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1

Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Conscience Development: From Toddler to Early School Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the long-term consequences of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience at early school age. Found that mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's conscience, even after controlling for developmental continuity of conscience. Toddler mutually responsive

Kochanska, Grazyna; Murray, Kathleen T.

2000-01-01

2

Mutually Responsive Orientation Between Mothers and Their Young Children: A Context for the Early Development of Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some parent–child dyads establish a mutually responsive orientation (MRO), a relationship that is close, mutually binding, cooperative, and affectively positive. Such relationships have two main characteristics—mutual responsiveness and shared positive affect—and they foster the development of conscience in young children. Children growing up with parents who are responsive to their needs and whose interactions are infused with happy emotions adopt

Grazyna Kochanska

2002-01-01

3

Mutually Responsive Orientation Between Mothers and Their Young Children: A Context for the Early Development of Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some parent-child dyads es- tablish a mutually responsive orientation (MRO), a relation- ship that is close, mutually binding, cooperative, and af- fectively positive. Such rela- tionships have two main characteristics—mutual re- sponsiveness and shared posi- tive affect—and they foster the development of conscience in young children. Children grow- ing up with parents who are re- sponsive to their needs and

M. Daly

4

Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

2005-01-01

5

The mutual influence of gaze and head orientation in the analysis of social attention direction.  

PubMed

Three experiments are reported that investigate the hypothesis that head orientation and gaze direction interact in the processing of another individual's direction of social attention. A Stroop-type interference paradigm was adopted, in which gaze and head cues were placed into conflict. In separate blocks of trials, participants were asked to make speeded keypress responses contingent on either the direction of gaze, or the orientation of the head displayed in a digitized photograph of a male face. In Experiments 1 and 2, head and gaze cues showed symmetrical interference effects. Compared with congruent arrangements, incongruent head cues slowed responses to gaze cues, and incongruent gaze cues slowed responses to head cues, suggesting that head and gaze are mutually influential in the analysis of social attention direction. This mutuality was also evident in a cross-modal version of the task (Experiment 3) where participants responded to spoken directional words whilst ignoring the head/gaze images. It is argued that these interference effects arise from the independent influences of gaze and head orientation on decisions concerning social attention direction. PMID:10994231

Langton, S R

2000-08-01

6

Antagonists in Mutual Antipathies: A Person-Oriented Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the heterogeneity of mutual antipathy relationships. Separate cluster analyses of peer interactions of early adolescents (mean age 11 years) and adolescents (mean age of 14) yielded 3 "types of individuals" in each age group, namely Prosocial, Antisocial, and Withdrawn. Prevalence analysis of the 6 possible combinations of…

Guroglu, Berna; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

2009-01-01

7

Orienting and humor responses: A synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for a hypothesis that a humor response is an instance of a more general orienting response. The two responses both occur to stimulus novelty or incongruity and are identical behaviorally and physiologically, althouth their subjective components may differ. Evidence for the hypothesis is based on a series of paremeters that affect orienting and humor responses identically. Parameters

Lambert Deckers; Debra Hricik

1984-01-01

8

Managing Mutual Orientation in the Absence of Physical Copresence: Multiparty Voice-Based Chat Room Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the interactional work involved in ratifying mutual participation in online, multiparty, voice-based chat rooms. The purpose of this article is to provide a preliminary sketch of how talk and participation is managed in a spoken communication environment that comprises interactants who are not physically copresent but are…

Jenks, Christopher Joseph; Brandt, Adam

2013-01-01

9

The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the…

Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

2009-01-01

10

Orienting responses and GSR conditioning: A dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents 2 experiments which applied an orienting response (OR) analysis to GSR conditioning phenomena of CR acquisition and UCR diminution in 62 female undergraduates. The analysis focused on the stimulus properties of CS and UCS omission. A hypothetical response to UCS omission was suggested to affect CR measurement with short but not long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) thus contributing to the

P. Badia; R. H. Defran

1970-01-01

11

The Mutual Response of the Tropical Squall Line and the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coupled Ocean\\/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to investigate the mutual response of a tropical squall line and the ocean. Simulated squall line compares well with the observations, and consists of counterrotating vortices, and has a bow shape bulge toward the leading edge. In addition to these features, which are also shown in the previous numerical simulations, the

XIAODONG HONG; SETHU RAMAN; RICHARD M. HODUR; LIANG XU

1999-01-01

12

Levisohn's Orientations: A Response from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn has made a significant contribution to the scholarship of teaching in his article proposing that the teaching of rabbinic literature is most successfully accomplished when teachers think about…

Lehman, Marjorie

2010-01-01

13

Elastic Response of Zone Axis (001)-Oriented Pwa 1480 Single Crystal: The Influence of Secondary Orientation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analys...

S. Kalluri A. Abdul-aziz M. A. Mcgaw

1991-01-01

14

The Mutual Response of the Tropical Squall Line and the Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to investigate the mutual response of a tropical squall line and the ocean. Simulated squall line compares well with the observations, and consists of counterrotating vortices, and has a bow shape bulge toward the leading edge. In addition to these features, which are also shown in the previous numerical simulations, the unique results from the coupled simulation indicate that the air-sea interaction processes within the squall line are important. They affect both the atmosphere and the ocean locally. Simulated upper ocean displays significant response to the squall line with upwelling and baroclinicity. Depth of the ocean mixed layer in the coupled simulation becomes modified due to feedback processes. Ocean temperature acts as a destabilizing factor, and the salinity as a stabilizing factor. Surface turbulent fluxes from the coupled simulation are about 10% less than that of the uncoupled simulation. The SST in the coupled simulation decreases by about 0.21°C. Predicted squall line in the coupled simulation is weaker as compared to the uncoupled simulation. This is reflected in terms of differences in surface fluxes, cloud water, rain water and vertical velocities between the two simulations.

Hong, X.; Raman, S.; Hodur, R. M.; Xu, L.

15

Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

1991-01-01

16

Mutual illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report theoretical and experimental results which underline the importance of mutual illumination to visual modules dealing with shape and with surface lightness. The experiments are in good agreement with results obtained with a simple theoretical model. These results show the effects of mutual illumination in pictures of simple objects, and indicate that these effects must be accounted for

David Forsyth; Andrew Zisserman

1989-01-01

17

A Predator-Prey Model with a Holling Type I Functional Response Including a Predator Mutual Interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses.

Seo, Gunog; Deangelis, Donald L.

2011-12-01

18

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; Deangelis, D. L.

2011-01-01

19

Buckling response of laminates with spatially varying fiber orientations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buckling response of a symmetrically laminated composite panel with a spatially varying fiber orientation has been analyzed. Variation of the fiber orientation angle as a function of the position in the panel results in a composite laminate with stiffness properties that are functions of the panel coordinates. The laminates are therefore termed variable stiffness panels. The fiber orientation is assumed to vary only in one spatial direction, although the analysis can be extended to fiber orientations that vary in two spatial directions. The Ritz Method has been used to find the buckling loads and buckling modes for the variable stiffness panels for two different cases. In one of the cases the fiber orientation is assumed to change in the direction of the applied load. The other case is the one in which the fiber orientation varies in a direction perpendicular to the loading direction. Improvements in the buckling load of up to 80 percent over straight fiber configurations were found. Results for three different panel aspect ratios are presented.

Olmedo, Reynaldo; Gurdal, Zafer

1993-01-01

20

The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.  

PubMed Central

The goal of this review is to compare two divergent lines of research on signal-centered behavior: the orienting reflex (OR) and autoshaping. A review of conditioning experiments in animals and humans suggests that the novelty hypothesis of the OR is no longer tenable. Only stimuli that represent biological "relevance" elicit ORs. A stimulus may be relevant a priori (i.e., unconditioned) or as a result of conditioning. Exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts a positive reinforcer causes the animal to orient to it throughout conditioning. Within the CS-US interval, the initial CS-directed orienting response is followed by US-directed tendencies. Experimental evidence is shown that the development and maintenance of the conditioned OR occur in a similar fashion both in response-independent (classical) and response-dependent (instrumental) paradigms. It is proposed that the conditioned OR and the signal-directed autoshaped response are identical. Signals predicting aversive events repel the subject from the source of the CS. It is suggested that the function of the CS is not only to signal the probability of US occurrence, but also to serve as a spatial cue to guide the animal in the environment.

Buzsaki, G

1982-01-01

21

The impact of strategic orientation on corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Using the strategic orientation concept of Miles and Snow, the purpose of this paper is to test if differences in levels of corporate social responsibility (CSR) exist between prospectors, defenders, analyzers, and reactors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The method included a purpose-designed survey sent to CEOs. To explore differences in CSR and strategy types, one-way ANOVA with contrast effect analysis

Jeremy Galbreath

2010-01-01

22

Cardiac Tissue Enriched Factors Serum Response Factor and GATA4 Are Mutual Coregulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends

NARASIMHASWAMY S. BELAGULI; JORGE L. SEPULVEDA; VISHAL NIGAM; FREDERIC CHARRON; MONA NEMER; ROBERT J. SCHWARTZ

2000-01-01

23

Evaluative Priming of Naming and Semantic Categorization Responses Revisited: A Mutual Facilitation Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluative priming effect (i.e., faster target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) in nonevaluative priming tasks (such as naming or semantic categorization tasks) is considered important for the question of how evaluative connotations are represented in memory. However, the empirical…

Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk

2012-01-01

24

The design of multiparty un-disavowal mutual signature arithmetic protocol in emergency response system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the environment of the human working life, all kinds of unexpected events often occurred, to improve the emergency response capabilities and establish fast and efficient electronic incident command system is to be completed by all levels of government affairs, in which the security of information exchange is one of the key issues; in view of this, the needs of

Xufu Peng; Huangshi Hubei

2010-01-01

25

Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

2000-01-01

26

Alkaloid metabolism in thrips-Papaveraceae interaction: recognition and mutual response.  

PubMed

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), the Western Flower Thrips (WFT), is a polyphagous and highly adaptable insect of the order Thysanoptera. It has a broad host range but is rarely found on Papaveraceae, which might be due to deterrent effects of alkaloids present in most species of this family. In order to test the adaptive potential of WFT, we investigated its interaction with two Papaveraceae offered as sole feeding source. We found that WFT are able to live and feed on leaves of Eschscholzia californica and Chelidonium majus. Both plants respond to thrips feeding by the enhanced production of benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Furthermore, cell cultures of E. californica react to water insoluble compounds prepared from adult thrips with enhanced alkaloid production. During feeding, WFT take up benzophenanthridine alkaloids from either plant and from an artificial feeding medium and convert them to their less toxic dihydroderivatives. This was shown in detail with sanguinarine, the most cytotoxic benzophenanthridine. A similar conversion is used in plants to prevent self-intoxication by their own toxins. We conclude that WFT causes a phytoalexin-like response in Papaveraceae, but is able to adapt to such host plants by detoxification of toxic alkaloids. PMID:24331426

Schütz, Ingeborg; Moritz, Gerald B; Roos, Werner

2014-01-15

27

Orienting and freezing responses in incubating ptarmigan hens.  

PubMed

Behavior studies and telemetric recordings of heart and respiration rates were performed on five wild and two captive, incubating, willow ptarmigan hens (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) and on four wild, incubating, Svalbard ptarmigan hens (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Sounds and sight of approaching humans, egg predators, or dogs near the nests elicited behavior in the hens which we have interpreted as an orienting response (OR) followed by freezing behavior. During both types of behavioral responses, heart rate was reduced from 204 +/- 39 (mean +/- SE) to 119 +/- 26 beats per minute and respiration from 25 +/- 2 to 12 +/- 3 breaths per minute. In wild incubating willow ptarmigan, further approach led to tachycardia and increased respiration. Some birds maintained freezing behavior, while others became restless before flying off. Two of the four incubating Svalbard ptarmigan hens showed the OR followed by freezing behavior accompanied by decreased heart and respiration rates. The other two birds showed flight response, restless behavior accompanied by increased heart and respiration rates. Flight behavior was also typical for willow ptarmigan incubating in captivity. Repeated auditory provocation of incubating hens caused progressive decrement in behavioral and cardiac responses that is interpreted as habituation of the OR. PMID:4059382

Gabrielsen, G W; Blix, A S; Ursin, H

1985-06-01

28

Orientation-selective Responses in the Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) receives visual information from the retina and transmits it to the cortex. In this study, we made extracellular recordings in the dLGN of both anesthetized and awake mice, and found that a surprisingly high proportion of cells were selective for stimulus orientation. The orientation selectivity of dLGN cells was unchanged after silencing the visual cortex pharmacologically, indicating that it is not due to cortical feedback. The orientation tuning of some dLGN cells correlated with their elongated receptive fields, while in others orientation selectivity was observed despite the fact that their receptive fields were circular, suggesting that their retinal input might already be orientation selective. Consistently, we revealed orientation/axis-selective ganglion cells in the mouse retina using multielectrode arrays in an in vitro preparation. Furthermore, the orientation tuning of dLGN cells was largely maintained at different stimulus contrasts, which could be sufficiently explained by a simple linear feedforward model. We also compared the degree of orientation selectivity in different visual structures under the same recording condition. Compared with the dLGN, orientation selectivity is greatly improved in the visual cortex, but is similar in the superior colliculus, another major retinal target. Together, our results demonstrate prominent orientation selectivity in the mouse dLGN, which may potentially contribute to visual processing in the cortex.

Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xiaorong

2013-01-01

29

Mutual Cross Talk between the Regulators Hac1 of the Unfolded Protein Response and Gcn4 of the General Amino Acid Control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Hac1 is the activator of the cellular response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Hac1 function requires the activity of Gcn4, which mainly acts as a regulator of the general amino acid control network providing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with amino acids. Here, we demonstrate novel functions of Hac1 and describe a mutual connection between Hac1 and Gcn4. Hac1 is required for induction of Gcn4-responsive promoter elements in haploid as well as diploid cells and therefore participates in the cellular amino acid supply. Furthermore, Hac1 and Gcn4 mutually influence their mRNA expression levels. Hac1 is also involved in FLO11 expression and adhesion upon amino acid starvation. Hac1 and Gcn4 act through the same promoter regions of the FLO11 flocculin. The results indicate an indirect effect of both transcription factors on FLO11 expression. Our data suggest a complex mutual cross talk between the Hac1- and Gcn4-controlled networks.

Herzog, Britta; Popova, Blagovesta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Shahpasandzadeh, Hedieh

2013-01-01

30

Organizational responsiveness of Russian and American growth-oriented small and medium enterprises (SMEs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between organizational absorptive capacity and organizational responsiveness among Russian growth-oriented small and medium enterprises (SMEs). A translated questionnaire, originally developed and administered in the US, was administered to senior managers of 825 Russian SMEs, from which 91 growth-oriented SMEs were identified. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that organizational responsiveness was positively related to external knowledge

Robert L. Fuller; Darlene F. Russ-Eft

2010-01-01

31

Identifying mutual engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together and enter a state of group flow. We present a characterisation of mutually engaging interaction, discuss design features which contribute to mutually engaging interactions, and identify a set of measures for identifying mutual engagement in collaboration. A collaborative music editor's interface features are systematically manipulated in an empirical study of their effect

Nick Bryan-Kinns; Fraser Hamilton

2009-01-01

32

Mutual Funds Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutual Funds Interactive is provided by Brill Editorial Services, Inc. The aim of the site is to provide independent financial advice to investors. The highlight of the site is the expert's corner, where leading mutual fund experts provide market analysis, opinions and recommendations. There are also profiles of mutual funds managers and columns on mutual funds. For new investors, there is Funds 101, which helps explain what a mutual fund is. The site also features discussion groups, a glossary of mutual fund terms and a list of mutual funds.

1998-01-01

33

Counselors' Responsibility and Etiology Attributions, Theoretical Orientations, and Counseling Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists at university counseling centers with internships approved by the American Psychological Association were surveyed to examine relationships between their theoretical orientations, counseling strategy recommendations, etiology attributions, and models of helping. Participants responded to 2 vignettes, one portraying a student with an adjustment disorder and the other portraying a student with an identity disorder. The majority of participants subscribed to

Roger L. Worthington; Donald R. Atkinson

1993-01-01

34

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance...United States, and all mutual marine insurance companies and mutual fire...

2010-04-01

35

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance...United States, and all mutual marine insurance companies and mutual fire...

2009-04-01

36

Orientation-dependent shock response of explosive crystals  

SciTech Connect

Some orientations of PETN crystals have anomalously high shock initiation sensitivity around 4 to 5 GPa. Results of a series of laser interferometry experiments at 4.2 GPa show that this is associated with an elastic-plastic, two-wave structure with large elastic precursors. Implications for the initiation mechanism in single crystals is discussed. Initial work on beta phase, monoclinic HMX is also described.

Dick, J.J.

1995-09-01

37

The two sides of temporal orienting: facilitating perceptual selection, disrupting response selection.  

PubMed

Would it be helpful to inform a driver about when a conflicting traffic situation is going to occur? We tested whether temporal orienting of attention could enhance executive control to select among conflicting stimuli and responses. Temporal orienting was induced by presenting explicit cues predicting the most probable interval for target onset, which could be short (400 ms) or long (1,300 ms). Executive control was measured both by flanker and Simon tasks involving conflict between incompatible responses and by the spatial Stroop task involving conflict between perceptual stimulus features. The results showed that temporal orienting facilitated the resolution of perceptual conflict by reducing the spatial Stroop effect, whereas it interfered with the resolution of response conflict by increasing flanker and Simon effects. Such opposite effects suggest that temporal orienting of attention modulates executive control through dissociable mechanisms, depending on whether the competition between conflicting representations is located at perceptual or response levels. PMID:20178944

Correa, Angel; Cappucci, Paola; Nobre, Anna C; Lupiáñez, Juan

2010-01-01

38

The anatomical and functional relationship between the P3 and autonomic components of the orienting response  

PubMed Central

Many psychophysiologists have noted the striking similarities between the antecedent conditions for the P3 component of the event-related potential and the orienting response: both are typically elicited by salient, unexpected, novel, task-relevant, and other motivationally significant stimuli. Although the close coupling of the P3 and orienting response has been well documented, the neural basis and functional role of this relationship is still poorly understood. Here we propose that the simultaneous occurrence of the P3 and autonomic components of the orienting response reflects the co-activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system and the peripheral sympathetic nervous system by their common major afferent: the rostral ventrolateral medulla, a key sympathoexcitatory region. A comparison of the functional significance of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system and the peripheral sympathetic nervous system suggests that the P3 and orienting response reflect complementary cognitive and physical contributions to the mobilization for action following motivationally significant stimuli.

Nieuwenhuis, Sander; de Geus, Eco J.; Aston-Jones, Gary

2013-01-01

39

Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

2011-01-01

40

Physiological Aspects of Communication via Mutual Gaze.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on various social science projects undertaken to investigate nonverbal communication. Findings indicated that mutual gaze influences physiological arousal, an actor can gaze in such a way that he or she manipulates the other person's physiology, and a subject's response to a mutual gaze is a good predictor of dominance or submission in…

Mazur, Allan; And Others

1980-01-01

41

Futures Tended: Care and Future-Oriented Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of technological hazards, whose existence is only revealed many years after they were initially produced, shows that the question of our responsibilities toward future generations is of urgent importance. However, the nature of technological societies means that they are caught in a condition of structural irresponsibility: the…

Adam, Barbara; Groves, Chris

2011-01-01

42

Cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum: chemoreceptor orientation and specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypercarbia (elevated water PCO?) in the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum are stimulated by externally oriented receptors that are sensitive to water CO2 tension as opposed to water pH. Cardiorespiratory responses to acute hypercarbia were evaluated in both the absence and presence of internal hypercarbia (elevated blood PCO?),

K. M. Gilmour; W. K. Milsom; F. T. Rantin; S. G. Reid; S. F. Perry; São Carlos

2005-01-01

43

Differentiating Orienting and Defensive Responses to Concealed Information: The Role of Verbalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using physiological measures, concealed information can be validly assessed. Orienting theory has been proposed to account\\u000a for concealed information testing. As orienting is characterized by heart rate deceleration, one would expect this type of\\u000a heart rate response to concealed information. However, with some exceptions, an initial heart rate acceleration to concealed\\u000a information is typically observed. In the present paper, we

Bruno Verschuere; Geert Crombez; Lieselot Smolders; Armand De Clercq

2009-01-01

44

Decreased attentional responsivity during sleep deprivation: orienting response latency, amplitude, and habituation.  

PubMed

Ever increasing societal demands for uninterrupted work are causing unparalleled amounts of sleep deprivation among workers. Sleep deprivation has been linked to safety problems ranging from medical misdiagnosis to industrial and vehicular accidents. Microsleeps (very brief intrusions of sleep into wakefulness) are usually cited as the cause of the performance decrements during sleep deprivation. Changes in a more basic physiological phenomenon, attentional shift, were hypothesized to be additional factors in performance declines. The current study examined the effects of 36 hours of sleep deprivation on the electrodermal-orienting response (OR), a measure of attentional shift or capture. Subjects were 71 male undergraduate students, who were divided into sleep deprivation and control (non-sleep deprivation) groups. The expected negative effects of sleep deprivation on performance were noted in increased reaction times and increased variability in the sleep-deprived group on attention-demanding cognitive tasks. OR latency was found to be significantly delayed after sleep deprivation, OR amplitude was significantly decreased, and habituation of the OR was significantly faster during sleep deprivation. These findings indicate impaired attention, the first revealing slowed shift of attention to novel stimuli, the second indicating decreased attentional allocation to stimuli, and the third revealing more rapid loss of attention to repeated stimuli. These phenomena may be factors in the impaired cognitive performance seen during sleep deprivation. PMID:9143071

McCarthy, M E; Waters, W F

1997-02-01

45

Feedforward Origins of Response Variability Underlying Contrast Invariant Orientation Tuning in Cat Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Contrast invariant orientation tuning in simple cells of the visual cortex depends critically on contrast dependent trial-to-trial variability in their membrane potential responses. This observation raises the question of whether this variability originates from within the cortical circuit or the feedforward inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). To distinguish between these two sources of variability, we first measured membrane potential responses while inactivating the surrounding cortex, and found that response variability was nearly unaffected. We then studied variability in the LGN, including contrast dependence, and the trial-to-trial correlation in responses between nearby neurons. Variability decreased significantly with contrast, whereas correlation changed little. When these experimentally measured parameters of variability were applied to a feedforward model of simple cells that included realistic mechanisms of synaptic integration, contrast-dependent, orientation independent variability emerged in the membrane potential responses. Analogous mechanisms might contribute to the stimulus dependence and propagation of variability throughout the neocortex.

Sadagopan, Srivatsun; Ferster, David

2012-01-01

46

Optical response with threefold symmetry axis on oriented microdomains of opal photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opal photonic crystals viewed along the [111] direction of the fcc structure have a threefold symmetry axis; however this microscopic symmetry is difficult to observe in optical measurements performed on macroscopic areas containing microdomains with different orientations. In this work polarized transmittance measurements on [111]-stacked silica opals with single oriented microdomains, identified by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and laser-scanning confocal microscopy, demonstrate different optical response of twin structures with the two possible vertical stacking sequences. A detailed comparison with theory shows that microtransmittance experiments probe the photonic band structure along the ?-L-K and ?-L-U orientations of the Brillouin zone, respectively, thus giving conclusive evidence for macroscopic optical response related to the presence of a threefold (instead of a sixfold) symmetry axis in the photonic microstructure.

Andreani, L. C.; Balestreri, A.; Galisteo-López, J. F.; Galli, M.; Patrini, M.; Descrovi, E.; Chiodoni, A.; Giorgis, F.; Pallavidino, L.; Geobaldo, F.

2008-11-01

47

Understanding mutualism when there is adaptation to the partner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 A mutualism is a mutually beneficial interaction between individuals of two species. Here we show that the degree of benefit resulting from an interaction depends on whether adaptation within the mutualism is considered. 2 A species' proximate response measures the short-term effect of addition or removal of the partner species, without allowing for any adaptation. We define a

CLAIRE DE MAZANCOURT; MICHEL LOREAU; ULF DIECKMANN

2005-01-01

48

Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.  

PubMed

A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR. PMID:21640779

Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

2011-08-26

49

Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

2000-01-01

50

Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight.  

PubMed

The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23678099

Lutz, Claudia C; Robinson, Gene E

2013-06-01

51

Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined infants' negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) on children's self-regulation (n = 102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months.…

Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

2012-01-01

52

Optical response of oriented and highly anisotropic subwavelength metallic nanostructure arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the optical response of highly anisotropic subwavelength coatings with Au structures based on the open-ring-resonator and fabricated via nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering. This approach allows fabrication of dense arrays of oriented nanostructures over large areas with a resonance in the visible wavelength range. Nanostructures are wire-like, with a nanoscale L-shaped cross section approximately 70 nm in width. The coatings exhibit a resonant transmission response that is highly angle and polarization dependent. Experimental results are presented along with complementary numerical modeling results predicting the resonance shift with corresponding changes in fabrication parameters.

Alvine, K. J.; Bernacki, B. E.; Bennett, W. D.; Edwards, D. J.; Mendoza, A.; Suter, J. D.

2013-05-01

53

Observation of large anomalous orientational nonlinear response in dye-doped liquid crystals at 1320 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR z-scan and conoscopic measurements have been performed on dye-doped nematic liquid crystal samples to investigate the influence of the dopant on the orientational nonlinear response of the liquid crystalline material, and the result compared to undyed samples. Both the dye-doped and undyed samples were prepared utilizing a surface treatment which produces homeotropic alignment in the undyed, glass-substrate samples. For samples constructed with non-conducting substrates, the dopant only slightly strengthens the nonlinear response of the host material, and the response in all cases is less than half that observed in samples with ITO- coated substrates. Undyed samples displayed no response at normal incidence for the laser intensities used, regardless of substrate, while doped samples displayed significant self- limiting at all angles of incidence. Increasing the dopant concentration further enhances the observed responses, but the time required to achieve the initial alignment state of the nematic increases more rapidly than the response, and significant delays in response to pulsed inputs are also observed. Laser polarization strongly effects the response characteristics, as expected. Z-scan and conoscopic measurements are used to determine the origin of the unusually large response in the ITO-coated samples Initial efforts with conoscopic techniques have found no evidence of pre-tilt in the director orientation, though more sensitive measurements are in process. The presence of a large nonlinear absorption contribution due to the dopant has been observed, though why only ITO-substrate samples may be affected is still under investigation.

Lopresti, Peter G.; Hemphill, Daniel A.

1997-10-01

54

Trajectory Orientation: A Technology-Enabled Concept Requiring a Shift in Controller Roles and Responsibilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a decision support tool (DST) for the en-route domain with accurate conflict prediction time horizons of 20 minutes has introduced an interesting problem. A 20 minute time horizon for conflict prediction often results in the predicted conflict occurring one or more sectors downstream from the sector controller who "owns" (i-e., is responsible for the safe separation of aircraft) one or both of the aircraft in the conflict pair. Based on current roles and responsibilities of today's en route controllers, the upstream controller would not resolve this conflict. In most cases, the downstream controller would wait until the conflicting aircraft entered higher sector before resolving the conflict. This results in a delay of several minutes from the time when the conflict was initially predicted. This delay is inefficient from both a controller workload and user's cost of operations perspective. Trajectory orientation, a new concept for facilitating an efficient, conflict-free flight path across several sectors while conforming to metering or miles-in-trail spacing, is proposed as an alternative to today's sector-oriented method. This concept necessitates a fundamental shift in thinking about inter-sector coordination. Instead of operating independently, with the main focus on protecting their internal airspace, controllers would work cooperatively, depending on each other for well-planned, conflict-free flow of aircraft. To support the trajectory orientation concept, a long time horizon (15 to 20 minutes) for conflict prediction and resolution would most likely be a primary requirement. In addition, new tools, such as controller-pilot data link will be identified to determine their necessity and applicability for trajectory orientation. Finally, with significant controller participation from selected Air Route Traffic Control Centers, potential shifts in R-side/D-side roles and responsibilities as well as the creation of a new controller position for multi-sector planning will be examined to determine the most viable solutions.

Leiden, Ken; Green, Steven

2000-01-01

55

Influence of Sn Grain Size and Orientation on the Thermomechanical Response and Reliability of Pb-free Solder Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and crystal orientation of Sn grains in Pb-free, near eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints were examined. A clear dependence of the thermomechanical fatigue response of these solder joints on Sn grain orientation was observed (Sn has a body centered tetragonal crystal structure). Fabricated joints tend to have three orientations in a cyclic twin relationship, but among the population of

Thomas R. Bieler; Hairong Jiang; Lawrence P. Lehman; Tim Kirkpatrick; Eric J. Cotts; Bala Nandagopal

2008-01-01

56

Orientation of the fiddler crab, Uca cumulanta: responses to chemical and visual cues.  

