01-01

204

7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE...Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of the agreement. If one party to...

2010-01-01

205

7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE...Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of the agreement. If one party to...

2011-01-01

206

7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE...Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of the agreement. If one party to...

2012-01-01

207

7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE...Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of the agreement. If one party to...

2013-01-01

208

76 FR 20459 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the...

2011-04-12

209

Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information  

E-print Network

Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information Jiang Li, Sergey based fingerprint matching algorithms are wildly used in fingerprint identification and verification the matching rate. The overall minutiae distribution pattern between two fingerprints is represented

Corso, Jason J.

210

1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP 1906: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP - 1906: ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PATERSON, N.J. (4x5 NEGATIVE) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

211

Evolutionary stability of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTERSPECIFIC mutualisms inherently possess a conflict of interests between the interacting species in that fitness increases of one species occur at the expense of the other. This holds for mutualisms as diverse as plant associations with mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen-fixing bacteria, animals and endosymbionts, and obligate plant-pollinator associations1-6. Prevailing models of interspecific cooperation predict that mutualistic interactions are evolutionary stable

Olle Pellmyr; Chad J. Huth

1994-01-01

212

Mutual induced fit in a synthetic host-guest system.  

PubMed

Mutual induced fit is an important phenomenon in biological molecular recognition, but it is still rare in artificial systems. Here we report an artificial host-guest system in which a flexible calix[4]arene is enclathrated in a dynamic self-assembled host and both molecules mutually adopt specific three-dimensional structures. NMR data revealed the conformational changes, and crystallographic studies clearly established the precise structures at each stage. PMID:24611612

Sawada, Tomohisa; Hisada, Hayato; Fujita, Makoto

2014-03-26

213

Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis  

SciTech Connect

We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A. B. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

2011-05-15

214

Direction finding in the presence of mutual coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eigenstructure-based method for direction finding in the presence of sensor mutual coupling, gain, and phase uncertainties is presented. The method provides estimates of the directions-of-arrival (DOA) of all the radiating sources as well as calibration of the gain and phase of each sensor and the mutual coupling in the receiving array. The proposed algorithm is able to calibrate the

Benjamin Friedlander; Anthony J. Weiss

1991-01-01

215

Fair K Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Peer to Peer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

k-mutualexclusionis animportantproblemforresource- intensive peer-to-peer applications ranging from aggrega- tion to file downloads. In order to be practically useful, k-mutual exclusion algorithms not only need to be safe and live, but they also need to be fair across hosts. We pro- pose a new solution to the k-mutual exclusion problem that provides a notion of time-based fairness. Specifically, our algorithm attempts

Vijay Anand Reddy; Prateek Mittal; Indranil Gupta

2008-01-01

216

Photoacoustic microscopy of Vickers indented ceramics with various mutual orientations of radial cracks and external loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of the photoacoustic signal formation in nonhomogenious samples is analyzed. Within the framework of a three dimensional model and a perturbation theory expressions are obtained in general form for the thermoelastic deformations taking into account inhomogeneties of the thermoelastic parameter of a sample. The obtained results are applied to analysis of the photoacoustic signal behavior near the tips

Kyrill L. Muratikov; Alexej L. Glazov

2005-01-01

217

Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones : Recruitment and orientation effects of cembrene-A inNasutitermes costalis (Isoptera: Termitidae) and discussion of factors affecting termite response in experimental contexts.  

PubMed

The monocyclic 14-membered ring diterpene, cembrene-A, previously identified as a nasutitermitine trail pheromone, was tested for its effectiveness as a trail pheromone inNasutitermes costalis. Artificial trails prepared from serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A over a concentration range of 10(-1)-10(-6) mg/ml were ineffective in recruiting termites. Serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A ranging in concentration from 10(-1) to 10(-5) mg/ml produced an orientation effect. Chiral cembrene-A produced recruitment in soldiers at 10(-1) and 10(-3) mg/ml and was less ineffective in recruiting workers. Soldiers always showed a lower and more variable recruitment response to chiral cembrene-A than to sternal gland extracts. The behavioral response to both chiral and racemic cembrene-A was different in quantity and quality from that observed for sternal gland extract. Based on the results of these behavioral tests, cembrene-A appears to be a generalized nasute orientation pheromone which may show recruitment properties at unnaturally high concentrations. PMID:24311243

Hall, P; Traniello, J F

1985-11-01

218

The mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils at arbitrary attitudes using a rotation matrix for airborne transient electromagnetic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance testing and calibration of airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) systems are conducted to obtain the electromagnetic response of ground loops. It is necessary to accurately calculate the mutual inductance between transmitting coils, receiving coils and ground loops to compute the electromagnetic responses. Therefore, based on Neumann's formula and the measured attitudes of the coils, this study deduces the formula for the mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils, circular and circular coils, and quadrilateral and quadrilateral coils using a rotation matrix, and then proposes a method to calculate the mutual inductance between two coils at arbitrary attitudes (roll, pitch, and yaw). Using coil attitude simulated data of an ATEM system, we calculate the mutual inductance of transmitting coils and ground loops at different attitudes, analyze the impact of coil attitudes on mutual inductance, and compare the computational accuracy and speed of the proposed method with those of other methods using the same data. The results show that the relative error of the calculation is smaller and that the speed-up is significant compared to other methods. Moreover, the proposed method is also applicable to the mutual inductance calculation of polygonal and circular coils at arbitrary attitudes and is highly expandable.

Ji, Yanju; Wang, Hongyuan; Lin, Jun; Guan, Shanshan; Feng, Xue; Li, Suyi

2014-12-01

219

Mutualism in a community context: the positive feedback between an ant–aphid mutualism and a gall-making midge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mutualisms are widespread and often described in natural history accounts, their ecological influences on other community\\u000a members remain largely unexplored. Many of these influences are likely a result of indirect effects. In this field study,\\u000a we investigated the indirect effects of an ant–aphid mutualism on the abundance, survival rates and parasitism rates of a\\u000a co-occurring herbivore. Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides (Diptera:

Amy M. Savage; Merrill A. Peterson

2007-01-01

220

Spitzer Observations of Mutual Events in the Binary System (617) Patroclus-Menoetius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Spitzer observations of the binary Trojan system (617) Patroclus-Menoetius during two mutual events, when respectively one component shadowed and occulted the other. Observing the thermal response to mutual shadowing with spectral ( 8--33 µm) and temporal resolution allowed us to determine the system's thermal inertia in a uniquely direct way. Furthermore, our analysis provided an accurate determination of the system's size which is methodologically independent of the estimate by Berthier et al. (this session). Our results allow a more reliable estimate of the system's bulk density (the total mass was determined from the system's mutual orbit; Marchis et al., 2006; Berthier et al., this session). This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This material is partly based upon work supported by the national Aeronautics and Space Administration issue through the Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs number NNG05GF09G.

Mueller, Michael; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Berthier, J.; Hestroffer, D.; Harris, A.; Descamps, P.; Vachier, F.; Mottola, S.

2007-10-01

221

Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism  

SciTech Connect

Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this has been the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of prior interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80percent faster and were up to 30percent more productive (biomass yield per mole substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis but not D. vulgaris. Together, these results show that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution.

Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

2009-12-01

222

Can horizontally oriented breast tomosynthesis image volumes or the use of a systematic search strategy improve interpretation? An eye tracking and free response human observer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our aim was to evaluate if there is a benefit in diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of viewing breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes presented horizontally oriented, but also to evaluate the use of a systematic search strategy where the breast is divided, and analyzed consecutively, into two sections. These image presentations were compared to regular vertical image presentation. All methods were investigated using viewing procedures consisting of free scroll volume browsing, and a combination of initial cine loops at three different frame rates (9, 14, 25 fps) terminated upon request followed by free scroll volume browsing if needed. Fifty-five normal BT image volumes in MLO view were collected. In these, simulated lesions (20 masses and 20 clusters of microcalcifications) were randomly inserted, creating four unique image sets for each procedure. Four readers interpreted the cases in a random order. Their task was to locate the lesions, mark and assign a five level confidence scale. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using Jackknife Free Receiver Operating Characteristics (JAFROC). Time efficiency and visual search behavior were also investigated using eye tracking. Results indicate there was no statistically significant difference in JAFROC FOM between the different image presentations, although visual search was more time efficient when viewing horizontally oriented image volumes in medium cine loops.

Lång, Kristina; Zackrisson, Sophia; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Ingvar; Förnvik, Daniel; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

2011-03-01

223

An Analysis of Spatial Orientation Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects judged whether aerial views would be seen by an observer oriented in various ways. For practiced subjects, time to answer was an approximately linear function of number of abstract spatial dimensions on which aerial view and observer's orientation were consistent. Ability correlated with linearity of response-time. (Author/RD)

Egan, Dennis E.

1981-01-01

224

Previous observations of mutual events of the Saturnian satellites and of other satellites systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concise analysis of the results of 1973, 1979, 1985 and 1991 campaigns of mutual events between Jupiter's satellites, of the 1980 campaign of mutual events between Saturn's satellites and of the campaign of mutual events between Pluto and Charon is presented. All the photoelectric observations of the presented mutual phenomena were carried out at Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory.

Blanco, C.

1996-02-01

225

Mutual influence of rotations and vibrations of a strongly ‘kicked’ diatomic heteronuclear molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of a diatomic heteronuclear molecule with strong ultrashort electromagnetic pulses is investigated by direct numerical integration of the nonstationary Schroedinger equation. The direct action of the pulse on the nuclear subsystem of a molecule is considered and both rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom are taken into account. The strong mutual influence of rotational and vibrational dynamics on each other is found and the possibility to provide an efficient rotational excitation and molecular orientation is established. In the case of the ‘?-pulse’ action, an analytical approach is developed to describe the ro-vibrational behaviour of the molecule in the after-pulse regime. The features of the field-induced coherent ro-vibrational wave packet are analyzed and the polarization signal at teraherz frequencies is found.

Kharin, V. Yu; Tikhonova, O. V.

2014-07-01

226

Microindentation of oriented polypropylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis focuses on the measurement of conventional engineering mechanical properties like yield strength, and dynamic mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of polymers using microindentation. In order to obtain high spatial resolutions, a flat punch indenter with a relatively small diameter of 80 mum was used. The present work emphasizes anisotropic materials: in particular oriented polypropylene. The initial test material was prepared by two solid state forming processes: uniaxial tensile drawing at elevated temperatures, and channel die forming. The latter allowed for greater control of the deformation ratio during forming over a much wider range of tensile strains. The mechanism of deformation under the tip of the indenter was studied using optical microscopy of thin sections viewed in transmission. The deep penetration mechanism changed with direction of indentation relative to the orientation axis. The observations were consistent with the mechanisms observed for unidirectional fiber reinforced composites. In particular, when penetrated parallel to the orientation direction, sharply defined zones of deformation which were similar to kink bands seen in compressed composites were seen. Detailed analysis of this behaviour showed that a modified version of the kink band formation theories developed for fiber composites could be successfully applied to oriented polypropylene. To confirm this, experiments on oriented polypropylene were compared to similar experiments on unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The development of deformation during deep penetration could be monitored by using a dynamic mechanical test which measured the stress amplitude response to an applied oscillating strain. One possible interpretation of these experimental observations involved the progressive development of the kink band deformation structure as the indenter was pushed into the material. The results of the first part of the thesis were used in a practical application: namely the measurement of the gradient of mechanical properties in the near surface region of a processed polypropylene. For this, a novel processing method was developed in which a strain gradient was produced in the near surface region of the material. The tensile strain gradation resulted in a corresponding gradient in mechanical properties. The micro indentation dynamic mechanical test was used to measure this variation in near surface properties. The usefulness of the microindentation test to measure local variations in viscoelastic properties was thus demonstrated on a scale which is similar to that expected in many processed plastics.

Lo, James C. W.

227

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

Haire, Timothy C.

2010-01-01

228

Thinking in Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

Johansen, Bjorn Tore

1997-01-01

229

Equitability, mutual information, and the maximal information coefficient  

PubMed Central

How should one quantify the strength of association between two random variables without bias for relationships of a specific form? Despite its conceptual simplicity, this notion of statistical “equitability” has yet to receive a definitive mathematical formalization. Here we argue that equitability is properly formalized by a self-consistency condition closely related to Data Processing Inequality. Mutual information, a fundamental quantity in information theory, is shown to satisfy this equitability criterion. These findings are at odds with the recent work of Reshef et al. [Reshef DN, et al. (2011) Science 334(6062):1518–1524], which proposed an alternative definition of equitability and introduced a new statistic, the “maximal information coefficient” (MIC), said to satisfy equitability in contradistinction to mutual information. These conclusions, however, were supported only with limited simulation evidence, not with mathematical arguments. Upon revisiting these claims, we prove that the mathematical definition of equitability proposed by Reshef et al. cannot be satisfied by any (nontrivial) dependence measure. We also identify artifacts in the reported simulation evidence. When these artifacts are removed, estimates of mutual information are found to be more equitable than estimates of MIC. Mutual information is also observed to have consistently higher statistical power than MIC. We conclude that estimating mutual information provides a natural (and often practical) way to equitably quantify statistical associations in large datasets. PMID:24550517

Kinney, Justin B.; Atwal, Gurinder S.

2014-01-01

230

Mutual diffusion of inclusions in freely suspended smectic liquid crystal films.  

PubMed

We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent. PMID:25279649

Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A; Maclennan, Joseph E; Clark, Noel A; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R

2014-09-19

231

Microbial Factor-Mediated Development in a Host-Bacterial Mutualism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Magazine scholarly article explores the function of bacterial signal molecule Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) in the mutualistic symbiosis between the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the squid Euprymna scolopes. TCT is the factor responsible for the extensive tissue damage characteristic of whooping cough and gonorrhea infections in humans, however this article demonstrates that it triggers tissue development in the squid host. These findings show that host interpretation of such bacterial signal molecules is context-dependent. Such differences in interpretation can lead to either inflammation and disease or to the establishment of a mutually beneficial animal-microbe association.

232

Mutual Diffusion of Inclusions in Freely Suspended Smectic Liquid Crystal Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent.

Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.

2014-09-01

233

Theory of Orientation Tuning in Visual Cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of intrinsic cortical connections in processing sensory input and in generating behavioral output is poorly understood. We have examined this issue in the context of the tuning of neuronal responses in cortex to the orientation of a visual stimulus. We analytically study a simple network model that incorporates both orientation-selective input from the lateral geniculate nucleus and orientation-specific cortical interactions. Depending on the model parameters, the network exhibits orientation selectivity that originates from within the cortex, by a symmetry-breaking mechanism. In this case, the width of the orientation tuning can be sharp even if the lateral geniculate nucleus inputs are only weakly anisotropic. By using our model, several experimental consequences of this cortical mechanism of orientation tuning are derived. The tuning width is relatively independent of the contrast and angular anisotropy of the visual stimulus. The transient population response to changing of the stimulus orientation exhibits a slow "virtual rotation." Neuronal cross-correlations exhibit long time tails, the sign of which depends on the preferred orientations of the cells and the stimulus orientation.

Ben-Yishai, R.; Lev Bar-Or, R.; Sompolinsky, H.

1995-04-01

234

Orientation of Human Semicircular Canals Measured by Three-Dimensional Multiplanar CT Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of vestibulo-ocular reflex experiments requires knowledge of the absolute orientations (with respect to skull landmarks)\\u000a of semicircular canals (SCC). Data relating SCC orientations to accessible skull landmarks in humans are sparse, apart from\\u000a a classic study of 10 skulls, which concluded that the horizontal and anterior SCC are not mutually orthogonal (111 ± 7.6°).\\u000a Multiple studies of isolated labyrinths

Charles C. Della Santina; Valeria Potyagaylo; Americo A. Migliaccio; Lloyd B. Minor; John P. Carey

2005-01-01

235

Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign' observed one mutual event at ESO Observatory (La Silla, Chile) on March 19, 1987 and three mutual events at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory on April 8, May 13, and July 16, 1988. The measurements and the data reduction were carried out following the same strategy reported in Blanco et al. (1989). From the light curves of total events a greater slope of the B light losses appears, if compared with the V one. This behavior is consistent with the spectrophotometric data from which the color of Pluto appears redder with respect to that of Charon, a phenomenon attributed to a lack of volatile methane frost over Charon's surface.

Blanco, C.; di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.

1991-06-01

236

Accelerated evolution as a consequence of transitions to?mutualism  

PubMed Central

Differential rates of nucleotide substitutions among taxa are a common observation in molecular phylogenetic studies, yet links between rates of DNA evolution and traits or behaviors of organisms have proved elusive. Likelihood ratio testing is used here for the first time to evaluate specific hypotheses that account for the induction of shifts in rates of DNA evolution. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of mutualist (lichen-forming fungi and fungi associated with liverworts) and nonmutualist fungi revealed four independent transitions to mutualism. We demonstrate a highly significant association between mutualism and increased rates of nucleotide substitutions in nuclear ribosomal DNA, and we demonstrate that a transition to mutualism preceded the rate acceleration of nuclear ribosomal DNA in these lineages. Our results suggest that the increased rate of evolution after the adoption of a mutualist lifestyle is generalized across the genome of these mutualist fungi. PMID:11038586

Lutzoni, François; Pagel, Mark

1997-01-01

237

Algorithmic significance, mutual information, and DNA sequence comparisons  

SciTech Connect

The newly proposed algorithmic significance method [6] enables recognition of patterns in DNA sequences at prespecified significance levels via minimal length encoding. We extend the method to provide a formal framework for DNA sequence comparisons via mutual information. While in this paper we restrict our discussion to DNA sequence analysis, the methods that are presented are potentially applicable in many other domains. Under a few simplifying assumptions, we show that significance of sequence similarity depends exponentially on mutual information. In addition to this estimate of significance, the concept of mutual information provides solutions to the following two problems in DNA sequence comparisons: Factoring out contribution of shared repetitive patterns and factoring out bias due to partial sequencing.