PubMed

Behavioral responses of the fiddler crab Uca cumulanta to flat geometric shapes mimicking natural objects were measured in a circular arena by using zonal recovery as a behavioral measurement. Crabs were tested either in presence or absence of odors from two common predator species, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, and the pufferfish Sphoeroides testudineus. The study tested the hypothesis that U. cumulanta have different behavioral responses to visual cues in the presence of chemical cues associated with predators. Escape direction tests demonstrated that U. cumulanta is able to show zonal recovery behavior based upon astronomical references. When tested in water lacking predator odor, crabs failed to exhibit a consistent orientation if a single silhouette target was interposed in the landward direction. However, when animals were tested in different predator odor concentrations, an orientation response was obtained at 10 and 20 g/liter/hr blue crab odorand 10 g/liter/hr pufferfish odor, demonstrating U. cumulanta ability to detect the potential presence of its natural predators by this odor. Thus, the hypothesis was supported, and the results suggest that behavioral responses to chemical and visual cues are involved in predator avoidance. PMID:12449506

Chiussi, Roberto; Diaz, Humberto

2002-09-01

57

The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A Dimensional Measure for Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of…

Mosconi, Matthew W.; Reznick, J. Steven; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

2009-01-01

58

Unexpected novelty and familiarity orienting responses in lateral parietal cortex during recognition judgment  

PubMed Central

The role of lateral parietal cortex during recognition memory is heavily debated. We examined parietal activation during an Explicit Memory Cueing recognition paradigm that biases participants towards expecting novel or familiar stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis using anticipatory cues (“Likely Old”, “Likely New”), compared to trials with neutral cues (“????”). Three qualitatively distinct patterns were observed in the left lateral parietal cortex. An unexpected novelty response occurred in left anterior intraparietal cortex (IPS)/post-central gyrus (PoCG) in which greater activation was observed for new versus old materials following the “Likely Old” cue, but not following the “Likely New” cue. In contrast, anterior angular gyrus demonstrated an unexpected familiarity response with greater activation for old versus new materials following the “Likely New” cue, but not the “Likely Old” cue. Thus these two regions demonstrated increased responses that were selective for either new or old materials respectively, but only when they were unexpected. In contrast, a mid IPS area demonstrated greater response for whichever class of memoranda was unanticipated given the cue condition (an unexpected memory response). Analogous response patterns in regions outside of parietal cortex, and the results of a resting state connectivity analysis, suggested these three response patterns were associated with visuo-spatial orienting following unexpected novelty, source monitoring operations following unexpected familiarity, and general executive control processes following violated expectations. These findings support a Memory Orienting Model of the left lateral parietal cortex in which the region is linked to the investigation of unexpected novelty or familiarity in the environment.

Jaeger, Antonio; Konkel, Alex

2013-01-01

59

The shark Chiloscyllium griseum can orient using turn responses before and after partial telencephalon ablation.  

PubMed

This study assessed spatial memory and orientation strategies in Chiloscyllium griseum. In the presence of visual landmarks, six sharks were trained in a fixed turn response. Group 1 started from two possible compartments approaching two goal locations, while group 2 started from and approached only one location, respectively. The learning criterion was reached within 9 ± 5.29 (group 1) and 8.3 ± 3.51 sessions (group 2). Transfer tests revealed that sharks had applied a direction strategy, possibly in combination with some form of place learning. Without visual cues, sharks relied solely on the former. To identify the underlying neural substrate(s), telencephalic were lesioned and performance compared before and after surgery. Ablation of the dorsal and medial pallia only had an effect on one shark (group 1), indicating that the acquisition and retention of previously gained knowledge were unaffected in the remaining four individuals. Nonetheless, the shark re-learned the task. In summary, C. griseum can utilize fixed turn responses to navigate to a goal; there is also some evidence for the use of external visual landmarks while orienting. Probably, strategies can be used alone or in combination. Neither the dorsal nor medial pallium seems to be responsible for the acquisition and processing of egocentric information. PMID:24114617

Fuss, Theodora; Bleckmann, Horst; Schluessel, Vera

2014-01-01

60

Olfactory orientation responses by walking femaleIps paraconfusus bark beetles I. Chemotaxis assay.  

PubMed

Gas-liquid chromatography of the air within the arena developed for this assay showed that a concentration gradient was established within 1-2 min of applying the pheromone (ipsenol, ipsdienol,cis-verbenol), and that this gradient was nearly constant for 20-95 min after application. The concentration fell rapidly and approximately exponentially between the source and the center of the arena. Turning rate and the number of beetles that reached the source increased, and heading with respect to the source decreased, in the presence of pheromone. Responses of beetles that did and did not reach the source were significantly different, but within each group there were no significant differences among dosages. Turning rate and heading varied little with distance from the source, while walking rate decreased as distance from the release point of the beetles increased. We hypothesize that dosage exerts its major effect on source location by altering the probability that a beetle will enter into orientation behavior and that beetles orienting to sources have similar behaviors even when orienting to a wide range of dosages. PMID:24271423

Patrick Akers, R; Wood, D L

1989-01-01

61

Integrated MANET Mutual Authentication System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated MANET Mutual Authentication System (IMMAS) provides implied mutual authentication of all routing and data traffic within a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) by combining Elliptic Curve Cryptography, a public-key cryptosystem, with the Dynamic S...

J. T. Ballah

2002-01-01

62

Floral scents: their roles in nursery pollination mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms are interspecies interactions in which each participant gains net benefits from interacting with its partner. In\\u000a nursery pollination mutualisms, pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. In these systems, each partner\\u000a depends directly on the other for its reproduction. Therefore, the signal responsible for partner encounter is crucial in\\u000a these horizontally transmitted mutualisms, in which the association between specific

Martine Hossaert-McKey; Catherine Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Magali Proffit

2010-01-01

63

Modeling the effect of orientation on the shock response of a damageable composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbon fiber-epoxy composite (CFEC) shock response in the through thickness orientation and in one of the fiber directions is significantly different. The hydrostatic pressure inside anisotropic materials depends on deviatoric strain components as well as volumetric strain. Non-linear effects, such as shock effects, can be incorporated through the volumetric straining in the material. Thus, a new basis is required to couple the anisotropic material stiffness and strength with anisotropic shock effects, associated energy dependence, and damage softening process. This article presents these constitutive equations for shock wave modeling of a damageable carbon fiber-epoxy composite. Modeling the effect of fiber orientation on the shock response of a CFEC has been performed using a generalized decomposition of the stress tensor [A. A. Lukyanov, Int. J. Plast. 24, 140 (2008)] and Mie-Grüneisen's extrapolation of high-pressure shock Hugoniot states to other thermodynamics states for shocked CFEC materials. The three-wave structure (non-linear anisotropic, fracture, and isotropic elastic waves) that accompanies damage softening process is also proposed in this work for describing CFEC behavior under shock loading which allows to remove any discontinuities observed in the linear case for relation between shock velocities and particle velocities [A. A. Lukyanov, Eur. Phys. J. B 74, 35 (2010)]. Different Hugoniot stress levels are obtained when the material is impacted in different directions; their good agreement with the experiment demonstrates that the anisotropic equation of state, strength, and damage model are adequate for the simulation of shock wave propagation within damageable CFEC material. Remarkably, in the through thickness orientation, the material behaves similar to a simple polymer whereas in the fiber direction, the proposed in this paper model explains an initial ramp, before at sufficiently high stresses, and a much faster rising shock above it. The numerical results for shock wave modeling using proposed constitutive equations are presented, discussed, and future studies are outlined.

Lukyanov, Alexander A.

2012-10-01

64

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire...United States, and all mutual marine insurance companies and mutual...

2009-04-01

65

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire...than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire...United States, and all mutual marine insurance companies and mutual...

2010-04-01

66

The influence of primary and secondary orientations on the elastic response of a nickel-base single-crystal superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of primary orientation on the elastic response of a (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical, thermal, and combined thermal and mechanical loading conditions using finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed using the MARC finite element code on a square plate of PWA 1480 material. Primary orientation of the single crystal superalloy was varied in increments of 2 deg, from 0 to 10 deg, from the (001) direction. Two secondary orientations (0 and 45 deg) were considered, with respect to the global coordinate system, as the primary orientation angle was varied. The stresses developed within the single crystal plate were determined for each loading condition. In this paper, the influence of the angular offset between the primary crystal orientation and the loading direction on the elastic stress response of the PWA 1480 plate is presented for different loading conditions. The influence of primary orientation angle, when constrained between the bounds considered, was not found to be as significant as the influence of the secondary orientation angle, which is not typically controlled.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

1993-01-01

67

The influence of primary and secondary orientations on the elastic response of a nickel-base single-crystal superalloy  

SciTech Connect

The influence of primary orientation on the elastic response of a (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical, thermal, and combined thermal and mechanical loading conditions using finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed using the MARC finite element code on a square plate of PWA 1480 material. Primary orientation of the single crystal superalloy was varied in increments of 2 deg, from 0 to 10 deg, from the (001) direction. Two secondary orientations (0 and 45 deg) were considered, with respect to the global coordinate system, as the primary orientation angle was varied. The stresses developed within the single crystal plate were determined for each loading condition. In this paper, the influence of the angular offset between the primary crystal orientation and the loading direction on the elastic stress response of the PWA 1480 plate is presented for different loading conditions. The influence of primary orientation angle, when constrained between the bounds considered, was not found to be as significant as the influence of the secondary orientation angle, which is not typically controlled.

Abdul-aziz, A.; Kalluri, S.; Mcgaw, M.A.

1993-04-01

68

Cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum: chemoreceptor orientation and specificity.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypercarbia (elevated water P(CO2)) in the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum are stimulated by externally oriented receptors that are sensitive to water CO(2) tension as opposed to water pH. Cardiorespiratory responses to acute hypercarbia were evaluated in both the absence and presence of internal hypercarbia (elevated blood P(CO2)), achieved by treating fish with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. Exposure to acute hypercarbia (15 min at each level, final water CO(2) tensions of 7.2, 15.5 and 26.3 mmHg) elicited significant increases in ventilation frequency (at 26.3 mmHg, a 42% increase over the normocarbic value) and amplitude (128%), together with a fall in heart rate (35%) and an increase in cardiac stroke volume (62%). Rapid washout of CO(2) from the water reversed these effects, and the timing of the changes in cardiorespiratory variables corresponded more closely to the fall in water P(CO2) (Pw(CO2)) than to that in blood P(CO2) (Pa(CO2)). Similar responses to acute hypercarbia (15 min, final Pw(CO2) of 13.6 mmHg) were observed in acetazolamide-treated (30 mg kg(-1)) tambaqui. Acetazolamide treatment itself, however, increased Pa(CO2) (from 4.81+/-0.58 to 13.83+/-0.91 mmHg, mean +/-S.E.M.; N=8) in the absence of significant change in ventilation, heart rate or cardiac stroke volume. The lack of response to changes in blood P(CO2) and/or pH were confirmed by comparing responses to the bolus injection of hypercarbic saline (5% or 10% CO(2); 2 ml kg(-1)) into the caudal vein with those to the injection of CO(2)-enriched water (1%, 3%, 5% or 10% CO(2); 50 ml kg(-1)) into the buccal cavity. Whereas injections of hypercarbic saline were ineffective in eliciting cardiorespiratory responses, changes in ventilation and cardiovascular parameters accompanied injection of CO(2)-laden water into the mouth. Similar injections of CO(2)-free water acidified to the corresponding pH of the hypercarbic water (pH 6.3, 5.6, 5.3 or 4.9, respectively) generally did not stimulate cardiorespiratory responses. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that in tambaqui, externally oriented chemoreceptors that are predominantly activated by increases in water P(CO2), rather than by accompanying decreases in water pH, are linked to the initiation of cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia. PMID:15767310

Gilmour, K M; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T; Reid, S G; Perry, S F

2005-03-01

69

Mutual funds under fire: reform initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To describe the broad range of reform initiatives that has been undertaken in response to a series of mutual fund scandals that have become apparent starting in 2003. This is the second of a two-part article. The first part, in Volume 7, Number 1, is a chronology of developments related to the fund scandals since 1 January 2003.

Thomas R. Smith Jr

2006-01-01

70

Cheaters in mutualism networks  

PubMed Central

Mutualism-network studies assume that all interacting species are mutualistic partners and consider that all links are of one kind. However, the influence of different types of links, such as cheating links, on network organization remains unexplored. We studied two flower-visitation networks (Malpighiaceae and Bignoniaceae and their flower visitors), and divide the types of link into cheaters (i.e. robbers and thieves of flower rewards) and effective pollinators. We investigated if there were topological differences among networks with and without cheaters, especially with respect to nestedness and modularity. The Malpighiaceae network was nested, but not modular, and it was dominated by pollinators and had much fewer cheater species than Bignoniaceae network (28% versus 75%). The Bignoniaceae network was mainly a plant–cheater network, being modular because of the presence of pollen robbers and showing no nestedness. In the Malpighiaceae network, removal of cheaters had no major consequences for topology. In contrast, removal of cheaters broke down the modularity of the Bignoniaceae network. As cheaters are ubiquitous in all mutualisms, the results presented here show that they have a strong impact upon network topology.

Genini, Julieta; Morellato, L. Patricia C.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.

2010-01-01

71

Influence of turbulence, orientation, and site configuration on the response of buildings to extreme wind.  

PubMed

Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

Aly, Aly Mousaad

2014-01-01

72

Fast mutual exclusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented that circumvents the combinatorial explosion often assumed to exist when summing probabilities of joint association events in a multiple target tracking context. The approach involves no approximations in the summation and while the number of joint events grows exponentially with teh number of targets, the computational complexity of the approach is substantially less than exponential. Multiple target tracking algorithms that use this summation include mutual exclusion in a particle filtering context and the Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter, a Kalman Filter based algorithm. The perceived computational expense associated with this combinatorial explosion has meant that such algorithms have been restricted to applications involving only a handful of targets. The approach presented here makes it possible to use such algorithms with a large number of targets.

Maskell, Simon; Briers, Mark; Wright, Robert

2004-08-01

73

Effects of collagen fiber orientation on the response of biologically derived soft tissue biomaterials to cyclic loading.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of initial collagen fiber orientation on the medium-term (up to 50 x 10(6) cycles) fatigue response of heart valve soft tissue biomaterials was investigated. Glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium (GLBP), preselected for uniform structure and collagen fiber orientation, was used as the representative heart valve biomaterial. Using specialized instrumentation, GLBP specimens were subjected to cyclic tensile loading to maximum stress levels of 500 +/- 50 kPa at a frequency of 22 Hz. Two sample groups were examined, one with the preferred collagen fiber direction parallel (PD) and perpendicular (XD) to the direction of applied strain. The primary findings indicated that GLBP fatigue response was highly sensitive to the direction of loading with respect to fiber orientation. Specifically, when loading perpendicular to the preferred collagen fiber orientation, fiber reorientation is the dominant mechanism. In contrast, when loaded parallel to the preferred fiber direction a reduction in both collagen fiber crimp and fiber reorientation occurred. Moreover, alterations in the degree and direction of mechanical anisotropy can be inducted by cyclic loading when specimens are loaded perpendicular to the preferred fiber direction. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) results indicate that molecular-level damage to collagen occurs in both groups after only 20 x 10(6) cycles. Taken as a whole, the results of this study suggest that initial collagen orientation plays a critical role in bioprosthetic heart valve biomaterial fatigue response. PMID:17041913

Sellaro, Tiffany L; Hildebrand, Daniel; Lu, Qijin; Vyavahare, Naren; Scott, Michael; Sacks, Michael S

2007-01-01

74

Fast Response, Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanosheet Electric Double Layer Capacitors Synthesized from C2H2.  

PubMed

The growth and electrical characteristics of vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from C2H2 feedstock on nickel substrates and used as electrodes in symmetric electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) are presented. The nanosheets exhibited 2.7 times faster growth rate and much greater specific capacitance for a given growth time than CH4 synthesized films. Raman spectra showed that the intensity ratio of the D band to G band versus temperature initially decreased to a minimum value of 0.45 at a growth temperature of 750 °C, but increased rapidly with further temperature increase (1.15 at 850 °C). The AC specific capacitance at 120 Hz of these EDLC devices increased in a linear fashion with growth temperature, up to 265 ?F/cm(2) (2 ?m high film, 850 °C with 10 min growth). These devices exhibited ultrafast frequency response: the frequency response at -45° phase angle reached over 20 kHz. Consistent with the increase in D band to G band ratio, the morphology of the films became less vertical, less crystalline, and disordered at substrate temperatures of 800 °C and above. This deterioration in morphology resulted in an increase in graphene surface area and defect density, which, in turn, contributed to the increased capacitance, as well as a slight decrease in frequency response. The low equivalent series resistance varied from 0.07 to 0.08 ? and was attributed to the significant carbon incorporation into the Ni substrate. PMID:24797018

Cai, Minzhen; Outlaw, Ronald A; Quinlan, Ronald A; Premathilake, Dilshan; Butler, Sue M; Miller, John R

2014-06-24

75

Reading Readiness and Early Linguistic Skills as a Function of Individual Differences in the Orienting Response. Working Paper No. 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research paradigm of Farley and Manske on individual differences in the orienting response (OR) defined by heart rate (HR) deceleration was extended to performance in reading readiness tasks. The OR was measured in 114 kindergarteners. Fifteen trials of pure tone stimulation (1000 cps, 61 db) followed by a 16th trial at 2000 cps and a…

Berkowitz, Gloria D.; Farley, Frank H.

76

How to control self-promotion among performance-oriented employees : The roles of task clarity and personalized responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the performance orientation of employees and self-promotion in the form of overstating one's performance. It is hypothesized that this relationship depends on task clarity and personalized responsibility. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected by means of a survey among 281 employees of two Dutch organizations, one active in

Eric Molleman; Ben Emans; Nonna Turusbekova

2012-01-01

77

Mutual coupling between microstrip antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of mutual coupling between microstrip antennas is presented. The cavity method is used, and from the equivalence theorem application the problem is reduced to interaction of two magnetic loops. The mutual impedance is then calculated from the reaction theorem. Theoretical results and measurements are in good agreement

Penard, E.; Daniel, J.-P.

1982-07-01

78

Constructions of Mutually Unbiased Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two orthonormal bases B and Bof a d-dimensional complex inner-product space are called mutually unbiased if and only if |h b|bi| 2 = 1\\/d holds for all b ? B and b' ? B'. The size of any set containing pairwise mutually unbiased bases of Cd cannot exceed d + 1. If d is a power of a prime, then

Andreas Klappenecker; Martin Roetteler

2003-01-01

79

Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: Differences between exposure in E and H orientation  

SciTech Connect

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm{sup 2} for E and 45 mW/cm{sup 2} for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5{degrees}C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur.

Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Padilla, J.M. (Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

80

An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Degree of Religiousness Upon an Individual's Corporate Social Responsiveness Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent failures and scandals involving many large businesses have highlighted the importance of corporate social responsibility\\u000a as a fundamental factor in the soundness of the free market system. The corporate social responsiveness orientation of business\\u000a executives plays an important role in corporate decision making since managers make important decisions on behalf of their\\u000a corporations. This paper explores whether there

John Angelidis; Nabil Ibrahim

2004-01-01

81

Response of silicon to shock wave compression along [100] and [111] orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon is a high strength, brittle solid that undergoes multiple compression induced phase transformations. To complement x-ray diffraction measurements to examine inelastic deformation and phase transformations in shocked Si, we have examined the continuum response of silicon under shock compression. Transmitted wave profiles were measured at Si/LiF interfaces using a velocity interferometer. Peak stresses ranged between 11 and 22 GPa. The measured HELs were 9.2 GPa and 7.7 GPa for [100] and [111] orientations, respectively. Following the phase transformation, which occurred at about 13.5GPa, the volume compression was roughly 23% for peak stresses ranging from 15 to 22 GPa. This volume compression is consistent with a completed phase transformation and is much larger than previously reported volume compressions [1,2]. Work supported by DOE. [1] W. H. Gust and E. B. Royce, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1897 (1971). [2] T. Goto et al., Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L369 (1982).

Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.

2007-06-01

82

Equality, diversity and corporate responsibility : Sexual orientation and diversity management in the UK private sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the triggers to the development of sexual orientation diversity policy and practice in the UK private sector, based on the perspectives of those “championing” sexual orientation diversity work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on 22 in-depth key informant interviews which can be broken down as follows: diversity specialists (5),

Fiona Colgan

2011-01-01

83

Detecting mutual awareness events.  

PubMed

It is quite common that multiple human observers attend to a single static interest point. This is known as a mutual awareness event (MAWE). A preferred way to monitor these situations is with a camera that captures the human observers while using existing face detection and head pose estimation algorithms. The current work studies the underlying geometric constraints of MAWEs and reformulates them in terms of image measurements. The constraints are then used in a method that 1) detects whether such an interest point does exist, 2) determines where it is located, 3) identifies who was attending to it, and 4) reports where and when each observer was while attending to it. The method is also applied on another interesting event when a single moving human observer fixates on a single static interest point. The method can deal with the general case of an uncalibrated camera in a general environment. This is in contrast to other work on similar problems that inherently assumes a known environment or a calibrated camera. The method was tested on about 75 images from various scenes and robustly detects MAWEs and estimates their related attributes. Most of the images were found by searching the Internet. PMID:22331857

Cohen, Meir; Shimshoni, Ilan; Rivlin, Ehud; Adam, Amit

2012-12-01

84

The effects of mutual inductances in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is developed to investigate the effects of mutual inductance on the voltage–field (V?B) characteristics of two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions. The V?B characteristics were numerically simulated for arrays with and without mutual inductance contributions. We find mutual inductances can have a strong impact on the voltage response of SQUID arrays and mutual inductance contributions from nearest neighboring SQUIDs only do not represent a good approximation.

Dalichaouch, T. N.; Cybart, S. A.; Dynes, R. C.

2014-06-01

85

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis...perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis...insurance companies and mutual fire or flood insurance companies exclusively...

2013-04-01

86

Spontaneous magnetic orientation in larval Drosophila shares properties with learned magnetic compass responses in adult flies and mice.  

PubMed

We provide evidence for spontaneous quadramodal magnetic orientation in a larval insect. Second instar Berlin, Canton-S and Oregon-R × Canton-S strains of Drosophila melanogaster exhibited quadramodal orientation with clusters of bearings along the four anti-cardinal compass directions (i.e. 45, 135, 225 and 315 deg). In double-blind experiments, Canton-S Drosophila larvae also exhibited quadramodal orientation in the presence of an earth-strength magnetic field, while this response was abolished when the horizontal component of the magnetic field was cancelled, indicating that the quadramodal behavior is dependent on magnetic cues, and that the spontaneous alignment response may reflect properties of the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. In addition, a re-analysis of data from studies of learned magnetic compass orientation by adult Drosophila melanogaster and C57BL/6 mice revealed patterns of response similar to those exhibited by larval flies, suggesting that a common magnetoreception mechanism may underlie these behaviors. Therefore, characterizing the mechanism(s) of magnetoreception in flies may hold the key to understanding the magnetic sense in a wide array of terrestrial organisms. PMID:23239891

Painter, Michael S; Dommer, David H; Altizer, William W; Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B

2013-04-01

87

Developing relationships, being cool, and not looking like a loser: social goal orientation predicts children's responses to peer aggression.  

PubMed

This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically, development (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance (minimizing negative judgments). Children (N = 373; M age = 7.97, SD = .34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grades. Validity of the social goal orientation construct was established through correlations with situation-specific goals and social adjustment. Development goals predicted adaptive responses (more effortful engagement, problem solving, advice seeking; fewer involuntary responses); demonstration goals predicted maladaptive responses (less effortful engagement, problem solving; more disengagement, retaliation). This study contributes to theoretical understanding of the process of peer aggression and interventions to promote optimal social health. PMID:21883154

Rudolph, Karen D; Abaied, Jamie L; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

2011-01-01

88

Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression  

PubMed Central

Little is known about individual differences in how children respond to peer aggression. This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically development goals (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach goals (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance goals (minimizing negative judgments). Children (M age = 7.97, SD = .34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grade. Validity of the social goal orientation construct was established through correlations with situation-specific goals and social adjustment. Development goals predicted adaptive responses (more effortful engagement, problem solving, advice seeking; fewer involuntary responses); demonstration goals predicted maladaptive responses (less effortful engagement, problem solving; more disengagement, retaliation). This study contributes to theoretical understanding of the process of peer aggression and interventions to promote optimal social health.

Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

2011-01-01

89

Development of the PRO-SDLS: A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-directedness in learning among college students based on an operationalization of the personal responsibility orientation (PRO) model of self-direction in learning. The resultant 25-item Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-Direction in Learning Scale…

Stockdale, Susan L.; Brockett, Ralph G.

2011-01-01

90

Determination of the mutual orientation of the 15N and 13C NMR chemical shift tensors of 13- 15N double labeled model peptides for silk fibroin from the dipolar-coupled powder patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 15N and 13C chemical shift tensors, and the orientation of the principal axis system relative to the molecular symmetry axes were determined for 15N and 13C carbonyl carbon sites of 13C? 15N double labeled model peptides for Bombyx mori silk fibroin, that is, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly-OMe, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac, Boc-AlaGly[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac, Boc-[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]AlaGlyAla-OPac, Boc-GlyAla[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]AlaGlyAla-OPac and Boc-[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]ValGlyAla-OPac, where Boc is t-butoxycarbonyl, OMe is methyl ester, OPac is phenacyl ester, Ala is alanine, Gly is glycine and Val is valine. From the comparisons of the 15N chemical shift tensors and the orientations of the principal axis system relative to the molecular symmetry axes among three compounds having [1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly units, it is concluded that the intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding are different between Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly-OMe and two compounds, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac and Boc-AlaGly[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac although the latter two compounds have similar structures. A similar conclusion has also been obtained from the 13C chemical shift tensors of these compounds.

Asakura, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Yasunobu; Seng, Koo Wey; Demura, Makoto

1998-05-01

91

Active electrolocation in pulse gymnotids: sensory consequences of objects' mutual polarization.  

PubMed

We examined non-linear effects of the presence of one object on the electric image of another placed at the foveal region in Gymnotus omarorum. The sensory consequences of object mutual polarization on electric images were also depicted using behavioral procedures. Image measurements show that objects whose electric image is not detectable may modify the electric image of another placed closer to the fish and suggest that detection range and discrimination parameters used for one object may be affected when the presence of others enriches the scene. Behavioral experiments confirm that these changes in object images resulting from mutual polarization may be exploited for improving perception. While conductive objects close to the skin allow the fish to detect other objects placed out of the active electrodetection range, non-conductive objects may hide objects that otherwise show clear electric images. This suggests that fish movements may orient the self-generated field to exploit object mutual polarization, increasing or decreasing the active electrolocation range. In addition, images of a nearby object may be modulated by the presence of another object placed outside the detection range and the corresponding behavioral responses suggest that a moving or impedance-changing context may modify a fish's discrimination abilities for closer objects. PMID:22496290

Aguilera, Pedro A; Pereira, Ana Carolina; Caputi, Angel A

2012-05-01

92

Graph Mutual Reinforcement Based Bootstrapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new bootstrapping method based on Graph Mutual Reinforcement (GMR-Bootstrapping) to learn semantic\\u000a lexicons. The novelties of this work include 1) We integrate Graph Mutual Reinforcement method with the Bootstrapping structure\\u000a to sort the candidate words and patterns; 2) Pattern’s uncertainty is defined and used to enhance GMR-Bootstrapping to learn\\u000a multiple categories simultaneously. Experimental results

Qi Zhang; Yaqian Zhou; Xuanjing Huang; Lide Wu

2008-01-01

93

SEC Mutual Fund Cost Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because "every investor should know what he or she is paying for a mutual fund," the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) provides this cost calculator. Two versions in Windows 3.1/95/98/NT or JavaScript format allow investors to easily estimate and compare mutual fund costs, and the SEC hopes this information will reveal "how costs add up over time."

94

Normalized Mutual Information Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filter method of feature selection based on mu- tual information, called normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), is presented. NMIFS is an enhancement over Battiti's MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR methods. The average normalized mutual information is proposed as a measure of re- dundancy among features. NMIFS outperformed MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR on several artificial and benchmark data sets without

Pablo A. Estévez; Michel Tesmer; Claudio A. Perez; Jacek M. Zurada

2009-01-01

95

Mutual Mentoring Makes Better Mentors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will describe how our peer-to-peer mentoring has enabled us to become better mentors for our undergraduate students, for recent graduates beginning their careers and for colleagues at local and neighboring institutions.

Blaha, Cindy; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda; Whitten, Barbara

2011-03-01

96

Using item response theory in the development and validation of the College-Oriented Eating Disorders Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the psychometric characteristics of the College-Oriented Eating Disorders Screen (COEDS), a college-student-focused screening measure to assess and identify individuals at-risk for the development of eating disordered pathology. By screening a large pool of pilot questions and using methods based in item response theory (IRT), seven items were identified with well-targeted contents that discriminated well across the

Jennifer A Nowak; Roxann Roberson-Nay; David R Strong; Jennifer Bucceri; Carl W Lejuez

2003-01-01

97

Expression of an amino acid biosynthesis gene in tomato flowers: developmental upregulation and MeJa response are parenchyma-specific and mutually compatible.  

PubMed

The gene coding for threonine deaminase (TD), the enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, was isolated from tomato as a consequence of its unusual 500-fold upregulation in floral organs. It was subsequently shown that TD is induced in potato leaves in response to wounding, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate (MeJa). Detailed analysis presented here, reveals an intricate developmental regulation pattern of gene expression in flowers that is operating solely in parenchyma territories. Yet, despite its high pre-existing expression level, TD in flowers can be further induced by MeJa. Induction of TD in flowers as well as in leaves is effective only in the parenchyma domains, irrespective of the prior expression levels. TD is neither expressed nor induced in epidermal, vascular or sporogenous tissues. Promoter analysis in transgenic tomato plants indicates that induction of TD follows identical kinetics in flowers and leaves. Furthermore, the 'conditioning' of developmental upregulation in flowers, the response to MeJa in flowers and leaves, and the parenchyma-specific expression are all mediated by the cis-elements within the proximal 192 bp of the promoter. Promoter elements regulating the correct organ-specific expression are located, however, further upstream. The promoter constructs used in this study can serve as useful tools for expressing extremely high levels of transgenes in specific cells. A scheme explaining tissue-specific response to MeJa, in conjunction with developmental control, is discussed. PMID:7550377

Samach, A; Broday, L; Hareven, D; Lifschitz, E

1995-09-01

98

Mutuality, Mountains, and Molehills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on social maladjustment exclusion in serious emotional disturbance criteria in Public Law 94-142, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Responds to articles by Skiba and Grizzle in reaction to Slenovich's book, "PL 94-142 as Applied to DSM III Diagnoses" and Slenovich's response to articles. Assesses debate between Skiba and Grizzle…

Zirkel, Perry A.

1992-01-01

99

Developing a Short Form of Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test: An Item Response Theory Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton's words, “as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived” (Benton, 1994, p. 53). The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test–retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct

Matthew Calamia; Kristian Markon; Natalie L. Denburg; Daniel Tranel

2011-01-01

100

A Linguistic Analysis of Counselor's Affect Oriented Responses across Three Levels of Counseling Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of counselors' level of experience on clients' expression of feeling has not been investigated using stylistic and semantic measures. To examine the influence of affectively oriented counselors' level of experience, six counselors at three experience levels (low--masters, counseling practicum students; medium--doctoral, counseling…

Warden, Kathleen; Wycoff, Jean

101

Reflexive Orienting in Response to Eye Gaze and an Arrow in Children with and without Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one…

Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2004-01-01

102

Displaying Orientation in the Classroom: Students' Multimodal Responses to Teacher Instructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the displays of orientation that students use to participate in the classroom. It is argued that students use their direction of gaze, body posture, gesture and other modes of communication to realize such displays and respond to what goes on when they are not nominated speakers. The focus of the paper is on the silent but…

Bezemer, Jeff

2008-01-01

103

Prediction of Action and Thought-Oriented Response: Behavioral Style or Situational Demand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male college students (N = 72) were administered an occupations\\/activities preference scale as a measure of action- and thought-oriented behavior styles, and responded to seven TAT cards varying in degrees of “stimulus pull” for action and thought modes of expression. Verbs in TAT stories were assigned to action and thought categories. Mean percentages of action and thought verbs were significantly

J. Thomas Grisso

1973-01-01

104

"With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do students from privileged communities respond to educational efforts encouraging them to become justice-oriented citizens? Observational and interview data collected during a semester-long case study of eleven high school students in a social studies class at an elite private school reveal four markedly different interpretations of their…

Swalwell, Katy

2013-01-01

105

Reflectance properties of silicon moth-eyes in response to variations in angle of incidence, polarisation and azimuth orientation.  

PubMed

We report a study of the optical properties of silicon moth-eye structures using a custom-made fully automated broadband spectroscopic reflectometry system (goniometer). This measurement system is able to measure specular reflectance as a function of wavelength, polar incidence angle and azimuth orientation angle, from normal to near-parallel polar incidence angle. The system uses a linear polarized broadband super-continuum laser light source. It is shown that a moth-eye structure composed of a regular array of protruding silicon rods, with finite sidewall angle reduces reflectance and sensitivity to incident wavelength in comparison to truly cylindrical rods with perpendicular sidewalls. It is also shown that moth-eye structures have omnidirectional reflectance properties in response to azimuth orientation of the sample. The importance of applying the reflectometer setup to study the optical properties of solar cell antireflective structures is highlighted. PMID:24922250

Asadollahbaik, Asa; Boden, Stuart A; Charlton, Martin D B; Payne, David N R; Cox, Simon; Bagnall, Darren M

2014-03-10

106

Normalized mutual information feature selection.  

PubMed

A filter method of feature selection based on mutual information, called normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), is presented. NMIFS is an enhancement over Battiti's MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR methods. The average normalized mutual information is proposed as a measure of redundancy among features. NMIFS outperformed MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR on several artificial and benchmark data sets without requiring a user-defined parameter. In addition, NMIFS is combined with a genetic algorithm to form a hybrid filter/wrapper method called GAMIFS. This includes an initialization procedure and a mutation operator based on NMIFS to speed up the convergence of the genetic algorithm. GAMIFS overcomes the limitations of incremental search algorithms that are unable to find dependencies between groups of features. PMID:19150792

Estévez, Pablo A; Tesmer, Michel; Perez, Claudio A; Zurada, Jacek M

2009-02-01

107

Synchronization of mutually coupled systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General operation conditions to obtain anticipated or retarded synchronization in a mutually coupled system with feedback are analyzed. Different from a unidirectionally coupled system, which type of synchronization will occur in a mutually coupled system does not solely depend on the difference between the feedback-delay time and the coupling-delay time. We find that in addition to the feedback/coupling delay times, feedback strengths and coupling strengths all determine whether the system will preform anticipated or retarded synchronization. Experimental implementation using semiconductor lasers subject to optoelectronic feedback is provided as an example. A set of experimental data is presented and discussed.

Chiang, Margaret C.; Chen, How-Foo; Liu, Jia-Ming

2006-05-01

108

A response to reform: Teachers' attitudes and practice of inquiry-oriented instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of the current reform effort in Connecticut is to influence the way science is taught to improve student achievement. To meet this goal, the State aligned curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices with the most recent versions of the Core Science Curriculum Framework, CAPT Handbook for Science, and the Connecticut Aptitude Performance Test (CAPT). The lack of widespread and sustainable implementation of instructional reforms, such as implementing inquiry-oriented standards-based curriculum, is an issue that has evolved out of reform efforts similar to the one in Connecticut. A possible explanation for this problem might be traced back to teacher attitudes towards the proposed instructional changes. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the attitudes of six high school earth science teachers toward reform in one Connecticut suburban school district and the impact these attitudes may have had on the implementation of inquiry-oriented instructional reforms. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess teacher attitudes toward the reform and the expected impact on the way they would enact inquiry-oriented instruction. This was followed by classroom observations of each teacher's implementation of one of the State released inquiry-oriented labs found in the CAPT Handbook for Science, so as to determine whether the labs were carried out as the teachers had intended and as was expected by the State. At the end of year, semi-structured interviews were also conducted to verify whether their attitudes changed over the course of the year. Originally, it was thought that teacher attitudes would impact the way they would carry out the State recommended labs. However, teacher attitudes in this study were only one predictor of the way the inquiry-oriented labs were implemented. Teacher experience, familiarity with the content, and knowledge of inquiry-based pedagogy also were found to be possible influences on how they described and implemented the State reforms. The results of this work highlight the need for large-scale reforms to consider the multiple factors that influence teachers' understanding and implementation in order for such instructional changes to be successful.

Thomas, Jeffrey D.

109

Mutual reaction between interstitial clusters in bcc Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are commonly observed in microstructure of irradiated metals. These clusters can be formed directly in high-energy displacement cascades or as a result of interaction between individual SIAs. The majority of these clusters has features of glissile dislocation loops and perform fast thermally-activated one-dimensional glide. In this paper we present results of systematic molecular dynamics study of reactions where glissile clusters are involved. On the example of bcc iron we demonstrate that the reactions can result in a number of specific microstructural objects with different properties which may affect the microstructure evolution of irradiated metals. Particularly the reactions between the most common glissile clusters of (111) crowdions can result in coarsening, formation of immobile complexes and change of the crowdion orientation to (100) -type direction. However, particular mechanism responsible for that was found to be different from the one reported in the similar computer simulation studies. Properties of the products of mutual reactions between clusters are quite different which can influence the total microstructure evolution under irradiation. The results are obtained with the most promising interatomic potential for iron.

Terentyev, Dmitry; Malerba, Lorenzo

2007-04-01

110

Integrating Addiction Treatment and Mutual Aid Recovery Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most widely used source of help for alcohol problems is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and much formal treatment has adapted\\u000a AA’s methods and concepts. Usually many people seek help from AA at the recommendation of a treatment professional. Even treatment\\u000a programs that historically have not been 12-step-oriented, such as Therapeutic Communities, may recommend AA or mutual help\\u000a alternatives post-treatment. Because

Lee Ann Kaskutas; Meenakshi Subbaraman

111

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth to the monoterpenoid citral alone and in combination with sex pheromone.  

PubMed

The monoterpenoid citral synergized the electroantennogram (EAG) response of male Grapholita molesta (Busck) antennae to its main pheromone compound Z8-12:OAc. The response to a 10-?g pheromone stimulus increased by 32, 45, 54, 71 and 94% with the addition of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 ?g of citral, respectively. There was no detectable response to 0.1, 1, or 10 ?g of citral; the response to 100 and 1,000 ?g of citral was 31 and 79% of the response to 10 ?g of Z8-12:OAc. In a flight tunnel, citral affected the mate-seeking behavior of males. There was a 66% reduction in the number of males orientating by flight to a virgin calling female when citral was emitted at 1,000 ng/min ?1 cm downwind from a female. Pheromone and citral induced sensory adaptation in male antennae, but citral did not synergize the effect of pheromone. The exposure of antennae to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc/m(3) air, 1 ng citral/m3 air, 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 1 ng citral/m3 air, or to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 100 ng citral/m3 air for 15 min resulted in a similar reduction in EAG response of 47-63%. The exposure of males to these same treatments for 15 min had no effect on their ability to orientate to a virgin calling female in a flight tunnel. The potential for using citral to control G. molesta by mating disruption is discussed. PMID:23575022

Faraone, N; D'Errico, G; Caleca, V; Cristofaro, A De; Trimble, R M

2013-04-01

112

Mutual Respect and Civic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories of civic education frequently appeal to an ideal of mutual respect in the context of ethical, ethical and religious disagreement. This paper critically examines two recently popular criticisms of this ideal. The first, coming from a postmodern direction, charges that the ideal is hypocritical in its effort to be maximally…

Bird, Colin

2010-01-01

113

Rethinking mutualism stability: cheaters and the evolution of sanctions.  

PubMed

How cooperation originates and persists in diverse species, from bacteria to multicellular organisms to human societies, is a major question in evolutionary biology. A large literature asks: what prevents selection for cheating within cooperative lineages? In mutualisms, or cooperative interactions between species, feedback between partners often aligns their fitness interests, such that cooperative symbionts receive more benefits from their hosts than uncooperative symbionts. But how do these feedbacks evolve? Cheaters might invade symbiont populations and select for hosts that preferentially reward or associate with cooperators (often termed sanctions or partner choice); hosts might adapt to variation in symbiont quality that does not amount to cheating (e.g., environmental variation); or conditional host responses might exist before cheaters do, making mutualisms stable from the outset. I review evidence from yucca-yucca moth, fig-fig wasp, and legume-rhizobium mutualisms, which are commonly cited as mutualisms stabilized by sanctions. Based on the empirical evidence, it is doubtful that cheaters select for host sanctions in these systems; cheaters are too uncommon. Recognizing that sanctions likely evolved for functions other than retaliation against cheaters offers many insights about mutualism coevolution, and about why mutualism evolves in only some lineages of potential hosts. PMID:24552098

Frederickson, Megan E

2013-12-01

114

Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: A historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insurance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 1939  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form on underwriting performance using data from the Swedish fire insurance industry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock

Mike Adams; Lars-Fredrik Andersson; Joy Yihui Jia; Magnus Lindmark

2011-01-01

115

Response of liquid scintillator assemblies as a function of angular orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid scintillator detector assemblies contain an inert nitrogen expansion volume to allow for expansion of the liquid with changing temperature. Measurements and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the dependence of pulse height distribution shapes as a function of detector angle for two liquid scintillators assemblies filled with 97% organic-liquid cocktail and a 3% expansion volume. A 12.7-cm diameter by 12.7-cm long and a 7.6-cm diameter by 9.1-cm long EJ-309 liquid scintillator assemblies are investigated using a 137Cs gamma-ray source. Aside from the differences in dimensions, the detector assemblies also differed in the design of the active detector volume: there is no light guide in the 12.7-cm-diameter detector assembly, whereas the 7.6-cm-diameter detector contains a BK7 light guide between the scintillation liquid and optical coupling to the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 12.7-cm-diameter detector show a decrease in the position of the Compton edge ranges from 4% to 40% at detector orientations where the expansion volume exists between scintillating medium and the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 7.6-cm-diameter detector show that the position of the Compton edge is relatively unaffected at all detector orientations due to the presence of light guide.

Naeem, S. F.; Scarpelli, M.; Miller, E.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.

2014-06-01

116

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

117

Design oriented identification of critical times in transient response. [due to dynamic loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two techniques are presented for reducing the computational effort in identifying the critical time points. One approach is an adaptive search technique, well suited for the case where the response is exactly known. The other technique, useful for noisy response, is based on a least-squares spline approximation of the response. The possibility of grouping several closely spaced local peaks to identify a single super peak from each group is also investigated. The computational efficiency of the techniques proposed here is illustrated by two examples.

Haftka, R. T.; Watson, L. T.; Grandhi, R. V.

1984-01-01

118

Insect mutualisms buffer warming effects on multiple trophic levels.  

PubMed

Insect mutualisms can have disproportionately large impacts on local arthropod and plant communities and their responses to climatic change. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of insect mutualisms affects host plant and herbivore responses to warming. Using open-top warming chambers at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, we manipulated temperature and presence of ants and Chaitophorus populicola aphids on Populus tremuloides host plants and monitored ant attendance and persistence of C. populicola, predator abundance, plant stress, and abundance of Myzus persicae, a pest aphid that colonized plants during the experiment. We found that, regardless of warming, C. populicola persistence was higher when tended by ants, and some ant species increased aphid persistence more than others. Warming had negligible direct but strong indirect effects on plant stress. Plant stress decreased with warming only when both ants and C. populicola aphids were present and engaged in mutualism. Plant stress was increased by warming-induced reductions in predator abundance and increases in M. persicae aphid abundance. Altogether, these findings suggest that insect mutualisms could buffer the effects of warming on specialist herbivores and plants, but when mutualisms are not intact, the direct effects of warming on predators and generalist herbivores yield strong indirect effects of warming on plants. PMID:24649640

Marquis, Michael; Del Toro, Israel; Pelini, Shannon L

2014-01-01

119

Pluto-charon mutual events  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

Binzel, R.P. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-11-01

120

Supporting Mutual Understanding in Collaborative Design Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In collaborative design, participants usually have different backgrounds and standpoints. Due to these differences, it is hard for participants to mutually understand intentions, and they must make a lot of effort to reach a mutual agreement on the design. Thus, the efficiency of the design processes is decreased. We propose a framework to support participants in mutual understanding by grasping

Takayuki Yamaoka; Katsuhiko Tsujino; Tetsuya Yoshida; Shogo Nishida

1998-01-01

121

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

122

A comparison of responses to adolescent-oriented and traditional contraceptive programs.  

PubMed

Compares characteristics of teenage patients attracted to a traditional family planning clinic and an adolescent oriented clinic, and studies the success of each in promoting contraceptive use. Data were collected from 2 clinics operating in the same physical site in an urban hospital. The traditional family planning clinic (Day Clinic) serves both teenage and older women. The Young Adult Clinic (YAC) serves only patients 21 or younger and operates 2 evenings a week. The 2 clinics have an overlapping staff and medical services are identical in each, except that patients of the YAC are offered counseling, and admission to the clinic is simplified. The data from each clinic covers 2 years. Results show that the most important difference between the clinics is that the YAC attracts 3 1/2 times as many teens as the Day Clinic. Different background characteristics of the patients account for differences in contraceptive method utilization, revisit patterns, and pregnancy rates within the 2 clinics, rather than clinic differences. YAC patients are likely to be younger, and less likely to have been pregnant before. Thus, the YAC offers more of an opportunity for primary prevention of pregnancy. The authors concluded that the major benefit of offering an adolescent only evening clinic lies in its ability to attract young women who might not otherwise receive services. PMID:10259516

Philliber, S G; Namerow, P B

1983-05-01

123

Olfaction in Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: flight orientation response to certain saturated carboxylic acids in human skin emanations.  

PubMed

The flight orientation response of nonblood-fed and hungry Aedes albopictus females was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer at 10(-6) to 10(-2) g odor plumes of saturated carboxylic acids (C1-C20), in which C2-C18 were the main constituents of human skin emanations. Thirteen acids viz C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8 C9, C10, C12, C14, C16, C18, and C20 showed attractance at odor plumes ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) g doses, while five acids viz C4, C7, C11, C15, and C19 showed repellence at 10(-4) to 10(-2) g to test mosquitoes. Tridecanoic acid (C13) showed attractance only at 10(-4) g dose while higher doses caused repellence. Dose-dependent reversal of orientation behavior from attractance to repellence was observed at 10(-2) g plumes of C5, C9, C10, C13, C17, C19, and C20 acids. The outcome of the study will help in the identification of odoriferous acids as potential attractants, repellents, or attraction inhibitors, which may find their application in the repellent formulations and odor-baited traps for surveillance and control of mosquitoes. PMID:24619069

Seenivasagan, T; Guha, Lopamudra; Parashar, B D; Agrawal, O P; Sukumaran, D

2014-05-01

124

Termination Risk, Multiple Managers and Mutual Fund Tournaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the risk-taking behavior of mutual funds in response to their rel- ative performance over the 1992 to 1999 period. Our results show that managers of funds whose performance is closer to that of the top performing funds have greater incentives to increase their portfolios' risk than managers at the top who exhibit a tendency to lock in

JIAPING QIU

2003-01-01

125

Auditory cortical responses to neonatal deafening: pyramidal neuron spine loss without changes in growth or orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Neonatal rabbits were unilaterally deafened at birth by surgical removal of the stapes, aspiration of the cochlear lymph,\\u000a and kanamycin injection into the oval window. At 60 days of age, all rabbits were screened with brain stem evoked response\\u000a tests in order to establish the efficacy of the deafening procedure. The auditory cortex contralateral to the destroyed cochlea\\u000a was processed

N. T. McMullen; E. M. Glaser

1988-01-01

126

Spatial cueing, sensory gating and selective response preparation: an ERP study on visuo-spatial orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a visuo-spatial attention task where the position of an imperative stimulus was indicated either validly or invalidly by a central arrow (trial-by-trial cueing). Subjects had to perform choice RT tasks with the response being dependent either on the identity of the target stimulus or on its position. When target identity was relevant

Martin Eimer

1993-01-01

127

Parent-Child Dyadic Mutuality and Child Behavior Problems: An Investigation of Gene-Environment Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Parent-child mutuality is comprised of emotional reciprocity, co-responsiveness, and cooperation, which together represent aspects of co-regulation of emotion and behavior that may be important in the etiology of children's behavior problems. Furthermore, individual differences in children's mutuality and behavior problems involve…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

128

Application of mutual information theory to fluid bed temperature and differential pressure signal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of mutual information theory to the analysis of transient differential pressure and temperature signals from a fluidized bed. The signals were recorded around a heat transfer tube which was placed horizontally into a bubbling fluidized bed. The heat transfer tube was instrumented with fast response surface thermocouples and differential pressure sensors. Mutual information theory

Ali Ihsan Karamavruc; Nigel N. Clark; J. S. Halow

1995-01-01

129

Stability of mutually coupled oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of the final equilibrium states achieved between two mutually coupled microwave oscillators is assessed as a function of the initial frequency detuning, the length of the interconnection between the two sources, the coupled power, the oscillator growth rate, and the loaded Q of the cavities enclosing the sources. The model is compared to measurements from an experiment in which two high power, short pulse cavity vicators are phase-locked. The observed, final, phase-locked states are all predicted to be stable. No states that are predicted to be unstable exhibit frequency locking or phase locking.

Price, David; Sze, Henry

1990-04-01

130

Urgent need to orient public health response to rapid nutrition transition.  

PubMed

India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

2012-10-01

131

Jealousy in response to online and offline infidelity: the role of sex and sexual orientation.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to examine the emotional content and intensity of jealousy in response to different types of infidelity (both online and offline unfaithful partner behaviors) among Dutch heterosexuals (n = 191) and homosexuals (n = 121). Based on previous research (Dijkstra, Barelds & Groothof, 2010), participants were presented with ten jealousy-evoking situations following which the intensity of two different emotional aspects of jealousy was assessed (betrayal/anger and threat). Results showed that scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else or falling in love with someone else primarily evoked betrayal/anger-related jealousy, whereas scenarios describing an emotional connection between a partner and someone else primarily evoked threat-related jealousy. In addition, women experienced more jealousy than men in response to scenarios in which a partner engaged in potentially extra-dyadic online (but not offline) behaviors. Finally, compared to same-sex heterosexuals, homosexuals, both male and female, responded with less intense jealousy to scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else. Implications for the treatment of (internet) infidelity are discussed. PMID:23682617

Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

2013-08-01

132

Electrorheological response and orientational bistability of a homogeneously aligned nematic capillary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal confined in the region between two rotating coaxial cylinders. We study the nematic's director and velocity profiles induced by the imposed Couette flow and an applied radial electric field. We present calculations for the specific flow-aligning nematic liquid crystal 4'-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl and numerically solve a hydrodynamic model assuming hard anchoring and nonslip boundary conditions. We calculate a phase diagram in the parameter space showing a region where there exist multiple equilibrium solutions for the nematic's configuration and a region where there exists only one stationary solution. We also study the rheology of the system by calculating the apparent viscosity and the first normal stress difference. We find that the competition between the Couette flow and the electric field gives rise to an interesting non-Newtonian response which switches its behavior from shear thickening to shear thinning by exceeding a critical field.

Reyes, J. Adrián; Corella-Madueño, A.; Mendoza, Carlos I.

2008-08-01

133

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-10-22

134

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed Central

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes.

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-01-01

135

Mechanical Response of Stitched T300 Mat/Urethane 420 IMR Composite Laminates: Property/Orientation Dependence and Damage Evolution  

SciTech Connect

This report presents experimental and analytical results of investigations on the mechanical response of stitched T300 mat/urethane 420 IMR composite laminates with three different lay-up configurations. Tensile tests and short-term creep and recovery tests were conducted on the laminate coupons at various orientations. The X-ray photographic technique was adopted to detect the internal damage due to external loading history. The tensile data of laminates with antisymmetric and symmetric lay-ups indicated that lay- up sequences of cross-ply laminates do not have much influence on their tensile properties. However, misalignments within the stitch-bonded plies disturb the symmetry of intended quasi-isotropic laminates and thereby cause the mechanical properties to exhibit a certain amount of angular dependence. Classic lamination theory was found to be able to provide a very good prediction of tensile properties for the stitched laminates within linear range. Creep and recovery response of laminate coupons is greatly dependent on loading angles and load levels. The internal damage of laminate coupons is also directly related to loading angles and load levels as well as loading history.

Deng, S.; Weitsman, Y.J.

2000-03-01

136

Role of mutual inhibition in binocular rivalry  

PubMed Central

Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon that occurs when a different image is presented to each eye. The observer generally perceives just one image at a time, with perceptual switches occurring every few seconds. A natural assumption is that this perceptual mutual exclusivity is achieved via mutual inhibition between populations of neurons that encode for either percept. Theoretical models that incorporate mutual inhibition have been largely successful at capturing experimental features of rivalry, including Levelt's propositions, which characterize perceptual dominance durations as a function of image contrasts. However, basic mutual inhibition models do not fully comply with Levelt's fourth proposition, which states that percepts alternate faster as the stimulus contrasts to both eyes are increased simultaneously. This theory-experiment discrepancy has been taken as evidence against the role of mutual inhibition for binocular rivalry. Here, we show how various biophysically plausible modifications to mutual inhibition models can resolve this problem.

Seely, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

137

Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

2009-01-01

138

Acquisition Cross-Servicing and Mutual Logistics Support in the Pacific.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Are existing Acquisition Cross-Servicing Agreements (ACSA) and Mutual Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA) in the Pacific Command (PACOM) Area of Responsibility (AOR) sufficient to support operations in the future. The basic parameters of this problem requ...

P. Matlock

2009-01-01

139

Calculation of mutual inductance from magnetic vector potential for wireless power transfer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent renewed interest in commercial development of wireless power transfer through magnetically-coupled resonant circuits has shown the need for a computational tool that can calculate the mutual inductance of coils of arbitrary geometry and spatial orientation. This task is often performed by finite-element analysis (FEA), but this requires both access to such software and a degree of expertise on the

David M. Beams; Sravan G. Annam

2012-01-01

140

Induction logging device with a pair of mutually perpendicular bucking coils  

DOEpatents

An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

Koelle, Alfred R. (Los Alamos, NM); Landt, Jeremy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

141

Group Mutual Exclusion In Tree Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group mutual exclusion (GME) problem deals with sharing a set of (m) mutu- ally exclusive resources among all (n) processes of a network. Processes are allowed to be in a critical section simultaneously provided they request the same resource. We pre- sent three group mutual exclusion solutions for tree networks. All three solutions do not use process identifiers and

Joffroy Beauquier; Sébastien Cantarell; Ajoy Kumar Datta; Franck Petit

2002-01-01

142

The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

1998-01-01

143

Mutual Fund Performance and Manager Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NUMBER OF RECENT STUDIES have looked for evidence of persistence in mutual fund performance. These studies are trying to determine whether there are certain funds that consistently outperform (or underperform) other mutual funds.1 Although the evidence is mixed, the general conclusion from these articles is that a few fund managers do tend to regularly appear near the top of

James L. Davis

2001-01-01

144

Mutual Recognition of Accreditation Decisions in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief outline of the European Consortium for Accreditation in Higher Education project and future intentions. The paper notes that significant progress in the first two milestones in its road map has been achieved: mutual understanding of accreditation organizations and mutual recognition of accreditation procedures.…

Heusser, Rolf

2006-01-01

145

HOW DIVERSIFIED ARE EQUITY MUTUAL FUNDS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the degree to which the domestic equity mutual fund is diversified, and attempts to determine the extent to which any undiversified idiosyncratic risk, i.e. unsystematic or company specific risk is associated with the average fund returns. The sample consists of mutual funds from six investment objective categories, including aggressive growth, small company, growth, growth and income, equity

Zakri Bello

2007-01-01

146

An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological theory holds that competition and predation are the most important biotic forces affecting the composition of communities. Here, we expand this framework by demonstrating that mutualism can fundamentally alter community and food web structure. In large, replicated field plots, we manipulated the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum). The presence of the

Jennifer A. Rudgers; Keith Clay

2008-01-01

147

Cyclic deformation behavior of high-purity titanium single crystals. Part 1: Orientation dependence of stress-strain response  

SciTech Connect

Randomly oriented single crystals of high-purity titanium were prepared by strain annealing and were subjected to multiple-step fatigue testing under strain-controlled conditions, in order to determine their cyclic stress-strain curves (CSSCs). These were found to fall into three groups, depending on orientation and the extent of slip and twinning. For those crystals oriented for single prismatic slip, a plateau was observed in the CSSCs, persistent slip bands (PSBs) occurred, and the plateau stress was 38 MPa. In a second group, oriented for prismatic slip but for which cross-slip and twinning was favored, the plateau was suppressed and the flow stresses were higher. In a third group, connected with orientations on the borders of the unit triangle, extensive hardening occurred, the CSSCs were steep, and there were multiple cases of slip and twinning. The results are interpreted in terms of maps in the stereographic projection recording the Schmid factors for the various deformation modes.

Tan, X.; Gu, H. [Xi`an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Research Inst. for Strength of Metals; Laird, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Munroe, N.D.H. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology

1998-02-01

148

The correspondence between mutually unbiased bases and mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the connection between mutually unbiased bases and mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares, a wider class of squares which does not contain only the Latin squares. We show that there are four types of complete sets of mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares for the dimension d = 8. We introduce the concept of physical striation and show that this is equivalent to the extraordinary supersquare. The general algorithm for obtaining the mutually unbiased bases and the physical striations is constructed and it is shown that the complete set of mutually unbiased physical striations is equivalent to the complete set of mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares. We apply the algorithm to two examples: one for two-qubit systems (d = 4) and one for three-qubit systems (d = 8), by using the Type II complete sets of mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares of order 8.

Ghiu, Iulia; Ghiu, Cristian

2014-02-01

149

Information properties of a hologram of mutually conjugate waves  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study of information properties of a correlation response to a fragment of an image of a thin referenceless hologram of mutually conjugate waves that is recorded with a phase-conjugating (PC) mirror is reported. It is shown that this hologram reconstructs a full image in reflected light and can be used as an associative storage device and as a selective PC mirror. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Rubanov, A.S.; Serebryakova, L.M. [Institute of Physics, Minsk (Belarus)

1995-12-01

150

12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be authorized which would increase the number of a class of mutual capital certificates, or the number of a class of mutual capital certificates ranking prior to or on parity with another class of mutual capital certificates; or (F)...

2009-01-01

151

Electro-optical response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal single layers of large nematic droplets oriented by rubbed teflon nanolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface orienting effect of rubbed teflon nanolayers on the morphology and electro-optical (EO) response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) single layers of large nematic droplets was studied experimentally. In PDLC composites of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 and NOA65 polymer, single droplets of LC with diameters as larger as 10 ?m were confined in layers with a thickness of 10 ?m, and the nematic director field was efficiently modified by nanostructuring teflon rubbing of the glass plates of the PDLC cell. For layered PDLCs arranged and oriented in this way, the modulated EO response by the dielectric oscillations of the nematic director exhibits a selective amplitude-frequency modulation controllable by both temperature and voltage applied, and is simply related to the LC droplet size. That may be of practical interest for PDLC-based modulators operating in the infrasound frequency range.

Marinov, Y. G.; Hadjichristov, G. B.; Petrov, A. G.; Marino, S.; Versace, C.; Scaramuzza, N.

2013-02-01

152

Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

Medve, Richard J.

1978-01-01

153

Do Female Mutual Fund Managers Manage Differently?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the performance and investment behavior of female fixed-income mutual fund managers compared with male fixed-income mutual fund managers. We find that male- and female-managed funds do not differ significantly in terms of performance, risk, and other fund characteristics. Our results suggest that differences in investment behavior often attributed to gender may be related to investment knowledge and wealth

Stanley M. Atkinson; Samantha Boyce Baird; Melissa B. Frye

2003-01-01

154

Mutual selection in time-varying networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-varying networks play an important role in the investigation of the stochastic processes that occur on complex networks. The ability to formulate the development of the network topology on the same time scale as the evolution of the random process is important for a variety of applications, including the spreading of diseases. Past contributions have investigated random processes on time-varying networks with a purely random attachment mechanism. The possibility of extending these findings towards a time-varying network that is driven by mutual attractiveness is explored in this paper. Mutual attractiveness models are characterized by a linking function that describes the probability of the existence of an edge, which depends mutually on the attractiveness of the nodes on both ends of that edge. This class of attachment mechanisms has been considered before in the fitness-based complex networks literature but not on time-varying networks. Also, the impact of mutual selection is investigated alongside opinion formation and epidemic outbreaks. We find closed-form solutions for the quantities of interest using a factorizable linking function. The voter model exhibits an unanticipated behavior as the network never reaches consensus in the case of mutual selection but stays forever in its initial macroscopic configuration, which is a further piece of evidence that time-varying networks differ markedly from their static counterpart with respect to random processes that take place on them. We also find that epidemic outbreaks are accelerated by uncorrelated mutual selection compared to previously considered random attachment.