Milosavljevic, A.

1993-12-31

238

Life-history differences among coral reef sponges promote mutualism or exploitation of mutualism by influencing partner fidelity feedback.  

PubMed

Mutualism can be favored over exploitation of mutualism when interests of potential heterospecific partners are aligned so that individual organisms are beneficial to each others' continued growth, survival, and reproduction, that is, when exploitation of a particular partner individual is costly. A coral reef sponge system is particularly amenable to field experiments probing how costs of exploitation can be influenced by life-history characteristics. Pairwise associations among three of the sponge species are mutually beneficial. A fourth species, Desmapsamma anchorata, exploits these mutualisms. Desmapsamma also differs from the other species by growing faster, fragmenting more readily, and suffering higher mortality rates. Evaluating costs and benefits of association in the context of the complex life histories of these asexually fragmenting sponges shows costs of exploitation to be high for the mutualistic species but very low for this essentially weedy species. Although it benefits from association more than the mutualist species, by relying on their superior tensile strength and extensibility to reduce damage by physical disturbance, exploitation is favored because each individual host is of only ephemeral use. These sponges illustrate how life-history differences can influence the duration of association between individuals and, thus, the role of partner fidelity in promoting mutualism. PMID:18419569

Wulff, Janie L

2008-05-01

239

The contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being.  

PubMed

This article explores the contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being. Self-help/mutual aid groups are self-organising groups where people come together to address a shared a health or social issue through mutual support. They are associated with a range of health and social benefits, but remain poorly understood. This article draws on data from stage one of ESTEEM, a project which runs from 2010 to 2013. Stage one ran from 2010 to 2011 and involved participatory, qualitative research carried out in two UK sites. Twenty-one groups were purposively selected to include a range of focal issues, longevity, structures and ethnic backgrounds. Researchers carried out 21 interviews with group coordinators and twenty group discussions with members to explore the groups' purpose, nature and development. Preliminary analysis of the data suggested that mental well-being was a common theme across the groups. Subsequently the data were re-analysed to explore the groups' contribution to mental well-being using a checklist of protective factors for mental well-being as a coding framework. The findings showed that groups made a strong contribution to members' mental well-being by enhancing a sense of control, increasing resilience and facilitating participation. Group members were uplifted by exchanging emotional and practical support; they gained self-esteem, knowledge and confidence, thereby increasing their control over their situation. For some groups, socio-economic factors limited their scope and threatened their future. The article provides an evidence-base which illustrates how self-help/mutual aid groups can enhance mental well-being. If supported within a strategy for social justice, these groups enable people with varied concerns to develop a tailored response to their specific needs. The authors suggest that policy-makers engage with local people, investing in support proportionate to the needs of different populations, enabling them to develop their own self-help/mutual aid groups to enhance their sense of mental well-being. PMID:23445336

Seebohm, Patience; Chaudhary, Sarah; Boyce, Melanie; Elkan, Ruth; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

2013-07-01

240

Highly ordered arrangement of single neurons in orientation pinwheels  

E-print Network

Highly ordered arrangement of single neurons in orientation pinwheels Kenichi Ohki1 , Sooyoung orientations1,2 . This map contains `orientation pinwheels', struc- tures that are arranged like the spokes demonstrated these pinwheels3,5 , but the technique lacked the spatial resolution to determine the response

Reid, R. Clay

241

Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

2013-01-01

242

Mutualism–parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models  

PubMed Central

Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSEs) that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures – melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the “mutualism-parasitism-continuum” paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi – environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization.

Mandyam, Keerthi G.; Jumpponen, Ari

2015-01-01

243

Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast food companies like Siam Burger that participate in health awareness campaigns create a conflict of interest between\\u000a the social responsibility of promoting health and the business interest of increasing sales through marketing strategies like\\u000a advertising. Alternative options of raising health awareness without mitigating the involvement of fast food companies either\\u000a by denying advertisements or having a third party foundation

Sarah Jane Toledano; Leonardo D. de Castro

2007-01-01

244

The Effect of Temperature and Moisture Content on the Flexural Response of Kevlar\\/Epoxy Laminates: Part I. [0\\/90] Filament Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of moisture and temperature on the flexural response of [0\\/90] Kevlar 49 fabric-reinforced epoxy laminates. Two high temperature (190°C) cure commercially available epoxies, Narmco 5208 and Ferro CE-9000, were used as matrix materials. Results indicate that the mechanical properties of Kevlar 49\\/epoxy laminates are temperature dependent over the range -55°C to 150°C. The addition of

Ronald E. Allred

1981-01-01

245

Mutual information: a measure of dependency for nonlinear time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the paper is to show how mutual information can be used as a measure of dependence in financial time series. One major advantage of this approach resides precisely in its ability to account for nonlinear dependencies with no need to specify a theoretical probability distribution or use of a mean-variance model.

Dionisio, Andreia; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

2004-12-01

246

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite-difference-time-domain (FD-TD) technique is applied to calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas. The results are compared with results obtained using the method of moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling

Raymond Luebbers; Karl Kunz

1992-01-01

247

Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

Liu, Chao-Lin

2005-01-01

248

Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

Nickerson, Carol

2008-01-01

249

Mutualism, Parasitism, and Evolutionary Adaptation Richard A. Watson1  

E-print Network

@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Our investigations concern the role of symbiosis as an enabling mechanism in evolutionary mechanism in evolutionary innovation. In its strongest form, symbiosis can lead to symbiogenesisMutualism, Parasitism, and Evolutionary Adaptation Richard A. Watson1 Torsten Reil2 Jordan B

Pollack, Jordan B.

250

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

251

Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms  

E-print Network

or plants, and we define here the many potential outcomes of each situation. The frequency and circumstances influence the growth and development of other neighbouring plants. Invasive species: here, `invasive' alwaysBiological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms Anna Traveset1 and David M

Traveset, Anna

252

A lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information  

E-print Network

In this paper, a lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information is obtained by employing the Peierls-Bogoliubov inequality and Golden Thompson inequality. Comparison with the bounds obtained by other researchers indicates that our result is independent of any measurements. It may give some new insights over squashed entanglement and perturbations of Markov chain states.

Lin Zhang; Junde Wu

2014-09-29

253

Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…

Ridley, Carl A.; And Others

1981-01-01

254

Mutual Authentication for Low-Power Mobile Devices  

E-print Network

form fac- tors. The use of wireless devices for medical applications ­ such as insulin meters to their extreme. While traditional design of such devices have not relied on communication with nearby devicesMutual Authentication for Low-Power Mobile Devices Markus Jakobsson1 and David Pointcheval2 1

255

Mutual Information Based Registration of Medical Images: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the medical image processing literature on mutual information based registra- tion. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. Methods are classified according to the different aspects of

Josien P. W. Pluim; J. B. Antoine Maintz; Max A. Viergever

2003-01-01

256

Cross-Kingdom Chemical Communication Drives a Heritable, Mutually Beneficial  

E-print Network

in complex communities. We report a system for cross-kingdom communication by which bacteria heritablyCross-Kingdom Chemical Communication Drives a Heritable, Mutually Beneficial Prion repression'' and use multiple carbon sources in the presence of glucose. Some bacteria secrete a chemical

257

Note on Mutual Information between Two Intervals of Extremal BTZ  

E-print Network

In this note we compute mutual information between two intervals in CFTs dual to extremal BTZ (UV CFT) and near horizon limit of extremal BTZ (IR CFT) using the replica technique in some limiting regimes, which can be compared with holographic description.

Bai, Nan; Xu, Xiao-bao

2013-01-01

258

ANALYSIS OF TIMING-BASED MUTUAL EXCLUSION WITH RANDOM TIMES  

E-print Network

algorithm of Lynch and Shavit [12]. We describe the algorithm here at a high level; definitions algorithms of Fischer [5] and Lamport [8] in a clever way in order to guarantee mutual exclusion and weak ensure that deadlock never or rarely happens. It is reasonable to assume that hard timing constraints

Mitzenmacher, Michael

259

Feature-level Fusion for Object Segmentation using Mutual Information  

E-print Network

Feature-level Fusion for Object Segmentation using Mutual Information Vinay Sharma and James W,jwdavis}@cse.ohio-state.edu Abstract. In this chapter, a new feature-level image fusion technique for object segmentation is presented. The proposed technique approaches fusion as a feature selection problem, utilizing a selection criterion based

Davis, James W.

260

Feature-level Fusion for Object Segmentation using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new feature-level image fusion technique for object segmentation based on mutual information. Using object regions roughly detected from one sensor as input, the proposed technique extracts relevant information from another to complete the segmentation. First, a contourbased feature representation is presented that implicitly captures object shape. The notion of relevance across sensor modalities is then defined using

Vinay Sharma; James W. Davis

2006-01-01

261

Triangular Lattices for Mutual Coupling Reduction in Patch Antenna Arrays  

E-print Network

. El-Rayis, Nakul Haridas, Brian Flynn, Ahmet T. Erdogan, Tughrul Arslan Advanced Smart AntennaTriangular Lattices for Mutual Coupling Reduction in Patch Antenna Arrays Nurul H. Noordin, Ahmed O.El-rayis, N.Haridas, Brian.Flynn, Ahmet.Erdogan, T.Arslan}@ed.ac.uk Abstract-- One of the issues in antenna

Arslan, Tughrul

262

BAYESIAN NETWORKS AND MUTUAL INFORMATION FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF  

E-print Network

BAYESIAN NETWORKS AND MUTUAL INFORMATION FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Sylvain Verron-of-control status); fault diagnosis (find the root cause of the disturbance); process recovery (return the process al., 1997). Finally, for the fault diagnosis techniques we can cite the book of Chiang, Russell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Sustained oscillations generated by mutually inhibiting neurons with adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic oscillatory activities exist in almost every living thing and most of them are produced by rhythmic activities of the corresponding neural systems (locomotion, respiration, heart beat, etc.). This paper mathematically discusses sustained oscillations generated by mutual inhibition of the neurons which are represented by a continuous-variable model with a kind of fatigue or adaptation effect. If the neural network

Kiyotoshi Matsuoka

1985-01-01

264

Staff Development in the Mainstream: A Mutual Support Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mutual support model was developed to prepare teachers to meet the needs of mainstreamed handicapped children at the University of Akron (OH). In 1975 the university was among the first to receive funding from the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. Among the first tasks that year was the challenge of changing the attitudes of faculty who…

Coons, Dale E.

265

Mutual Support Groups for Long-Term Recipients of TANF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of involvement in mutual support groups on long-term recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and other vulnerable individuals. From qualitative interviews with nine group members, the study identified key themes, benefits, and barriers related to involvement in the groups. Content analysis of the…

Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Khairallah, Angela Oliver; Race-Bigelow, Janis

2004-01-01

266

A Mutual-Help Project for Families of Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program for families of handicapped children that features educational programs and parent and sibling support groups. Notes that parents and siblings involved in the mutual-help project have uncovered salient issues and have taken an active role in community education and advocacy. (Author/NB)

Pearson, Judith E.; Sternberg, Abby

1986-01-01

267

A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.  

PubMed

The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another. PMID:23260470

Peng, Po; Blamires, Sean J; Agnarsson, Ingi; Lin, Hui-Chen; Tso, I-Min

2013-01-21

268

Mutual Information Item Selection in Adaptive Classification Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general approach for item selection in adaptive multiple-category classification tests is provided. The approach uses mutual information (MI), a special case of the Kullback-Leibler distance, or relative entropy. MI works efficiently with the sequential probability ratio test and alleviates the difficulties encountered with using other local-…

Weissman, Alexander

2007-01-01

269

Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples  

E-print Network

Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples Virginia E. Sturm's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD) are neurodegenerative diseases differences between the three types of dementia in the social realm that help to illuminate the nature

Levenson, Robert W.

270

Mutual effects of ?-actinin, calponin and filamin on actin binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual effect of three actin-binding proteins (?-actinin, calponin and filamin) on the binding to actin was analyzed by means of differential centrifugation and electron microscopy. In the absence of actin ?-actinin, calponin and filamin do not interact with each other. Calponin and filamin do not interfere with each other in the binding to actin bundles. Slight interference was observed

Olesya O Panasenko; Nikolai B Gusev

2001-01-01

271

Three Ways to Look at Mutually Unbiased Bases  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of the problem of Mutually Unbiased Bases in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, real and complex. Also a geometric measure of ''mubness'' is introduced, and applied to some explicit calculations in six dimensions (partly done by Bjoerck and by Grassl). Although this does not yet solve any problem, some appealing structures emerge.

Bengtsson, Ingemar [Fysikum, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-02-21

272

Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an alternative global optimizer, called MIMIC, which is unrelated to Genetic Algorithms. Advancement to the current practice demonstrates the use of MIMIC as a global method that explicitly models problem structure with mutual information, providing an alternate method for globally searching multi-modal domains. By leveraging discovered problem inter- dependencies, MIMIC may be appropriate for highly coupled problems or those with large function evaluation cost. This work introduces a useful addition to the MIMIC algorithm that enables its use on continuous input variables. By leveraging automatic decision tree generation methods from Machine Learning and a set of randomly generated test problems, decision trees for which method to apply are also created, quantifying decomposition performance over a large region of the design space.

Otero, Richard Edward

273

Ram Orientation Summer 2014  

E-print Network

Ram Orientation Guide Summer 2014 #12;Page 2 Table of Contents Welcome to welcome you to the University Honors Program (UHP) community and the summer Ram Orientation experience Program Administrative Director Coordinator Coordinator Coordinator Assistant Summer 2014 #12;Page 4

274

Evolutionary origin of insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism  

PubMed Central

Obligate insect–bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host’s growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin–manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

275

Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes  

PubMed Central

Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

2015-01-01

276

Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

2013-01-01

277

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to act upon their mutually exclusive applications without a formal...waiver of the applicant's right to a formal hearing; ...select from among the mutually exclusive applications that proposal...competing applicants will have the right to be represented....

2010-10-01

278

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to act upon their mutually exclusive applications without a formal...waiver of the applicant's right to a formal hearing; ...select from among the mutually exclusive applications that proposal...competing applicants will have the right to be represented....

2011-10-01

279

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2010-04-01

280

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2011-04-01

281

12 CFR 12.101 - National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions. 12...101 National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions. ...information on the source and amount of remuneration, required by § 12.4,...

2011-01-01

282

12 CFR 12.101 - National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions. 12...101 National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions. ...information on the source and amount of remuneration, required by § 12.4,...

2010-01-01

283

Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You

284

78 FR 4145 - Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...published in the Federal Register proposed recommendations regarding money market mutual funds (``MMFs'') pursuant to Section...

2013-01-18

285

77 FR 5585 - Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...812-13982] Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application January 30, 2012...Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. (``Company'') and Mason Street Advisors, LLC (``MSA''). DATES: Filing...

2012-02-03

286

DRAMMS: Deformable Registration via Attribute Matching and Mutual-Saliency Weighting  

PubMed Central

A general-purpose deformable registration algorithm referred to as “DRAMMS” is presented in this paper. DRAMMS bridges the gap between the traditional voxel-wise methods and landmark/feature-based methods with primarily two contributions. First, DRAMMS renders each voxel relatively distinctively identifiable by a rich set of attributes, therefore largely reducing matching ambiguities. In particular, a set of multi-scale and multi-orientation Gabor attributes are extracted and the optimal components are selected, so that they form a highly distinctive morphological signature reflecting the anatomical and geometric context around each voxel. Moreover, the way in which the optimal Gabor attributes are constructed is independent from the underlying image modalities or contents, which renders DRAMMS generally applicable to diverse registration tasks. A second contribution of DRAMMS is that it modulates the registration by assigning higher weights to those voxels having higher ability to establish unique (hence reliable) correspondences across images, therefore reducing the negative impact of those regions that are less capable of finding correspondences. A continuously-valued weighting function named “mutual-saliency” is developed to reflect the matching reliability between a pair of voxels implied by the tentative transformation. As a result, voxels do not contribute equally as in most voxel-wise methods, nor in isolation as in landmark/feature-based methods. Instead, they contribute according to the continuously-valued mutual-saliency map, which dynamically evolves during the registration process. Experiments in simulated images, inter-subject images, single-/multi-modality images, from brain, heart, and prostate have demonstrated the general applicability and the accuracy of DRAMMS. PMID:20688559

Ou, Yangming; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Paragios, Nikos; Davatzikos, Christos

2010-01-01

287

Unconscious orientation processing.  

PubMed

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions, different psychophysical paradigms were designed in six experiments to probe unconscious orientation processing. First we demonstrated orientation-selective adaptation and color-contingent orientation adaptation for peripheral unresolvable Gabor patches. The next experiments showed the modulatory effects of perceptually indiscriminable orientations on apparent motion processing and attentional mechanisms. Finally we investigated disappearance patterns of unresolvable Gabor stimuli during motion-induced blindness (MIB). Abrupt changes in local unresolvable orientations truncated MIB; however, orientation-based grouping failed to affect the MIB pattern when the orientations were unresolvable. Overall results revealed that unresolvable orientations substantially influence perception at multiple levels. PMID:14980213

Rajimehr, Reza

2004-02-19

288

Orientation selectivity without orientation maps in visual cortex of a highly visual mammal.  