Hoppe, K.; Rodgers, G. J.

2013-10-01

155

Empirical awakening: the new science on mutual help and implications for cost containment under health care reform.  

PubMed

Over the past 75 years, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has grown from 2 members to over 2 million members. AA and similar organizations (e.g., Narcotics Anonymous [NA]) are among the most commonly sought sources of help for substance-related problems in the United States. It is only relatively recently, however, that the scientific community has conducted rigorous studies on the clinical utility and health care cost-offset potential of mutual-help groups and developed and tested professional treatments to facilitate their use. As a result of this research, AA as an organization has experienced an "empirical awakening," evolving from its peripheral status as a "nuisance variable" and perceived obstacle to progress to playing a more central role in a scientifically informed recovery oriented system of care. Also, professionally delivered interventions designed to facilitate the use of AA and NA ("Twelve-Step Facilitation" [TSF]) are now "empirically supported treatments" as defined by US federal agencies and the American Psychological Association. Under the auspices of health care reform, a rational societal response to the prodigious health and social burden posed by alcohol and other drug misuse should encompass the implementation of empirically based strategies (e.g., TSF) in order to maximize the use of ubiquitous mutual-help recovery resources. PMID:22489579

Kelly, John F; Yeterian, Julie D

2012-01-01

156

Responses of Adaxial and Abaxial Stomata of Normally Oriented and Inverted Leaves of Vicia faba L. to Light 1  

PubMed Central

Stomatal conductances of normally oriented and inverted leaves were measured as light levels (photosynthetic photon flux densities) were increased to determine whether abaxial stomata of Vicia faba leaves were more sensitive to light than adaxial stomata. Light levels were increased over uniform populations of leaves of plants grown in an environmental chamber. Adaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum water vapor conductances at a light level of 60 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which abaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Abaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum conductances at a light level of 500 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which adaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Maximum conductances in both normally oriented and inverted leaves were about 200 millimoles per square meter per second for adaxial stomata and 330 millimoles per square meter per second for abaxial stomata. Regardless of whether leaves were normally oriented or inverted, when light levels were increased to values high enough that upper leaf surfaces reached maximum conductances (about 500 micromoles per square meter per second), light levels incident on lower, shaded leaf surfaces were just sufficient (about 60 micromoles per square meter per second) for stomata of those surfaces to reach maximum conductances. This `coordinated' stomatal opening on the separate epidermes resulted in total leaf conductances for normally oriented and inverted leaves that were the same at any given light level. We conclude that stomata in abaxial epidermes of intact Vicia leaves are not more sensitive to light than those in adaxial epidermes, and that stomata in leaves of this plant do not respond to light alone. Additional factors in bulk leaf tissue probably produce coordinated stomatal opening on upper and lower leaf epidermes to optimally meet photosynthetic requirements of the whole leaf for CO2.

Yera, Ramon; Davis, Stephen; Frazer, John; Tallman, Gary

1986-01-01

157

A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

2010-01-01

158

Best friends: children use mutual gaze to identify friendships in others.  

PubMed

This study examined children's ability to use mutual eye gaze as a cue to friendships in others. In Experiment 1, following a discussion about friendship, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were shown animations in which three cartoon children looked at one another, and were told that one target character had a best friend. Although all age groups accurately detected the mutual gaze between the target and another character, only 5- and 6-year-olds used this cue to infer friendship. Experiment 2 replicated the effect with 5- and 6-year-olds when the target character was not explicitly identified. Finally, in Experiment 3, where the attribution of friendship could only be based on synchronized mutual gaze, 6-year-olds made this attribution, while 4- and 5-year-olds did not. Children occasionally referred to mutual eye gaze when asked to justify their responses in Experiments 2 and 3, but it was only by the age of 6 that reference to these cues correlated with the use of mutual gaze in judgements of affiliation. Although younger children detected mutual gaze, it was not until 6 years of age that children reliably detected and justified mutual gaze as a cue to friendship. PMID:22490181

Nurmsoo, Erika; Einav, Shiri; Hood, Bruce M

2012-05-01

159

Comparing the use of bayesian networks and neural networks in response time modeling for service-oriented systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new paradigm of service-oriented computing facilitates easy construction of dynamic, complex distributed systems. Recent research has shown that machine learning methods can be a promising way to autonomously and accurately derive models to assist autonomic management software or humans in understanding system behaviors and making informed decisions. However, the efficacy of different machine learning techniques in describing various system

Rui Zhang; Alan J. Bivens

2007-01-01

160

Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically, development (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance (minimizing negative judgments). Children (N = 373; M age = 7.97, SD = 0.34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grades. Validity of…

Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

2011-01-01

161

The response of mental health professionals to clients seeking help to change or redirect same-sex sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: we know very little about mental health practitioners' views on treatments to change sexual orientation. Our aim was to survey a representative sample of professional members of the main United Kingdom psychotherapy and psychiatric organisations about their views and practices concerning such treatments. METHODS: We sent postal questions to mental health professionals who were members of British Psychological Society,

Annie Bartlett; Glenn Smith; Michael King

2009-01-01

162

Single gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dimers of metal nanospheres are well-known for their characteristic anisotropic optical response. Here, we demonstrate in single-particle SERS experiments that individual gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response. This optical behavior of single particle clusters provides constant SERS signals, independent of the mutual orientation of the incident laser polarization and the plasmonic nanostructure, which is desired or even required in many SERS applications.Dimers of metal nanospheres are well-known for their characteristic anisotropic optical response. Here, we demonstrate in single-particle SERS experiments that individual gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response. This optical behavior of single particle clusters provides constant SERS signals, independent of the mutual orientation of the incident laser polarization and the plasmonic nanostructure, which is desired or even required in many SERS applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31982a

Steinigeweg, Dennis; Schütz, Max; Schlücker, Sebastian

2012-12-01

163

Modeling mutual exclusivity of cancer mutations.  

PubMed

In large collections of tumor samples, it has been observed that sets of genes that are commonly involved in the same cancer pathways tend not to occur mutated together in the same patient. Such gene sets form mutually exclusive patterns of gene alterations in cancer genomic data. Computational approaches that detect mutually exclusive gene sets, rank and test candidate alteration patterns by rewarding the number of samples the pattern covers and by punishing its impurity, i.e., additional alterations that violate strict mutual exclusivity. However, the extant approaches do not account for possible observation errors. In practice, false negatives and especially false positives can severely bias evaluation and ranking of alteration patterns. To address these limitations, we develop a fully probabilistic, generative model of mutual exclusivity, explicitly taking coverage, impurity, as well as error rates into account, and devise efficient algorithms for parameter estimation and pattern ranking. Based on this model, we derive a statistical test of mutual exclusivity by comparing its likelihood to the null model that assumes independent gene alterations. Using extensive simulations, the new test is shown to be more powerful than a permutation test applied previously. When applied to detect mutual exclusivity patterns in glioblastoma and in pan-cancer data from twelve tumor types, we identify several significant patterns that are biologically relevant, most of which would not be detected by previous approaches. Our statistical modeling framework of mutual exclusivity provides increased flexibility and power to detect cancer pathways from genomic alteration data in the presence of noise. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5. PMID:24675718

Szczurek, Ewa; Beerenwinkel, Niko

2014-03-01

164

Inhibitory effect of A10 dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area on the orienting response evoked by acoustic stimulation in the cat.  

PubMed

The effect of bilateral electric stimulation of A10 dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (80-300 microA, 20-50 Hz, 0.1-0.5 ms, 2 s duration) on latency and duration of the orienting response, evoked by acoustic stimuli (4500-8000 Hz, 2 s), was studied in the cat. A10 neuron stimulation, simultaneous with the acoustic one, was performed with threshold parameters inducing minimal behavioral signs (head searching movement, sniffing, increase in alertness). By means of a videoanalysis system, a statistically significant increase, both of latency and duration of the response, was observed. The possible role of dopamine was studied administrating sulpiride (20 mg/kg i.p.), a dopaminergic antagonist prevalently acting on the mesolimbic-mesocortical system. In this condition, the disappearance of A10 neuron effect occurred. Sulpiride injection did not affect the parameters of the orienting response to acoustic stimulus alone, suggesting a direct effect on A10 dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, when saline administration was carried out, no significant modification of the effects, obtained following A10 neuron activation, was observed. The data suggest that A10 dopaminergic neurons, origin of the mesolimbic-mesocortical system, may be involved in the control of the response to sensory stimuli, likely by influencing sensorimotor integration processes. An involvement in the inhibitory regulation of the switching of attention is also discussed. PMID:9434203

Crescimanno, G; Sorbera, F; Emmi, A; Amato, G

1998-01-01

165

Relative orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before corresponding points in images taken with two cameras can be used to recover distances to objects in a scene, one has to determine the position and orientation of one camera relative to the other. This is the classic photogrammetric problem of relative orientation, central to the interpretation of binocular stereo information. Iterative methods for determining relative orientation were developed

Berthold K. P. Horn

1990-01-01

166

Single gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response.  

PubMed

Dimers of metal nanospheres are well-known for their characteristic anisotropic optical response. Here, we demonstrate in single-particle SERS experiments that individual gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response. This optical behavior of single particle clusters provides constant SERS signals, independent of the mutual orientation of the incident laser polarization and the plasmonic nanostructure, which is desired or even required in many SERS applications. PMID:23076725

Steinigeweg, Dennis; Schütz, Max; Schlücker, Sebastian

2013-01-01

167

Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It  

PubMed Central

The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, Jose C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

2012-01-01

168

Mutual entropy production in bipartite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently shown by Barato et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 042104) that the mutual information at the trajectory level of a bipartite Markovian system is not bounded by the entropy production. In the same way as Gaspard showed (2004 J. Stat. Phys. 117 599) that the entropy production is not directly related to the Shannon entropy at the trajectory level but is in fact equal to its difference from the so-called time-reversed Shannon entropy, we show in this paper that the difference between the mutual information and its time-reversed form is equal to the mutual entropy production (MEP), i.e. the difference between the full entropy production and that of the two marginal processes. Evaluation of the MEP is in general a difficult task due to non-Markovian effects. For bipartite systems, we provide closed expressions in various limiting regimes which we verify by numerical simulations.

Diana, Giovanni; Esposito, Massimiliano

2014-04-01

169

Distribution of Mutual Information in Multipartite States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the relative entropy of total correlation, we derive an expression relating the mutual information of n-partite pure states to the sum of the mutual informations and entropies of its marginals and analyze some of its implications. Besides, by utilizing the extended strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy, we obtain generalized monogamy relations for the total correlation in three-partite mixed states. These inequalities lead to a tight lower bound for this correlation in terms of the sum of the bipartite mutual informations. We use this bound to propose a measure for residual three-partite total correlation and discuss the non-applicability of this kind of quantifier to measure genuine multiparty correlations.

Maziero, Jonas

2014-06-01

170

Distribution of Mutual Information in Multipartite States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the relative entropy of total correlation, we derive an expression relating the mutual information of n-partite pure states to the sum of the mutual informations and entropies of its marginals and analyze some of its implications. Besides, by utilizing the extended strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy, we obtain generalized monogamy relations for the total correlation in three-partite mixed states. These inequalities lead to a tight lower bound for this correlation in terms of the sum of the bipartite mutual informations. We use this bound to propose a measure for residual three-partite total correlation and discuss the non-applicability of this kind of quantifier to measure genuine multiparty correlations.

Maziero, Jonas

2014-03-01

171

Mutual selection in time-varying networks.  

PubMed

Time-varying networks play an important role in the investigation of the stochastic processes that occur on complex networks. The ability to formulate the development of the network topology on the same time scale as the evolution of the random process is important for a variety of applications, including the spreading of diseases. Past contributions have investigated random processes on time-varying networks with a purely random attachment mechanism. The possibility of extending these findings towards a time-varying network that is driven by mutual attractiveness is explored in this paper. Mutual attractiveness models are characterized by a linking function that describes the probability of the existence of an edge, which depends mutually on the attractiveness of the nodes on both ends of that edge. This class of attachment mechanisms has been considered before in the fitness-based complex networks literature but not on time-varying networks. Also, the impact of mutual selection is investigated alongside opinion formation and epidemic outbreaks. We find closed-form solutions for the quantities of interest using a factorizable linking function. The voter model exhibits an unanticipated behavior as the network never reaches consensus in the case of mutual selection but stays forever in its initial macroscopic configuration, which is a further piece of evidence that time-varying networks differ markedly from their static counterpart with respect to random processes that take place on them. We also find that epidemic outbreaks are accelerated by uncorrelated mutual selection compared to previously considered random attachment. PMID:24229223

Hoppe, K; Rodgers, G J

2013-10-01

172

Child temperament moderates effects of parent-child mutuality on self-regulation: a relationship-based path for emotionally negative infants.  

PubMed

This study examined infants' negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) on children's self-regulation (n=102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months. Self-regulation was measured at 25 months in effortful control battery and as self-regulated compliance to parental requests and prohibitions. Negative emotionality moderated the effects of mother-child, but not father-child, MRO. Highly negative infants were less self-regulated when they were in unresponsive relationships (low MRO), but more self-regulated when in responsive relationships (high MRO). For infants not prone to negative emotionality, there was no link between MRO and self-regulation. The "regions of significance" analysis supported the differential susceptibility model not the diathesis-stress model. PMID:22670684

Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

2012-01-01

173

Impact of Mutual Mentoring on Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will give some specific ways that we have supported and helped to expand each other's research. For some new areas of research were opened, for others new focus was brought to existing areas, and still others found acceptance for where they were.

Whitten, Barbara; Blaha, Cynthia; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda

2011-03-01

174

Oriented responses of grapevine moth larvae Lobesia botrana to volatiles from host plants and an artificial diet on a locomotion compensator.  

PubMed

Larvae of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are a major pest of vine, Vitis vinifera. As larvae have limited energy reserves and are in danger of desiccation and predation an efficient response to plant volatiles that would guide them to food and shelter could be expected. The responses of starved 2nd or 3rd instar larvae to volatile emissions from their artificial diet and to single host plant volatiles were recorded on a locomotion compensator. Test products were added to an air stream passing over the 30cm diameter servosphere. The larvae showed non-directed walks of low rectitude in the air stream alone but changed to goal-oriented upwind displacement characterised by relatively straight tracks when the odour of the artificial diet and vapours of methyl salicylate, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were added to the air stream. This chemoanemotactic targeted displacement illustrates appetence for certain volatile cues from food by starved Lobesia larvae. Analysis of the larval behaviour indicates dose dependent responses to some of the host plant volatiles tested with a response to methyl salicylate already visible at 1ng, the lowest source dose tested. These behavioural responses show that Lobesia larvae can efficiently locate mixtures of volatile products released by food sources as well as single volatile constituents of their host plants. Such goal-oriented responses with shorter travel time and reduced energy loss are probably of importance for larval survival as it decreases the time they are exposed to biotic and abiotic hazards. PMID:19192482

Becher, Paul G; Guerin, Patrick M

2009-04-01

175

The response of mental health professionals to clients seeking help to change or redirect same-sex sexual orientation  

PubMed Central

Background we know very little about mental health practitioners' views on treatments to change sexual orientation. Our aim was to survey a representative sample of professional members of the main United Kingdom psychotherapy and psychiatric organisations about their views and practices concerning such treatments. Methods We sent postal questions to mental health professionals who were members of British Psychological Society, the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Participants were asked to give their views about treatments to change homosexual desires and describe up to five patients each, whom they has treated in this way. Results Of 1848 practitioners contacted, 1406 questionnaires were returned and 1328 could be analysed. Although only 55 (4%) of therapists reported that they would attempt to change a client's sexual orientation if one consulted asking for such therapy, 222 (17%) reported having assisted at least one client/patient to reduce or change his or her homosexual or lesbian feelings. 413 patients were described by these 222 therapists: 213 (52%) were seen in private practice and 117 (28%) were not followed up beyond the period of treatment. Counselling was the commonest (66%) treatment offered and there was no sign of a decline in treatments in recent years. 159 (72%) of the 222 therapists who had provided such treatment considered that a service should be available for people who want to change their sexual orientation. Client/patient distress and client/patient autonomy were seen as reasons for intervention; therapists paid attention to religious, cultural and moral values causing internal conflict. Conclusion A significant minority of mental health professionals are attempting to help lesbian, gay and bisexual clients to become heterosexual. Given lack of evidence for the efficacy of such treatments, this is likely to be unwise or even harmful.

Bartlett, Annie; Smith, Glenn; King, Michael

2009-01-01

176

Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (?196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 ?m) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 ?m. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed.

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

2010-01-01

177

Mutual diffusion in a miscible polymer blend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-diffusion in polymer melts has been extensively studied and is reasonably well understood in terms of the reptation model1-4 the related phenomenon of mutual diffusion in miscible blends of chemically different polymers has received little attention, despite its practical relevance and implications for physical processes, such as phase separation kinetics. In such blends, attractive interactions between the monomers, when summed over a polymer chain, may lead to large enthalpic driving forces favouring the mixing; this in turn results in a mutual diffusion rate which is rapid compared with the entropically driven self-diffusion5, and which is strongly composition-dependent6. We have measured mutual diffusion as a function of composition in one such binary blend, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polycaprolactone (PCL), and report here that the mutual diffusion coefficient is strongly enhanced in the middle of the composition range. This result is qualitatively, though not quantitatively, in accord with the results of some recent theoretical treatments5-8.

Jones, R. A. L.; Klein, J.; Donald, A. M.

1986-05-01

178

Mutual gravitational potential of N solid bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual gravitational potential ofN solid bodies is expanded without approximation in terms of harmonic coefficients of each body. As an application the Euler dynamical equations for the motion of the axis of figure of the rigid Earth are integrated analytically by the method of variation of parameters.

N. Borderies

1978-01-01

179

Why constrain your mutual fund manager?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the form, adoption rates, and economic rationale for various mutual fund investment restrictions. A sample of U.S. domestic equity funds from 1994 to 2000 reveals systematic patterns in investment constraints, consistent with an optimal contracting equilibrium in the fund industry. Restrictions are more common when (i) boards contain a higher proportion of inside directors, (ii) the portfolio manager

Andres Almazan; Keith C. Brown; Murray Carlson; David A. Chapman

2004-01-01

180

Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

Sanders, Shirley

181

Tolerance traits and the stability of mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying factors which allow the evolution and persistence of cooperative interactions between species is a fundamental issue in evolutionary ecology. Various hypotheses have been suggested which generally focus on mechanisms that allow cooperative genotypes in different species to maintain interactions over space and time. Here, we emphasise the fact that even within mutualisms (interactions with net positive fitness effects for

Tom H. Oliver; Simon R. Leather; James M. Cook

2009-01-01

182

Adaptive and efficient abortable mutual exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scott and Scherer recently pointed out that existing locking algorithms do not meet a need that arises in practical systems. Specifically, database systems and real time systems need mutual exclusion locks that support the abort capability, which makes it possible for a process that waits \\

Prasad Jayanti

2003-01-01

183

Cognitive Dissonance and Mutual Fund Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence from questionnaire studies of mutual fundinvestors about recollections of past fund performance. We findthat investor memories exhibit a positive bias, consistent withcurrent psychological models. We find that the degree of bias isconditional upon previous investor choice, a phenomenon relatedto the well known theory of cognitive dissonance.

William N. Goetzmann; Nadav Peles

1995-01-01

184

Critical situation of Mutual organization in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

0. We have advocated the necessity and existence of social economy sector in Japan. We understand the family of social economy is mainly composed by cooperative, mutual organization, association \\/non profit organization, foundation. However, in Japan, we can say that we have vague definition to social economy, due to lack of proper legislation of each factor. At this moment, we

Hideo ISHIZUKA

185

College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

186

Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning  

SciTech Connect

The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters.

Maxwell, C.

1982-03-01

187

Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.  

PubMed Central

The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters.

Maxwell, C

1982-01-01

188

THE ORIGIN OF A MUTUALISM: A MORPHOLOGICAL TRAIT PROMOTING THE EVOLUTION OF ANT-APHID MUTUALISMS  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms are mutually beneficial interactions between species and are fundamentally important at all levels of biological organization. It is not clear, however, why one species participates in a particular mutualism whereas another does not. Here we show that pre-existing traits can dispose particular species to evolve a mutualistic interaction. Combining morphological, ecological, and behavioral data in a comparative analysis, we show that resource use in Chaitophorus aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) modulates the origin of their mutualism with ants. We demonstrate that aphid species that feed on deeper phloem elements have longer mouthparts, that this inhibits their ability to withdraw their mouthparts and escape predators and that, consequently, this increases their need for protection by mutualist ants.

Shingleton, Alexander W.; Stern, David L.; Foster, William A.

2010-01-01

189

Semantic Conditioning and Generalization of the Galvanic Skin Response-Orienting Reflex with Overt and Covert Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses an innocuous tone as the imperative stimulus, or unconditioned stimulus, as in a forewarned reaction time situation but with no overt response required. Evidence of conditioning and generalization to words is obtained. (Editor/RK)

Maltzman, Irving; And Others

1977-01-01

190

A mutualism-parasitism system modeling host and parasite with mutualism at low density.  

PubMed

A mutualism-parasitism system of two species is considered, where mutualism is the dominant interaction when the predators (parasites) are at low density while parasitism is dominant when the predators are at high density. Our aim is to show that mutualism at low density promotes coexistence of the species and leads to high production of the prey (host). The mutualism-parasitism system presented here is a combination of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. By comparing dynamics of this system with those of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we present the mechanisms by which the mutualism improves the coexistence of the species and production of the prey. Then the parameter space is divided into six regions, which correspond to the four outcomes of mutualism, commensalism, predation/parasitism and neutralism, respectively. When the parameters are varied continuously among the six regions, it is shown that the interaction outcomes of the system transition smoothly among the four outcomes. By comparing the dynamics of the specific system with those of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model, we show that the parasitism at high density promotes stability of the system. A novel aspect of this paper is the simplicity of the model, which allows rigorous and thorough analysis and transparency of the results. PMID:22901072

Wang, Yuanshi; Deangelis, Donald L

2012-04-01

191

Mutually unbiased measurements in finite dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUB) to measurements which are not necessarily described by rank one projectors. As such, these measurements can be a useful tool to study the long-standing problem of the existence of MUB. We derive their general form, and show that in a finite, d-dimensional Hilbert space, one can construct a complete set of d+1 mutually unbiased measurements. Besides their intrinsic link to MUB, we show that these measurements’ statistics provide complete information about the state of the system. Moreover, they capture the physical essence of unbiasedness, and in particular, they satisfy a non-trivial entropic uncertainty relation similar to d+1 MUB.

Kalev, Amir; Gour, Gilad

2014-05-01

192

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the magnetosphere: Mutual information function analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetospheric response to strong driving by the solar wind is highly structured, and spatially resolved data are essential for the understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics. The global and local features of the magnetosphere are studied using nonlinear dynamical techniques of phase space reconstruction. A database of the solar wind data from satellites and ground-based magnetometer stations is used to study the magnetospheric response to solar wind variables using mutual information functions. A key feature of the mutual information function is its ability to bring out the linear as well as nonlinear correlations and such functions are needed to study the inherently nonlinear dynamics of the magnetosphere. The spreads in the average mutual information functions computed for the different stations show strong correlations with the solar wind convective electric field and the sudden changes in the dynamic pressure. The time evolution of mutual information shows a westward expansion of the disturbed region in the night side magnetosphere, starting from the near midnight sectors. The mutual information functions are used to quantify the transfer of information among the different locations.

Sharma, Surja; Chen, Jian; Veeramani, Thangamani

2007-11-01

193

Are ETFs Replacing Index Mutual Funds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flows to an Open-Ended Mutual Fund (OEF) can signiflcantly hamper its sub- sequent performance due to ?ow-induced trading costs. An Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) is designed not to have this cost and hence is advertised as the more e-cient in- dex vehicle. We develop an equilibrium model to investigate whether the ETF structure is indeed the dominant organizational form. We flnd

Ilan Guedj; Jennifer Huang

194

Why constrain your mutual fund manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We examine the form, adoption rates, and economic rationale for various mutual fund investment,restrictions. A sample,of U.S. domestic,equity funds from,1994 to 2000 reveals systematic patterns in investment constraints, consistent with an optimal contracting equilibrium,in the fund industry. Restrictions are more,common,when,(i) boards,contain a higher proportion of inside directors, (ii) the portfolio manager is more experienced, (iii) the fund is managed

A. Almazan; K. C. Brown; M. Carlson; D. A. Chapman

1999-01-01

195

Strategies in Dynamic Pari-Mutual Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a strategic model for pari-mutual markets by traders using a cumulative utility function. Under this model, we\\u000a derive guidelines for the traders on how much to buy or sell. Those guidelines can be implemented with three action combinations,\\u000a called strategies. We prove that those strategies are payoff equivalent for both the involved trader and the others in the

Tian-ming Bu; Xiaotie Deng; Qianya Lin; Qi Qi

2008-01-01

196

BiReality: mutually-immersive telepresence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BiReality (a.k.a. Mutually-Immersive Telepresence) uses a teleoperated robotic surrogate to provide an immersive telepresence system for face-to-face interactions. Our goal is to recreate to the greatest extent practical, both for the user and the people at the remote location, the sensory experience relevant for face-to-face interactions of the user actually being in the remote location. Our system provides a 360-degree

Norman P. Jouppi; Subu Iyer; Stan Thomas; April Slayden

2004-01-01

197

The Landscape of Host Transcriptional Response Programs Commonly Perturbed by Bacterial Pathogens: Towards Host-Oriented Broad-Spectrum Drug Targets  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of drug-resistant pathogen strains and new infectious agents pose major challenges to public health. A promising approach to combat these problems is to target the host’s genes or proteins, especially to discover targets that are effective against multiple pathogens, i.e., host-oriented broad-spectrum (HOBS) drug targets. An important first step in the discovery of such drug targets is the identification of host responses that are commonly perturbed by multiple pathogens. Results In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and the drug Simvastatin for hematopoietic pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Conclusions Using a combination of automated analysis of host-response gene expression data and manual study of the literature, we have been able to suggest host-oriented treatments for specific bacterial infections. The analyses and suggestions made in this study may be utilized to generate concrete hypothesis on which gene sets to probe further in the quest for HOBS drug targets for bacterial infections. All our results are available at the following supplementary website: http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/ murali/supplements/2013-kidane-plos-one

Kidane, Yared H.; Lawrence, Christopher; Murali, T. M.

2013-01-01

198

Implant positioning system using mutual inductance.  

PubMed

Surgical placement of implantable medical devices (IMDs) has limited precision and post-implantation the device can move over time. Accurate knowledge of the position of IMDs allows better interpretation of data gathered by the devices and may allow wireless power to be focused on the IMD thereby increasing power transfer efficiency. Existing positioning methods require device sizes and/or power consumptions which exceed the limits of in-vivo mm-sized IMDs applications. This paper describes a novel implant positioning system which replaces the external transmitting (TX) coil of a wireless power transfer link by an array of smaller coils, measures the mutual inductance between each coil in the TX array and the implanted receiving (RX) coil, and uses the spatial variation in those mutual inductances to estimate the location of the implanted device. This method does not increase the hardware or power consumption in the IMD. Mathematical analysis and electromagnetic simulations are presented which explain the theory underlying this scheme and show its feasibility. A particle swarm based algorithm is used to estimate the position of the RX coil from the measured mutual inductance values. MATLAB simulations show the positioning estimation accuracy on the order of 1 mm. PMID:23366001

Zou, You; O'Driscoll, Stephen

2012-01-01

199

Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events  

SciTech Connect

As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W. (Catania Universita (Italy); Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin (Italy))

1989-07-01

200

Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

1977-01-01

201

Board Level Dynamic Response and Solder Ball Joint Reliability Analysis under Drop Impact Test with Various Impact Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronics, such as notebooks, cameras and cell phones, can be easily dropped by our miss handling. To mimic the real dropping, drop tests are usually used to study the dynamic response of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) as well as the reliability of the solder ball joints in laboratory. The reliability of solder ball joints is a critical issue since

Z. J. Xu; T. X. Yu

2008-01-01

202

The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

Trifonas, Peter

2003-01-01

203

Mutual information maximizing linear precoding for parallel layer MIMO detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper mutual information maximizing linear precoding for MIMO transmission using finite signal alphabets and a parallel layer MIMO detection scheme is derived. The derivation exploits that the mutual information of the parallel detection scheme can be expressed in terms of the mutual information associated with optimal maximum likelihood de- tection. Results show that the large performance gap between

Eckhard Ohlmer; Udo Wachsmann; Gerhard Fettweis

2011-01-01

204

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mutual aid agreements. 553.105 Section 553...GOVERNMENTS Volunteers § 553.105 Mutual aid agreements. An agreement between two...interstate governmental agencies for mutual aid does not change the otherwise...

2013-07-01

205

Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1993-01-01

206

Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects.

Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

207

Immune response to Chlamydophila abortus POMP91B protein in the context of different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP); role of antigen in the orientation of immune response.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we used bacterial flagellin to deliver antigens such as p27 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a host immune system and obtained a potent Th1 response compared to those obtained with Freund's adjuvant and DNA immunization. In the current study, using a POMP91B antigen of Chlamydophila abortus, a human and animal pathogen, as a model, we found that this antigen is unable to promote Th1 response. However, this antigen, unlike others, was able to induce a good Th2 response and IL-4 production after immunization by recombinant protein in Freund's adjuvant or in phosphate buffered saline. Our results suggest that immune response is not only dependent on the immunization adjuvant, but also dependent on the nature of antigen used. PMID:22069532

Le Moigne, Vincent; Robreau, Georges; Mahana, Wahib

2009-12-01

208

Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

2013-04-01

209

Electro-optical response of homeotropic-oriented nematic having DeltaE>0 in an inhomogeneous electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) deformation near the pore in a metal-dielectric-NLC-ITO structure under the action of positive polarity of voltage is studied. Experiments indicate that deformation of NLC is observed over any size ores. Character time of relaxation depends on the size or pre and takes more than ten minutes for large (> 20 micrometers ) pores and less than a second for small (< 10 micrometers ) ones respectively. It is shown, that the electrically driven transferring of lecithin can be responsible for a long period of time relaxation.

Gritsenko, M. I.; Kucheev, S. I.

1998-09-01

210

Creating a culture of mutual respect.  

PubMed

The Joint Commission mandates that hospitals seeking accreditation have a process to define and address disruptive behavior. Leaders at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, took the initiative to create a code of mutual respect that not only requires respectful behavior, but also encourages sensitivity and awareness to the causes of frustration that often lead to inappropriate behavior. Steps to implementing the code included selecting code advocates, setting up a system for mediating disputes, tracking and addressing operational system issues, providing training for personnel, developing a formal accountability process, and measuring the results. PMID:20362215

Kaplan, Kathryn; Mestel, Pamela; Feldman, David L

2010-04-01

211

Mutually unbiased probability-operator measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the concept of unbiasedness from bases to measurements. We show that mutually unbiased (MU) measurements, which are not necessarily von Neumann measurements, exist in all finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We study the geometrical relation between these measurements and symmetric informationally complete measurements. In particular we find that these two kinds of measurements are related to each other as points and lines in finite affine plane geometries. This relation provides a natural way to define discrete phase-space functions based on MU measurements and symmetric informationally complete measurements.

Kalev, Amir

2014-07-01

212

Service-Oriented Computing Kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a service-oriented computing kit (SOCK), which is an overarching framework covering the key artifacts in planning, modeling, designing, developing, deploying, and managing service-oriented solutions in the enterprise computing space. Based on a divide-and-conquer strategy, this comprehensive kit is a systematic taxonomy to abstract complexities and organize the major aspects of service-oriented development, so that the roles, responsibilities,

Tony Chao Shan; Winnie W. Hua

2006-01-01

213

A mutually assured destruction mechanism attenuates light signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

After light-induced nuclear translocation, phytochrome photoreceptors interact with and induce rapid phosphorylation and degradation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), to regulate gene expression. Concomitantly, this interaction triggers feedback reduction of phytochrome B (phyB) levels. Light-induced phosphorylation of PIF3 is necessary for the degradation of both proteins. We report that this PIF3 phosphorylation induces, and is necessary for, recruitment of LRB [Light-Response Bric-a-Brack/Tramtrack/Broad (BTB)] E3 ubiquitin ligases to the PIF3-phyB complex. The recruited LRBs promote concurrent polyubiqutination and degradation of both PIF3 and phyB in vivo. These data reveal a linked signal-transmission and attenuation mechanism involving mutually assured destruction of the receptor and its immediate signaling partner. PMID:24904166

Ni, Weimin; Xu, Shou-Ling; Tepperman, James M; Stanley, David J; Maltby, Dave A; Gross, John D; Burlingame, Alma L; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Quail, Peter H

2014-06-01

214

Response-oriented measuring inequalities in Tehran: second round of UrbanHealth Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2), concepts and framework  

PubMed Central

Background Current evidence consistently confirm inequalities in health status among socioeconomic none, gender,ethnicity, geographical area and other social determinants of health (SDH), which adversely influence health ofthe population. SDH refer to a wide range of factors not limited to social component, but also involve economic, cultural,educational, political or environmental problems. Measuring inequalities, improving daily living conditions, andtackling inequitable distribution of resources are highly recommended by international SDH commissioners in recentyears to ‘close the gaps within a generation’. To measure inequalities in socio-economic determinants and core healthindicators in Tehran, the second round of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2)was conducted in November 2011, within the main framework of WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe Centre). Method For ‘assessment’ part of the project, 65 indicators in six policy domains namely ‘physical and infrastructure’,‘human and social’, ‘economic’, ‘governance’, ‘health and nutrition’, and also ‘cultural’ domain were targetedeither through a population based survey or using routine system. Survey was conducted in a multistage random sampling,disaggregated to 22 districts and 368 neighborhoods of Tehran, where data of almost 35000 households(118000 individuals) were collected. For ‘response’ part of the project, widespread community based development(CBD) projects were organized in all 368 neighborhoods, which are being undertaken throughout 2013. Conclusion Following the first round of Urban HEART project in 2008, the second round was conducted to trackchanges over time, to institutionalize inequality assessment within the local government, to build up community participationin ‘assessment’ and ‘response’ parts of the project, and to implement appropriate and evidence-based actionsto reduce health inequalities within all neighborhoods of Tehran.

Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Cherghian, Bahman; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Golmakani, Mehdi; Haeri-Mehrizi, Ali-Asghar; Hesari, Hossein; Kalantari, Naser; Kamali, Mohammad; Kordi, Ramin; Malek-Afzali, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Motevallian, Abbas; Noorbala, Ahmad; Raghfar, Hossein; Razzaghi, Emran

2013-01-01

215

MIRA: mutual information-based reporter algorithm for metabolic networks  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Discovering the transcriptional regulatory architecture of the metabolism has been an important topic to understand the implications of transcriptional fluctuations on metabolism. The reporter algorithm (RA) was proposed to determine the hot spots in metabolic networks, around which transcriptional regulation is focused owing to a disease or a genetic perturbation. Using a z-score-based scoring scheme, RA calculates the average statistical change in the expression levels of genes that are neighbors to a target metabolite in the metabolic network. The RA approach has been used in numerous studies to analyze cellular responses to the downstream genetic changes. In this article, we propose a mutual information-based multivariate reporter algorithm (MIRA) with the goal of eliminating the following problems in detecting reporter metabolites: (i) conventional statistical methods suffer from small sample sizes, (ii) as z-score ranges from minus to plus infinity, calculating average scores can lead to canceling out opposite effects and (iii) analyzing genes one by one, then aggregating results can lead to information loss. MIRA is a multivariate and combinatorial algorithm that calculates the aggregate transcriptional response around a metabolite using mutual information. We show that MIRA’s results are biologically sound, empirically significant and more reliable than RA. Results: We apply MIRA to gene expression analysis of six knockout strains of Escherichia coli and show that MIRA captures the underlying metabolic dynamics of the switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. We also apply MIRA to an Autism Spectrum Disorder gene expression dataset. Results indicate that MIRA reports metabolites that highly overlap with recently found metabolic biomarkers in the autism literature. Overall, MIRA is a promising algorithm for detecting metabolic drug targets and understanding the relation between gene expression and metabolic activity. Availability and implementation: The code is implemented in C# language using .NET framework. Project is available upon request. Contact: cicek@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online

Cicek, A. Ercument; Roeder, Kathryn; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin

2014-01-01

216

Industrial Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

217

Managers, Investors, and Crises: Mutual Fund Strategies in Emerging Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

July 2000This study of an important class of investors-U.S. mutual funds-finds that mutual funds do engage in momentum trading (buying winners and selling losers). They also engage in contagion trading strategies (selling assets from one country when asset prices fall in another).Kaminsky, Lyons, and Schmukler address the trading strategies of mutual funds in emerging markets. The data set they develop

Sergio Schmukler; Richard K. Lyons

1999-01-01

218

Managerial Abilities: Evidence from Religious Mutual Fund Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze the financial performance and the managerial abilities of religious mutual fund managers, implementing\\u000a a comparative analysis with conventional mutual funds. We use a broad sample, free of survivorship bias, of religious equity\\u000a mutual funds from the US market, for the period from January 1994 to September 2010. We build a matched-pair conventional\\u000a sample in order

Luis Ferruz; Fernando Muñoz; María Vargas

2012-01-01

219

Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles  

PubMed Central

There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant step towards understanding the coevolution and population dynamics of mutualistic interactions.

Boza, Gergely; Kun, Adam; Scheuring, Istvan; Dieckmann, Ulf

2012-01-01

220

Geographic variation in a facultative mutualism: consequences for local arthropod composition and diversity.  

PubMed

Geographic variation in the outcome of interspecific interactions may influence not only the evolutionary trajectories of species but also the structure of local communities. We investigated this community consequence of geographic variation for a facultative mutualism between ants and wild cotton (Gossypium thurberi). Ants consume wild cotton extrafloral nectar and can protect plants from herbivores. We chose three sites that differed in interaction outcome, including a mutualism (ants provided the greatest benefits to plant fitness and responded to manipulations of extrafloral nectar), a potential commensalism (ants increased plant fitness but were unresponsive to extrafloral nectar), and a neutral interaction (ants neither affected plant fitness nor responded to extrafloral nectar). At all sites, we manipulated ants and extrafloral nectar in a factorial design and monitored the abundance, diversity, and composition of other arthropods occurring on wild cotton plants. We predicted that the effects of ants and extrafloral nectar on arthropods would be largest in the location with the mutualism and weakest where the interaction was neutral. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the presence of ants altered arthropod composition, but only at the two sites in which ants increased plant fitness. At the site with the mutualism, ants also suppressed detritivore/scavenger abundance and increased aphids. The presence of extrafloral nectar increased arthropod abundance where mutual benefits were the strongest, whereas both arthropod abundance and morphospecies richness declined with extrafloral nectar availability at the site with the weakest ant-plant interaction. Some responses were geographically invariable: total arthropod richness and evenness declined by approximately 20% on plants with ants, and extrafloral nectar reduced carnivore abundance when ants were excluded from plants. These results demonstrate that a facultative ant-plant mutualism can alter the composition of arthropod assemblages on plants and that these community-level consequences vary across the landscape. PMID:20198388

Rudgers, Jennifer A; Savage, Amy M; Rúa, Megan A

2010-08-01

221

On the Mutual Coupling between Circular Resonant Slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such an array is impaired by the existing mutual coupling between the radiating elements or in this case circular slots. The mutual coupling problem imposes a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and the overall system sensitivity and dynamic range. In this paper, the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane is investigated both numerically and experimentally. In particular, the mutual coupling in the E- and H-plane configurations of two identical slots is studied.

Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovshy, S.; Zoughi, R.

2007-01-01

222

On the Mutual Coupling Between Circular Resonant Slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such array probes is impaired by the mutual coupling present between the radiating elements. The mutual coupling problem poses a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and its sensitivity. In this paper, we investigate the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane both numerically and experimentally. Based on the analysis of the dominant coupling mechanism, i.e., the surface currents, various remedies to reduce the slots' mutual coupling are proposed and verified.

Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

2007-01-01

223

Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

224

Concurrent behavior: Are the interpretations mutually exclusive?  

PubMed Central

The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure.

Lyon, David O.

1982-01-01

225

Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

226

Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

227

Geometric mutual information at classical critical points.  

PubMed

A practical use of the entanglement entropy in a 1D quantum system is to identify the conformal field theory describing its critical behavior. It is exactly (c/3)ln? for an interval of length ? in an infinite system, where c is the central charge of the conformal field theory. Here we define the geometric mutual information, an analogous quantity for classical critical points. We compute this for 2D conformal field theories in an arbitrary geometry, and show in particular that for a rectangle cut into two rectangles, it is proportional to c. This makes it possible to extract c in classical simulations, which we demonstrate for the critical Ising and three-state Potts models. PMID:24724678

Stéphan, Jean-Marie; Inglis, Stephen; Fendley, Paul; Melko, Roger G

2014-03-28

228

Mutual Interest: Engaging Vietnam on Oil Spill Prevention and Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vietnam's future economic growth will require increased access to oil and natural gas in the South China Sea. Vietnam has partnered with foreign oil companies to increase production and limit Chinese intervention. This strategy, coupled with regional tens...

R. Morgan

2013-01-01

229

Pharmacy Students' Attitudes About Treating Patients With Alcohol Addiction After Attending a Required Mutual Support Group  

PubMed Central

Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction. Design. Third-year (P3) pharmacy students enrolled in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory course were required to watch an introductory video about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and then attend 2 “open meetings” during the semester. Students submitted a written reflection as proof of attendance. Assessment. Pharmacy students who agreed to participate in the study completed the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) during the course orientation and again at the end of the semester. Mutual support group attendance significantly affected the students’ attitudes within the domains of role adequacy, task specific self-esteem, and work satisfaction. Significant changes were not observed within the domains of motivation and role legitimacy. Conclusion. Mutual support group attendance exposed pharmacy students to the negative effects of alcohol abuse and increased their self-confidence to provide care to patients with alcohol addiction.

2014-01-01

230

Microprocessor-Based Field-Oriented Control of A CSI-Fed Induction Motor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method of field orientation of the stator current vector with respect to the stator, mutual, and rotor flux vectors, for the control of an induction motor fed from a current source inverter (CSI). A control scheme using this principle is described for orienting the stator current with respect to the rotor flux, as this gives natural

S. Sathiakumar; S. K. Biswas; Joseph Vithayathil

1986-01-01

231

Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: Phylogeny and divergence times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no

Sandra Gómez-Acevedo; Lourdes Rico-Arce; Alfonso Delgado-Salinas; Susana Magallón; Luis E. Eguiarte

2010-01-01

232

Quorum-Based Algorithms for Group Mutual Exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a quorum system, which we referred to as the surficial quorum system, for group mutual exclusion. The surficial quorum system is geometrically evident and is easy to construct. It also has a nice structure based on which a truly distributed algorithm for group mutual exclusion can be obtained and processed loads can be minimized. When used with Maekawa's

Yuh-jzer Joung

2003-01-01

233

Symmetrical Communications: Developing Mutual Understanding and Consensus in Course Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of symmetrical communication and its application in course teams at Deakin University, Australia, are considered. Symmetry in communications is evident in groups characterized by mutual recognition by members of one another as persons accepted and appreciated in their common striving for mutual understanding and consensus. The technique…

Kemmis, Stephen

234

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

235

Complex degree of mutual coherence of biological liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the degree of consistency of parameters of the optically uniaxial birefringent protein nets of blood plasma a new parameter - complex degree of mutual coherence (CDMC) is suggested. The technique of polarization measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of blood plasma is developed.

Ushenko, V. A.

2013-06-01

236

On the Timing Ability of Mutual Fund Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies of mutual fund market timing analyze monthly returns and find little evidence of timing ability. We show that daily tests are more powerful and that mutual funds exhibit significant timing ability more often in daily tests than in monthly tests. We construct a set of synthetic fund returns in order to control for spurious results. The daily timing

Nicolas P. B. Bollen; Jeffrey A. Busse

2001-01-01

237

On the Timing Ability of Mutual Fund Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies of mutual fund market timing analyze monthly returns and find little evidence of timing ability. We show that daily tests are more powerful and that mutual funds exhibit significant timing ability more often in daily tests than in monthly tests. We construct a set of synthetic fund returns in order to control for spurious results. The daily timing

NICOLAS P. B. BOLLEN; JEFFREY A. BUSSE

2000-01-01

238

The variance of the number of mutual choices in sociometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variance of the number of mutual dyads in a sociometric situation where each member of a group chooses independently and at random is derived for unrestricted numbers of choices per group member, as well as for a fixed number of choices. The distribution of the number of mutuals is considered.

Leo Katz; Thurlow R. Wilson

1956-01-01

239

Orchestrating fair exchanges between mutually distrustful web services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a modular and fully decentralized protocol to orchestrate fair exchanges between mutually distrustful yet collaborating web services. Our motivation roots in the observation that fair exchange is a key problem in settings where mutually distrustful entities are willing to exchange critical digital items in the absence of a trusted third party, which is typically the

Benoît Garbinato; Ian Rickebusch

2006-01-01

240

Mutually Beneficial Collective Bargaining in a Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is a bilateral decision-making process where representatives of the faculty and of the college must come to some mutual agreement on items that are listed in the body of the contract. Typically, the adversarial or competitive bargaining approach is used to resolve differences between the two sides, but there are some mutually

Steiner, Stuart

241

Cooperative Adaptation to Establishment of a Synthetic Bacterial Mutualism  

PubMed Central

To understand how two organisms that have not previously been in contact can establish mutualism, it is first necessary to examine temporal changes in their phenotypes during the establishment of mutualism. Instead of tracing back the history of known, well-established, natural mutualisms, we experimentally simulated the development of mutualism using two genetically-engineered auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli, which mimic two organisms that have never met before but later establish mutualism. In the development of this synthetic mutualism, one strain, approximately 10 hours after meeting the partner strain, started oversupplying a metabolite essential for the partner's growth, eventually leading to the successive growth of both strains. This cooperative phenotype adaptively appeared only after encountering the partner strain but before the growth of the strain itself. By transcriptome analysis, we found that the cooperative phenotype of the strain was not accompanied by the local activation of the biosynthesis and transport of the oversupplied metabolite but rather by the global activation of anabolic metabolism. This study demonstrates that an organism has the potential to adapt its phenotype after the first encounter with another organism to establish mutualism before its extinction. As diverse organisms inevitably encounter each other in nature, this potential would play an important role in the establishment of a nascent mutualism in nature.

Hosoda, Kazufumi; Suzuki, Shingo; Yamauchi, Yoshinori; Shiroguchi, Yasunori; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Ono, Naoaki; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

2011-01-01

242

Feature Extraction by Non-Parametric Mutual Information Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for learning discriminative feature transforms using as criterion the mutual information between class labels and transformed features. Instead of a commonly used mutual information measure based on Kullback-Leibler divergence, we use a quadratic divergence measure, which allows us to make an efficient non-parametric implementation and requires no prior assumptions about class densities. In addition to linear

Kari Torkkola

2003-01-01

243

Mutual Security Agreements in Asia in the 70's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic problem addressed is the necessity for mutual security agreements in Asia in the 70's. Analysis of the conditions and environment in Asia resulted in the conclusion that not only are mutual security agreements a requirement for a peaceful Asia i...

W. J. Storey

1972-01-01

244

Support, Mutual Aid and Recovery from Dual Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Recovery from substance abuse and mental health disorders (dual-diagnosis) requires time, hard work and a broad array of coping skills. Empirical evidence has demonstrated the buffering role of social support in stressful situations. This paper investigates the associations among social support (including dual-recovery mutual aid), recovery status and personal well-being in dually-diagnosed individuals (N = 310) using cross-sectional self-report data. Persons with higher levels of support and greater participation in dual-recovery mutual aid reported less substance use and mental health distress and higher levels of well-being. Participation in mutual aid was indirectly associated with recovery through perceived levels of support. The association between mutual aid and recovery held for dual-recovery groups but not for traditional, single-focus self-help groups. The important role of specialized mutual aid groups in the dual recovery process is discussed.

Laudet, Alexandre B.; Magura, Stephen; Vogel, Howard S.; Knight, Edward

2007-01-01

245

Vortex dynamics and mutual friction in superconductors and Fermi superfluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitations in vortex cores in superconductors and other Fermi superfluids are single-particle excitations with a peculiar energy spectrum. These excitations are responsible for many important thermodynamic properties such as specific heat, London penetration length, etc. They also determine the dynamic characteristics of superconductors and superfluids through their interaction with vortices. Flux flow resistance, the Hall effect in type II superconductors and the mutual friction in superfluids are the most important phenomena which strongly depend on vortex core excitations. These phenomena determine the electromagnetic responses of type II superconductors and the hydrodynamic behaviour of superfluids and are of great significance for practical applications of superconducting devices and for understanding the most fundamental properties of correlated electrons and other Fermi particles. In this review we consider the dynamic properties of superconductors and superfluids and outline the basic ideas and results on the vortex dynamics in clean superfluid Fermi systems. The forces acting on moving vortices are discussed including the problem of the transverse force which was a matter of confusion for quite some time. We formulate the equations of the vortex dynamics, which include all the forces and the inertial term associated with excitations bound to the moving vortex.

Kopnin, N. B.

2002-11-01

246

To Be or Not to Be: Mutually Antagonistic Death Signals Regulate Thymocyte Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of self-antigens by immature thymocytes results in either activation-induced apoptosis (negative selection) or survival (positive selection). While it is believed that T cell receptor avidity plays a role in determining the outcome, the mechanisms responsible for this life or death decision are not known. Recent data concerning the mutual antagonism between activation- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis have prompted an examination

Leslie B. King; Melanie S. Vacchio; Jonathan D. Ashwell

1994-01-01

247

Mutual Coupling and Compensation in FMCW MIMO Radar Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with mutual coupling, its effects and the compensation thereof in frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array radar systems. Starting with a signal model we introduce mutual coupling and its primary sources in FMCW MIMO systems. We also give a worst-case boundary of the effects that mutual coupling can have on the side lobe level of an array. A method of dealing with and compensating for these effects is covered in this paper and verified by measurements from a 77-GHz FMCW radar system.

Schmid, Christian M.; Feger, Reinhard; Wagner, Christoph; Stelzer, Andreas

2011-09-01

248

26 CFR 1.594-1 - Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. 1.594-1... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.594-1 Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business....

2013-04-01

249

Orientation-Independent Measures of Ground Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori- zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation

David M. Boore; Jennie Watson-Lamprey; Norman A. Abrahamson

2006-01-01

250

Human eye iris recognition using the mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the new biometric electro-optical measuring method supported by PC for identification of a person by its eye iris image recognition. The aim of this approach is to show the ability of mutual information to such recognition. Couples of the comparative human iris images were geometrically aligned by maximization of their mutual information and subsequently recognized. The mutual information was estimated using the efficient algorithm proposed by G. A. Darbellay and I. Vajda. The decision whether two compared iris images belong to the same eye depends on the chosen threshold of the mutual information. Only a simple preprocessing of the iris images is needed to acquire their characteristic geometric parameters before the recognition is performed. The investigations carried out showed the correct (successful) personal identification better than 99%.

Dobes, M.; Machala, L.; Tichavsky, P.; Pospisil, J.

251

Staff to have greater say with 'mutual' model.  

PubMed

Ten NHS providers will be selected to test ways of working that are similar to the John Lewis 'mutual' model where staff effectively own the organisation and have a greater say in running it. PMID:25052631

2014-07-23

252

Information-disturbance theorem for mutually unbiased observables  

SciTech Connect

We derive a version of information-disturbance theorems for mutually unbiased observables. We show that the information gain by Eve inevitably makes the outcomes by Bob in the conjugate basis not only erroneous but random.

Miyadera, Takayuki [Research Center for Information Security (RCIS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Daibiru building 1102, Sotokanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-0021 (Japan); Imai, Hideki [Research Center for Information Security (RCIS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Daibiru building 1102, Sotokanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-0021 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

2006-04-15

253

Remarks on the Mutual Solubilities and Superconductivity of Hexaborides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe data indicate that the mutual solubility of LaB6 and YB6 depend strongly on the method of alloy preparation. Superconducting transition temperatures of these alloys are reported. (Author)

Z. Fisk A. C. Lawson R. W. Fitzgerald

1974-01-01

254

Mutual Grooming in Human Dyadic Relationships: An Ethological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its widespread practice among primates writ large, social scientists have given mutual grooming among humans little\\u000a attention. This research provides an important first step in describing mutual grooming among humans. A scale was developed\\u000a to measure self-reported giving and receiving of grooming. In Study 1, 184 female and 94 male participants first indicated\\u000a their closest emotional relationship (for example,

Holly Nelson; Glenn Geher

2007-01-01

255

A novel feature selection method based on normalized mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel feature selection method based on the normalization of the well-known mutual information measurement\\u000a is presented. Our method is derived from an existing approach, the max-relevance and min-redundancy (mRMR) approach. We, however,\\u000a propose to normalize the mutual information used in the method so that the domination of the relevance or of the redundancy\\u000a can be eliminated.

La The Vinh; Sungyoung Lee; Young-Tack Park; Brian J. d’Auriol

256

Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.  

PubMed

Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms. PMID:20503861

Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

2010-05-01

257

Explosive welding: Mixing of metals without mutual solubility (iron-silver)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results obtained for joints of dissimilar metals, iron-silver (earlier, copper-tantalum), which form immiscible liquid suspensions, explain why they are mixed in explosive welding. Inhomogeneities of the wavy interface, such as protrusions and zones of localized melting, were observed. The effect of granulating fragmentation, which is responsible for crushing initial materials into particles, was understood as one of the most efficient ways to dissipate the supplied energy. It is shown that, in the case of joints of metals without mutual solubility, zones of localized melting represent colloidal solutions, which form either emulsions or suspensions. At solidification, the emulsion represents a hazard for joint stability due to possible separation; on the contrary, suspension can enable the dispersion strengthening of the joint. The results can be used in the development of new metal joints without mutual solubility.

Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Volkova, A. Yu.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.

2012-11-01

258

Precompensation for mutual coupling between array elements in parallel excitation  

PubMed Central

Parallel transmission or excitation has been suggested to perform multi-dimensional spatial selective excitation to shorten the pulse width using a coil array and the sensitivity information. The mutual coupling between array elements has been a critical technical issue in RF array designs, which can cause artifacts on the excitation profile, leading to degraded excitation performance and image quality. In this work, a precompensation method is proposed to address the mutual coupling effect in parallel transmission by introducing the mutual coupling coefficient matrix into the RF pulses design procedure of the parallel transmission. 90° RF pulses have been designed using both the original transmit SENSE method and the proposed precompensation method for RF arrays with non-negligible mutual coupling, and their excitation profiles are generated by simulating the Bloch equation. The results show that the mutual coupling effect can be effectively compensated by using the proposed method, yielding enhanced tolerance to insufficient mutual decoupling of RF arrays in parallel excitation, ultimately, providing improved performance and accuracy of parallel excitation.

Pang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoliang

2011-01-01

259

Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD) are neurodegenerative diseases that differ in their socioemotional presentations. Mutual gaze (i.e. when two individuals make eye contact) is a building block of social behavior that may be differentially affected by these diseases. We studied 13 AD patients, 11 FTD patients, 9 SD patients and 22 normal controls as they engaged in conversations with partners about relationship conflicts. Physiological reactivity was monitored during the conversations and trained raters coded mutual gaze from videotaped recordings. Results indicated that mutual gaze was preserved in AD couples. Mutual gaze was diminished in FTD couples while SD couples showed evidence of greater mutual gaze. SD couples also showed lower physiological reactivity compared to controls. Across patient groups, reduced mutual gaze was associated with greater behavioral disturbance as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, especially on the disinhibition and apathy subscales. These results point to subtle differences between the three types of dementia in the social realm that help to illuminate the nature of the disease process and could aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:20587598

Sturm, Virginia E; McCarthy, Megan E; Yun, Ira; Madan, Anita; Yuan, Joyce W; Holley, Sarah R; Ascher, Elizabeth A; Boxer, Adam L; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W

2011-06-01

260

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

261

The Effect of Temperature and Moisture Content on the Flexural Response of Kevlar\\/Epoxy Laminates: Part II. [ ± 45,0\\/90] Filament Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of temperature and moisture on the flexural properties of quasi-isotropic Kevlar 49 fabric\\/epoxy composite laminates. Part I of this study treated the [0\\/90] filament orientation. Additional variables evaluated in Part II which were not studied in Part I include the effects of voids, long term moisture exposure, freeze-thaw thermocycling, the reversibility of moisture exposure and

Ronald E. Allred

1981-01-01

262

Mutual Suspicion: Higher Education and the Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neither the typical academic nor the average journalist understands well what the other does. There has been a major shift in the way the American press treats education, and education leaders and scholars must learn to deal with the media differently. This requires openness, responsiveness, and competence in the college public affairs office.…

Footlick, Jerrold

1997-01-01

263

Detecting dynamical interdependence and generalized synchrony through mutual prediction in a neural ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to characterize dynamical interdependence among nonlinear systems is derived based on mutual nonlinear prediction. Systems with nonlinear correlation will show mutual nonlinear prediction when standard analysis with linear cross correlation might fail. Mutual nonlinear prediction also provides information on the directionality of the coupling between systems. Furthermore, the existence of bidirectional mutual nonlinear prediction in unidirectionally coupled systems

Steven J. Schiff; Paul So; Taeun Chang; Robert E. Burke; Tim Sauer

1996-01-01

264

31 CFR 1024.320 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions...THE TREASURY RULES FOR MUTUAL FUNDS Reports Required To Be Made By Mutual Funds § 1024.320 Reports by mutual funds of suspicious...

2013-07-01

265

Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

2013-01-01

266

Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.  

PubMed

Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described. PMID:22398886

Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

2012-03-01

267

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

Haire, Timothy C.

2010-01-01

268

Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

1979-01-01

269

Mutual information and capacity of a linear digital channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyse a simple model of a digital communications channel. This model proves to be closely related to an iterated function system (IFS) related to the well-known Bernoulli convolution. We derive it from a randomly forced first-order ordinary differential equation. This allows the parameter of the Bernoulli convolution—the contraction rate, lgr—to be related to the rate at which symbols are input to the channel. It is shown that for a channel with equiprobable binary inputs the mutual information between input and output distributions is the stationary measure of the complement of the overlap region of the IFS. We show that the mutual information is Hölder continuous with respect to lgr and decreases hyper-exponentially as lgr rarr 1. We also study the case of non-equiprobable binary inputs and show that the maximum of the mutual information—the channel capacity—does not always correspond to equiprobable inputs.

Broomhead, D. S.; Sidorov, Nikita

2004-11-01

270

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

2010-06-01

271

Mutual phenomena of Galilean satellites PHEMU03 (Arlot+, 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, the Sun and the Earth passed through both the equatorial plane of Jupiter and therefore the orbital planes of its main satellites. During this period, mutual eclipses and occultations were observed and we present the data collected. Light curves of mutual eclipses and occultations were recorded by the observers of the international campaign PHEMU03 organized by the Institut de Mecanique Celeste, Paris, France We completed 377 observations of 118 mutual events from 42 sites and the corresponding data are presented in this paper. For each observation, information about the telescope, receptor, site, and observational conditions are provided. This paper gathers all data and indicates a first estimate of its precision. This catalogue of these rare events should constitute an improved basis for accurate astrometric data useful in the development of dynamical models. (5 data files).

Arlot, J. E.; Thuillot, W.; Ruatti, C.; Ahmad, A.; Amosse, A.; Anbazhagan, P.; Andreyev, M.; Antov, A.; Appakutty, M.; Asher, D.; Aubry, S.; Baron, N.; Bassiere, N.; Berthe, M.; Bogdanovski, R.; Bosq, F.; Bredner, E.; Buettner, D.; Buromsky, M.; Cammarata, S.; Casas, R.; Chis, G. D.; Christou, A. A.; Coquerel, J.-P.; Corlan, R.; Cremaschini, C.; Crussaire, D.; Cuypers, J.; Dennefeld, M.; Descamps, P.; Devyatkin, A.; Dimitrov, D.; Dorokhova, T. N.; Dorokhov, N. I.; Dourneau, G.; Duenas, M.; Dumitrescu, A.; Emelianov, N.; Ferrara, D.; Fiel, D.; Fienga, A.; Flatres, T.; Foglia, S.; Garlitz, J.; Gerbos, J.; Gilbert, R.; Goncalves, R. M. D.; Gonzales, D. Montagnac S., Moorthy V., Nickel O., Nier J.M., Noel T., Noyelles B., Oksanen A., Parrat D., Pauwels T., Peng Q.Y., Pizzetti G., Priban V., Ramachandran B., Rambaux N., Rapaport M., Rapavy P., Rau G., Sacre J.-J., Sada P.V., Salvaggio F., Sarlin P., Sciuto C., Selvakumar G., Sergeyev A., Sidorov M., Sorescu S., Spampinato S.A., Stellmacher I., Trunkovsky E., Tejfel V., Tudose V., Turcu V., Ugarte I., Vantyghem P., Vasundhara R., Vaubaillon J., Velu C., Venkataramana A.K., Vidal-Sainz J., Vienne A., Vilar J., Vingerhoets P., Vollman W.

2008-11-01

272

Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulas for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

Asplund, Curtis T.; Bernamonti, Alice

2014-03-01

273

Mutual impedance of parallel and perpendicular coplanar surface monopoles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One dimensional integral formulas are derived for mutual impedance of arbitrary size, coplanar, parallel, and perpendicular surface monopoles. The integrals in formulas are expressed as exponential integrals where possible. The mutual impedance expression for parallel monopoles is a summation of exponential integrals and one-dimensional integrals. For perpendicular monopoles, the mutual impedance is in closed form, containing exponential integrals only. The final expressions are in a form suitable for numerical computation. Since the expressions contain at most one-dimensional integrals, they can be utilized to reduce the matrix filling time in the moment method formulations, especially when inhomogeneous sectioning is preferred. Additionally, they can be used in rectangular surface patch modeling of conducting surfaces with edges which are at an angle to the surface patches, providing the angle is small. To this end, the expressions were utilized in the moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas. Very good accuracy was obtained with a reduction in computer time.

Koksal, Adnan; Kauffman, J. F.

1991-01-01

274

Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

Foxlin, Eric M.

2008-01-01

275

Control and design of mutual orthogonality in bioorthogonal cycloadditions.  

PubMed

The azide-dibenzocyclooctyne and trans-cyclooctene-tetrazine cycloadditions are both bioorthogonal and mutually orthogonal: trans-cyclooctene derivatives greatly prefer to react with tetrazines rather than azides, while dibenzocyclooctyne derivatives react with azides but not with tetrazines under physiological conditions. DFT calculations used to identify the origins of this extraordinary selectivity are reported, and design principles to guide discovery of new orthogonal cycloadditions are proposed. Two new bioorthogonal reagents, methylcyclopropene and 3,3,6,6-tetramethylthiacycloheptyne, are predicted to be mutually orthogonal in azide and tetrazine cycloadditions. PMID:23061442

Liang, Yong; Mackey, Joel L; Lopez, Steven A; Liu, Fang; Houk, K N

2012-10-31

276

Coherence properties of two fiber lasers coupled by mutual injection.  

PubMed

Phase locking of two fiber lasers is obtained by mutual injection. The coherence properties of this composite laser are analyzed. In the most general case, the radiations at the two output mirrors of the laser are not mutually coherent. The cross-correlation of the two emitted beams shows that an extra-cavity delay line is required to get stable and high visibility interference fringes. Such a laser configuration is attractive for coherent beam combining in the far field provided the multiple output beams are properly time delayed. PMID:19907554

Auroux, Sandrine; Kermène, Vincent; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Barthélémy, Alain

2009-09-28

277

Cyclic Strain Resistance, Stress Response, Fatigue Life, and Fracture Behavior of High Strength Low Alloy Steel 300 M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this technical manuscript is a record of the specific role of microstructure and test specimen orientation on cyclic stress response, cyclic strain resistance, and cyclic stress versus strain response, deformation and fracture behavior of alloy steel 300 M. The cyclic strain amplitude-controlled fatigue properties of this ultra-high strength alloy steel revealed a linear trend for the variation of log elastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure, and log plastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure for both longitudinal and transverse orientations. Test specimens of the longitudinal orientation showed only a marginal improvement over the transverse orientation at equivalent values of plastic strain amplitude. Cyclic stress response revealed a combination of initial hardening for the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for a large portion of fatigue life before culminating in rapid softening prior to catastrophic failure by fracture. Fracture characteristics of test specimens of this alloy steel were different at both the macroscopic and fine microscopic levels over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. Both macroscopic and fine microscopic observations revealed fracture to be a combination of both brittle and ductile mechanisms. The underlying mechanisms governing stress response, deformation characteristics, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the competing and mutually interactive influences of test specimen orientation, intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents, cyclic strain amplitude, and response stress.

Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Tammana, Deepthi; Poorgangi, Behrang; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

2014-05-01

278

Analysis of orientation bias in cat retina  

PubMed Central

1. Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to a drifting sinusoidal grating stimulus were measured as a function of the grating orientation and spatial frequency. 2. The response at fixed frequency and contrast varied with orientation in the manner of a cosine function. A new measure was introduced to quantify this orientation bias in the response domain on an absolute scale of 0-100%. Under experimental conditions designed to maximize the effect, the mean bias for 250 cells was 16% and the range was 0-46%. In 70% of cells there was significant bias. 3. Orientation bias varied with spatial frequency and was maximal near the high-frequency limit. The majority of biassed cells preferred the same orientation at high and low frequencies but in some cells a reversal occurred: the orientation which gave maximum response at high frequencies gave minimum response at low frequencies. The greatest variation of cut-off frequency with orientation was ? octave. 4. Orientation bias was due to neural, not optical, factors. Nevertheless, the phenomenon could often be imitated by deliberately introduced optical astigmatism of up to 4 dioptres for brisk-sustained units and over 10 dioptres for brisk-transient units. 5. The grating orientation preferred by cells varied systematically with position in the visual field. The central tendency was for the grating which yielded maximum response to lie parallel to the line joining the cell to the area centralis. This generalization failed for units within 2° of the centre of the area centralis. 6. Analysis of orientation bias indicates a functional asymmetry of receptive fields such that the centre mechanism, and sometimes also the surround mechanism, is elongated along the line joining cell to area centralis. ImagesFig. 2

Levick, W. R.; Thibos, L. N.

1982-01-01

279

Application of high-resolution direction-finding algorithms to circular arrays with mutual coupling present, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the effects of mutual coupling on the performance on direction finding algorithms is presented. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms resolved non-coherent and coherent incident wave fields with relative ease when ideal array response models were used. When array output vectors were simulated using free space and lossy ground models which include mutual coupling effects, the performance of the unmodified direction finding algorithms declined sharply. In particular, estimates from unmodified algorithms exhibited a constant, deterministic bias term. Algorithms modified for this bias term displayed a significant residual bias in attempts to resolve incident wave field with closely spaced source signals. Array steering vectors are the main components through which the array models are coupled. Free space and lossy ground response modes that take mutual coupling effects into consideration were modified by assembling array steering vectors directly from simulated raw data. These modified algorithms exhibited exemplary performance in resolving fields from closely spaced source signals when the array output vectors were derived from the same free space or lossy ground models. The MUSIC algorithm permitted array steering vectors modified with free space response data to be used with the array output derived for the lossy ground response mode. However, it was applicable only to non-coherent source signals. The ML algorithm performed equally well with non-correlated and coherent source signals but it had to be perfectly matched with the actual array response. Computation requirements were very demanding for the ML algorithm.

Litva, John; Zeytinoglu, Mehmet

1990-07-01

280

An Analysis of Spatial Orientation Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects judged whether aerial views would be seen by an observer oriented in various ways. For practiced subjects, time to answer was an approximately linear function of number of abstract spatial dimensions on which aerial view and observer's orientation were consistent. Ability correlated with linearity of response-time. (Author/RD)

Egan, Dennis E.

1981-01-01

281

Multimodal registration via spatial-context mutual information.  

PubMed

We propose a method to efficiently compute mutual information between high-dimensional distributions of image patches. This in turn is used to perform accurate registration of images captured under different modalities, while exploiting their local structure otherwise missed in traditional mutual information definition. We achieve this by organizing the space of image patches into orbits under the action of Euclidean transformations of the image plane, and estimating the modes of a distribution in such an orbit space using affinity propagation. This way, large collections of patches that are equivalent up to translations and rotations are mapped to the same representative, or "dictionary element". We then show analytically that computing mutual information for a joint distribution in this space reduces to computing mutual information between the (scalar) label maps, and between the transformations mapping each patch into its closest dictionary element. We show that our approach improves registration performance compared with the state of the art in multimodal registration, using both synthetic and real images with quantitative ground truth. PMID:21761675

Yi, Zhao; Soatto, Stefano

2011-01-01

282

Using mutual information to measure coupling in the cardiorespiratory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual information (MI) analysis represents a general method to detect linear and nonlinear statistical dependencies between time series, and it can be considered as an alternative to the well-known correlation analysis. This article shows how the concept of MI can be used to quantify the coupling between two systems, X and Y. We consider systems as coupled if there are

Bernd Pompe; P. Blidh; D. Hoyer; M. Eiselt

1998-01-01

283

Explaining the Disambiguation Effect: Don't Exclude Mutual Exclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When they see a familiar object and an unfamiliar one, and are asked to select the referent of a novel label, children usually choose the unfamiliar object. We asked whether this "disambiguation effect" reflects an expectation that each object has just one label (mutual exclusivity), or an expectation about the intent of the speaker who uses a…

Jaswal, Vikram K.

2010-01-01

284

Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Use of the Mutual Exclusivity Constraint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the use of the mutual exclusivity constraint in naming objects among young children monolingual in English or bilingual in English/Urdu or in English/Greek. The study used three tests of the constraint: disambiguation, rejection and restriction. Findings revealed that bilingual children used the constraint to a lesser extent than…

Davidson, Denise

1997-01-01

285

Thirty Years of Natural Satellites Mutual Events Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomena in the Solar System have been observed for years: solar and lunar eclipses, occultations of stars by the Moon and the asteroids, eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. Since 1973, mutual occultations and eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were observed extensively during each opportunity i.e. the equinox on the planet: why? The study of the

Jean-eudes Arlot

2009-01-01

286

Mutual interference between many similar radars operating in physical proximity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification to the radar coherent pulse train signal was developed, which enables the signal reflected from a target to be extracted from the mutual interference among neighboring transmitters. This signal enables interference to be suppressed, under specific delays, regardless of the interference signal strength. A further advantage of this signal is its relatively simple processing by an I and

Moshe Levin

1989-01-01

287

Mutual information: a measure of dependency for nonlinear time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the paper is to show how mutual information can be used as a measure of dependence in financial time series. One major advantage of this approach resides precisely in its ability to account for nonlinear dependencies with no need to specify a theoretical probability distribution or use of a mean-variance model.

Dionisio, Andreia; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

2004-12-01

288

Mutuality between Men and Women in Self-Analytic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the nature of development of a self-analytic seminar through stages and its impact on sex-role stereotypes and gender interactions among participants and with the seminar leaders. Explores relationships between feminist thought and psychoanalysis and supports the positive influence on recognition of mutual needs among the sexes.…

Ratner, R. S.; Hathaway, Craig T.

1984-01-01

289

On the Mutual Coupling of the Finite Microstrip Antenna Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual coupling between radiation frequency (RF) components, antenna elements in a microstrip antenna array or between two microstrip antenna arrays is a potential source of the performance degradation. The degradation includes the impedance mismatching, the increased side-lobe level, the deviation of the radiation pattern from the desired one, and the decrease of gain due to the excitation of the surface

H. Wang; D. G. Fang; Y. P. Xi; C. Z. Luan; B. Wang

2007-01-01

290

Maximum conditional mutual information modeling for speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel approach for class-dependent model- ing and its application to automatic text-independent speaker ver- ification. This approach maximizes the conditional mutual infor- mation between the model scores and the class identity given some constraints on the scores. It is shown in the paper that maximiz- ing the differential entropy of the scores generated by the classifier

Mohamed Kamal Omar; Jiri Navratil; Ganesh N. Ramaswamy

2005-01-01

291

Compositional genomes: Prebiotic information transfer in mutually catalytic noncovalent assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutually catalytic sets of simple organic molecules have been suggested to be capable of self-replication and rudimentary chemical evolution. Previous models for the behavior of such sets have analyzed the global properties of short biopolymer ensembles by using graph theory and a mean field approach. In parallel, experimental studies with the autocatalytic formation of amphiphilic assemblies (e.g., lipid vesicles or

Daniel Segré; Dafna Ben-Eli; Doron Lancet

2000-01-01

292

Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad  

SciTech Connect

Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB.

Schumacher, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States); Westmoreland, Michael D. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023 (United States)

2006-10-15

293

Top management turnover an empirical investigation of mutual fund managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between the replacement of mutual fund managers and their prior performance. Using the growth rate in a fund's asset base and its portfolio returns as two separate measures of performance, I document an inverse relation between the probability of managerial replacement and fund performance. The sample of departing fund managers exhibits higher portfolio turnover rates

Ajay Khorana

1996-01-01

294

Adaptive Network Coding Based on the Mutual-Information Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider cooperative communi- cation in a two-way relay network and propose a spectrally efficient adaptive partial repeated network coding scheme. This scheme avoids error propagation of network coding. In the scheme, the relay node is assumed to have perfect channel state information (CSI), and the mutual information (MI) model is used to adaptively optimize the amount

Zhuzhe Shen; Zesong Fei; Chen Luo; Anton Blad; Jingming Kuang

2011-01-01

295

Positive Illusions and Forecasting Errors in Mutual Fund Investment Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the portfolio allocation decisions of 80 business students in a computer-based investing simulation. Our goal was to better understand why investors spend so much time and money on actively managed mutual funds despite the fact that the vast majority of these funds are outperformed by pas sively managed index funds. Participants' judgments and decisions provided evidence for

Don A. Moore; Terri R. Kurtzberg; Craig R. Fox; Max H. Bazerman

1999-01-01

296

Mutual Interference of Millimeter-Wave Radar Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the probability that any millimeter-wave radar systems will interfere mutually by considering spatial, temporal, and operational frequency-related overlaps. It examines the nature and magnitude of the interference under different conditions and for different sensor types before concluding that in an overlapping frequency band, the probability that interference will occur is high. It goes on to demonstrate that,

Graham M. Brooker

2007-01-01

297

Electroencephalogram mutual information entropy analysis for Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) records in Chinese Han ethnic Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, a nonlinear feature investigation of the resting EEG was carried out on local AD (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) patients. The age- matched normal elderly subjects served as controls. An estimator of mutual information entropy was introduced to quantify the nonlinear characteristics of time series of the recorded EEG

Baikun Wan; Xuan Gao; Xiaojia Liu; Hongzhi Qi; Ding Yuan; Xingwei An; Wuyi Wang; Dong Ming

2011-01-01

298

SOMA:MutualApprovalforIncludedContentinWebPages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrestricted information flows are a key security weakness of cur- rent web design. Cross-site scripting, cross-site request forgery, and other attacks typically require that information be sent or re- trieved from arbitrary, often malicious, web servers. In this paper we propose Same Origin Mutual Approval (SOMA), a new pol- icy for controlling information flows that prevents common web vulnerabilities. By

Terri Oda; Glenn Wurster; P. C. van Oorschot; Anil Somayaji

2008-01-01

299

Quadratic mutual information for dimensionality reduction and classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research area based on the application of information theory to machine learning has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. This research area has been coined information-theoretic learning within the community. In this paper we apply elements of information-theoretic learning to the problem of automatic target recognition (ATR). A number of researchers have previously shown the benefits of designing classifiers based on maximizing the mutual information between the class data and the class labels. Following prior research in information-theoretic learning, in the current results we show that quadratic mutual information, derived using a special case of the more general Renyi's entropy, can be used for classifier design. In this implementation, a simple subspace projection classifier is formulated to find the optimal projection weights such that the quadratic mutual information between the class data and the class labels is maximized. This subspace projection accomplishes a dimensionality reduction of the raw data set wherein information about the class membership is retained while irrelevant information is discarded. A subspace projection based on this criterion preserves as much class discriminability as possible within the subspace. For this paper, laser radar images are used to demonstrate the results. Classification performance against this data set is compared for a gradient descent MLP classifier and a quadratic mutual information MLP classifier.

Gray, David M.; Principe, José C.

2010-04-01

300

77 FR 73115 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the existing mutual savings associations, all in accordance with the goals of Section 5(a) of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA), 12 U.S.C. 1464. Dated: November 30, 2012. Thomas J. Curry, Comptroller of the Currency. [FR Doc....

2012-12-07

301

76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Committee will advise the OCC on ways to meet the goals established by section 5(a) of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA), 12 USC 1464. The Committee will advise the OCC with regard to mutual associations on means to: (1) Provide for the...

2011-11-17

302

Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species [1], in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.[1] S. Pigolotti et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.4973

Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

2013-03-01

303

Variable window binding for mutually exclusive alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background Genes of advanced organisms undergo alternative splicing, which can be mutually exclusive, in the sense that only one exon is included in the mature mRNA out of a cluster of alternative choices, often arranged in a tandem array. In many cases, however, the details of the underlying biologic mechanisms are unknown. Results We describe 'variable window binding' - a mechanism used for mutually exclusive alternative splicing by which a segment ('window') of a conserved nucleotide 'anchor' sequence upstream of the exon 6 cluster in the pre-mRNA of the fruitfly Dscam gene binds to one of the introns, thereby activating selection of the exon directly downstream from the binding site. This mechanism is supported by the fact that the anchor sequence can be inferred solely from a comparison of the intron sequences using a genetic algorithm. Because the window location varies for each exon choice, regulation can be achieved by obstructing part of that sequence. We also describe a related mechanism based on competing pre-mRNA stem-loop structures that could explain the mutually exclusive choice of exon 17 of the Dscam gene. Conclusion On the basis of comparative sequence analysis, we propose efficient biologic mechanisms of alternative splicing of the Drosophila Dscam gene that rely on the inherent structure of the pre-mRNA. Related mechanisms employing 'locus control regions' could be involved on other occasions of mutually exclusive choices of exons or genes.

Anastassiou, Dimitris; Liu, Hairuo; Varadan, Vinay

2006-01-01

304

Efficient solution to the distributed mutual exclusion problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient fault-tolerant solution to the distributed mutual exclusion problem. Our protocol requires logn messages in the best case and is resilient to both site and communication failures, even when such failures lead to network partitioning. Furthermore, the protocol exhibits a property of graceful degradation, i.e., it requires more message only as the number of failures increase in

Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi

1989-01-01

305

The analysis on mutual credit guarantee principal-agent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the allocation of guarantee rate savings as incentive mechanism and introducing the influence coefficient of the other SME's relative guarantee rate savings, the principal-agent relationship of mutual credit guarantee institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was investigated in this paper. It was proved that the larger relativity of guarantee rate savings among the guaranteed SMEs could bring

Xiaoling Cui; Yunfeng Wang; Yanlei Zhuang

2010-01-01

306

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

307

Gold price risk and the returns on gold mutual funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for estimating the theoretical gold price elasticity of the value of mutual funds investing in gold mining companies. The theoretical elasticity shows that if the funds invest in companies whose assets are comprised primarily of operating gold mines, then the return of an investment in the fund will be at least as great as an investment

Laurence E. Blose

1996-01-01

308

First steps towards mutually-immersive mobile telepresence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutually-Immersive Mobile Telepresence uses a teleoperated robotic surrogate to visit remote locations as a substitute for physical travel. Our goal is to recreate to the greatest extent possible, both for the user and the people at the remote location, the sensory experience relevant for business interactions of the user actually being in the remote location. The system includes multi-channel bidirectional

Norman P. Jouppi; Wayne Mack; Subu Iyer; Stan Thomas; April Slayden

2002-01-01

309

Mutual ionization in atomic collisions near the electronic threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study mutual ionization in collisions between atomic hydrogen and helium at impact velocities near the electronic threshold for this process. We show that this process is substantially influenced by the Coulomb repulsion between the emitted electrons and that the atomic nuclei are very strongly involved in the momentum balance along the collision velocity.

Zhang, S. F.; Zhu, X. L.; Voitkiv, A. B.; Feng, W. T.; Guo, D. L.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, R. T.; Wang, E. L.; Ma, X.

2014-05-01

310

Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

Liu, Chao-Lin

2005-01-01

311

Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

2011-01-01

312

Dose-dependent mutual regulation between Wip1 and p53 following UVC irradiation.  

PubMed

DNA damage stabilizes and activates p53, which selectively induces downstream targets to modulate the cellular response. As a homeostatic regulator of cell cycle checkpoint, the p53 target Wip1 plays essential roles in releasing cells from DNA damage-induced checkpoints after appropriate repair of the damaged-DNA. It is unknown how Wip1 performs when the DNA damage is beyond repair. Here we address that Wip1 displays dose-dependent responses to UVC irradiation. A low dose of UVC, which stimulates intra-S phase cell cycle arrest, transiently induces the Wip1 protein levels in a p53-dependent manner. In contrast, a high dose of UVC, which induces apoptosis, suppresses the Wip1 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. The UVC dose-dependent response of Wip1 correlates not only with the cellular response but also with the activity of p53. Wip1 dephosphorylates p53 on its Ser15 residue. However, the mutual regulation between Wip1 and p53 is only triggered by a low dose of UVC. In response to a high dose of UVC, the sustained activation of p53 fails to induce the downstream targets, including Wip1, Mdm2, p21 and GADD45?. Nonetheless, the reduced Wip1 level contributes to the sustained accumulation of phospho-p53 (Ser15) in response to a high dose of UVC. Our results suggest that Wip1 is regulated by UVC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the mutual regulation between Wip1 and p53 is highly dose-dependent upon UVC irradiation, and this contributes to the different outcomes of the cellular response to UVC. PMID:21163364

Xia, Yun; Yang, Qiaoyun; Gong, Ximing; Ye, Fan; Liou, Yih-Cherng

2011-04-01

313

Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an alternative global optimizer, called MIMIC, which is unrelated to Genetic Algorithms. Advancement to the current practice demonstrates the use of MIMIC as a global method that explicitly models problem structure with mutual information, providing an alternate method for globally searching multi-modal domains. By leveraging discovered problem inter- dependencies, MIMIC may be appropriate for highly coupled problems or those with large function evaluation cost. This work introduces a useful addition to the MIMIC algorithm that enables its use on continuous input variables. By leveraging automatic decision tree generation methods from Machine Learning and a set of randomly generated test problems, decision trees for which method to apply are also created, quantifying decomposition performance over a large region of the design space.

Otero, Richard Edward

314

Development of a mutual-assistance capability training program to safeguard the health of local residents in evacuation shelters after a disaster.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a program to enhance the mutual-assistance capability of community members to safeguard their health during time spent in evacuation shelters after a disaster. In previous research, "Supporting people in need of assistance after a disaster, " the participants' awareness of the need for mutual assistance was low and their relevant knowledge and skills were insufficient. Accordingly, this became a priority in the developed program. Twenty-eight people at six different facilities participated in the program. We collected data using a questionnaire survey and group interview with the participants. After conducting the program, the participants' mean scores of mutual-assistance capability were higher than the mean pre-study scores for 25 out of 26 items. The results of group interview implied that the participants acquired [Realization of issues], and not only shared a [Sense of crisis among participants] but also felt a [Sense of responsibility for mutual assistance in the community]. We considered that our mutual-assistance training program at the time of a disaster is effective for developing mutual assistance for safeguarding health where local residents are unprepared to support those in evacuation shelters requiring assistance after a disaster. J. Med. Invest. 61: 94-102, February, 2014. PMID:24705755

Takeda, Michiko; Tada, Toshiko

2014-01-01

315

Evolutionary origin of insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism.  

PubMed

Obligate insect-bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host's growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin-manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-07-15

316

Evolutionary origin of insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism  

PubMed Central

Obligate insect–bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host’s growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin–manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage.

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

317

Mutual interference is common and mostly intermediate in magnitude  

PubMed Central

Background Interference competition occurs when access to resources is negatively affected by the presence of other individuals. Within a species or population, this is known as mutual interference, and it is often modelled with a scaling exponent, m, on the number of predators. Originally, mutual interference was thought to vary along a continuum from prey dependence (no interference; m = 0) to ratio dependence (m = -1), but a debate in the 1990's and early 2000's focused on whether prey or ratio dependence was the better simplification. Some have argued more recently that mutual interference is likely to be mostly intermediate (that is, between prey and ratio dependence), but this possibility has not been evaluated empirically. Results We gathered estimates of mutual interference from the literature, analyzed additional data, and created the largest compilation of unbiased estimates of mutual interference yet produced. In this data set, both the alternatives of prey dependence and ratio dependence were observed, but only one data set was consistent with prey dependence. There was a tendency toward ratio dependence reflected by a median m of -0.7 and a mean m of -0.8. Conclusions Overall, the data support the hypothesis that interference is mostly intermediate in magnitude. The data also indicate that interference competition is common, at least in the systems studied to date. Significant questions remain regarding how different factors influence interference, and whether interference can be viewed as a characteristic of a particular population or whether it generally shifts from low to high levels as populations increase in density.

2011-01-01

318

Theory of Orientation Tuning in Visual Cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of intrinsic cortical connections in processing sensory input and in generating behavioral output is poorly understood. We have examined this issue in the context of the tuning of neuronal responses in cortex to the orientation of a visual stimulus. We analytically study a simple network model that incorporates both orientation-selective input from the lateral geniculate nucleus and orientation-specific cortical interactions. Depending on the model parameters, the network exhibits orientation selectivity that originates from within the cortex, by a symmetry-breaking mechanism. In this case, the width of the orientation tuning can be sharp even if the lateral geniculate nucleus inputs are only weakly anisotropic. By using our model, several experimental consequences of this cortical mechanism of orientation tuning are derived. The tuning width is relatively independent of the contrast and angular anisotropy of the visual stimulus. The transient population response to changing of the stimulus orientation exhibits a slow "virtual rotation." Neuronal cross-correlations exhibit long time tails, the sign of which depends on the preferred orientations of the cells and the stimulus orientation.

Ben-Yishai, R.; Lev Bar-Or, R.; Sompolinsky, H.

1995-04-01

319

The Relationship between Substance Abuse Performance Measures and Mutual Help Group Participation after Treatment.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between treatment quality, using during-treatment process measures, and mutual help group (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous) attendance after outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for 739 clients in the Alcohol and Drug Services Study. Logistic regression models estimated any and regular mutual help attendance after treatment. Clients referred to mutual help groups were significantly more likely to attend any mutual help after treatment. Results were mixed for facility offered mutual help groups; treatment engagement and retention were not significant. These findings offer treatment providers further evidence of the importance of referring clients to post-treatment mutual help groups, an effective, low-cost option. PMID:22879689

Strickler, Gail K; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea

2012-01-01

320

Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2003-05-01

321

Mutual coupling between parallel columns of periodic slots in a ground plane surrounded by dielectric slabs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arrays of slots with arbitrary orientation in a conducting plane which are infinitely periodic in one dimension and finitely periodic in another dimension are considered. The perfect conducting plane extends infinitely and is bounded on each side by dielectric slabs of finite thickness and infinite extent. Single columns of slots are represented by equivalent magnetic scattering currents, which are solved for via the moment method. The mutual coupling (admittance) between slot columns in the presence of the stratified media is found by the array scanning method (ASM), which expresses the admittance as the average of the scan admittance of an artificially constructed doubly infinite array of slots over all real scan angles. The technique avoids the use of Sommerfeld integrals, but still gives rise to singularities at scan angles corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface waves. An analytical approximation is made to remove these surface wave singularities, thus making numerical implementation of the method practical. The method is quite general and may be extended to thin slot elements of arbitrary shape and orientation.

Skinner, J. P.; Munk, Benedikt A.