PubMed

In mammalian neocortex, the orderly arrangement of columns of neurons is thought to be a fundamental organizing principle. In primary visual cortex (V1), neurons respond preferentially to bars of a particular orientation, and, in many mammals, these orientation-selective cells are arranged in a semiregular, smoothly varying map across the cortical surface. Curiously, orientation maps have not been found in rodents or lagomorphs. To explore whether this lack of organization in previously studied rodents could be attributable to low visual acuity, poorly differentiated visual brain areas, or small absolute V1 size, we examined V1 organization of a larger, highly visual rodent, the gray squirrel. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging and single-cell recordings, we found no evidence of an orientation map, suggesting that formation of orientation maps depends on mechanisms not found in rodents. We did find robust orientation tuning of single cells, and this tuning was invariant to stimulus contrast. Therefore, it seems unlikely that orientation maps are important for orientation tuning or its contrast invariance in V1. In vertical electrode penetrations, we found little evidence for columnar organization of orientation-selective neurons and little evidence for local anisotropy of orientation preferences. We conclude that an orderly and columnar arrangement of functional response properties is not a universal characteristic of cortical architecture. PMID:15634763

Van Hooser, Stephen D; Heimel, J Alexander F; Chung, Sooyoung; Nelson, Sacha B; Toth, Louis J

2005-01-01

289

Situational and trait interactions among goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory focus theory has been used to describe and explain a wide range of consumer responses. This goal orientation has\\u000a been examined both as a chronic difference and a situational variable. Yet, it is unclear how a situational manipulation interacts\\u000a with the individual’s chronic goal orientation. The present research investigates the potential for interactions and suggests\\u000a that typical outcomes of

Kelly L. Haws; William O. Bearden; Utpal M. Dholakia

2012-01-01

290

63 FR 60122 - Mutual Recognition of Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practice Inspection Reports, Medical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...21 CFR Part 26 Mutual Recognition of Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing...98N-0185] RIN 0910-ZA11 Mutual Recognition of Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing...higher trade volumes, mutual recognition or equivalence-based agreements...consumer protection in the face of a changing global...

1998-11-06

291

12 CFR 333.4 - Conversions from mutual to stock form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mutual state savings banks to the stock form of ownership...do not apply to mutual-to-stock conversions of insured mutual state...requirement of this section for good cause shown. (b) Definition...bank shall not convert to the stock form of ownership unless...

2011-01-01

292

12 CFR 333.4 - Conversions from mutual to stock form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mutual state savings banks to the stock form of ownership...do not apply to mutual-to-stock conversions of insured mutual state...requirement of this section for good cause shown. (b) Definition...bank shall not convert to the stock form of ownership unless...

2010-01-01

293

Social Capital in Mutual Funds: The Implications for Agency Problem, Governance, and Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agency problem, governance, and synergy in mutual fund industry have been studied in financia l literature, the implications of social capital for these issues have not been studied. Using 12,809 investments in open-ended mutual funds collected from Taiwan, this study finds that social capital between mutual funds and their inves tors results in agency problems. The reciprocal relationships betwe

Cheng-Min Chuang

2009-01-01

294

Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events, 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the last mutual phenomena between Pluto and Charon, obtained from observations carried out as part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', are presented. We observed the phenomena, which occurred on 1989 May 28 and June 29 and 1990 June 28, in the B and V colors by using the 91 cm reflector of the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory. From the analysis of the obtained light curves, with respect to the predicted ones, no large difference appears in the light losses and, as far as it is estimable, also in the times of the onset and of the end of the observed phenomena. Nevertheless, some disagreement is present between the predicted and observed times of the deepest points of the 1989 May 28 and 1990 June 28 light curves.

Blanco, C.; di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.

1994-11-01

295

Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

Fiedor, Pawe?

2014-05-01

296

Mutual information as an order parameter for quantum synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon, important in many theoretical studies and applications. Recently, this effect has been analyzed and observed in a number of physical systems close to the quantum-mechanical regime. In this work we propose mutual information as a useful order parameter which can capture the emergence of synchronization in very different contexts, ranging from semiclassical to intrinsically quantum-mechanical systems. Specifically, we first study the synchronization of two coupled Van der Pol oscillators in both classical and quantum regimes and later we consider the synchronization of two qubits inside two coupled optical cavities. In all these contexts, we find that mutual information can be used as an appropriate figure of merit for determining the synchronization phases independently of the specific details of the system.

Ameri, V.; Eghbali-Arani, M.; Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Kheirandish, F.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

2015-01-01

297

An Efficient Algorithm for Direction Finding against Unknown Mutual Coupling  

PubMed Central

In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs) with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively. PMID:25347587

Wang, Weijiang; Ren, Shiwei; Ding, Yingtao; Wang, Haoyu

2014-01-01

298

Bias reduction in the estimation of mutual information.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the control of bias estimation when estimating mutual information from a nonparametric approach. We focus on continuously distributed random data and the estimators we developed are based on a nonparametric k-nearest-neighbor approach for arbitrary metrics. Using a multidimensional Taylor series expansion, a general relationship between the estimation error bias and the neighboring size for the plug-in entropy estimator is established without any assumption on the data for two different norms. The theoretical analysis based on the maximum norm developed coincides with the experimental results drawn from numerical tests made by Kraskov et al. [Phys. Rev. E 69, 066138 (2004)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.69.066138]. To further validate the novel relation, a weighted linear combination of distinct mutual information estimators is proposed and, using simulated signals, the comparison of different strategies allows for corroborating the theoretical analysis. PMID:25493823

Zhu, Jie; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Shu, Huazhong; Yang, Chunfeng; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine

2014-11-01

299

Bias reduction in the estimation of mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the control of bias estimation when estimating mutual information from a nonparametric approach. We focus on continuously distributed random data and the estimators we developed are based on a nonparametric k -nearest-neighbor approach for arbitrary metrics. Using a multidimensional Taylor series expansion, a general relationship between the estimation error bias and the neighboring size for the plug-in entropy estimator is established without any assumption on the data for two different norms. The theoretical analysis based on the maximum norm developed coincides with the experimental results drawn from numerical tests made by Kraskov et al. [Phys. Rev. E 69, 066138 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevE.69.066138]. To further validate the novel relation, a weighted linear combination of distinct mutual information estimators is proposed and, using simulated signals, the comparison of different strategies allows for corroborating the theoretical analysis.

Zhu, Jie; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Shu, Huazhong; Yang, Chunfeng; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine

2014-11-01

300

A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism  

PubMed Central

Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2008-01-01

301

Divergence in an obligate mutualism is not explained by divergent climatic factors.  

PubMed

Adaptation to divergent environments creates and maintains biological diversity, but we know little about the importance of different agents of ecological divergence. Coevolution in obligate mutualisms has been hypothesized to drive divergence, but this contention has rarely been tested against alternative ecological explanations. Here, we use a well-established example of coevolution in an obligate pollination mutualism, Yucca brevifolia and its two pollinating yucca moths, to test the hypothesis that divergence in this system is the result of mutualists adapting to different abiotic environments as opposed to coevolution between mutualists. We used a combination of principal component analyses and ecological niche modeling to determine whether varieties of Y. brevifolia associated with different pollinators specialize on different environments. Yucca brevifolia occupies a diverse range of climates. When the two varieties can disperse to similar environments, they occupy similar habitats. This suggests that the two varieties have not specialized on distinct habitats. In turn, this suggests that nonclimatic factors, such as the biotic interaction between Y. brevifolia and its pollinators, are responsible for evolutionary divergence in this system. PMID:19659584

Godsoe, William; Strand, Eva; Smith, Christopher Irwin; Yoder, Jeremy B; Esque, Todd C; Pellmyr, Olle

2009-08-01

302

A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism.  

PubMed

Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2008-08-22

303

THE SECOND CYBERNETICS Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, cybernetics was more or less identified as a science of self-regulating and equilibrating systems. Thermostats, physiological regulation of body temperature, automatic steering devices, economic and political processes were studied under a general mathematical model of deviation-counteracting feedback networks. By focusing on the deviation-counteracting aspect of the mutual causal relationships however, the cyberneticians paid less attention to the

MAGOROH MARUYAMA

1963-01-01

304

Investing in mutual funds when returns are predictable  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the performance of portfolio strategies that invest in noload, open-end U.S. domestic equity mutual funds, incorporating predictability in (i) manager skills, (ii) fund risk-loadings, and (iii) benchmark returns. Predictability in manager skills is found to be the dominant source of investment profitability - long-only strategies that incorporate such predictability considerably outperform prior-documented hot-hands and smart-money strategies, and

Doron Avramov; Russ Wermers

2005-01-01

305

SOMA: mutual approval for included content in web pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrestricted information flows are a key security weakness of current web design. Cross-site script- ing, cross-site request forgery, and other attacks typically require that information be sent or retrieved from arbitrary, often malicious, web servers. In this paper we proposeSame Origin Mutual Approval (SOMA), a new policy for controlling information flows that prevents common web vulnerabilities. By requiring site operators

Terri Oda; Glenn Wurster; Paul C. Van Oorschot; Anil Somayaji

2008-01-01

306

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique has been applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been extensively applied to antennas. In this short paper calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained using the Method of Moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

307

Mutual Fund and Variable Insurance Products Performance Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investment company industry has grown dramatically in recent years. Investment company assets have grown at an annual rate of 23.1%—doubling every four years since 1980—and now stand at $ 2.4 trillion. Mutual funds, the most popular form of investment company, account for 86% of this $ 2.4 trillion. Variable annuities and variable life insurance policies have also grown very

Clifford E. Kirsch; Wendell M. Faria; W. Thomas Conner

1995-01-01

308

Support, Mutual Aid and Recovery from Dual Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery from substance abuse and mental health disorders (dual-diagnosis) requires time, hard work and a broad array of coping skills. Empirical evidence has demonstrated the buffering role of social support in stressful situations. This paper investigates the associations among social support (including dual-recovery mutual aid), recovery status and personal well-being in dually-diagnosed individuals (N = 310) using cross-sectional self-report data.

Alexandre B. Laudet; Stephen Magura; Howard S. Vogel; Edward Knight

2000-01-01

309

Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction  

E-print Network

We study time evolutions of superfluid neutron stars, focussing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the hydrodynamical spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearise the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two fluid components corotate and are in beta-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time evolutions of the linearised dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, i.e. without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti and Andersson (2010). In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state, and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

A. Passamonti; N. Andersson

2010-04-26

310

Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.  

PubMed Central

The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

1992-01-01

311

Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information  

PubMed Central

We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

312

Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single ancestral species diversifies into many descendants adapted to exploit a wide range of habitats. The appearance of ecological opportunities, or the colonisation or adaptation to novel ecological resources, has been documented to promote adaptive radiation in many classic examples. Mutualistic interactions allow species to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species diversification can greatly vary among mutualistic systems. Here, we test whether the development of obligate mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western Pacific oceans reef habitats. Results We show that clownfishes morphological characters are linked with ecological niches associated with the sea anemones. This pattern is consistent with the ecological speciation hypothesis. Furthermore, the clownfishes show an increase in the rate of species diversification as well as rate of morphological evolution compared to their closest relatives without anemone mutualistic associations. Conclusions The effect of mutualism on species diversification has only been studied in a limited number of groups. We present a case of adaptive radiation where mutualistic interaction is the likely key innovation, providing new insights into the mechanisms involved in the buildup of biodiversity. Due to a lack of barriers to dispersal, ecological speciation is rare in marine environments. Particular life-history characteristics of clownfishes likely reinforced reproductive isolation between populations, allowing rapid species diversification. PMID:23122007

2012-01-01

313

Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research  

PubMed Central

Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress historical power imbalances and inequities and is helping to sustain the initial steps taken to establish a local research agenda at Atoifi Hospital. It is our experience that embedding mutuality throughout the research capacity strengthening process has had great benefit and may also benefit researchers from more resourced and less resourced countries wanting to partner in research capacity strengthening activities. PMID:23249439

2012-01-01

314

Phase-dependent field-free molecular alignment and orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal behavior of alignment and orientation of LiH following a femtosecond laser pulse excitation comprising two fields at center frequencies ? and 2 ? (e.g., E (t )=E [cos(? t )+cos(2 ? t +? ) ] ) shifted by a phase ? . The effects of repopulations and rephasing of rotational states on the resulting alignment and orientation were evaluated. The population distribution of rotational states is only changed during the exciting pulse. Afterwards the established rotational state distribution is maintained in the absence of collisions. The phases of rotational states play the most crucial role in determining the time evolution of molecular alignment and orientation. Equal alignment and rotational populations are obtained when the phases are chosen ? =0 and ? =? . However, orientation is different due to the fact that in the case ? =? the mutual phases of even rotation states are not changed but the phases of odd rotational states are shifted by ? , comparing with that of ? =0 . The effect of temperature on molecular orientation was also addressed. It was shown that an efficient field-free molecular orientation can be observed even at room temperature.

Qin, Chaochao; Liu, Yuzhu; Zhang, Xianzhou; Gerber, Thomas

2014-11-01

315

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

316

Mutualism in a community context: the positive feedback between an ant-aphid mutualism and a gall-making midge.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms are widespread and often described in natural history accounts, their ecological influences on other community members remain largely unexplored. Many of these influences are likely a result of indirect effects. In this field study, we investigated the indirect effects of an ant-aphid mutualism on the abundance, survival rates and parasitism rates of a co-occurring herbivore. Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induces rosette galls on the developing shoots of Salix exigua trees, and populations can reach outbreak densities (up to 1,000 galls/stem) in central Washington State (USA). Ant-tended aphids feed on these same stems and often feed on gall tissue. In this study we used a combination of manipulative experiments and observational surveys to test the hypothesis that the abundances of aphids, ants, and galls have positive and reciprocal effects on one another, in a manner that would create a positive feedback loop in population growth. In addition, we examined whether the combined presence of ants and aphids reduces parasitism rates for the gallers. In support of the positive feedback loop hypothesis, aphids enjoyed higher population growth rates in the presence of ants and galls, the presence of ants and aphids resulted in increased abundance of galls, and the abundances of ants, aphids and galls were all positively correlated with one another. However, the mechanism underlying the positive effect of ants and aphids on galler density remains unknown, as the mutualism did not affect parasitism rates. More broadly, this study demonstrates that mutualisms can have significant and complex indirect effects on community and population ecology. PMID:17106723

Savage, Amy M; Peterson, Merrill A

2007-03-01

317

Are adolescents' mutually hostile interactions at home reproduced in other everyday life contexts?  

PubMed

Children involved in mutually hostile interactions at home are at risk of experiencing adjustment problems in other everyday life contexts. However, little is known about whether the pattern of mutual hostility at home is reproduced by high-conflict youths in other interpersonal contexts. In this study, we examined whether adolescents involved in mutually hostile interactions with their parents encounter similar mutually hostile interactions in other interpersonal contexts. We used a longitudinal design, following mid-adolescents over 1 year (N = 2,009, 51 % boys, Mage = 14.06, SD = 0.73). The adolescents were 7th and 8th grade students in a mid-sized town in Sweden. The results showed that the youths involved in mutual hostility at home were more likely to be involved in mutual hostility at school and in their free-time. A longitudinal relationship between mutual hostility at home and mutual hostility in other contexts was confirmed. Being involved in mutually hostile interactions at home at Time 1 increased adolescents' likelihood of getting involved in mutually hostile interactions with peers at school and in free-time at Time 2. Overall, the results point to the important role played by experiencing mutual hostility at home in maladaptive behaviors across everyday settings. PMID:25348950

Trifan, Tatiana Alina; Stattin, Håkan

2015-03-01

318

Derivation of nonlinear inductive coefficients from mutual inductance measurements of superconducting thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mutual inductance setup consisting of coils on opposite sides of a superconducting film is a well-known means to determine the penetration depth ?. Recently, it was shown that the same apparatus may be used to measure a nonlinear dependence of the form ?2(J)=?02[1+(J/J0)2], where J is the current density and J0 characterizes the scale of nonlinear response. In this letter we calculate the nonlinear coupling between coils produced by this dependence. The calculation was done for a simplified geometry that retains the essential physics of the actual setup used in experiments, and allows quantitative evaluation of J0 within a fudge factor close to unity.

Claassen, J. H.

2004-02-01

319

Decision Making In Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

Almeida, Katia

1997-01-01

320

Roles and Responsibilities--Single College Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Austin Community College (ACC) is undergoing reorganization in an attempt to create a "single college" organizational structure to replace its current "campus with five competing colleges" model. By doing so, ACC hopes to create an atmosphere in which short and long range planning efforts are aimed at the overall good of the organization. The…

Fonte, Richard

321

A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with mutually coupled windings.  

PubMed

A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with mutually coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step response was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 ? and 67.7 ?, respectively. A frequency response test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse response time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast response time. PMID:24689623

Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie

2014-03-01

322

Characterization of actinobacteria associated with three ant-plant mutualisms.  

PubMed

Ant-plant mutualisms are conspicuous and ecologically important components of tropical ecosystems that remain largely unexplored in terms of insect-associated microbial communities. Recent work has revealed that ants in some ant-plant systems cultivate fungi (Chaetothyriales) within their domatia, which are fed to larvae. Using Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. from French Guiana and Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana and Crematogaster margaritae/Keetia hispida, both from Cameroon, as models, we tested the hypothesis that ant-plant-fungus mutualisms co-occur with culturable Actinobacteria. Using selective media, we isolated 861 putative Actinobacteria from the three systems. All C. margaritae/K. hispida samples had culturable Actinobacteria with a mean of 10.0 colony forming units (CFUs) per sample, while 26 % of P. penetrator/Tachigali samples (mean CFUs 1.3) and 67 % of P. phylax/L. africana samples (mean CFUs 3.6) yielded Actinobacteria. The largest number of CFUs was obtained from P. penetrator workers, P. phylax alates, and C. margaritae pupae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four main clades of Streptomyces and one clade of Nocardioides within these three ant-plant mutualisms. Streptomyces with antifungal properties were isolated from all three systems, suggesting that they could serve as protective symbionts, as found in other insects. In addition, a number of isolates from a clade of Streptomyces associated with P. phylax/L. africana and C. margaritae/K. hispida were capable of degrading cellulose, suggesting that Streptomyces in these systems may serve a nutritional role. Repeated isolation of particular clades of Actinobacteria from two geographically distant locations supports these isolates as residents in ant-plant-fungi niches. PMID:25096989

Hanshew, Alissa S; McDonald, Bradon R; Díaz Díaz, Carol; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Currie, Cameron R

2015-01-01

323

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic.  

PubMed

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative.We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-06-22

324

Gaining (mutual) information about quark/gluon discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon separation requires only one bit of truth information, so even if two discriminant variables are largely uncorrelated, they can still share the same "truth overlap". Mutual information can be used to diagnose such situations, and thus determine which discriminant variables are redundant and which can be combined to improve performance. Using both parton showers and analytic resummation, we study a two-parameter family of generalized angularities, which includes familiar infrared and collinear (IRC) safe observables like thrust and broadening, as well as IRC unsafe variants like p {/T D } and hadron multiplicity. At leading-logarithmic (LL) order, the bulk of these variables exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their truth overlap is a universal function of the color factor ratio C A /C F . Only at next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order can one see a difference in quark/gluon performance. For the IRC safe angularities, we show that the quark/gluon performance can be improved by combining angularities with complementary angular exponents. Interestingly, LL order, NLL order, Pythia 8, and Herwig++ all exhibit similar correlations between observables, but there are significant differences in the predicted quark/gluon discrimination power. For the IRC unsafe angularities, we show that the mutual information can be calculated analytically with the help of a nonperturbative "weighted-energy function", providing evidence for the complementarity of safe and unsafe observables for quark/gluon discrimination.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

2014-11-01

325

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-01-01

326

Gaining (Mutual) Information about Quark/Gluon Discrimination  

E-print Network

Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon separation requires only one bit of truth information, so even if two discriminant variables are largely uncorrelated, they can still share the same "truth overlap". Mutual information can be used to diagnose such situations, and thus determine which discriminant variables are redundant and which can be combined to improve performance. Using both parton showers and analytic resummation, we study a two-parameter family of generalized angularities, which includes familiar infrared and collinear (IRC) safe observables like thrust and broadening, as well as IRC unsafe variants like $p_T^D$ and hadron multiplicity. At leading-logarithmic (LL) order, the bulk of these variables exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their truth overlap is a universal function of the color factor ratio $C_A/C_F$. Only at next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order can one see a difference in quark/gluon performance. For the IRC safe angularities, we show that the quark/gluon performance can be improved by combining angularities with complementary angular exponents. Interestingly, LL order, NLL order, Pythia 8, and Herwig++ all exhibit similar correlations between observables, but there are significant differences in the predicted quark/gluon discrimination power. For the IRC unsafe angularities, we show that the mutual information can be calculated analytically with the help of a nonperturbative "weighted-energy function", providing evidence for the complementarity of safe and unsafe observables for quark/gluon discrimination.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Jesse Thaler; Wouter J. Waalewijn

2014-08-13

327

Unitarily inequivalent mutually unbiased bases for n qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard construction of complete sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in prime power dimensions is based on the quadratic Gauss sums. We introduce complete MUB sets for three, four, and five qubits that are unitarily inequivalent to all existing MUB sets. These sets are constructed by using certain exponential sums, where the degree of the polynomial appearing in the exponent can be higher than 2. Every basis of these MUBs (except the computational) consists of two disjoint blocks of vectors with different factorization structures and associated with a unique hypergraph (or graph) that represents an interaction between the qubits.

Sehrawat, Arun; Klimov, Andrei B.

2014-12-01

328

Revealing mutual influence of oscillatory systems from the observation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In different fields of physical research, we often meet the problem of distinguishing between bidirectional and unidirectional couplings of oscillatory systems, i.e., mutual influence and one-way influence, on the basis of the observed time series. In this work, it is shown that a widely used approach, based on the calculation of prediction errors of empirical models (Granger causality), may give spurious conclusions on bidirectional coupling if a sampling interval exceeds a certain intrinsic time scale of the studied systems. Taking this effect into account, we propose and illustrate by standard examples a statistical test which allows one to reveal bidirectional coupling with specified confidence probability.

Smirnov, D. A.; Bezruchko, B. P.

2013-03-01

329

Application of Mutual Information Methods in Time-Distance Helioseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a new technique, the mutual information (MI) from information theory, to time-distance helioseismology, and demonstrate that it can successfully reproduce several classic results based on the widely used cross-covariance method. MI quantifies the deviation of two random variables from complete independence and represents a more general method for detecting dependencies in time series than the cross-covariance function, which only detects linear relationships. We briefly describe the MI-based technique and discuss the results of applying MI to derive the solar differential profile, a travel-time deviation map for a sunspot, and a time-distance diagram from quiet-Sun measurements.

Keys, Dustin; Kholikov, Shukur; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

2015-02-01

330

Paul Drude's prediction of nonreciprocal mutual inductance for Tesla transformers.  

PubMed

Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed. PMID:25542040

McGuyer, Bart

2014-01-01

331

Paul Drude's Prediction of Nonreciprocal Mutual Inductance for Tesla Transformers  

PubMed Central

Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed. PMID:25542040

McGuyer, Bart

2014-01-01

332

Mutual replacement reactions in alkali feldspars I: microtextures and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracrystal microtextures formed by a process of mutual replacement in alkali feldspars record fluid–rock reactions that\\u000a have affected large volumes of the Earth’s crust. Regular, ?1 ?m-scale ‘strain-controlled’ perthitic microtextures coarsen,\\u000a by up to 103, by a dissolution–reprecipitation process, producing microporous patch or vein perthites on scales >100 ?m. We have developed\\u000a earlier studies of such reactions in alkali feldspar cm-scale primocrysts

Ian Parsons; Martin R. Lee

2009-01-01

333

Optimal estimator model for human spatial orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is being developed to predict pilot dynamic spatial orientation in response to multisensory stimuli. Motion stimuli are first processed by dynamic models of the visual, vestibular, tactile, and proprioceptive sensors. Central nervous system function is then modeled as a steady-state Kalman filter which blends information from the various sensors to form an estimate of spatial orientation. Where necessary, this linear central estimator has been augmented with nonlinear elements to reflect more accurately some highly nonlinear human response characteristics. Computer implementation of the model has shown agreement with several important qualitative characteristics of human spatial orientation, and it is felt that with further modification and additional experimental data the model can be improved and extended. Possible means are described for extending the model to better represent the active pilot with varying skill and work load levels.

Borah, J.; Young, L. R.; Curry, R. E.

1979-01-01

334

Orientation in the designed environment: wayfinding in a hospital complex  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation- ship between orientation style and the ability of visitors to find their way in the Methodist Hospital, Houston. Establishing the impact of individual differences in orientation ability and ex...- perience upon wayfinding behavior in a building complex requires certain information: (1) the orientation style used in way- finding; (2) the accuracy of visitor and staff perceptions of their location as measured by the sub]ects' response to pointing...

Vavra, Amzi Sharon Crenshaw

1981-01-01

335

Water Stress Strengthens Mutualism Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects  

PubMed Central

Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant–plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant–plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism. PMID:24223521

Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M.

2013-01-01

336

Mutual learning and reverse innovation–where next?  

PubMed Central

There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal’s ongoing thematic series, “Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries” illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly “global innovation flow”, although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

2014-01-01

337

Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing  

PubMed Central

The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

2014-01-01

338

Inflammation and colorectal cancer, when microbiota-host mutualism breaks  

PubMed Central

Structural changes in the gut microbial community have been shown to accompany the progressive development of colorectal cancer. In this review we discuss recent hypotheses on the mechanisms involved in the bacteria-mediated carcinogenesis, as well as the triggering factors favoring the shift of the gut microbiota from a mutualistic to a pro-carcinogenic configuration. The possible role of inflammation, bacterial toxins and toxic microbiota metabolites in colorectal cancer onset is specifically discussed. On the other hand, the strategic role of inflammation as the keystone factor in driving microbiota to become carcinogenic is suggested. As a common outcome of different environmental and endogenous triggers, such as diet, aging, pathogen infection or genetic predisposition, inflammation can compromise the microbiota-host mutualism, forcing the increase of pathobionts at the expense of health-promoting groups, and allowing the microbiota to acquire an overall pro-inflammatory configuration. Consolidating inflammation in the gut, and favoring the bloom of toxigenic bacterial drivers, these changes in the gut microbial ecosystem have been suggested as pivotal in promoting carcinogenesis. In this context, it will become of primary importance to implement dietary or probiotics-based interventions aimed at preserving the microbiota-host mutualism along aging, counteracting deviations that favor a pro-carcinogenic microbiota asset. PMID:24574765

Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Carbonero, Franck; Rampelli, Simone; Fiorentini, Carla; Brigidi, Patrizia

2014-01-01

339

Aggressive mimicry coexists with mutualism in an aphid.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolutionary transition from interspecific exploitation to cooperation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Ant-aphid relationships represent an ideal system to this end because they encompass a coevolutionary continuum of interactions ranging from mutualism to antagonism. In this study, we report an unprecedented interaction along this continuum: aggressive mimicry in aphids. We show that two morphs clonally produced by the aphid Paracletus cimiciformis during its root-dwelling phase establish relationships with ants at opposite sides of the mutualism-antagonism continuum. Although one of these morphs exhibits the conventional trophobiotic (mutualistic) relationship with ants of the genus Tetramorium, aphids of the alternative morph are transported by the ants to their brood chamber and cared for as if they were true ant larvae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the innate cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the mimic morph resembles the profile of ant larvae more than that of the alternative, genetically identical nonmimic morph. Furthermore, we show that, once in the brood chamber, mimic aphids suck on ant larva hemolymph. These results not only add aphids to the limited list of arthropods known to biosynthesize the cuticular chemicals of their deceived hosts to exploit their resources but describe a remarkable case of plastic aggressive mimicry. The present work adds a previously unidentified dimension to the classical textbook paradigm of aphid-ant relationships by showcasing a complex system at the evolutionary interface between cooperation and exploitation. PMID:25583474

Salazar, Adrián; Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Hidalgo, Nicolás; Carazo, Pau; Font, Enrique; Martínez-Torres, David

2015-01-27

340

When the beat goes off: Mutually interacting complex systems  

E-print Network

While musical performances are determined by many factors such as the musical genre and interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction of two humans when playing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals (IBIs) of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other persons IBIs on time scales up to several minutes. A general stochastic model for Mutually Interacting Complex Systems (MICS) is introduced which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. In addition, The MICS model may be applicable to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series and collective behavior of animal flocks. The interdisciplinary study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the inter-brain level and leads directly to applications in audio engineering.

Holger Hennig

2014-02-21

341

Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.

2012-01-01

342

Orientation of Hittite Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

343

Local hidden variable theoretic measure of quantumness of mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement, a manifestation of quantumness of correlations between the observables of the subsystems of a composite system, and the quantumness of their mutual information are widely studied characteristics of a system of spin-1/2 particles. The concept of quantumness of correlations between the observables of a system is based on incommensurability of the correlations with the predictions of some local hidden variable (LHV) theory. However, the concept of quantumness of mutual information does not invoke the LHV theory explicitly. In this paper, the concept of quantumness of mutual information for a system of two spin-1/2 particles, named A and B, in the state described by the density matrix \\hat{\\rho }^{AB} is formulated by invoking explicitly the LHV theory. To that end, the classical mutual information I(a, b) of the spins is assumed to correspond to the joint probability p(\\epsilon ^A_a;\\epsilon ^B_b) (\\epsilon ^A_a, \\epsilon ^B_b=+/- 1) for the spin A to have the component \\epsilon ^A_a/2 in the direction a and the spin B to have the component \\epsilon ^B_b/2 in the direction b, constructed by invoking the LHV theory. The quantumness of mutual information is then defined as Q_LHV =I_Q(\\hat{\\rho }^AB)-I_LHV where I_Q(\\hat{\\rho }^AB) is the quantum theoretic information content in the state \\hat{\\rho }^AB and the LHV theoretic classical information ILHV is defined in terms of I(a, b) by choosing the directions a, b as follows. The choice of the directions a, b is made by finding the Bloch vectors \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^A\\rangle and \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^B\\rangle of the spins A and B where \\hat{\\bf S}^A (\\hat{\\bf S}^B) is the spin vector of spin A (spin B) and \\langle \\hat{P}\\rangle =Tr(\\hat{P}\\hat{\\rho }^{AB}). The directions a and b are taken to be along the Bloch vector of A and B respectively if those Bloch vectors are non-zero. In that case ILHV = I(a, b) and QLHV turns out to be identical with the measurement induced disturbance. If \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^A\\rangle =\\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^B\\rangle =0, then ILHV is defined to be the maximum of I(a, b) over a and b. The said optimization in this case can be performed analytically exactly and QLHV is then found to be the same as the symmetric discord. If \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^A\\rangle =0, \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^B\\rangle \

Puri, R. R.

2014-03-01

344

A two-coil mutual inductance technique to study matching effect in disordered NbN thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although matching effects in superconducting anti-dot arrays have been studied extensively through magneto-resistance oscillations, these investigations have been restricted to a very narrow temperature window close to the superconducting transition. Here, we report a "two coil" mutual inductance technique, which allows the study of this phenomenon deep in the superconducting state, through a direct measurement of the magnetic field variation of the shielding response. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to resolve outstanding issues on the origin of matching effects in superconducting thin films with periodic array of holes grown on anodized alumina membranes.

Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Chandan; Jesudasan, John; Bagwe, Vivas; Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Bose, Sangita

2013-12-01

345

The Role of New Hire Orientation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…

Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale

2009-01-01

346

Development of a Scale of Interpersonal Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct Interpersonal Orientation (IO) refers to the degree to which a person is responsive to the interpersonal aspects of his relationships with other people. A self-report measure of IO was devised whose construct validity was supported by correlational data. Two experiments were conducted to assess the potential usefulness of IO in…

Swap, Walter C.; Rubin, Jeffrey Z.

347

Cultural Orientation. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cultural orientation curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

348

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

349

Investigations in Orientation Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in behavior and behavioral ecology, in which students have the opportunity to explore various aspects of orientation behavior in a variety of study organisms.

Jon C. Glase (Cornell University;); Melvin C. Zimmerman (Lycoming College;); Jerry A. Waldvogel (Clemson University;)

1992-01-01

350

Career Oriented Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews career-oriented programs from a local view of the students and their role in society and then from a national view of the potential of the community college system and its role in society. (SB)

Quittenton, R. C.

1970-01-01

351

Evidence for adjustable bandwidth orientation channels  

PubMed Central

The standard model of early vision claims that orientation and spatial frequency are encoded with multiple, quasi-independent channels that have fixed spatial frequency and orientation bandwidths. The standard model was developed using detection and discrimination data collected from experiments that used deterministic patterns such as Gabor patches and gratings used as stimuli. However, detection data from experiments using noise as a stimulus suggests that the visual system may use adjustable-bandwidth, rather than fixed-bandwidth, channels. In our previous work, we used classification images as a key piece of evidence against the hypothesis that pattern detection is based on the responses of channels with an adjustable spatial frequency bandwidth. Here we tested the hypothesis that channels with adjustable orientation bandwidths are used to detect two-dimensional, filtered noise targets that varied in orientation bandwidth and were presented in white noise. Consistent with our previous work that examined spatial frequency bandwidth, we found that detection thresholds were consistent with the hypothesis that observers sum information across a broad range of orientations nearly optimally: absolute efficiency for stimulus detection was 20–30% and approximately constant across a wide range of orientation bandwidths. Unlike what we found with spatial frequency bandwidth, the results of our classification image experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that the orientation bandwidth of internal filters were adjustable. Thus, for orientation summation, both detection thresholds and classification images support the adjustable channels hypothesis. Classification images also revealed hallmarks of inhibition or suppression from uninformative spatial frequencies and/or orientations. This work highlights the limitations of the standard model of summation for orientation. The standard model of orientation summation and tuning was chiefly developed with narrow-band stimuli that were not presented in noise, stimuli that are arguably less naturalistic than the variable bandwidth stimuli presented in noise used in our experiments. Finally, the disagreement between the results from our experiments on spatial frequency summation with the data presented in this paper suggests that orientation may be encoded more flexibly than spatial frequency channels. PMID:24971069

Taylor, Christopher P.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.

2014-01-01

352

About Turn: How Object Orientation Affects Categorisation and Mental Rotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-density ERPs evoked by rotated alphanumeric characters were examined to determine how neural processing is affected by stimulus orientation during letter/digit classifications and during mirror/normal discriminations. The former task typically produces response times that are unaffected by stimulus orientation while the latter is thought to…

Milivojevic, Branka; Hamm, Jeff P.; Corballis, Michael C.

2011-01-01

353

Predictability of sport participation motivation from metamotivational dominances and orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of a relationship among metamotivational dominances as assessed by dominance scales, life metamotivational orientations (LifeMOs) and more specific metamotivational orientations towards sport and physical activity participation (SportMOs), derived from questionnaire responses, was tested using the framework of Reversal Theory. Regression analyses showed that participation motivation was weakly but reliably predictable from metamotivational dominances in a large sample of

Koenraad J Lindner; John Kerr

2001-01-01

354

Mechano-chemical control of human endothelium orientation and size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) were grown on elastic silicone membranes sub- jected to cyclic stretch, simulating arterial wall mo- tion. Stretching conditions (20% amplitude, 52 cy- cle\\/min) stimulated stress fiber formation and their orientation transversely to the strain direction. Cell bodies aligned along the same axis after the actin cytoskeleton. EC orientation response was inhibited by the adenylate

Vladimir P. Shirinsky; Alexander S. Antonov; Konstantin G. Birukov; Alexander V. Sobolevsky; Yuri A. Romanov; Naile V. Kabaeva; Galina N. Antonova; Vladimir N. Smirnov

1989-01-01

355

Academic goal orientations, multiple goal profiles, and friendship intimacy among early adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relations between early adolescents’ academic motivational orientations and an aspect of quality of friendship: intimacy. Two-hundred and three Jewish-Israeli seventh grade students responded to surveys asking them about their academic achievement goals and about characteristics of their friendships. Variable-centered regression analyses suggested that mastery goals were positively associated with mutual sharing of difficulties, trust, and adaptive

Inbal Levy-Tossman; Avi Kaplan; Avi Assor

2007-01-01

356

Parent-Child Mutual Affect and Friendships during Middle Childhood as Predictors of Adolescent Deviant Behavior.  

E-print Network

??The current study examined how parent-child positive mutual affect, deviant friends, and friendship quality during middle childhood relates to levels of deviance during adolescence. Existing… (more)

Culotta, Carmen

2010-01-01

357

Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

Bennett, Thomas E. (31 Portola Ct., Danville, CA 94506); Nelson, Drew V. (840 Cabot Ct., San Carlos, CA 94070)

2002-01-01

358

Discriminative host sanctions in a fig-wasp mutualism.  

PubMed

In some mutualisms, cooperation in symbionts is promoted by hosts sanctioning "cheats," who obtain benefits but fail to reciprocate. In fig-wasp mutualisms, agaonid wasps pollinate the trees (Ficus spp.), but are also exploitative by using some flowers as larval food. Ficus can sanction cheats that fail to pollinate by aborting some un-pollinated figs. However, in those un-pollinated figs retained by trees, cheats successfully reproduce. When this occurs, wasp broods are reduced, suggesting sanctions increase offspring mortality within un-pollinated figs. We investigated sanction mechanisms of abortion and larval mortality against wasp cheats in the monoecious Ficus racemosa by introducing into figs 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 female wasps (foundresses) that were either all pollen-laden (P+) or all pollen-free (P-). The abortion rates of P- figs were highest (-60%) when single foundresses were present. Abortion declined with increased foundresses and ceased with seven or more wasps present, irrespective of pollination. In un-aborted figs, wasp fitness (mean offspring per foundress) declined as foundress number increased, especially in P- figs. Reduced broods in P- figs resulted from increased larval mortality of female offspring as foundress number increased, resulting in more male-biased sex ratios. Overall sanctions estimated from both abortion rates and reduced offspring production strengthened as the number of cheats increased. In a second experiment, we decoupled pollination from wasp oviposition by introducing one pollen-free foundress, followed 24 h later by seven pollen-laden ovipositor-excised wasps. Compared with P+ and P- single-foundress figs, delayed pollination resulted in intermediate larval mortality and wasp fitness, which concurred with patterns of female offspring production. We conclude that fig abortion reflects both pollinator numbers and pollen presence. Sanctions within P- figs initiate soon after oviposition and discriminate against female offspring, thus reducing the benefits to cheats from adaptively biasing their offspring sex ratios. We suggest that costs to cheats via these discriminative sanctions are likely to promote stability in this mutualism. PMID:25000769

Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Sun, Bao Fa

2014-05-01

359

In situ control of As dimer orientation on Ge(100) surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces in a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor. In situ reflection anisotropy spectra (RAS) of vicinal substrates change when arsenic is supplied either by tertiarybutylarsine or by background As{sub 4} during annealing. Low energy electron diffraction shows mutually perpendicular orientations of dimers, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals distinct differences in the step structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms differences in the As coverage of the Ge(100):As samples. Their RAS signals consist of contributions related to As dimer orientation and to step structure, enabling precise in situ control over preparation of single domain Ge(100):As surfaces.

Brueckner, Sebastian; Doescher, Henning [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Institut fuer Physik, Postfach 10 05 65, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Supplie, Oliver; Luczak, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Barrigon, Enrique; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kleinschmidt, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Institut fuer Physik, Postfach 10 05 65, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

2012-09-17

360

Mutual coupling effects in antenna arrays, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mutual coupling between rectangular apertures in a finite antenna array, in an infinite ground plane, is analyzed using the vector potential approach. The method of moments is used to solve the equations that result from setting the tangential magnetic fields across each aperture equal. The approximation uses a set of vector potential model functions to solve for equivalent magnetic currents. A computer program was written to carry out this analysis and the resulting currents were used to determine the co- and cross-polarized far zone radiation patterns. Numerical results for various arrays using several modes in the approximation are presented. Results for one and two aperture arrays are compared against published data to check on the agreement of this model with previous work. Computer derived results are also compared against experimental results to test the accuracy of the model. These tests of the accuracy of the program showed that it yields valid data.

Collin, R. E.

1986-01-01

361

Conformal Invariance in noncommutative geometry and mutually interacting Snyder Particles  

E-print Network

A system of relativistic Snyder particles with mutual two-body interaction that lives in a Non-Commutative Snyder geometry is studied. The underlying novel symplectic structure is a coupled and extended version of (single particle) Snyder algebra. In a recent work by Casalbuoni and Gomis, Phys.Rev. D90, 026001 (2014), a system of interacting conventional particles (in commutative spacetime) was studied with special emphasis on it's Conformal Invariance. Proceeding along the same lines we have shown that our interacting Snyder particle model is also conformally invariant. Moreover, the conformal Killing vectors have been constructed. Our main emphasis is on the Hamiltonian analysis of the conformal symmetry generators. We demonstrate that the Lorentz algebra remains undeformed but validity of the full conformal algebra requires further restrictions.

Souvik Pramanik; Subir Ghosh; Probir Pal

2014-09-02

362

[Philosophy of the mutual biotic system of man-environment].  

PubMed

With regard to environmental changes, outstanding importance is meanwhile to be attached to the cultural side of human evolution. The evolution both of mankind and of its environment are mutually dependent as processes of change and together they form a complete biotic system. First disorders of balance concerning the close relationship network between mankind and environment eventually developed following man's change from the biosphere to the "noosphere" created by him. In the course of the "neolithic revolution" mankind, while becoming more and more settled, began to become increasingly estranged from its ecological surroundings. Environmental problems caused by man led to climatic changes already about 8,000 years ago. So far they have caused an extraordinary climatic stability following the Ice Age. "Environmental art" i. e. an improved evolution - is required to escape an imminent "collapse" caused by pollution. Nowadays mankind is on the way to being the almost exclusive carrier of future evolution of this planet. PMID:19544720

Mertz, D P

2009-06-01

363

Establishing mutual trust--a prerequisite to public partnership.  

PubMed

Establishing mutual trust is the key to establishing workable and sustainable partnerships between the public and service providers, in any part of the world. The experience of utilities in the United Kingdom and United States shows that trust is established through sharing information with the public and improving customer service. Understanding the needs of the public and the service agency are a prerequisite to establishing trust. There is no "magic formula" for the process, as it depends on the current level of knowledge, attitudes and actual practice (behavior) of both the public and the service agency. In Jordan, for example, there is awareness of environmental issues, but trust must be developed to generate public support for programs. PMID:10842796

Bakir, P H

2000-01-01

364

Conformal invariance in noncommutative geometry and mutually interacting Snyder particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of relativistic Snyder particles with mutual two-body interaction that lives in a noncommutative Snyder geometry is studied. The underlying novel symplectic structure is a coupled and extended version of (single-particle) Snyder algebra. In a recent work by Casalbuoni and Gomis [Phys. Rev. D 90, 026001 (2014)], a system of interacting conventional particles (in commutative spacetime) was studied with special emphasis on its conformal invariance. Proceeding along the same lines, we have shown that our interacting Snyder particle model is also conformally invariant. Moreover, the conformal Killing vectors have been constructed. Our main emphasis is on the Hamiltonian analysis of the conformal symmetry generators. We demonstrate that the Lorentz algebra remains undeformed, but validity of the full conformal algebra requires further restrictions.

Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir

2014-11-01

365

Mutual Inductance in the Bird-Cage Resonator  

PubMed

Formulas are derived to account for the effect of the mutual inductances, between all meshes, upon the electrical resonance spectra bird-cage resonators, and similar structures such as the TEM resonator of P. K. H. Roschmann (United States Patent 4,746,866) and J. T. Vaughan et al. (Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 206, 1994). The equations are parameterized in terms of isolated mesh frequencies and coupling coefficients, and ought therefore apply not only to simple magnetic couplings used in the derivation, but to electromagnetic couplings as well. A method for measuring the coupling coefficients-applicable to shielded as well as unshielded resonators-is described, based upon the splitting of frequencies in pairs of coupled resonators; and detailed comparisons are given between calculated and measured resonance spectra: for bird-cage resonators, with and without shields, and for the TEM resonator. PMID:9252272

Tropp

1997-05-01

366

The mutual coherence of the images of gravitationally lensed objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual coherence gamma(tau) of unresolved images of gravitationally lensed sources depends on: (1) the intensity distribution over the source; (2) the lens properties; and (3) the distance to lens and source. The gravitational lens geometry is equivalent to a VLBI setup with huge (but fixed) baseline. For simple situations, exact results for gamma(tau) are derived and compared to calculations for the VLBI case. Measurements of gamma(tau) could detect lens events caused by stars, and an inhomogeneous component of an intergalactic plasma. Although the amplitude of gamma(tau) is small for likely situations, one can obtain huge quantities of statistics by which detectable results could be yielded.

Schneider, P.

1983-06-01

367

Lightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology one of the most promising technologies in the field of ubiquitous computing. Indeed, RFID technology may well replace barcode technology. Although it offers many advantages over other identification systems, there are also associated security risks that are not easy to be addressed. When designing a real lightweight authentication protocol for low cost RFID tags, a number of challenges arise due to the extremely limited computational, storage and communication abilities of Low-cost RFID tags. This paper proposes a real mutual authentication protocol for low cost RFID tags. The proposed protocol prevents passive attacks as active attacks are discounted when designing a protocol to meet the requirements of low cost RFID tags. However the implementation of the protocol meets the limited abilities of low cost RFID tags.

Ahmed, Eslam Gamal; Hashem, Mohamed; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2203

2010-01-01

368

Renyi entropy, mutual information, and fluctuation properties of Fermi liquids  

E-print Network

I compute the leading contribution to the ground state Renyi entropy $S_{\\alpha}$ for a region of linear size $L$ in a Fermi liquid. The result contains a universal boundary law violating term simply related the more familiar entanglement entropy. I also obtain a universal crossover function that smoothly interpolates between the zero temperature result and the ordinary thermal Renyi entropy of a Fermi liquid. Formulas for the entanglement entropy of more complicated regions, including non-convex and disconnected regions, are obtained from the conformal field theory formulation of Fermi surface dynamics. These results permit an evaluation of the quantum mutual information between different regions in a Fermi liquid. I also study the number fluctuations in a Fermi liquid. Taken together, these results give a reasonably complete characterization of the low energy quantum information content of Fermi liquids.

Brian Swingle

2010-07-27

369

Maximization of mutual information for supervised linear feature extraction.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel scheme for linear feature extraction in classification. The method is based on the maximization of the mutual information (MI) between the features extracted and the classes. The sum of the MI corresponding to each of the features is taken as an heuristic that approximates the MI of the whole output vector. Then, a component-by-component gradient-ascent method is proposed for the maximization of the MI, similar to the gradient-based entropy optimization used in independent component analysis (ICA). The simulation results show that not only is the method competitive when compared to existing supervised feature extraction methods in all cases studied, but it also remarkably outperform them when the data are characterized by strongly nonlinear boundaries between classes. PMID:18220191

Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio

2007-09-01

370

Optimal Backpressure Scheduling in Wireless Networks using Mutual Information Accumulation  

E-print Network

In this paper we develop scheduling policies that maximize the stability region of a wireless network under the assumption that mutual information accumulation is implemented at the physical layer. When the link quality between nodes is not sufficiently high that a packet can be decoded within a single slot, the system can accumulate information across multiple slots, eventually decoding the packet. The result is an expanded stability region. The accumulation process over weak links is temporally coupled and therefore does not satisfy the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) assumption that underlies many previous analysis in this area. Therefore the problem setting also poses new analytic challenges. We propose two dynamic scheduling algorithms to cope with the non-i.i.d nature of the decoding. The first performs scheduling every $T$ slots, and approaches the boundary of the stability region as $T$ gets large, but at the cost of increased average delay. The second introduces virtual queues for eac...

Yang, Jing; Draper, Stark C

2011-01-01

371

Efficient Estimation of Mutual Information for Strongly Dependent Variables  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that a popular class of nonparametric mutual information (MI) estimators based on k-nearest-neighbor graphs requires number of samples that scales exponentially with the true MI. Consequently, accurate estimation of MI between two strongly dependent variables is possible only for prohibitively large sample size. This important yet overlooked shortcoming of the existing estimators is due to their implicit reliance on local uniformity of the underlying joint distribution. We introduce a new estimator that is robust to local non-uniformity, works well with limited data, and is able to capture relationship strengths over many orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed estimator on both synthetic and real-world data.

Gao, Shuyang; Galstyan, Aram

2014-01-01

372

Application of Mutual Information Methods in Time-Distance Helioseismology  

E-print Network

We apply a new technique, the mutual information (MI) from information theory, to time-distance helioseismology, and demonstrate that it can successfully reproduce several classic results based on the widely used cross-covariance method. MI quantifies the deviation of two random variables from complete independence, and represents a more general method for detecting dependencies in time series than the cross-covariance function, which only detects linear relationships. We provide a brief description of the MI-based technique and discuss the results of the application of MI to derive the solar differential profile, a travel-time deviation map for a sunspot and a time-distance diagram from quiet Sun measurements.

Keys, Dustin; Pevtsov, Alexei

2015-01-01

373

Free-volume hole relaxation in molecularly oriented glassy polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The free-volume hole relaxation in polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different levels of molecular orientation was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at variable pressures. The molecular orientation was achieved through a simple shear process performed at different temperatures and extrusion rates. It has been demonstrated that the ? relaxation is largely responsible for the free-volume hole anisotropy after simple shear orientation. Upon the removal of mechanical force, the deformation of the free volume is mostly reversible at temperatures much lower than the glass transition. No strong correlation between macroscopic deformation and the free-volume hole deformation was found regardless of molecular orientation.

Xia, Zhiyong; Trexler, Morgana; Wu, Fei; Jean, Yan-Ching; Van Horn, J. David

2014-02-01

374

MIDER: network inference with mutual information distance and entropy reduction.  

PubMed

The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide range of problems without requiring tuning. PMID:24806471

Villaverde, Alejandro F; Ross, John; Morán, Federico; Banga, Julio R

2014-01-01

375

A novel plant-fungal mutualism associated with fire.  

PubMed

Bromus tectorum, or cheatgrass, is native to Eurasia and widely invasive in western North America. By late spring, this annual plant has dispersed its seed and died; its aboveground biomass then becomes fine fuel that burns as frequently as once every 3-5 y in its invaded range. Cheatgrass has proven to be better adapted to fire there than many competing plants, but the contribution of its fungal symbionts to this adaptation had not previously been studied. In sampling cheatgrass endophytes, many fire-associated fungi were found, including Morchella in three western states (New Mexico, Idaho, and Washington). In greenhouse experiments, a New Mexico isolate of Morchella increased both the biomass and fecundity of its local cheatgrass population, thus simultaneously increasing both the probability of fire and survival of that event, via more fuel and a greater, belowground seed bank, respectively. Re-isolation efforts proved that Morchella could infect cheatgrass roots in a non-mycorrhizal manner and then grow up into aboveground tissues. The same Morchella isolate also increased survival of seed exposed to heat typical of that which develops in the seed bank during a cheatgrass fire. Phylogenetic analysis of Eurasian and North American Morchella revealed that this fire-associated mutualism was evolutionarily novel, in that cheatgrass isolates belonged to two phylogenetically distinct species, or phylotypes, designated Mel-6 and Mel-12 whose evolutionary origin appears to be within western North America. Mutualisms with fire-associated fungi may be contributing to the cheatgrass invasion of western North America. PMID:22208608

Baynes, Melissa; Newcombe, George; Dixon, Linley; Castlebury, Lisa; O'Donnell, Kerry

2012-01-01

376

Mutual Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities responsible for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the mutual information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the mutual information of RMCAB. As expected, it was found that the stations with average concentrations close to the network mean tend to have larger mutual information, whereas stations with atypical values share less information. The degree of dispersion around the mean of the RMCAB measurements does not exhibit a strong correlation with the tendencies observed for the mutual information. In general, the stations around the geographical center of Bogota or close to areas of large emissions, i.e. industrial areas, share the most information, while the stations located on the city outskirts are particularly singular. This degree of correlation as well as its underlying variables provides an approach to identifying the distribution of the pollutants over the city, which in turn gives insight into the spatial influence on monitoring networks. Moreover, it has the potential to contribute to the reconfiguration of existing networks in order to both improve their influence and optimize operational costs. Finally, the results of this method shall be compared with those obtained by diagnostic atmospheric dispersion models in order to improve our understanding of the pollution phenomena and to reduce uncertainties. This is an ongoing research topic.

Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

2012-12-01

377

Spatial orientation in weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements were used, including eye movements, postural control, perception of orientation, and susceptibility to space sickness.

Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

1984-01-01

378

Effectiveness of Dual Focus Mutual Aid for Co-occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders: A Review and Synthesis of the “Double Trouble” in Recovery Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Over five million adults in the U.S. have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (“self-help”) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City in 1998 and following them up for two years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample’s characteristics were: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder; 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several “common” therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation, social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy, reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach. PMID:19016171

Magura, Stephen

2010-01-01

379

Discourses of student orientation to medical education programs  

PubMed Central

Background Although medical students’ initial orientation is an important point of transition in medical education, there is a paucity of literature on the subject and major variations in the ways that different institutions orient incoming medical students to their programs. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of medical education orientation in the literature and on data from a survey of peer institutions’ approaches to orientation. Results These two discourses of orientation had clear similarities, in particular, the critical role of ceremony and symbols, and the focus on developing professionalism and physician identities. There were also differences between them, in particular, in the way that the discourse in the literature focused on the symbolic and professional aspects of orientation; something we have called ‘cultural orientation’. Meanwhile, those who were responsible for orientation in their own institutions tended to focus on the practical and social dimensions. Conclusion By examining how orientation has been described and discussed, we identify three domains of orientation: cultural, social, and practical. These domains are relatively distinct in terms of the activities associated with them, and in terms of who is involved in organizing and running these activities. We also describe orientation as a liminal activity system on the threshold of medical school where incoming students initially cross into the profession. Interestingly, this state of ambiguity also extends to the scholarship of orientation with only some of its aspects attracting formal enquiry, even though there is a growing interest in transitions in medical education as a whole. We hope, therefore, that this study can help to legitimize enquiry into orientation in all its forms and that it can begin to situate the role of orientation more firmly within the firmament of medical education practice and research. PMID:24646440

Ellaway, Rachel H.; Cooper, Gerry; Al-Idrissi, Tracy; Dubé, Tim; Graves, Lisa

2014-01-01

380

Mutual patient-psychiatrist communication and the therapeutic contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity and subspecialization of medicine make the patient feel lost in the anonymity and strange complexity of modern hospitals, lead to a misunderstanding of the increasing risks and impact of modern treatments, and restrict personal communication due to the prevalence of a knowledge-oriented approach, to a shortage of time, and to insufficient communication skills. All of this may

H Helmchen

1998-01-01

381

Mutual coupling reduction between dual polarized microstrip patch antennas using compact spiral  

E-print Network

Mutual coupling reduction between dual polarized microstrip patch antennas using compact spiral--In this paper, we present a dual polarized microstrip antenna above an Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMCB and a cross-polar level about -15 dB. Then, the mutual coupling between two antennas above AMC is studied. 3 d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c...Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance funds. Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions...

2010-04-01

383

Measuring Mutual Help Willingness and Criteria among Hong Kong People: Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual help has been often found to be beneficial for people's well-being in clinical settings. Research in the general population, however, is relatively limited, partly due to the lack of applicable measurement tools. The present study attempted to develop two scales to measure mutual help willingness and criteria and test their psychometric…

Ye, Shengquan; Leung, Terry Tse Fong; Mok, Bong Ho

2011-01-01

384

Mutual Vulnerability: A Key Principle in a Humanising Pedagogy in Post-Conflict Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that education in post-conflict and traumatised societies should be partly underpinned by the principle of "mutual vulnerability" as central to a humanising pedagogy. We explain the conceptual links between "reconciliation pedagogies", "mutual vulnerability" and "humanising pedagogies" and associate them with the broader…

Zinn, Denise; Proteus, Kimberley; Keet, Andre

2009-01-01

385

Mutual inspiration in the development of new technology for older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few guidelines on how to involve older people in the design process of new IT related products. In this paper we describe some of the difficulties encountered when working with older people, and introduce the concept of mutual inspiration, illustrated by our experiences. We argue that mutual inspiration can provide a way to make interactions with older people

R. Eisma; A. Dickinson; J. Goodman; O. Mival; A. Syme; L. Tiwari

2003-01-01

386

Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

2015-01-01

387

Religiosity and participation in mutual-aid support groups for addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual-aid support groups play a vital role in substance abuse treatment in the United States. A national survey of mutual-aid support groups for addiction was conducted to identify key differences between participants in recovery groups. Survey data indicate that active involvement in support groups significantly improves one's chances of remaining clean and sober, regardless of the group in which one

Randolph G. Atkins; James E. Hawdon

2007-01-01

388

Conflicting selection in the course of adaptive diversification: the interplay between mutualism and intraspecific competition.  

PubMed

Adaptive speciation can occur when a population undergoes assortative mating and disruptive selection caused by frequency-dependent intraspecific competition. However, other interactions, such as mutualisms based on trait matching, may generate conflicting selective pressures that constrain species diversification. We used individual-based simulations to explore how different types of mutualism affect adaptive diversification. A magic trait was assumed to simultaneously mediate mate choice, intraspecific competition, and mutualisms. In scenarios of intimate, specialized mutualisms, individuals interact with one or few individual mutualistic partners, and diversification is constrained only if the mutualism is obligate. In other scenarios, increasing numbers of different partners per individual limit diversification by generating stabilizing selection. Stabilizing selection emerges from the greater likelihood of trait mismatches for rare, extreme phenotypes than for common intermediate phenotypes. Constraints on diversification imposed by increased numbers of partners decrease if the trait matching degree has smaller positive effects on fitness. These results hold after the relaxation of various assumptions. When trait matching matters, mutualism-generated stabilizing selection would thus often constrain diversification in obligate mutualisms, such as ant-myrmecophyte associations, and in low-intimacy mutualisms, including plant-seed disperser systems. Hence, different processes, such as trait convergence favoring the incorporation of nonrelated species, are needed to explain the higher richness of low-intimacy assemblages--shown here to be up to 1 order of magnitude richer than high-intimacy systems. PMID:24561599

Raimundo, Rafael L G; Gibert, Jean P; Hembry, David H; Guimarães, Paulo R

2014-03-01

389

Quantitative Evaluation of Dependence among Outputs in ECOC Classifiers Using Mutual Information Based  

E-print Network

in interpreting the dependence among the outputs as the common information shared among them. Mutual informationQuantitative Evaluation of Dependence among Outputs in ECOC Classifiers Using Mutual Information dependence among the outputs of learning machines can provide us with infor- mation about their nature

Masulli, Francesco

390

Conceptualising Hy-Bivalent Subjectivities to Facilitate an Examination of Australian Government Mutual Obligations Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates how the work of feminist theorists Valerie Walkerdine, Helen Lucey and June Melody, Beverly Skeggs, and Nancy Fraser were used together to examine the lived effects of Australian government Mutual Obligations policies. As "active" welfare policies, Mutual Obligations construct particular relations between themselves and…

Edwards, Jan

2006-01-01

391

Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification Marjorie G. Weber1,2  

E-print Network

Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification Marjorie G. Weber1,2 and Anurag A. Agrawal opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within

Agrawal, Anurag

392

47 CFR 90.720 - Channels available for public safety/mutual aid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels available for public safety/mutual...the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.720 Channels available for public safety/mutual...use mobile and/or portable units on Channels 161-170 throughout the United...

2013-10-01

393

47 CFR 90.720 - Channels available for public safety/mutual aid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels available for public safety/mutual...the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.720 Channels available for public safety/mutual...use mobile and/or portable units on Channels 161-170 throughout the United...

2012-10-01

394

Development of Anthropomorphic Multi-D.O.F. Master-Slave Arm for Mutual Telexistence  

E-print Network

Development of Anthropomorphic Multi-D.O.F. Master-Slave Arm for Mutual Telexistence Riichiro for Mutual Telexistence We have been progressively developing a complete anthropomorphic seven degrees Many anthropomorphic 7-DOF redundant arms of huma- noid robots have already been designed and built

Tachi, Susumu

395

The evolution of obligate pollination mutualisms: senita cactus and senita moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new obligate pollination mutualism involving the senita cactus, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae, Pachyceereae), and the senita moth, Upiga virescens (Pyralidae, Glaphyriinae) in the Sonoran Desert and discuss the evolution of specialized pollination mutualisms. L. schottii is a night-blooming, self-incompatible columnar cactus. Beginning at sunset, its flowers are visited by U. virescens females, which collect pollen on specialized abdominal

Theodore H. Fleming; J. Nathaniel Holland

1998-01-01

396

Learning from warthogs and oxpeckers: promoting mutualism in school and university research partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article it is argued that metaphors can be useful in explaining the ways academics and teachers can work inter-dependently, using action research, to achieve different, but mutually beneficial outcomes. The authors explore several metaphors used by other writers to capture some of the essential characteristics of research partnerships, while playfully advancing their own biological metaphor of mutualism to

Bruce Johnson; Kaye Johnson

2002-01-01

397

MUTUAL INFORMATION RELEVANCE NETWORKS: FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC CLUSTERING USING PAIRWISE ENTROPY MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of methodologies are available to find functional genomic clusters in RNA expression data. We describe a technique that computes comprehensive pair-wise mutual information for all genes in such a data set. An association with a high mutual information means that one gene is non-randomly associated with another; we hypothesize this means the two are related biologically. By picking

A. J. BUTTE; I. S. KOHANE

2000-01-01

398

Strangers and Orphans: Knowledge and Mutuality in Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulo Freire consistently upheld humanization and mutuality as educational ideals. This article argues that conceptualizations of knowledge and how knowledge is sought and produced play a role in fostering humanization and mutuality in educational contexts. Drawing on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this article focuses on the…

Gomez, Claudia Rozas

2013-01-01

399

Freshman Orientation Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the experience and positive results in this year's freshmen orientation at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). Before classes started in the fall freshman in Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering Technology (ECTET) programs were asked to work with faculty as they programmed an inexpensive robot and built maps of the RIT campus for the robots to navigate. The paper discusses these activities in detail, provides the tutorials that were developed and discusses the student survey completed after the orientation.The goals met in the orientation were: faculty-student interaction, student-student interaction, increased student knowledge of the campus, team participation by all, students meeting the office staff and, students working with their advisors to review their schedule before classes began. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Ciccarelli, Steven

400

Orientation of Christian Churches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation of Christian churches reflects the historically documented concepts that one should turn eastward to pray and the architectural and liturgical principle that temples and churches should be constructed facing east (often specified as equinoctial east). Since many churches do not face equinoctial east, various attempts have been made to explain this deviation. Among them are the idea that those churches were incorrectly built or that they were oriented toward sunrise on the date their foundation was laid or on the feast or the saint to whom the church was dedicated.

McCluskey, Stephen C.

401

Orienteering and Rogaining Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orienteering and Rogaining WWW Server is now on-line with information on clubs and federations from around the world, including schedules, results, maps and people to contact for more information. Orienteering is the use of a highly detailed map and a compass to find one's way through unknown surroundings and, if done competitively, in the least possible time. Rogaining is the sport of long distance cross-country navigation in which teams of two to five members, on foot using map and compass, visit as many checkpoints as possible in up to twenty-four hours.

402

A new determination of radii and limb parameters for Pluto and Charon from mutual event lightcurves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years Pluto-Charon mutual events have yielded progressively more accurate estimates of Charon's orbital elements and the radii of Pluto and Charon (e.g., Buie, Tholen, and Horne, 1992). Analysis of the 1988 stellar occultation by Pluto indicates a radius for Pluto that is about 4%, or 50 km, larger than the mutual event radius of 1151 km. One possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the mutual event modeling treats Pluto and Charon as uniformly bright disks. If they are limb-darkened, the mutual event fits could underestimate their radii. In this paper we use an independent mutual event data set (Young and Binzel, 1992) to fit for Pluto and Charon's radii in a manner independent of either object's limb profile or albedo distribution. Our least-squares solution indicates that Pluto's radius is 1164 +/- 22.9 km and Charon's radius is 621 +/- 20.6 km.

Young, Eliot F.; Binzel, Richard P.

1994-01-01

403

A novel orientation code for face recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel orientation code is proposed for face recognition applications in this paper. Gabor wavelet transform is a common tool for orientation analysis in a 2D image; whereas Hamming distance is an efficient distance measurement for multiple classifications such as face identification. Specifically, at each frequency band, an index number representing the strongest orientational response is selected, and then encoded in binary format to favor the Hamming distance calculation. Multiple-band orientation codes are then organized into a face pattern byte (FPB) by using order statistics. With the FPB, Hamming distances are calculated and compared to achieve face identification. The FPB has the dimensionality of 8 bits per pixel and its performance will be compared to that of FPW (face pattern word, 32 bits per pixel). The dimensionality of FPB can be further reduced down to 4 bits per pixel, called face pattern nibble (FPN). Experimental results with visible and thermal face databases show that the proposed orientation code for face recognition is very promising in contrast with classical methods such as PCA.

Zheng, Yufeng

2011-06-01

404

Heterospecific call recognition and phonotaxis in the orientation behavior of the marbled newt, Triturus marmoratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of acoustic cues as reference cues for orientation by amphibians has been demonstrated in anurans, the only amphibian group that engages in acoustic communication, but not in urodeles. Orientation responses of marbled newts, Triturus marmoratus, were studied to determine whether heterospecific calls elicited positive phonotaxis. The orientation tests consisted in presenting either a familiar acoustic stimulus, the advertisement

F. Javier Diego-Rasilla; Rosa M. Luengo

2004-01-01

405

Student Safety Orientation  

E-print Network

Student Safety Orientation Safety & Health Services Division June 2011 #12;Safety Matters at BNL a Lindberg split tube furnace (120v, 800 watt) housed within a fume hood. Minor electrical shock Student long hair was caught in a lathe and she died due to asphyxia from neck compression. (Students Location

Ohta, Shigemi

406

New Faculty Orientation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of Triton College's (Illinois) New Faculty Orientation Plan, which was developed in light of the large number of retirements and new hires expected by the year 2000. The purpose of the plan is to assist newly hired instructors to move productively into their professional roles and to become actively involved in the…

Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

407

Orientation Interpolation and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychovision have shown that many grouping laws come into play to structure human vision. They use informations of different kinds, not only gray (or color)-level values. Here we will show how an orientation interpolation operator working in S1 (angle in (0; 2 () can be used to recover geometrical information in images. The operator is presented and is used to

Anatole Chessel; Ronan Fablet; Frédéric Cao; Charles Kervrann

2006-01-01

408

Occupational Orientation in Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development, implementation, and field testing of Virginia's three-year Clusters Approach to Career Orientation (CACO) Project designed to generate an activity-based, across-the-board curriculum for pre-exploratory students relating to appropriateness in occupational choice. (TA)

Ressler, Ralph

1978-01-01

409

Church Orientations in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high number of churches built during the Romanesque period in Slovenia provides a unique dataset from which to study church orientation using archaeoastronomical methods. An innovative methodology revealed a specific pattern of motivation for church alignment, ultimately revealing a greater depth of thought, process, and intentionality than has previously been recognized relative to this subject.

?aval, Saša

410

Orientation of Phoenician Temples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

411

GEOTROPIC ORIENTATION IN ARTHROPODS  

PubMed Central

The creeping of the beetle Tetraopes tetraopthalmus during negatively geotropic orientation shows the angles of orientation (?) on a surface inclined at ?° to the horizontal to be proportional to sin ?. The direction of orientation easily suffers temporary reversal to positive as result of handling. Mechanical stability during upward progression should be just possible when K1 cot ? = K2 sin ? + K3 cos ?, the weight of the body being supported on the tripod formed by the legs on either side and by the posterior tip of the abdomen. Lack of this stability produces tensions on the legs through (1) the bilaterally distributed pull of the body mass on the legs, and (2) the torque on the legs due to the weight of the abdomen. The downward gravitational displacement of the tip of the abdomen causes K2 and K3 in the preceding formula to be functions of ?. These relations have been tested in detail by shifting the location of the center of gravity, by attaching additional masses anteriorly and posteriorly, and by decreasing the total load through amputation of the abdomen; the latter operation changes the conditions for stability. Different formulæ are thus obtained (cf. earlier papers) for the orientation of animals in which the mechanics of progression and the method of support of the body weight on an inclined surface are not the same. This demonstrates in a direct way that the respective empirical equations cannot be regarded as accidents. The results are in essence the same as that already obtained with young mammals. The diversity of equations required for the physically unlike cases merely strengthens the conception of geotropic orientation as limited by the tensions applied to the musculature of the body (caterpillars, slugs) or of appendages (beetles, and certain other forms) when the body is supported upon an inclined surface, since equations respectively pertaining to the several instances, and satisfactorily describing the observations, are deduced on this basis. PMID:19872491

Crozier, W. J.; Stier, T. J. B.

1929-01-01

412

Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other. PMID:24718656

Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

413

5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund prospectus...participate in agency matters affecting the computer company. Example 2 to paragraph...000 worth of shares in the XYZ Health Sciences Fund, a sector mutual fund...

2014-01-01

414

5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund prospectus...participate in agency matters affecting the computer company. Example 2 to paragraph...000 worth of shares in the XYZ Health Sciences Fund, a sector mutual fund...

2013-01-01

415

5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund prospectus...participate in agency matters affecting the computer company. Example 2 to paragraph...000 worth of shares in the XYZ Health Sciences Fund, a sector mutual fund...

2012-01-01

416

5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund prospectus...participate in agency matters affecting the computer company. Example 2 to paragraph...000 worth of shares in the XYZ Health Sciences Fund, a sector mutual fund...

2010-01-01

417

12 CFR 250.412 - Interlocking relationships between member bank and insurance company-mutual fund complex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and insurance company-mutual fund complex. 250.412 Section 250.412 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS...and insurance company-mutual fund complex. (a) The Board has...

2010-01-01

418

Mutual heavy ion dissociation in peripheral collisions at ultrarelativistic energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study mutual dissociation of heavy nuclei in peripheral collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Earlier this process was proposed for beam luminosity monitoring via simultaneous registration of forward and backward neutrons in zero degree calorimeters at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Electromagnetic dissociation of heavy ions is considered in the framework of the Weizsäcker-Williams method and simulated by the RELDIS code. Photoneutron cross sections measured in different experiments and calculated by the GNASH code are used as input for the calculations of dissociation cross sections. The difference in results obtained with different inputs provides a realistic estimation for the systematic uncertainty of the luminosity monitoring method. Contributions to simultaneous neutron emission due to grazing nuclear interactions is calculated within the abrasion model. A good description of the CERN SPS experimental data on Au and Pb dissociation gives confidence in the predictive power of the model for AuAu and PbPb collisions at the RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

Pshenichnov, I. A.; Bondorf, J. P.; Mishustin, I. N.; Ventura, A.; Masetti, S.

2001-08-01

419

Depicting qudit quantum mechanics and mutually unbiased qudit theories  

E-print Network

We generalize the ZX calculus to quantum systems of dimension higher than two. The resulting calculus is sound and universal for quantum mechanics. We define the notion of a mutually unbiased qudit theory and study two particular instances of these theories in detail: qudit stabilizer quantum mechanics and Spekkens-Schreiber toy theory for dits. The calculus allows us to analyze the structure of qudit stabilizer quantum mechanics and provides a geometrical picture of qudit stabilizer theory using D-toruses, which generalizes the Bloch sphere picture for qubit stabilizer quantum mechanics. We also use our framework to describe generalizations of Spekkens toy theory to higher dimensional systems. This gives a novel proof that qudit stabilizer quantum mechanics and Spekkens-Schreiber toy theory for dits are operationally equivalent in three dimensions. The qudit pictorial calculus is a useful tool to study quantum foundations, understand the relationship between qubit and qudit quantum mechanics, and provide a novel, high level description of quantum information protocols.

André Ranchin

2014-12-30

420

Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism. PMID:25055816

Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

2014-07-01

421

[Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.

Patel, Karishma

2010-01-01

422

Analysis of fMRI time series with mutual information.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging plays a fundamental role in the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), based on the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent signal, is currently considered as a standard technique for a system level understanding of the human brain. The problem of identifying regionally specific effects in neuroimaging data is usually solved by applying Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Here, a mutual information (MI) criterion is used to identify regionally specific effects produced by a task. In particular, two MI estimators are presented for its use in fMRI data. The first one uses a Parzen probability density estimation, and the second one is based on a K Nearest Neighbours (KNN) estimation. Additionally, a statistical measure has been introduced to automatically detect the voxels which are relevant to the fMRI task. Experiments demonstrate the advantages of MI estimators over SPM maps; firstly, providing more significant differences between relevant and irrelevant voxels; secondly, presenting more focalized activation; and, thirdly, detecting small areas related to the task. These findings, and the improved performance of KNN MI estimator in multisubject and multistimuli studies, make the proposed methods a good alternative to SPM. PMID:22155195

Gómez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Martínez-Ramón, Manel; Florensa-Vila, José; Oliviero, Antonio

2012-02-01

423

Finding Mutual Exclusion Invariants in Temporal Planning Domains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a technique for automatically extracting temporal mutual exclusion invariants from PDDL2.2 planning instances. We first identify a set of invariant candidates by inspecting the domain and then check these candidates against properties that assure invariance. If these properties are violated, we show that it is sometimes possible to refine a candidate by adding additional propositions and turn it into a real invariant. Our technique builds on other approaches to invariant synthesis presented in the literature, but departs from their limited focus on instantaneous discrete actions by addressing temporal and numeric domains. To deal with time, we formulate invariance conditions that account for both the entire structure of the operators (including the conditions, rather than just the effects) and the possible interactions between operators. As a result, we construct a technique that is not only capable of identifying invariants for temporal domains, but is also able to find a broader set of invariants for non-temporal domains than the previous techniques.

Bernardini, Sara; Smith, David E.

2011-01-01

424

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.

Patel, Karishma K.

2010-01-01

425

A Synchronous Mutual Position Control for Vertical Pneumatic Servo System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronous control of mutual position for two vertical-type pneumatic servo systems is discussed for practical use in this study. In the proposed control system, a fuzzy controller is used in each pneumatic servo system so that the output of each plant can follow the reference input. A PD controller is introduced to realize the synchronization of both pneumatic servo systems, in which the outputs from this controller are the inputs for revision to both plants. A fuzzy virtual reference generator that can adjust the reference input to both fuzzy controllers adaptively by fuzzy rules is constructed to improve the transient performances of both axes. In addition, the adjustment controller produces a representative value of both cylinder outputs, which is used to synthesize the inputs to the fuzzy virtual reference generator, in order to reach a compromise between the follow-up ability to the reference input in each axis and synchronization of both axes. The applicability of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments using two existent vertical-type pneumatic servo systems.

Shibata, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Jindai, Mitsuru

426

A reliable RFID mutual authentication scheme for healthcare environments.  

PubMed

Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications have the potential to increase the reliability of healthcare environments. However, there are obvious security and privacy concerns with regard to storing personal and medical data in RFID tags, and the lack of secure authentication systems in healthcare environments remains as a challenge the further use of this technology, one that touches on issues of confidentiality, unforgeability, location privacy, and scalability. This study proposes a novel mutual authentication protocol that considers all of these issues and solves the tradeoff between location privacy and scalability in healthcare environments. A formal proof and analysis is demonstrated to prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and that high reliability has and can be easily deployed and managed. This study also provides a scenario example that applied proposed protocol in the newborn care and management. The result shows that the proposed scheme solves the related tradeoff problem, and is capable of providing both location privacy and scalability. To apply the authentication scheme proposed in this work would be able to increase confidence in future implementations of RFID systems in healthcare environments. PMID:23321974

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Lichin; Wu, Ju-Chuan

2013-04-01

427

Dynamical formation of resonant planetary systems with high mutual inclination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider systems composed of two giant planets, which migrate radially due to their interaction with their host protoplanetary disc, in an effort to understand under which conditions '3-D' resonant systems can form. Planet migration can lead to permanent resonant capture and, in the planar case, it has been shown that the planets evolves along families of periodic orbits. In the full 3-D problem, resonant capture also takes place, while excitation of the orbital inclinations of the planets has been observed in numerical simulations. Here we show that, in the 3-D case, the planetary system also follows adiabatically the families of resonant periodic orbits. Inclination excitation occurs if there exist periodic orbits along the 2-D families that are vertically unstable. Thus, by computing the vertical stability index of 2-D periodic orbits for different mass ratios and by locating the vertically unstable periodic orbits in phase space, we can predict whether the planetary inclinations can be excited by any given resonance during migration. If the system passes through such a critical orbit, it subsequently follows the family of 3-D periodic orbits that bifurcates from it and can reach high values of mutual inclination (~40 deg), as long as the disc does not exert significant damping.

Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K.; Voyatzis, G.

2013-09-01

428

Temperature dependences of rate coefficients for electron catalyzed mutual neutralization  

SciTech Connect

The flowing afterglow technique of variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) has recently yielded evidence for a novel plasma charge loss process, electron catalyzed mutual neutralization (ECMN), i.e., A{sup +}+ B{sup -}+ e{sup -}{yields} A + B + e{sup -}. Here, rate constants for ECMN of two polyatomic species (POCl{sub 3}{sup -} and POCl{sub 2}{sup -}) and one diatomic species (Br{sub 2}{sup -}) each with two monatomic cations (Ar{sup +}and Kr{sup +}) are measured using VENDAMS over the temperature range 300 K-500 K. All rate constants show a steep negative temperature dependence, consistent with that expected for a three body process involving two ions and an electron. No variation in rate constants as a function of the cation type is observed outside of uncertainty; however, rate constants of the polyatomic anions ({approx}1 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K) are measurably higher than that for Br{sub 2}{sup -}[(5.5 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K].

Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Viggiano, Albert A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji [Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2011-07-14

429

A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth.  

PubMed

Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically costly and, until now, inexplicable. We hypothesized that this behaviour sustains an ecosystem in the fur of sloths, which confers cryptic nutritional benefits to sloths. We found that the more specialized three-toed sloths harboured more phoretic moths, greater concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and higher algal biomass than the generalist two-toed sloths. Moth density was positively related to inorganic nitrogen concentration and algal biomass in the fur. We discovered that sloths consumed algae from their fur, which was highly digestible and lipid-rich. By descending a tree to defecate, sloths transport moths to their oviposition sites in sloth dung, which facilitates moth colonization of sloth fur. Moths are portals for nutrients, increasing nitrogen levels in sloth fur, which fuels algal growth. Sloths consume these algae-gardens, presumably to augment their limited diet. These linked mutualisms between moths, sloths and algae appear to aid the sloth in overcoming a highly constrained lifestyle. PMID:24452028

Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Steffan, Shawn A; Carey, Cayelan C; Weimer, Paul J; Peery, M Zachariah

2014-03-01

430

Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism.  

PubMed

Humans are highly social animals and often help unrelated individuals that may never reciprocate the altruist's favour. This apparent evolutionary puzzle may be explained by the altruist's gain in social image: image-scoring bystanders, also known as eavesdroppers, notice the altruistic act and therefore are more likely to help the altruist in the future. Such complex indirect reciprocity based on altruistic acts may evolve only after simple indirect reciprocity has been established, which requires two steps. First, image scoring evolves when bystanders gain personal benefits from information gathered, for example, by finding cooperative partners. Second, altruistic behaviour in the presence of such bystanders may evolve if altruists benefit from access to the bystanders. Here, we provide experimental evidence for both of the requirements in a cleaning mutualism involving the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners may cooperate and remove ectoparasites from clients or they may cheat by feeding on client mucus. As mucus may be preferred over typical client ectoparasites, clients must make cleaners feed against their preference to obtain a cooperative service. We found that eavesdropping clients spent more time next to 'cooperative' than 'unknown cooperative level' cleaners, which shows that clients engage in image-scoring behaviour. Furthermore, trained cleaners learned to feed more cooperatively when in an 'image-scoring' than in a 'non-image-scoring' situation. PMID:16791194

Bshary, Redouan; Grutter, Alexandra S

2006-06-22

431

Impact of mutual health organizations: evidence from West Africa  

PubMed Central

Mutual health organizations (MHOs) are voluntary membership organizations providing health insurance services to their members. MHOs aim to increase access to health care by reducing out-of-pocket payments faced by households. We used multiple regression analysis of household survey data from Ghana, Mali and Senegal to investigate the determinants of enrolment in MHOs, and the impact of MHO membership on use of health care services and on out-of-pocket health care expenditures for outpatient care and hospitalization. We found strong evidence that households headed by women are more likely to enrol in MHOs than households headed by men. Education of the household head is positively associated with MHO enrolment. The evidence on the association between household economic status and MHO enrolment indicates that individuals from the richest quintiles are more likely to be enrolled than anyone else. We did not find evidence that individuals from the poorest quintiles tend to be excluded from MHOs. MHO members are more likely to seek formal health care in Ghana and Mali, although this result was not confirmed in Senegal. While our evidence on whether MHO membership is associated with higher probability of hospitalization is inconclusive, we find that MHO membership offers protection against the potentially catastrophic expenditures related to hospitalization. However, MHO membership does not appear to have a significant effect on out-of-pocket expenditures for curative outpatient care. PMID:18480126

Chankova, Slavea; Sulzbach, Sara; Diop, François

2008-01-01

432

26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2011-04-01

433

26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2010-04-01

434

26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than...

2010-04-01

435

26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2010-04-01

436

26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2012-04-01

437

26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than...

2013-04-01

438

26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2012-04-01

439

26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than...

2011-04-01

440

26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than...

2014-04-01

441

26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2013-04-01

442

26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2011-04-01

443

26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2013-04-01

444

26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than...

2012-04-01

445

26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2014-04-01

446

26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies...on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies...

2014-04-01

447

17 CFR Appendix F to Part 30 - Acknowledgment Letter for CFTC Regulation 30.7 Customer Secured Money Market Mutual Fund Account  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CFTC Regulation 30.7 Customer Secured Money Market Mutual Fund Account F Appendix...CFTC Regulation 30.7 Customer Secured Money Market Mutual Fund Account [Date] [Name and Address of Money Market Mutual Fund] We propose to...

2014-04-01

448

12 CFR 204.124 - Repurchase agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio consists...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio...involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio...of any person in the form of bonds, notes, and debentures...sold at par (i.e., money market mutual funds) provided...

2013-01-01

449

12 CFR 204.124 - Repurchase agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio consists...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio...involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio...of any person in the form of bonds, notes, and debentures...sold at par (i.e., money market mutual funds) provided...

2011-01-01

450

12 CFR 204.124 - Repurchase agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio consists...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio...involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio...of any person in the form of bonds, notes, and debentures...sold at par (i.e., money market mutual funds) provided...

2012-01-01

451

Information transfer rate in fMRI experiments measured using mutual information theory.  

PubMed

Information theory provides a mathematical framework for analysis of fMRI experiments. By modeling the fMRI experiment as a communication system, various results from information theory can be applied to measure information transfer rate in fMRI experiments. The information transfer rate has important implications for design and analysis of brain-computer interface (BCI) experiments. A key factor in the effective implementation of BCI techniques is to achieve maximum information transfer rate. In this report, mutual information rate (MIR) was used to evaluate the efficiency of alternative experimental designs. The channel capacity, a fundamental physical limit on the rate at which information can be extracted from an fMRI experiment, was estimated and compared with the theoretical limit specified by the Hartley-Shannon Theorem. We present an information theory framework for the analysis of fMRI time-series assuming a known hemodynamic response function. Using MIR to evaluate fMRI experimental designs, we show that block lengths of 3-5s have maximum information transfer rates. For designs with shorter block lengths, the MIR is limited by the channel capacity. For experimental designs with longer block lengths, the MIR is limited by the low source information transmission rate. PMID:17919734

Ward, B Douglas; Mazaheri, Yousef

2008-01-15

452

Mutual phase-locking of microwave spin torque nano-oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin torque effect that occurs in nanometre-scale magnetic multilayer devices can be used to generate steady-state microwave signals in response to a d.c. electrical current. This establishes a new functionality for magneto-electronic structures that are more commonly used as magnetic field sensors and magnetic memory elements. The microwave power emitted from a single spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) is at present typically less than 1nW. To achieve a more useful power level (on the order of microwatts), a device could consist of an array of phase coherent STNOs, in a manner analogous to arrays of Josephson junctions and larger semiconductor oscillators. Here we show that two STNOs in close proximity mutually phase-lock-that is, they synchronize, which is a general tendency of interacting nonlinear oscillator systems. The phase-locked state is distinct, characterized by a sudden narrowing of signal linewidth and an increase in power due to the coherence of the individual oscillators. Arrays of phase-locked STNOs could be used as nanometre-scale reference oscillators. Furthermore, phase control of array elements (phased array) could lead to nanometre-scale directional transmitters and receivers for wireless communications.

Kaka, Shehzaad; Pufall, Matthew R.; Rippard, William H.; Silva, Thomas J.; Russek, Stephen E.; Katine, Jordan A.

2005-09-01

453

How personality became treatable: The mutual constitution of clinical knowledge and mental health law  

PubMed Central

In recent years, personality disorders – psychiatric constructs understood as enduring dysfunctions of personality – have come into ever-greater focus for British policymakers, mental health professionals and service-users. Disputes have focussed largely on highly controversial attempts by the UK Department of Health to introduce mental health law and policy (now enshrined within the 2007 Mental Health Act of England and Wales). At the same time, clinical framings of personality disorder have dramatically shifted: once regarded as untreatable conditions, severe personality disorders are today thought of by many clinicians to be responsive to psychiatric and psychological intervention. In this article, I chart this transformation by means of a diachronic analysis of debates and institutional shifts pertaining to both attempts to change the law, and understandings of personality disorder. In so doing, I show how mental health policy and practice have mutually constituted one another, such that the aims of clinicians and policymakers have come to be closely aligned. I argue that it is precisely through these reciprocally constitutive processes that the profound reconfiguration of personality disorder from being an obdurate to a plastic condition has occurred; this demonstrates the significance of interactions between law and the health professions in shaping not only the State’s management of pathology, but also perceptions of its very nature.

2013-01-01

454

Mutual influences between the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in development and evolution  

PubMed Central

The sense of smell plays a crucial role in the sensory world of animals. Two chemosensory systems have been traditionally thought to play-independent roles in mammalian olfaction. According to this, the main olfactory system (MOS) specializes in the detection of environmental odorants, while the vomeronasal system (VNS) senses pheromones and semiochemicals produced by individuals of the same or different species. Although both systems differ in their anatomy and function, recent evidence suggests they act synergistically in the perception of scents. These interactions include similar responses to some ligands, overlap of telencephalic connections and mutual influences in the regulation of olfactory-guided behavior. In the present work, we propose the idea that the relationships between systems observed at the organismic level result from a constant interaction during development and reflects a common history of ecological adaptations in evolution. We review the literature to illustrate examples of developmental and evolutionary processes that evidence these interactions and propose that future research integrating both systems may shed new light on the mechanisms of olfaction. PMID:23269914

Suárez, Rodrigo; García-González, Diego; de Castro, Fernando

2012-01-01

455

The Expression of Whirlin and Cav1.3?1 is Mutually Independent in Photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Whirlin is a gene responsible for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) and congenital deafness. In photoreceptors, it organizes a protein complex through binding to proteins encoded by other USH2 genes, usherin (USH2A) and G-protein-coupled receptor 98 (GPR98). Recently, Cav1.3?1 (?1D) has been discovered to interact with whirlin in vitro and these two proteins are localized to the same subcellular compartments in photoreceptors. Accordingly, it is proposed that Cav1.3?1 is in the USH2 protein complex and that the USH2 protein complex is involved in regulating Ca2+ in photoreceptors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the interdependence of Cav1.3?1 and whirlin expression in photoreceptors. We found that lack of Cav1.3?1 did not change the whirlin distribution or expression level in photoreceptors. In the retina, several Cav1.3?1 splice variants were found at the RNA level. Among them, the whirlin-interacting Cav1.3?1 long variant had no change in its protein expression level in the absence of whirlin. The localization of Cav1.3?1 in photoreceptors, published previously, cannot be confirmed. Therefore, the mutual independence of whirlin and Cav1.3?1 expressions in photoreceptors suggests that Cav1.3?1 may not be a key member of the USH2 protein complex at the periciliary membrane complex. PMID:22892111

Zou, Junhuang; Lee, Amy; Yang, Jun

2012-01-01

456

Orientation dependence of Casimir forces  

SciTech Connect

The Casimir interaction between two objects, or between an object and a plane, depends on their relative orientations. We make these angular dependences explicit by considering prolate or oblate spheroids. The variation with orientation is calculated exactly at asymptotically large distances for the electromagnetic field and at arbitrary separations for a scalar field. For a spheroid in front of a mirror, the leading term is orientation independent, and we find the optimal orientation from computations at higher order.

Emig, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8626, 91405 Orsay (France); Graham, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Jaffe, R. L. [Department of Physics, Center for Theoretical Physics, and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kardar, M. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-05-15

457

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

458

Targeted ultra-deep sequencing reveals recurrent and mutually exclusive mutations of cancer genes in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.  

PubMed

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare haematopoietic malignancy characterized by dismal prognosis and overall poor therapeutic response. Since the biology of BPDCN is barely understood, our study aims to shed light on the genetic make-up of these highly malignant tumors. Using targeted high-coverage massive parallel sequencing, we investigated 50 common cancer genes in 33 BPDCN samples. We detected point mutations in NRAS (27.3% of cases), ATM (21.2%), MET, KRAS, IDH2, KIT (9.1% each), APC and RB1 (6.1%), as well as in VHL, BRAF, MLH1, TP53 and RET1 (3% each). Moreover, NRAS-, KRAS- and ATM-mutations were found to be mutually exclusive and we observed recurrent mutations in NRAS, IDH2, APC and ATM. CDKN2A deletions were detected in 27.3% of the cases followed by deletions of RB1 (9.1%), PTEN and TP53 (3% each). The mutual exclusive distribution of some mutations may point to different subgroups of BPDCN whose biological significance remains to be explored. PMID:25115387

Stenzinger, Albrecht; Endris, Volker; Pfarr, Nicole; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Jöhrens, Korinna; Klauschen, Frederick; Siebolts, Udo; Wolf, Thomas; Koch, Philipp-Sebastian; Schulz, Miriam; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Goerdt, Sergij; Lennerz, Jochen K; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Weichert, Wilko

2014-08-15

459

Mutually repressing repressor functions and multi-layered cellular heterogeneity regulate the bistable Salmonella?fliC census.  

PubMed

Bistable flagellar and virulence gene expression generates specialized Salmonella subpopulations with distinct functions. Repressing flagellar genes allows Salmonella to evade caspase-1 mediated host defenses and enhances systemic colonization. By definition, bistability arises when intermediate states of gene expression are rendered unstable by the underlying genetic circuitry. We demonstrate sustained bistable fliC expression in virulent Salmonella 14028 and document dynamic control of the distribution, or single-cell census, of flagellar gene expression by the mutually repressing repressors YdiV and FliZ. YdiV partitions cells into the fliC-OFF subpopulation, while FliZ partitions cells into the fliC-HIGH subpopulation at late time points during growth. Bistability of ?fliZ populations and ydiV-independent FliZ control of flagellar gene expression provide evidence that the YdiV-FliZ mutually repressing repressor circuit is not required for bistability. Repression and activation by YdiV and FliZ (respectively) can shape the census of fliC expression independently, and bistability collapses into a predominantly intermediate population in the absence of both regulators. Metered expression of YdiV and FliZ reveals variable sensitivity to these regulators and defines conditions where expression of FliZ enhances fliC expression and where FliZ does not alter the fliC census. Thus, this evolved genetic circuitry coordinates multiple layers of regulatory heterogeneity into a binary response. PMID:25315056

Stewart, Mary K; Cookson, Brad T

2014-12-01

460

CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course on CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to identify manufactured projects or products that are compatible for production on CNC routers, operate a Techno brand CNC router, and have proposed a project to reinforce these concepts. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, and a course outline.

Kraft, Patrick

2012-10-23

461

Aspect-Oriented Programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

2001-01-01

462

The Orientalism of Byron  

E-print Network

of Romanticism. A. Victor Hugo B. Professor Beers! . C. Paul Elmer More1s . II. Lines of the Romantic movement. A. Nature. 1. English Lake Country. 2. Scotland. B. Peasantry. C. New Mediaevalism. D. Supernaturalism. E. Italian (Alfieri) F. German. G... rather voluminous task, which would probably re- sult as successfully. To escape ambiguity let us accept the definition given by the authority quoted above, "be- longing to, found in, or characteristic of" those count- ries included in the Orient...

Osborne, Edna-Pearle

1914-01-01

463

Orientation enhancement in early visual processing can explain time course of brightness contrast and White's illusion.  

PubMed

Dynamics of orientation tuning in V1 indicates that computational model of V1 should not only comprise of bank of static spatially oriented filters but also include the contribution for dynamical response facilitation or suppression along orientation. Time evolution of orientation response in V1 can emerge due to time- dependent excitation and lateral inhibition in the orientation domain. Lateral inhibition in the orientation domain suggests that Ernst Mach's proposition can be applied for the enhancement of initial orientation distribution that is generated due to interaction of visual stimulus with spatially oriented filters and subcortical temporal filter. Oriented spatial filtering that appears much early (<70 ms) in the sequence of visual information processing can account for many of the brightness illusions observed at steady state. It is therefore expected that time evolution of orientation response might be reflecting in the brightness percept over time. Our numerical study suggests that only spatio-temporal filtering at early phase can explain experimentally observed temporal dynamics of brightness contrast illusion. But, enhancement of orientation response at early phase of visual processing is the key mechanism that can guide visual system to predict the brightness by "Max-rule" or "Winner Takes All" (WTA) estimation and thus producing White's illusions at any exposure. PMID:23456306

Karmakar, Subhajit; Sarkar, Sandip

2013-06-01

464

Molecular insights into seed dispersal mutualisms driving plant population recruitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most plant species require mutualistic interactions with animals to fulfil their demographic cycle. In this regard frugivory (i.e., the intake of fruits by animals) enhances natural regeneration by mobilizing a large amount of seeds from source trees to deposition sites across the landscape. By doing so, frugivores move propagules, and the genotypes they harbour creating the spatial, ecological, and genetic environment under which subsequent recruitment proceeds. Recruitment patterns can be envisioned as the result of two density- and distance-dependent processes: seed dispersal and seed/seedling survival (the Janzen-Connell model). Population genetic studies add another layer of complexity for understanding the fate of dispersed propagules: the genetic relatedness among neighbouring seeds within a seed clump, a major outcome of frugivore activity, modifies their chances of germinating and surviving. Yet, we virtually ignore how the spatial distribution of maternal progenies and recruitment patterns relate with each other in frugivore-generated seed rains. Here we focus on the critical role of frugivore-mediated seed dispersal in shaping the spatial distribution of maternal progenies in the seed rain. We first examine which genetic mechanisms underlying recruitment are influenced by the spatial distribution of maternal progenies. Next, we examine those studies depicting the spatial distribution of maternal progenies in a frugivore-generated seed rain. In doing so, we briefly review the most suitable analytical approaches applied to track the contribution of fruiting trees to the seed rain based on molecular data. Then we look more specifically at the role of distinct frugivore guilds in determining maternal genetic correlations and their expected consequences for recruitment patterns. Finally we posit some general conclusions and suggest future research directions that would provide a more comprehensive understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of dispersal mutualisms in plant populations.

García, Cristina; Grivet, Delphine

2011-11-01

465

Solar flux forecasting using mutual information with an optimal delay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar flux F(sub 10.7) directly affects the atmospheric density, thereby changing the lifetime and prediction of satellite orbits. For this reason, accurate forecasting of F(sub 10.7) is crucial for orbit determination of spacecraft. Our attempts to model and forecast F(sub 10.7) uncovered highly entangled dynamics. We concluded that the general lack of predictability in solar activity arises from its nonlinear nature. Nonlinear dynamics allow us to predict F(sub 10.7) more accurately than is possible using stochastic methods for time scales shorter than a characteristic horizon, and with about the same accuracy as using stochastic techniques when the forecasted data exceed this horizon. The forecast horizon is a function of two dynamical invariants: the attractor dimension and the Lyapunov exponent. In recent years, estimation of the attractor dimension reconstructed from a time series has become an important tool in data analysis. In calculating the invariants of the system, the first necessary step is the reconstruction of the attractor for the system from the time-delayed values of the time series. The choice of the time delay is critical for this reconstruction. For an infinite amount of noise-free data, the time delay can, in principle, be chosen almost arbitrarily. However, the quality of the phase portraits produced using the time-delay technique is determined by the value chosen for the delay time. Fraser and Swinney have shown that a good choice for this time delay is the one suggested by Shaw, which uses the first local minimum of the mutual information rather than the autocorrelation function to determine the time delay. This paper presents a refinement of this criterion and applies the refined technique to solar flux data to produce a forecast of the solar activity.

Ashrafi, S.; Conway, D.; Rokni, M.; Sperling, R.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

1993-01-01

466

Mutual Stabilization of Rhythmic Vocalization and Whole-Body Movement  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure. PMID:25502730

Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

2014-01-01

467

Effect of mutual position of electron donor and acceptor on photoinduced electron transfer in supramolecular chlorophyll-fullerene dyads.  

PubMed

In this study we have explored the influence of mutual position of chlorin electron donor and fullerene C60 electron acceptor on photoinduced electron transfer. Two zinc-chlorin-aza-[18]crown-6 compounds and three pyrrolidino[60]fullerenes with alkyl aminium and varying coordinative moieties were synthesized and used for self-assembling of a set of complexes via two-point binding. The aza[18]crown6 moieties were connected to chlorins via amide linker either at 13(4) or 17(4) position, hence, being attached on different sides of the chlorin plane. Furthermore, in the former case, the linker holds the crown closely spaced, whereas, in the latter, the linker gives more space and conformational freedom for the crown with respect to the chlorin macrocycle. The coordinative moieties at fullerene site, 3-pyridine, 4-pyridine, and 3-furan, were built by utilizing the Prato reaction. The two-point binding drove the molecules into specific complex formation by self-assembling; aminium ion was chelated by crown ether, while zinc moiety of chlorin was coordinated by pyridine and furan. Such pairing resulted in distinct supramolecular chlorin-fullerene dyads with defined distance and orientation. The performed computational studies at DFT level in solution, with TPSS-D3/def2-TZVP//def2-SVP, indicated different geometries and binding energies for the self-assembling complexes. Notably, the computations pointed out that for all the studied complexes, the donor-acceptor distances and binding energies were dictated by chirality of pyrrolidino ring at C60. The selective excitation of chlorin chromophore revealed efficient emission quenching in all dyads. The ultrafast spectroscopy studies suggested a fast and efficient photoinduced charge transfer in the dyads. The lifetimes of the charge separated states range from 55 to 187 ps in o-dichlorobenzene and from 14 to 60 ps in benzonitrile. Expectedly, the electron transfer rate was found to be critically dependent on the donor-acceptor distance; additionally, the mutual orientation of these entities was found to have significant contribution on the rate. PMID:24495002

Stranius, Kati; Iashin, Vladimir; Nikkonen, Taru; Muuronen, Mikko; Helaja, Juho; Tkachenko, Nikolai

2014-02-27

468

Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed. PMID:16368666

Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

2005-01-01

469

Synchronization and Oscillatory Dynamics in Heterogeneous, Mutually Inhibited Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study some mechanisms responsible for synchronous oscillations and loss of synchrony at phys- iologically relevant frequencies (10-200 Hz) in a network of heterogeneous inhibitory neurons. We focus on the factors that determine the level of synchrony and frequency of the network response, as well as the effects of mild heterogeneity on network dynamics. With mild heterogeneity, synchrony is never

John A. White; Carson C. Chow; Jason Ritt; Cristina Soto-treviño; Nancy Kopell

1998-01-01

470

Synchronization and Oscillatory Dynamics in Heterogeneous, Mutually Inhibited Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study some mechanisms responsible for synchronous oscillations and loss of synchrony at physiologically relevant frequencies (10–200 Hz) in a network of heterogeneous inhibitory neurons. We focus on the factors that determine the level of synchrony and frequency of the network response, as well as the effects of mild heterogeneity on network dynamics. With mild heterogeneity, synchrony is never perfect

John A. White; Carson C. Chow; JASON RITT; Cristina Soto-Treviño; Nancy Kopell

1998-01-01

471

Coarse-Scale Biases for Spirals and Orientation in Human Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Multivariate decoding analyses are widely applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but there is controversy over their interpretation. Orientation decoding in primary visual cortex (V1) reflects coarse-scale biases, including an over-representation of radial orientations. But fMRI responses to clockwise and counter-clockwise spirals can also be decoded. Because these stimuli are matched for radial orientation, while differing in local orientation, it has been argued that fine-scale columnar selectivity for orientation contributes to orientation decoding. We measured fMRI responses in human V1 to both oriented gratings and spirals. Responses to oriented gratings exhibited a complex topography, including a radial bias that was most pronounced in the peripheral representation, and a near-vertical bias that was most pronounced near the foveal representation. Responses to clockwise and counter-clockwise spirals also exhibited coarse-scale organization, at the scale of entire visual quadrants. The preference of each voxel for clockwise or counter-clockwise spirals was predicted from the preferences of that voxel for orientation and spatial position (i.e., within the retinotopic map). Our results demonstrate a bias for local stimulus orientation that has a coarse spatial scale, is robust across stimulus classes (spirals and gratings), and suffices to explain decoding from fMRI responses in V1. PMID:24336733

Heeger, David J.

2013-01-01

472

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  

PubMed

In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C

2012-02-01

473

Selection for cheating across disparate environments in the legume-rhizobium mutualism.  

PubMed

The primary dilemma in evolutionarily stable mutualisms is that natural selection for cheating could overwhelm selection for cooperation. Cheating need not entail parasitism; selection favours cheating as a quantitative trait whenever less-cooperative partners are more fit than more-cooperative partners. Mutualisms might be stabilised by mechanisms that direct benefits to more-cooperative individuals, which counter selection for cheating; however, empirical evidence that natural selection favours cheating in mutualisms is sparse. We measured selection on cheating in single-partner pairings of wild legume and rhizobium lineages, which prevented legume choice. Across contrasting environments, selection consistently favoured cheating by rhizobia, but did not favour legumes that provided less benefit to rhizobium partners. This is the first simultaneous measurement of selection on cheating across both host and symbiont lineages from a natural population. We empirically confirm selection for cheating as a source of antagonistic coevolutionary pressure in mutualism and a biological dilemma for models of cooperation. PMID:25039752

Porter, Stephanie S; Simms, Ellen L

2014-09-01

474

Opportunity structures in established firms: Entrepreneurship versus intrapreneurship in mutual funds  

E-print Network

This study revisits the well-established notion that large and mature organizations stifle an employee’s ability and motivation to become an entrepreneur. Using unique data on U.S. mutual funds founded between 1979 and ...

Kacperczyk, Aleksandra Joanna

475

31 CFR 1024.320 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authority that examines the mutual fund for compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act, upon request. (d) Confidentiality of SARs. A SAR, and any information that would reveal the existence of a SAR, are confidential and shall not be disclosed...

2013-07-01

476

31 CFR 1024.320 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authority that examines the mutual fund for compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act, upon request. (d) Confidentiality of SARs. A SAR, and any information that would reveal the existence of a SAR, are confidential and shall not be disclosed...

2012-07-01

477

31 CFR 1024.320 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...authority that examines the mutual fund for compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act, upon request. (d) Confidentiality of SARs. A SAR, and any information that would reveal the existence of a SAR, are confidential and shall not be disclosed...

2014-07-01

478

A Finite-Sample, Distribution-Free, Probabilistic Lower Bound on Mutual Information  

E-print Network

trains, such as principle component analysis (Richmond et al., 1987) and the wavelet- based method Information from Finite Samples Mutual information (MI) (Shannon, 1948; Cover & Thomas, 2006) is a natural

Banerjee, Arunava

479