1992-01-01

322

Mechanisms of hypha orientation of fungi  

PubMed Central

Hypha orientation is an essential aspect of polarised growth and the morphogenesis, spatial ecology and pathogenesis of fungi. The ability to re-orient tip growth in response to environmental cues is critical for colony ramification, the penetration of diverse host tissues and the formation of mating structures. Recent studies have begun to describe the molecular machinery regulating hypha orientation. Calcium signalling, the polarisome Bud1-GTPase module and the Tea cell-end marker proteins of the microtubule cytoskeleton, along with specific kinesins and sterol-rich apical microdomains, are involved in hypha orientation. Mutations that affect these processes generate normal-shaped, growing hyphae that have either abnormal meandering trajectories or attenuated tropic responses. Hyphal tip orientation and tip extension are, therefore, distinct regulatory mechanisms that operate in parallel during filamentous growth, thereby allowing fungi to orchestrate their reproduction in relation to gradients of effectors in their environments.

Brand, Alexandra; Gow, Neil AR

2009-01-01

323

MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR SOCIAL ORIENTED DECISION MAKING. THE COMPROMISE FOR TEACHER'S SALARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeking mutual social understanding, to increase trustfulness between politicians and others decision stakeholders the interactive decision making model for social oriented problem solving is elaborated. The MCDA based decision making process creates comprehensive, productive, less tension environment for discussions. The elaborated decision making model was demonstrated seeking to pick up the teachers payment scheme acceptable for teachers and represented by

Birute Mikulskiene; Akvile Kriksciunaite

324

Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo

2001-10-01

325

Evaluative priming in a semantic flanker task: ERP evidence for a mutual facilitation explanation.  

PubMed

In semantic flanker tasks, target categorization response times are affected by the semantic compatibility of the flanker and target. With positive and negative category exemplars, we investigated the influence of evaluative congruency (whether flanker and target share evaluative valence) on the flanker effect, using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. We hypothesized a moderation of the flanker effect by evaluative congruency on the basis of the assumption that evaluatively congruent concepts mutually facilitate each other's activation (see Schmitz & Wentura in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 38:984-1000, 2012). Applying an onset delay of 50 ms for the flanker, we aimed to decrease the facilitative effect of an evaluatively congruent flanker on target encoding and, at the same time, increase the facilitative effect of an evaluatively congruent target on flanker encoding. As a consequence of increased flanker activation in the case of evaluative congruency, we expected a semantically incompatible flanker to interfere with the target categorization to a larger extent (as compared with an evaluatively incongruent pairing). Confirming our hypotheses, the flanker effect significantly depended on evaluative congruency, in both mean response times and N2 mean amplitudes. Thus, the present study provided behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for the mutual facilitation of evaluatively congruent concepts. Implications for the representation of evaluative connotations of semantic concepts are discussed. PMID:24006270

Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk; Brinkmann, Thorsten A

2014-03-01

326

Market orientation and innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between market orientation and innovation, particularly product newness, has been debated for decades. We report an empirical study of 158 manufacturing and 117 services firms in Australia to examine the influence of market orientation on innovation characteristics and performance. The results indicate that market orientation has significant relationships with innovation characteristics such as innovation-marketing fit, product advantage, and

Kwaku Atuahene-Gima

1996-01-01

327

Change Oriented Versioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the change oriented model of versioning, which focuses strongly on functional changes in a software product and therefore can be seen as an alternative to the traditional, version oriented models. The change oriented model has advantages over these models, especially with regard to parallel development and systems with many optional features.

Anund Lie; Tor Didriksen; Reidar Conradi; Even-andré Karlsson; Svein O. Hallsteinsen; Per Holager

1989-01-01

328

Activation, orientation and landing of female Culex quinquefasciatus in response to carbon dioxide and odour from human feet: 3-D flight analysis in a wind tunnel.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interaction between carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) and human foot odour on activation, upwind orientation and landing of host-seeking female Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a wind tunnel. More mosquitoes landed on warmed glass beads coated with foot odour than on clean beads; adding a plume of 4% CO(2) did not influence the proportion of mosquitoes landing. A second experiment used 3-dimensional video tracking to assess flight performance. Activation was more rapid with CO(2) and with CO(2) + foot odour than with clean air or with foot odour alone. Upwind flights were fastest with CO(2) and with clean air, and slowest with foot odour; the CO(2) + foot odour treatment overlapped the previous three treatments in significance. Flight headings tended more towards due upwind with CO(2) and with clean air than with CO(2) + foot odour or with foot odour alone. In both experiments, many mosquitoes flew upwind in clean air. There was little evidence of females changing course upon entering or exiting the CO(2) plume or reacting to foot odour during flight. PMID:21118282

Lacey, E S; Cardé, R T

2011-03-01

329

78 FR 4145 - Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...published in the Federal Register proposed recommendations regarding money market mutual funds (``MMFs'') pursuant to Section...

2013-01-18

330

26 CFR 1.581-2 - Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. 1.581-2 Section 1.581-2 Internal...Institutions § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and...

2013-04-01

331

Control of the orientational order and nonlinear optical response of the "push-pull" chromophore RuPZn via specific incorporation into densely packed monolayer ensembles of an amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptide: second harmonic generation at high chromophore densities.  

PubMed

The macroscopic nonlinear optical response of the "push-pull" chromophore RuPZn incorporated into a single monolayer of the amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptide (AP0) covalently attached to a solid substrate at high in-plane density has been measured. The second-order susceptibility, chi(zzz), was found to be in the range of approximately 15 x 10(-9) esu, consistent with a coherent sum of the nonlinear contributions from the individual chromophores (beta) as previously measured in isotropic solution through hyper-Rayleigh scattering as well as estimated from theoretical calculations. The microscopic hyperpolarizability of the RuPZn chromophore is preserved upon incorporation into the peptide monolayer, suggesting that the chromophore-chromophore interactions in the densely packed ensemble do not substantially affect the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability. The polarization angle dependence of the second harmonic signal reveals that the chromophore is vectorially oriented in the two-dimensional ensemble. Analysis of the order parameter together with information obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction help in determining the chromophore orientation within the AP0-RuPZn monolayer. Taking into account an average pitch angle of approximately 20 degrees characterizing the coiled-coil structure of the peptide bundle, the width of the bundle's tilt angle distribution should be sigma < or = 20 degrees, resulting in a mean value of the tilt angle 23 degrees < or = theta(0) < or = 37 degrees. PMID:20578696

Gonella, Grazia; Dai, Hai-Lung; Fry, H Christopher; Therien, Michael J; Krishnan, Venkata; Tronin, Andrey; Blasie, J Kent

2010-07-21

332

Complete chaotic synchronization in mutually coupled time-delay systems.  

PubMed

Complete chaotic synchronization of end lasers has been observed in a line of mutually coupled, time-delayed system of three lasers, with no direct communication between the end lasers. The present paper uses ideas from generalized synchronization to explain the complete synchronization in the presence of long coupling delays, applied to a model of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers in a line. These ideas significantly simplify the analysis by casting the stability in terms of the local dynamics of each laser. The variational equations near the synchronization manifold are analyzed, and used to derive the synchronization condition that is a function of parameters. The results explain and predict the dependence of synchronization on various parameters, such as time delays, strength of coupling and dissipation. The ideas can be applied to understand complete synchronization in other chaotic systems with coupling delays and no direct communication between synchronized subsystems. PMID:17358399

Landsman, Alexandra S; Schwartz, Ira B

2007-02-01

333

Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

Fiedor, Pawe?

2014-05-01

334

A regulator of Dscam mutually exclusive splicing fidelity  

PubMed Central

The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene has essential roles in neural wiring and pathogen recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. Dscam encodes 38,016 distinct isoforms via extensive alternative splicing. The 95 alternative exons in Dscam are organized into clusters that are spliced in a mutually exclusive manner. The exon 6 cluster contains 48 variable exons and uses a complex system of competing RNA structures to ensure that only one variable exon is included. Here we show that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hrp36 acts specifically within, and throughout, the exon 6 cluster to prevent the inclusion of multiple exons. Moreover, hrp36 prevents serine/arginine-rich proteins from promoting the ectopic inclusion of multiple exon 6 variants. Thus, the fidelity of mutually exclusive splicing in the exon 6 cluster is governed by an intricate combination of alternative RNA structures and a globally acting splicing repressor.

Olson, Sara; Blanchette, Marco; Park, Jung; Savva, Yiannis; Yeo, Gene W; Yeakley, Joanne M; Rio, Donald C; Graveley, Brenton R

2008-01-01

335

Improving Quantum State Estimation with Mutually Unbiased Bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When used in quantum state estimation, projections onto mutually unbiased bases have the ability to maximize information extraction per measurement and to minimize redundancy. We present the first experimental demonstration of quantum state tomography of two-qubit polarization states to take advantage of mutually unbiased bases. We demonstrate improved state estimation as compared to standard measurement strategies and discuss how this can be understood from the structure of the measurements we use. We experimentally compared our method to the standard state estimation method for three different states and observe that the infidelity was up to 1.84±0.06 times lower by using our technique than it was by using standard state estimation methods.

Adamson, R. B. A.; Steinberg, A. M.

2010-07-01

336

Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

2013-01-01

337

Self-help groups as mutual support: what do carers value?  

PubMed

The literature suggests that the United Kingdom, in common with Europe, North America, Canada and Scandinavia, has seen significant growth in single-issue self-help/mutual aid groups concerned with health and social care issues since the 1970s, but there is only ad hoc academic and policy interest in such groups in the United Kingdom. This article presents findings from a doctoral study with two self-help/mutual aid groups for carers in South-East England. The data are drawn from semistructured interviews with 15 active members which explored reasons for joining, benefits derived from membership, and perceived differences between support gained by membership and their relationship with professionals. Most group members had prior experience of voluntary work/activity, which influenced their decision to join, often prompted by a failure of the 'usual' support network of family/friends to cope or adjust to the carer's needs. Members reported personal gains of empathy, emotional information, experiential knowledge and practical information, based on a core value of reciprocity through peer support. It is this latter benefit that sets apart membership of self-help groups from groups supported by professionals who may not appreciate the scope and breadth of carers' responsibilities, or of the importance of their relationship with the person for whom they care. In this way, self-help groups offered additional, but not alternative, 'space' that enabled members to transcend their traditional role as a 'carer'. It is concluded that self-help/mutual aid groups, based on reciprocal peer support, offer a valuable type of resource in the community that is not replicable in professional-client relations. The findings have contemporary relevance given the raft of new policies which value the experiential knowledge built by both individual and collectives of carers. PMID:17212623

Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andrew

2007-01-01

338

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique was applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been exclusively applied to antennas. Here, calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained during the method of moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

339

Market mispricings and portfolio allocation to mutual fund classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major factors affecting Greek household budget flows to mutual fund classes with different risk-return profiles are studied,\\u000a applying the flexible functional form of the Almost Ideal Demand System to analyse allocation to equity, bond, balanced, and\\u000a money market funds. An increase in household expenditure can have a positive impact; an adverse price change may erode budget\\u000a benefits for a class.

Theodore Syriopoulos

2002-01-01

340

Optical parametric amplifier pumped by two mutually incoherent laser beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the experimental proof-of-principle demonstration of the ultrashort pulse single-pass beta-barium borate, BBO optical parametric amplifier pumped by two mutually incoherent laser sources. We show that the amplified signal at 1054 nm gains energy from both pump pulses with wavelengths of 680 and 527 nm, respectively, with overall energy conversion of 36%, and exhibits low wavefront distortions and improved energy stability in the gain saturation regime.

Tamošauskas, G.; Dubietis, A.; Valiulis, G.; Piskarskas, A.

2008-05-01

341

Mutual Diffusional Interference Between Adjacent Stomata of a Leaf 1  

PubMed Central

The mutual diffusional interference between adjacent stomata in laminar flow over a leaf is shown to play a decisive role in determining overall transpiration. The magnitude of this interference varies with the interaction of the vapor diffusional shells forming above each stoma and the air flow over the leaf. The interference decreases with increasing incident radiation and wind velocity. The effect of interference on the stomatal resistance to diffusion plays a major role in the overall variations in transpiration.

Cook, G. D.; Viskanta, R.

1968-01-01

342

The tactics of mutual mate choice and competitive search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of mutual mate choice is described, formulated as a dynamic game, which yields predictions about mating behaviour\\u000a under the influence of time constraints, choice costs and competition for mates. These variables were examined because they\\u000a may result in a change in the distribution of qualities among unmated individuals of both sexes over the course of the breeding\\u000a season.

Rufus A. Johnstone

1997-01-01

343

Observations of the mutual phenomena of Saturnian satellites in 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sinclair's (1977) theory is used in a preliminary orbital analysis of five mutual phenomena of the Saturnian satellites in 1980. Midtimes and light losses (normalized to unity) of the events determined from the observed light curves are given, together with calculations made with the orbital elements obtained. In order to check the present computer calculations, results have been compared with the predictions of Aksnes and Franklin (1978), in which substantially the same orbital elements are used.

Soma, M.; Nakamura, T.

1982-06-01

344

Proteases hold the key to an exclusive mutualism.  

PubMed

Mutualisms, cooperative interactions between species, generally involve an economic exchange: species exchange commodities that are cheap for them to provide, for ones that cannot be obtained affordably or at all. But these associations can only succeed if effective partners can be enticed to interact. In some mutualisms, partners can actively seek one another out. However, plants, which use mutualists for a wide array of essential life history functions, do not have this option. Instead, natural selection has repeatedly favoured the evolution of rewards – nutritional substances (such as sugar-rich nectar and fleshy fruit) with which plants attract certain organisms whose feeding activities can then be co-opted for their own benefit. The trouble with rewards, however, is that they are usually also attractive to organisms that confer no benefits at all. Losing rewards to 'exploiters' makes a plant immediately less attractive to the mutualists it requires; if the reward cannot be renewed quickly (or at all), then mutualistic service is precluded entirely. Thus, it is in plants' interests to either restrict rewards to only the most beneficial partners or somehow punish or deter exploiters. Yet, at least in cases where the rewards are highly nutritious, we can expect counter-selection for exploiter traits that permit them to skirt such control. How, then, can mutualisms persist? In this issue, Orona-Tamayo et al. () describe a remarkable adaptation that safeguards one particularly costly reward from nonmutualists. Their study helps to explain the evolutionary success of an iconic interaction and illuminates one way in which mutualism as a whole can persist in the face of exploitation. PMID:24058927

Bronstein, Judith L

2013-08-01

345

Speeding up Mutual Information Computation Using NVIDIA CUDA Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient method for mutual information (MI) computation between images (2D or 3D) for NVIDIA's 'compute unified device architecture' (CUDA) compatible devices. Efficient parallelization of MI is particularly chal- lenging on a 'graphics processor unit' (GPU) due to the need for histogram-based calculation of joint and marginal probability mass functions (pmfs) with large number of bins. The data-dependent

Ramtin Shams; Nick Barnes

2007-01-01

346

Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters: The Definitions, Photosynthetic Meaning, and Mutual Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Chl FPs) derived from the slow (long-term) induction kinetics of modulated Chl a fluorescence are reviewed and analysed with respect to their application in photosynthesis research. Only four mutually independent Chl FPs, calculated from values of five essential Chl fluorescence (ChlF) yields, are distinguished as the basic ones. These are: the maximum quantum yield of PS2 photochemistry

K. Rohá?ek

2002-01-01

347

SOMA: mutual approval for included content in web pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrestricted information flows are a key security weakness of current web design. Cross-site script- ing, cross-site request forgery, and other attacks typically require that information be sent or retrieved from arbitrary, often malicious, web servers. In this paper we proposeSame Origin Mutual Approval (SOMA), a new policy for controlling information flows that prevents common web vulnerabilities. By requiring site operators

Terri Oda; Glenn Wurster; Paul C. Van Oorschot; Anil Somayaji

2008-01-01

348

Firm valuation, abnormal earnings, and mutual funds flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the valuation effects of overall demand for corporate equities combined with the influence of abnormal earnings\\u000a and unexpected funds flow. Our results indicate that the expected and unexpected net new total flow of funds into all stock\\u000a mutual funds do not by themselves have a meaningful effect on firm equity valuation. However, we find the combination of unexpected

John J. Maher; Robert M. Brown; Raman Kumar

2008-01-01

349

Extracting an entanglement signature from only classical mutual information  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a quantity which is formed using classical notions of mutual information and which is computed using the results of projective measurements. This quantity constitutes a sufficient condition for entanglement and represents the amount of information that can be extracted from a bipartite system for spacelike separated observers. In addition to discussion, we provide simulations as well as experimental results for the singlet and maximally correlated mixed states.

Starling, David J.; Howell, John C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Broadbent, Curtis J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Rochester Theory Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2011-09-15

350

Second Law of Thermodynamics with Qc-Mutual Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I'd like to discuss generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics in the presence of quantum information processing such as quantum measurement and quantum feedback control. A quantum information content, referred to as QC-mutual information, is shown to play a crucial role. We also discuss the generalization of a quantum generalization of the Hatano- Sasa inequality for transitions between nonequilibrium steady states with quantum feedback control. Note from Publisher: This article contains only abstract.

Sagawa, Takahiro

2014-03-01

351

Mutual information and intrinsic dimensionality for feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we proposed a feature selection method based on mutual information (MI) and intrinsic dimensionality (ID) estimators. First, MI ranks the normalized feature space in accordance to minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance (mRMR) criterion. Next, ID estimates the minimum number of features to represent the observed properties of the data. Two techniques of ID were tested: principal component analysis (PCA) and maximum

W. Go?mez; Lorenzo Leija; A. Di?az-Pe?rez

2010-01-01

352

Parsing a Natural Language Using Mutual Information Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to characterize aconstituent boundary parsing algorithm, using aninformation-theoretic measure called generalizedmutual information, which serves as an alternativeto traditional grammar-based parsing methods.This method is based on the hypothesisthat constituent boundaries can be extracted froma given sentence (or word sequence) by analyzingthe mutual information values of the part-ofspeech n-grams within the sentence. This hypothesisis supported ...

David M. Magerman; Mitchell P. Marcus

1990-01-01

353

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique has been applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been extensively applied to antennas. In this short paper calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained using the Method of Moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

354

Mutually unbiased bases and complementary spin 1 observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two observables are incompatible if they cannot be measured simultaneously; however, they become maximally incompatible (complementary) if their eigenstates are mutually unbiased. Only then does the measurement of one observable give no information about the other observable. The spin projection operators onto three mutually orthogonal directions are complementary only for spin 1/2. For higher spin numbers the corresponding eigenstates are no longer unbiased. In this work we examine the properties of spin 1 mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and look for the physical meaning of the corresponding operators. We show that if the computational basis is chosen to be the eigenbasis of the spin projection operator along some direction z, then all the states, which are unbiased to this basis, have to be squeezed. Next, we study the generation and the measurement of MUB states by introducing the Fourier-like transform through spin squeezing. Finally, we try to ascribe some classical interpretation to the operators corresponding to MUB and study what information the observer gains while measuring them. Higher spin numbers are also considered.

Kurzy?ski, Pawe?; Kaszub, Wawrzyniec; Czechlewski, Miko?aj

2010-07-01

355

Variation between self- and mutual assessment in animal contests.  

PubMed

Limited resources lead animals into conflicts of interest, which are resolved when an individual withdraws from a direct contest. Current theory suggests that the decision to withdraw can be based on a threshold derived from an individual's own state (self-assessment) or on a comparison between their own state and their opponent's (mutual assessment). The observed variation between these assessment strategies in nature does not conform to theory. Thus, we require theoretical developments that explain the functional significance of different assessment strategies. We consider a hawk-dove game with two discrete classes that differ in fighting ability, in which the players strategically decide on their investment toward mutual assessment. Analysis of the model indicates that there are simultaneous trade-offs relating to assessment strategies. First, weak individuals in a population must decide on whether to acquire information about their opponents at the cost of providing opponents with information about themselves. Secondly, all individuals must decide between investing in mutual assessment and being persistent in contests. Our analysis suggests that the potential for individuals to make errors during contests and differences in the consequences of sharing information within a population may serve as fundamental concepts for explaining variation in assessment strategy. PMID:24464195

Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Heap, Stephen M

2014-02-01

356

Finding Purpose in New Faculty Orientation: The Education Dean's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study of 23 (response rate 86%) California State University system deans of education, regarding the purpose and usefulness of new faculty orientation programs. Reports that deans generally agreed with the focus of orientation programs and that they perceived orientation to be of value to social integration of the new faculty members.…

Miller, Michael T.; Nader, Daniel P.

2001-01-01

357

Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

2013-01-01

358

A Mutual Network Synchronization Method for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual network synchronization is a distributed method in which geographically separated clocks align their times to one another without the need of reference or master clocks. Mutual network synchronization is attractive for wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, because there is no overhead associated with the discovery, management, and tracking of specific nodes with reference clocks. Existing mutual network synchronization

Carlos H. Rentel; Thomas Kunz

2008-01-01

359

An Efficient Distributed Group Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Non-Uniform Group Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the group mutual exclusion problem, each critical sec- tion has a type or a group associated with it. Processes requesting critical sections of the same type may execute their critical sections concurrently. However, processes re- questing critical sections of different types must execute their critical sections in a mutually exclusive manner. Most algorithms for group mutual exclusion that have

Neeraj Mittal; Prajwal K. Mohan

2005-01-01

360

Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

2006-01-01

361

False Discoveries in Mutual Fund Performance: Measuring Luck in Estimated Alphas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple technique that properly controls for “false discoveries,” or mutual funds that exhibit significant alphas by luck alone, to evaluate the performance of actively managed U.S. domestic-equity mutual funds during the 1975 to 2006 period. Our approach precisely separates mutual funds into those having (1) unskilled, (2) zeroalpha, and (3) skilled fund managers, net of expenses,

Olivier Scaillet; Russell R. Wermers

2005-01-01

362

The Intersection of Mutual Partner Violence and Substance Use Among Urban Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence among gays and lesbians has gained increased attention in recent years. The present study assessed mutual partner violence within a gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) community sample to explore how mutual partner violence relates to the use of psychoactive substances. The results suggest that individuals engaging in mutual partner violence are more likely to report the use of

Brian C. Kelly; Hubert Izienicki; David S. Bimbi; Jeffrey T. Parsons

2011-01-01

363

Experimentally observed dynamical characteristics of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers with or without optoelectronic feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutually-coupled semiconductor lasers are of great current interest because of the important insight they provide into coupled physical, chemical, and biological systems. Two semiconductor lasers either with or without optoelectronic feedback are mutually coupled together through optoelectronic paths. It is found that mutual coupling can significantly affect the dynamics of the semiconductor lasers, depending on the coupling delay time and

Shuo Tang; Margaret C. Chiang; Jia Ming Liu; Raul Vicente; Claudio R. Mirasso

2004-01-01

364

Preferences for Stock Characteristics as Revealed by Mutual Fund Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation of the cross-section of mutual fund equity holdings for the years 1991 and 1992 shows that mutual funds have a significant preference towards stocks with high visibility and low transaction costs, and are averse to stocks with low idiosyncratic volatility. These findings are relevant to theories concerning investor recognition, a potential agency problem in mutual funds, tests of

Eric G Falkenstein

1996-01-01

365

Gender Classification From Face Images Using Mutual Information and Feature Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we report a new method for gender classification from frontal face images using feature selection based on mutual information and fusion of features extracted from intensity, shape, texture, and from three different spatial scales. We compare the results of three different mutual information measures: minimum redundancy and maximal relevance (mRMR), normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), and

Claudio Perez; Juan Tapia; Pablo Estévez; Claudio Held

2012-01-01

366

Compensation for the effects of mutual coupling on direct data domain adaptive algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of mutual coupling between the elements of an array on direct data domain algorithms. Mutual coupling severely undermines the interference suppression capabilities of direct data domain algorithms. The method of moments (MoM) is used to evaluate the mutual coupling between the elements of a given array. The MoM admittance matrix is then used to eliminate

Raviraj S. Adve; Tapan Kumar Sarkar

2000-01-01

367

The neural correlates of orienting: An integration of fMRI and skin conductance orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fMRI studies, the averaging of neural activity across multiple trials might obscure important psychophysiological subpro- cesses. The orienting response (OR) is a distinctive subprocess signalling the active orientation of attention towards potentially significant events. We sought to elucidate fMRI activity associated with visual stimuli that did or did not evoke simultaneously recorded electrodermal ORs (using customised skin conductance recording).

Leanne M. Williams; Michael J. Brammer; David Skerrett; Jim Lagopolous; Chris Rennie; Krystoff Kozek; Gloria Olivieri; Tony Peduto; Evian Gordon

2000-01-01

368

A mutually beneficial relationship between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes mitigates doxorubicin-induced toxicity.  

PubMed

Use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its toxicity in multiple organs. However, the relationship between different organs in response to DOX-induced injury is not well understood. We found that partial hepatectomy correlated with increased DOX-induced heart injury in vivo while supernatant prepared from DOX-treated hepatocytes mitigated DOX-induced cytotoxicity of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Meanwhile, the supernatant of DOX-treated cardiomyocytes mitigated DOX-induced cytotoxicity of hepatocytes. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects found that interleukin 6 (IL-6) was significantly up-regulated in DOX-treated tissues and cells, and supernatant from IL-6 treated cells had a similar effect to that from DOX-treated cells. Although the concentration of secreted IL-6 in supernatant from DOX-treated cells did not significantly differ, blockade of IL-6 signaling, by overexpressing SOCS3, suppressed expression of the downstream molecules trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), impaired the mutually beneficial relationship between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, our study shows that a mutually beneficial relationship exists between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes during the acute injury induced by DOX. Moreover, it demonstrates that this phenomenon may be indirectly caused by increased IL-6 expression and the activation of the downstream molecular mediators TFF3 and HGF in hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes, respectively. PMID:24742701

Zhang, Weiguang; Yu, Jianhua; Dong, Qin; Zhao, Handong; Li, Fenglan; Li, Hui

2014-06-16

369

Divergence in an obligate mutualism is not explained by divergent climatic factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adaptation to divergent environments creates and maintains biological diversity, but we know little about the importance of different agents of ecological divergence. Coevolution in obligate mutualisms has been hypothesized to drive divergence, but this contention has rarely been tested against alternative ecological explanations. Here, we use a well-established example of coevolution in an obligate pollination mutualism, Yucca brevifolia and its two pollinating yucca moths, to test the hypothesis that divergence in this system is the result of mutualists adapting to different abiotic environments as opposed to coevolution between mutualists. ??? We used a combination of principal component analyses and ecological niche modeling to determine whether varieties of Y. brevifolia associated with different pollinators specialize on different environments. ??? Yucca brevifolia occupies a diverse range of climates. When the two varieties can disperse to similar environments, they occupy similar habitats. ??? This suggests that the two varieties have not specialized on distinct habitats. In turn, this suggests that nonclimatic factors, such as the biotic interaction between Y. brevifolia and its pollinators, are responsible for evolutionary divergence in this system. ?? New Phytologist (2009).

Godsoe, W.; Strand, E.; Smith, C. I.; Yoder, J. B.; Esque, T. C.; Pellmyr, O.

2009-01-01

370

Sexual orientations in perspective.  

PubMed

This article presents a new paradigm for understanding the complexity of human sexual, affectional, and erotic attractions--commonly known as sexual orientation. This new paradigm recognizes that there is great diversity among sexual orientations, erotic and emotional attractions, behaviors, and identities and that there are complex interrelations among these dimensions. Sexual orientation is determined by multiple influences, including a wide range of sociocultural factors. The development of sexual orientation is arrived at through multiple pathways. Individuals with the same sexual orientation may have little else in common. Thus, a model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity, not sameness, and that examines the overlapping identities and statuses of culture, gender, age, race, ethnicity, class, disability, and sexuality. PMID:11987589

Garnets, Linda D

2002-05-01

371

Identification of human-to-human transmissibility factors in PB2 proteins of influenza A by large-scale mutual information analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The identification of mutations that confer unique properties to a pathogen, such as host range, is of fundamental importance in the fight against disease. This paper describes a novel method for identifying amino acid sites that distinguish specific sets of protein sequences, by comparative analysis of matched alignments. The use of mutual information to identify distinctive residues responsible for

Olivo Miotto; A. T. Heiny; Tin Wee Tan; J. Thomas August; Vladimir Brusic

2008-01-01

372

Robust double-spectral transparency of double mutually staggered plasmonic arrays sandwiched by two continuous metal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically investigate the optical properties of a late-model plasmonic nanostructure consisting of double mutually staggered silver (Ag) nanoparticle arrays sandwiched by two continuous Ag films. Double robust plasmonic resonances with transmission both more than 86% are achieved via the cooperative effects of plasmon gap modes and optical cavity modes. The transparency response can be efficiently modified by varying the diameter of nanoparticles, the distance between the plasmonic arrays and the metal films, the dielectric environment, the thickness of the double film and the gap distance between the double mutually staggered plasmonic Ag nanoparticle arrays. The structure proposed here may provide potential applications in highly integrated optoelectronic devices, such as transparent conductors, plasmonic filters and sensors.

Hu, Ying; Liu, Gui-qiang; Liu, Zheng-qi; Chen, Yuan-hao; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Cai, Zheng-jie; Liu, Xiao-shan

2014-06-01

373

Minimum Entropy Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study graph orientations that minimize the entropy of the in-degree\\u000asequence. The problem of finding such an orientation is an interesting special\\u000acase of the minimum entropy set cover problem previously studied by Halperin\\u000aand Karp [Theoret. Comput. Sci., 2005] and by the current authors\\u000a[Algorithmica, to appear]. We prove that the minimum entropy orientation\\u000aproblem is NP-hard even

Jean Cardinal; Samuel Fiorini; Gwenaël Joret

2008-01-01

374

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

375

Orientational nematodynamics of a hybrid-oriented capillary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relaxation of the director field hat n , the velocity field v, the shear stress tensor component ? rz , and the temperature T has been investigated in the framework of the classical Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory of liquid crystals by numerically solving the system of nonlinear hydrodynamic equations, which describe the reorientation of the director field hat n with due regard for the velocity field induced by a temperature gradient ? T arising in a hybrid-oriented liquid-crystal capillary. The reorientation of the director field and the relaxation of the temperature field in the capillary have been studied for a number of hydrodynamic regimes that arise in hybrid-oriented capillary filled with the nematic liquid crystal 4- n'-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl in response to the temperature gradient ? T.

Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

2010-07-01

376

Thirty Years of Natural Satellites Mutual Events Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the Solar System have been observed for years: solar and lunar eclipses, occultations of stars by the Moon and the asteroids, eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. Since 1973, mutual occultations and eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were observed extensively during each opportunity i.e. the equinox on the planet: why? The study of the systems of natural satellites needs to explore the dynamics of these objects: each small dynamical effect is the signature of some physical property. In order to validate the theoretical models, very accurate observations are needed. Most of the direct astrometric observations have their accuracy limited by the diffraction of the light in the telescope and by the star catalogues used for calibration. Phenomena have not this limitation: the accuracy is not in angle but in kilometres in space. Since, the observed satellites have no atmosphere, these photometric events are easy to analyse providing relative positions accurate to a few kilometres corresponding to a few mas in geocentric angle. More, during an occultation, the surface of the satellites may be studied: volcanoes of Io (positions and fluxes) were observed that way. Mutual events observations together with the best observations made since several decades allowed improving dynamical models of the satellites systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Concerning Io, the dissipation of energy in its internal structure by the Jovian tides has been made into evidence thanks to fitting the models on accurate observations including mutual events. Eight observational campaigns were organized for the Jovian satellites, three for the Saturnians and one for the Uranians providing more than 1400 light curves (see the data base at http://www.imcce.fr/fr/ephemerides/generateur/saimirror/obsindhe.htm ). The author acknowledges the numerous observers worldwide who provide the observations, the observatories permitting observations and the French CNRS who supported these campaigns.

Arlot, Jean-eudes; Events Observers, Mutual

2009-09-01

377

2007 Mutual events within the binary system of (22) Kalliope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the asteroid Kalliope will reach one of its annual equinoxes. As a consequence, its small satellite Linus orbiting in the equatorial plane will undergo a season of mutual eclipses and occultations very similar to the one that the Galilean satellites undergo every 6 years. This paper is aimed at preparing a campaign of observations of these mutual events occurring from February to May 2007. This opportunity occurs only under favorable geometric conditions when the Sun and/or the Earth are close to the orbital plane of the system. This is the first international campaign devoted to the observation of photometric events within an asynchronous asteroidal binary system. We took advantage of a reliable orbit solution of Linus to predict a series of 24 mutual eclipses and 12 mutual occultations observable in the spring of 2007. Thanks to the brightness of Kalliope ( mv?11), these observations are easy to perform even with a small telescope. Anomalous attenuation events could be observed lasting for about 1-3 h with amplitude up to 0.09 mag. The attenuations are of two distinct types that can clearly be identified as primary and secondary eclipses similar to those that have been previously observed in other minor planet binary systems [Pravec, P., Scheirich, P., Kusnirák, P., Sarounová, L., Mottola, S., Hahn, G., Brown, P., Esquerdo, G., Kaiser, N., Krzeminski, Z., Pray, D.P., Warner, B.D., Harris, A.W., Nolan, M.C., Howell, E.S., Benner, L.A.M., Margot, J.-L., Galád, A., Holliday, W., Hicks, M.D., Krugly, Yu.N., Tholen, D., Whiteley, R., Marchis, F., Degraff, D.R., Grauer, A., Larson, S., Velichko, F.P., Cooney, W.R., Stephens, R., Zhu, J., Kirsch, K., Dyvig, R., Snyder, L., Reddy, V., Moore, S., Gajdos, S., Világi, J., Masi, G., Higgins, D., Funkhouser, G., Knight, B., Slivan, S., Behrend, R., Grenon, M., Burki, G., Roy, R., Demeautis, C., Matter, D., Waelchli, N., Revaz, Y., Klotz, A., Rieugné, M., Thierry, P., Cotrez, V., Brunetto, L., Kober, G., 2006. Photometric survey of binary near-Earth asteroids. Icarus 181, 63-93]. With these favorable circumstances, such photometric observations will provide us tight constraints regarding physical properties of Linus such as the size, shape and synodic spin period.

Descamps, P.; Marchis, F.; Pollock, J.; Berthier, J.; Birlan, M.; Vachier, F.; Colas, F.

2008-11-01

378

Mutual pharmacokinetic interactions between steady-state bosentan and sildenafil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the mutual pharmacokinetic interactions in healthy volunteers between\\u000a sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, and bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, both approved for treating\\u000a pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with three treatment arms (sildenafil plus placebo, bosentan\\u000a plus placebo and sildenafil plus bosentan) was conducted in 55

Gary Burgess; Hans Hoogkamer; Lorraine Collings; Jasper Dingemanse

2008-01-01

379

Asymmetric Mutualism in Two- and Three-Dimensional Range Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic drift at the frontiers of two-dimensional range expansions of microorganisms can frustrate local cooperation between different genetic variants, demixing the population into distinct sectors. In a biological context, mutualistic or antagonistic interactions will typically be asymmetric between variants. By taking into account both the asymmetry and the interaction strength, we show that the much weaker demixing in three dimensions allows for a mutualistic phase over a much wider range of asymmetric cooperative benefits, with mutualism prevailing for any positive, symmetric benefit. We also demonstrate that expansions with undulating fronts roughen dramatically at the boundaries of the mutualistic phase, with severe consequences for the population genetics along the transition lines.

Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Nelson, David R.

2014-04-01

380

Partnering with mutual aid associations to provide home injury prevention.  

PubMed

Injury is the leading cause of death and a leading cause of morbidity among children in the US. Poor, minority children, especially those with language and cultural differences, are disproportionately affected. The traditional childhood injury prevention approaches (eg, physician office counseling, public service announcements) may not be effective when significant language and cultural differences exist between provider and client. Partnering with mutual aid associations to create low literacy education tools for their home visitors to use to teach immigrant families about home safety may be one method to provide injury prevention information. PMID:19305208

Tothy, Alison; Wiltsek, Dana L; Sheehan, Karen

2009-01-01

381

Mutual verification of two new quantum simulation approaches for nanomagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new quantum simulation methods, which we developed recently based on the Metropolis and self-consistent algorithms defined as QMC and SCA approaches respectively, were employed to investigate the magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetic nanoparticle with strong surface anisotropy. All simulations were started from a random magnetic configuration and carried out from a temperature well above the phase transition stepwise down to very low temperatures as other researchers have been doing in classical Monte Carlo (CMC) simulations. It turns out that the magnetic structures, magnetizations, total (free) energy, magnetic entropy and specific heat calculated by means of the two approaches are well consistent with each other, thereby verifying their correctness mutually.

Liu, Z.-S.; Sechovský, V.; Diviš, M.

2014-08-01

382

Reconstruction of the mutual coherence function for a moving source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic radiation of a randomly fluctuating source in motion is characterized analytically to determine the mutual coherence function (MCF). A far-field relation is derived via a series of invertible transformations, and a higher-dimension Radon transformation is performed to reconstruct the MCF; explicit formulas for computing the MCF from the transformed radiation data are provided. The technique is applied to the cases of an axisymmetric line source of finite extent moving at constant velocity along a line and a spatially incoherent line source. Applications to X-ray tomography and analysis of the noise emitted by a moving jet aircraft are suggested.

Chow, P. L.

1983-01-01

383

Mutual information between discrete and continuous data sets.  

PubMed

Mutual information (MI) is a powerful method for detecting relationships between data sets. There are accurate methods for estimating MI that avoid problems with "binning" when both data sets are discrete or when both data sets are continuous. We present an accurate, non-binning MI estimator for the case of one discrete data set and one continuous data set. This case applies when measuring, for example, the relationship between base sequence and gene expression level, or the effect of a cancer drug on patient survival time. We also show how our method can be adapted to calculate the Jensen-Shannon divergence of two or more data sets. PMID:24586270

Ross, Brian C

2014-01-01

384

Estimation and classification by sigmoids based on mutual information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An estimate of the probability density function of a random vector is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the input and the output of a feedforward network of sigmoidal units with respect to the input weights. Classification problems can be solved by selecting the class associated with the maximal estimated density. Newton's s method, applied to an estimated density, yields a recursive maximum likelihood estimator, consisting of a single internal layer of sigmoids, for a random variable or a random sequence. Applications to the diamond classification and to the prediction of a sun-spot process are demonstrated.

Baram, Yoram

1994-01-01

385

Social orienting: reflexive versus voluntary control  

PubMed Central

Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a Cue onset to Target onset Delay (CTD) of 150 ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500 ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200 ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer’s responses up to a CTD of 200 ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system.

Hill, Julia L.; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B.

2010-01-01

386

Infant Discrimination of Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants in four age groups--three, six, nine and twelve months--were exposed to an experimental procedure designed to assess the extent to which such subjects were capable of discriminating between different orientations of the same form, and the extent to which they were capable of recognizing the identity between different orientations of the…

McGurk, Harry

387

Reverse illusions of orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author uses the phrase 'reverse illusions of orientation' to designate a group of facts which have not yet been studied methodically, but which have been cited by many authors and described in different words. These facts consist of illusions or hallucinations of orientation, which arise spontaneously either when we waken in the darkness of night, or during the day

M. Alfred Binet

1894-01-01

388

The Effects of Sound Duration on Newborns' Head Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments assessed the importance of sound duration for eliciting head orientation responses from newborn infants. Results suggest that newborns' head orientation response may reflect a motor program that is initiated by auditory input and then executed in a similar fashion regardless of further stimulation. (Author/AS)

Clarkson, Marsha G.; And Others

1985-01-01

389

Mutual but unequal: mentoring as a hybrid of familiar relationship roles.  

PubMed

This chapter employs a conceptual framework based on the relationship constructs of power and permanence to distinguish the special hybrid nature of mentoring relationships relative to prototypical vertical and horizontal relationships common in the lives of mentor and mentee. The authors note that mentoring occurs in voluntary relationships among partners with unequal social experience and influence. Consequently, mentoring relationships contain expectations of unequal contributions and responsibilities (as in vertical relationships), but sustaining the relationships depends on mutual feelings of satisfaction and commitment (as in horizontal relationships). Keller and Pryce apply this framework to reveal the consistency of findings across several qualitative studies reporting particular interpersonal patterns in youth mentoring relationships. On a practical level, they suggest that the mentor needs to balance the fun, interest, and engagement that maintain the relationship with the experienced guidance, structure, and support that promote the growth and well-being of the mentee. PMID:20665830

Keller, Thomas E; Pryce, Julia M

2010-01-01

390

Reward Value Comparison via Mutual Inhibition in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.  

PubMed

Recent theories suggest that reward-based choice reflects competition between value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We tested this idea by recording vmPFC neurons while macaques performed a gambling task with asynchronous offer presentation. We found that neuronal activity shows four patterns consistent with selection via mutual inhibition: (1) correlated tuning for probability and reward size, suggesting that vmPFC carries an integrated value signal; (2) anti-correlated tuning curves for the two options, suggesting mutual inhibition; (3) neurons rapidly come to signal the value of the chosen offer, suggesting the circuit serves to produce a choice; and (4) after regressing out the effects of option values, firing rates still could predict choice-a choice probability signal. In addition, neurons signaled gamble outcomes, suggesting that vmPFC contributes to both monitoring and choice processes. These data suggest a possible mechanism for reward-based choice and endorse the centrality of vmPFC in that process. PMID:24881835

Strait, Caleb E; Blanchard, Tommy C; Hayden, Benjamin Y

2014-06-18

391

Mutual coupling of antennas in a meteor radar interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Meteor radars have become common and important tools in the study of the climate and dynamics of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region. These systems depend on accurate angle-of-arrival measurements to locate the positions of meteor trails in the atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> coupling between antennas, although small, produces a measurable error in the antenna pair phase differences used to deduce the angle of arrival of incident radiation. Measurements of the scattering parameter matrix for antennas in an interferometric meteor radar array have been made and applied to the existing angle-of-arrival calculation algorithm. The results indicate that <span class="hlt">mutual</span> coupling of antennas in the array produces errors in the zenith angle estimate of less than ± 0.5°. This error is primarily in the form of a gradient across the field of view of the radar, which can be removed using existing phase calibration methods. The remaining error is small but will produce small systematic variations in the height estimates for detected meteors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.; Vincent, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3609409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies of genomic integration within insect-bacterial <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Insects, the most diverse group of macroorganisms with 900,000 known species, have been a rich playground for the evolution of symbiotic associations. Symbionts of this enormous animal group include a range of microbial partners. Insects are prone to establishing relationships with intracellular bacteria, which include the most intimate, highly integrated <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> known in the biological world. In recent years, an explosion of genomic studies has offered new insights into the molecular, functional, and evolutionary consequences of these insect-bacterial partnerships. In this review, I highlight some insights from genome sequences of bacterial endosymbionts and select insect hosts. Notably, comparisons of facultative versus obligate bacterial mutualists have revealed distinct genome features representing different stages along a shared trajectory of genome reduction. Bacteria associated with the cedar aphid offer a snapshot of a transition from facultative to obligate <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>, illustrating the genomic basis of this key step along the symbiotic spectrum. In addition, genomes of stable, dual bacterial symbionts reflect independent instances of astonishing metabolic integration. In these systems, synthesis of key nutrients, and perhaps basic cellular processes, require collaboration among co-residing bacteria and their insect host. These findings provide a launching point for a new era of genomic explorations of bacterial-animal symbioses. Future studies promise to reveal symbiotic strategies across a broad ecological and phylogenetic range, to clarify key transitions along a spectrum of interaction types, and to fuel new experimental approaches to dissect the mechanistic basis of intimate host-symbiont associations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wernegreen, Jennifer J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3921544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inflammation and colorectal cancer, when microbiota-host <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> breaks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural changes in the gut microbial community have been shown to accompany the progressive development of colorectal cancer. In this review we discuss recent hypotheses on the mechanisms involved in the bacteria-mediated carcinogenesis, as well as the triggering factors favoring the shift of the gut microbiota from a mutualistic to a pro-carcinogenic configuration. The possible role of inflammation, bacterial toxins and toxic microbiota metabolites in colorectal cancer onset is specifically discussed. On the other hand, the strategic role of inflammation as the keystone factor in driving microbiota to become carcinogenic is suggested. As a common outcome of different environmental and endogenous triggers, such as diet, aging, pathogen infection or genetic predisposition, inflammation can compromise the microbiota-host <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>, forcing the increase of pathobionts at the expense of health-promoting groups, and allowing the microbiota to acquire an overall pro-inflammatory configuration. Consolidating inflammation in the gut, and favoring the bloom of toxigenic bacterial drivers, these changes in the gut microbial ecosystem have been suggested as pivotal in promoting carcinogenesis. In this context, it will become of primary importance to implement dietary or probiotics-based interventions aimed at preserving the microbiota-host <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> along aging, counteracting deviations that favor a pro-carcinogenic microbiota asset.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Carbonero, Franck; Rampelli, Simone; Fiorentini, Carla; Brigidi, Patrizia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3327697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Housekeeping <span class="hlt">Mutualisms</span>: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutualisms</span> often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvA..68e4302J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient measurements, purification, and bounds on the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When a measurement is made on a quantum system in which classical information is encoded, the measurement reduces the observers’ average Shannon entropy for the encoding ensemble. This reduction, being the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information, is always non-negative. For efficient measurements the state is also purified; that is, on average, the observers’ von Neumann entropy for the state of the system is also reduced by a non-negative amount. Here we point out that by rewriting a bound derived by Hall [Phys. Rev. A 55, 100 (1997)], which is dual to the Holevo bound, one finds that for efficient measurements, the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information is bounded by the reduction in the von Neumann entropy. We also show that this result, which provides a physical interpretation for Hall’s bound, may be derived directly from the Schumacher-Westmoreland-Wootters theorem [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3452 (1996)]. We discuss these bounds, and their relationship to another bound, valid for efficient measurements on pure state ensembles, which involves the subentropy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobs, Kurt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.1593P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Markov chain order estimation with conditional <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce the Conditional <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information (CMI) for the estimation of the Markov chain order. For a Markov chain of K symbols, we define CMI of order m, Ic(m), as the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information of two variables in the chain being m time steps apart, conditioning on the intermediate variables of the chain. We find approximate analytic significance limits based on the estimation bias of CMI and develop a randomization significance test of Ic(m), where the randomized symbol sequences are formed by random permutation of the components of the original symbol sequence. The significance test is applied for increasing m and the Markov chain order is estimated by the last order for which the null hypothesis is rejected. We present the appropriateness of CMI-testing on Monte Carlo simulations and compare it to the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria, the maximal fluctuation method (Peres-Shields estimator) and a likelihood ratio test for increasing orders using ?-divergence. The order criterion of CMI-testing turns out to be superior for orders larger than one, but its effectiveness for large orders depends on data availability. In view of the results from the simulations, we interpret the estimated orders by the CMI-testing and the other criteria on genes and intergenic regions of DNA chains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papapetrou, M.; Kugiumtzis, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water Stress Strengthens <span class="hlt">Mutualism</span> Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span>. In mutualistic ant–plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant–plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Akcay, Erol; Raab, Ted K.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223521"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water stress strengthens <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> among ants, trees, and scale insects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span>. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>. PMID:24223521</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pringle, Elizabeth G; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48723206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating GI with non-GI services—showcasing interoperability in a heterogeneous service-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> architecture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of a service-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> architecture provides a technical foundation for delivering, using, and integrating software.\\u000a It can serve as an approach to integrate GIS with other, non-GIS applications. This paper presents and discusses a service-<span class="hlt">oriented</span>\\u000a architecture that embraces a GIS and an enterprise resource planning system. The two information systems make <span class="hlt">mutually</span> required\\u000a functionalities available as services. This defines</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Treiblmayr; Simon Scheider; Antonio Krüger; Marc von der Linden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvL.103v3002K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafast Angular Momentum <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> by Linearly Polarized Laser Fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We theoretically show and experimentally verify that a pair of linearly polarized intense femtosecond pulses can create molecular ensembles with <span class="hlt">oriented</span> rotational angular momentum on an ultrafast (˜ps) time scale, when the delay and the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> polarization between them are appropriately arranged. An asymmetric distribution for +M and -M sublevels relies on quantum interference between rotational wave packets created in stimulated Raman excitation by the first and second pulses. The present approach provides spatiotemporally propagating ensembles, of which the classical perspective is molecules rotating in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kitano, Kenta; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Ohshima, Yasuhiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24689623"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with <span class="hlt">mutually</span> coupled windings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with <span class="hlt">mutually</span> coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step <span class="hlt">response</span> was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 ? and 67.7 ?, respectively. A frequency <span class="hlt">response</span> test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse <span class="hlt">response</span> time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast <span class="hlt">response</span> time. PMID:24689623</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85c5110Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with <span class="hlt">mutually</span> coupled windings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with <span class="hlt">mutually</span> coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step <span class="hlt">response</span> was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 ? and 67.7 ?, respectively. A frequency <span class="hlt">response</span> test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse <span class="hlt">response</span> time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast <span class="hlt">response</span> time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyA..391.2623C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parameter motivated <span class="hlt">mutual</span> correlation analysis: Application to the study of currency exchange rates based on intermittency parameter and Hurst exponent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a novel method for the parameter <span class="hlt">oriented</span> analysis of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> correlation between independent time series or between equivalent structures such as ordered data sets. The proposed method is based on the sliding window technique, defines a new type of correlation measure and can be applied to time series from all domains of science and technology, experimental or simulated. A specific parameter that can characterize the time series is computed for each window and a cross correlation analysis is carried out on the set of values obtained for the time series under investigation. We apply this method to the study of some currency daily exchange rates from the point of view of the Hurst exponent and the intermittency parameter. Interesting correlation relationships are revealed and a tentative crisis prediction is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristescu, Constantin P.; Stan, Cristina; Scarlat, Eugen I.; Minea, Teofil; Cristescu, Cristina M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19019195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preferential allocation to beneficial symbiont with spatial structure maintains mycorrhizal <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutualisms</span>, beneficial interactions between species, are expected to be unstable because delivery of benefit likely involves fitness costs and selection should favour partners that deliver less benefit. Yet, <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> are common and persistent, even in the largely promiscuous associations between plants and soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In two different systems, we demonstrate preferential allocation of photosynthate by host plants to the more beneficial of two AM fungal symbionts. This preferential allocation could allow the persistence of the <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> if it confers sufficient advantage to the beneficial symbiont that it overcomes the cost of <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>. We find that the beneficial fungus does increase in biomass when the fungi are spatially separated within the root system. However, in well-mixed fungal communities, non-beneficial fungi proliferate as expected from their reduced cost of <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>. Our findings suggest that preferential allocation within spatially structured microbial communities can stabilize <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> between plants and root symbionts. PMID:19019195</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bever, James D; Richardson, Sarah C; Lawrence, Brandy M; Holmes, Jonathan; Watson, Maxine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHEP...07..081M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> information between thermo-field doubles and disconnected holographic boundaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information as a measure of the entanglement between `physical' and thermo-field double degrees of freedom in field theories at finite temperature. We compute this "thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information" in simple toy models: a quantum mechanics two-site spin chain, a two dimensional massless fermion, and a two dimensional holographic system. In holographic systems, the thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information is related to minimal surfaces connecting the two disconnected boundaries of an eternal black hole. We derive a number of salient features of this thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information, including that it is UV finite, positive definite and bounded from above by the standard <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information for the thermal ensemble. We relate the construction of the reduced density matrices used to define the thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information to the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, ensuring that all our objects are well defined in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morrison, Ian A.; Roberts, Matthew M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7965562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causality <span class="hlt">orientations</span>, failure, and achievement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two studies examined similarities between Deci and Ryan's (1985) causality <span class="hlt">orientations</span> theory and Dweck and Leggett's (1988) social-cognitive theory of achievement. Study 1 examined the conceptual similarity between the individual difference measures central to the two theories. It was shown that autonomous college students are likely to adopt learning goals and report high confidence in their academic abilities; controlled students are likely to adopt performance goals and to report high levels of confidence in their ability; and impersonal students are likely to possess the classic helpless pattern of performance goals and low confidence in their academic abilities. Study 2 examined whether causality <span class="hlt">orientations</span>, like Dweck's measures of goals and confidence, moderate the impact of failure feedback on motivation as measured in persistence and performance. The results suggested that autonomous individuals respond to failure in a mastery-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> fashion, whereas impersonal individuals respond in a helpless manner. The <span class="hlt">response</span> of controlled individuals to failure parallels that of people described as ego-involved or reactive. PMID:7965562</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koestner, R; Zuckerman, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5737R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> information estimation for irregularly sampled time series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the automated, objective and joint analysis of time series, similarity measures are crucial. Used in the analysis of climate records, they allow for a complimentary, unbiased view onto sparse datasets. The irregular sampling of many of these time series, however, makes it necessary to either perform signal reconstruction (e.g. interpolation) or to develop and use adapted measures. Standard linear interpolation comes with an inevitable loss of information and bias effects. We have recently developed a Gaussian kernel-based correlation algorithm with which the interpolation error can be substantially lowered, but this would not work should the functional relationship in a bivariate setting be non-linear. We therefore propose an algorithm to estimate lagged auto and cross <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information from irregularly sampled time series. We have extended the standard and adaptive binning histogram estimators and use Gaussian distributed weights in the estimation of the (joint) probabilities. To test our method we have simulated linear and nonlinear auto-regressive processes with Gamma-distributed inter-sampling intervals. We have then performed a sensitivity analysis for the estimation of actual coupling length, the lag of coupling and the decorrelation time in the synthetic time series and contrast our results to the performance of a signal reconstruction scheme. Finally we applied our estimator to speleothem records. We compare the estimated memory (or decorrelation time) to that from a least-squares estimator based on fitting an auto-regressive process of order 1. The calculated (cross) <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information results are compared for the different estimators (standard or adaptive binning) and contrasted with results from signal reconstruction. We find that the kernel-based estimator has a significantly lower root mean square error and less systematic sampling bias than the interpolation-based method. It is possible that these encouraging results could be further improved by using non-histogram <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information estimators, like k-Nearest Neighbor or Kernel-Density estimators, but for short (<1000 points) and irregularly sampled datasets the proposed algorithm is already a great improvement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rehfeld, K.; Marwan, N.; Heitzig, J.; Kurths, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51024833"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research on <span class="hlt">mutual</span> guarantee system of SMEs based on self-organization theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> guarantee system (MGS) of small and medium enterprises (SMEs)is a complex system mainly serving the SMEs, including <span class="hlt">mutual</span> guarantee institution formed by SMEs, financial institutions, the industry association and credit re-guarantee institution. From the perspective of system theory this paper illuminated the self-organization mechanisms and the self-organization characteristics of openness, far-from-equilibrium, nonlinearity and fluctuation of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> guarantee system of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang Yi; Yan Hong-yan; YANG Ze-yun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/873979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Passive <span class="hlt">orientation</span> apparatus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An apparatus that can return a payload to a known <span class="hlt">orientation</span> after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and <span class="hlt">orientation</span> after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known <span class="hlt">orientation</span> by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known <span class="hlt">orientation</span> after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=InSb&pg=4&id=EJ032014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Career <span class="hlt">Oriented</span> Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reviews career-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> programs from a local view of the students and their role in society and then from a national view of the potential of the community college system and its role in society. (SB)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quittenton, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA389440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Background <span class="hlt">Oriented</span> Schlieren Demonstrations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this project report we present the application of a novel schlieren technique for two different tests. The optical method is referred to as 'Background <span class="hlt">Oriented</span> Schlieren' (BOS) in the following. Additionally the differences between BOS and an extensio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Richard M. Raffel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/feelings/sexual_orientation.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sexual <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> (For Parents)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the heterosexual people around them start talking about romantic feelings, dating, and sex. For them, it can ... Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Love and Romance Sexual Attraction and <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> Contact Us ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720017443&hterms=arthropods&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Darthropods%2B1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anemomenotatic <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in beetles and scorpions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Orientation</span>, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is <span class="hlt">responsible</span> for such <span class="hlt">orientation</span>, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic <span class="hlt">orientation</span>. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space <span class="hlt">orientation</span>; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linsenmair, K. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24180584"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">oriented</span> handcuff rotaxane.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first example of an <span class="hlt">oriented</span> handcuff rotaxane has been obtained by through-the-annulus threading of a double-calix[6]arene system with a bis-ammonium axle. The relative <span class="hlt">orientation</span> of the two calix-wheels can be predefined by exploiting the "endo-alkyl rule" which controls the directionality of the threading of alkylbenzylammonium axles with calixarene macrocycles. PMID:24180584</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciao, Roberta; Talotta, Carmen; Gaeta, Carmine; Margarucci, Luigi; Casapullo, Agostino; Neri, Placido</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6577..424S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimally <span class="hlt">Orienting</span> Physical Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a network <span class="hlt">orientation</span> problem one is given a mixed graph, consisting of directed and undirected edges, and a set of source-target vertex pairs. The goal is to <span class="hlt">orient</span> the undirected edges so that a maximum number of pairs admit a directed path from the source to the target. This problem is NP-complete and no approximation algorithms are known for it. It arises in the context of analyzing physical networks of protein-protein and protein-dna interactions. While the latter are naturally directed from a transcription factor to a gene, the direction of signal flow in protein-protein interactions is often unknown or cannot be measured en masse. One then tries to infer this information by using causality data on pairs of genes such that the perturbation of one gene changes the expression level of the other gene. Here we provide a first polynomial-size ilp formulation for this problem, which can be efficiently solved on current networks. We apply our algorithm to <span class="hlt">orient</span> protein-protein interactions in yeast and measure our performance using edges with known <span class="hlt">orientations</span>. We find that our algorithm achieves high accuracy and coverage in the <span class="hlt">orientation</span>, outperforming simplified algorithmic variants that do not use information on edge directions. The obtained <span class="hlt">orientations</span> can lead to better understanding of the structure and function of the network.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silverbush, Dana; Elberfeld, Michael; Sharan, Roded</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968302"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein-ligand docking using <span class="hlt">mutually</span> orthogonal Latin squares (MOLSDOCK).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The theoretical prediction of the association of a flexible ligand with a protein receptor requires efficient sampling of the conformational space of the ligand. Several docking methodologies are currently available. We have proposed a docking technique that performs well at low computational cost. The method uses <span class="hlt">mutually</span> orthogonal Latin squares to efficiently sample the docking space. A variant of the mean field technique is used to analyze this sample to arrive at the optimum. The method has been previously applied to search through both the conformational space of a peptide as well its docking space. Here we extend this method to simultaneously identify both the low energy conformation as well as a high scoring docking mode for the small organic ligand molecules. Application of the method to 45 protein-ligand complexes, in which the number of rotatable torsions varies from 2 to 19, and comparisons with AutoDock 4.0, showed that the method works well. PMID:19968302</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viji, S Nehru; Prasad, P Arun; Gautham, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24147370"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis, kinetics and pharmacological evaluation of mefenamic acid <span class="hlt">mutual</span> prodrug.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel <span class="hlt">mutual</span> prodrug (MA-P) consisting of mefenamic acid (MA) and paracetamol (P) has been synthesized as a gastrosparing NSAID, devoid of ulcerogenic side effects. The structure of synthesized drug was confirmed by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.The kinetics of ester hydrolysis was studied by HPLC at pH 2, pH 7.4 as well as in human plasma. The pharmacological activities (anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic) were evaluated for the synthesized drug. The ulcerogenic reduction in terms of gastric wall mucosa, hexosamine and total proteins were also measured in glandular stomach of rats. The results indicated that MA-P ester has better ulcer index than the parent drug. PMID:24147370</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, Kamal; Shrivastava, Sushant K; Mishra, Pradeep</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10433899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Positive Illusions and Forecasting Errors in <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Fund Investment Decisions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines the portfolio allocation decisions of 80 business students in a computer-based investing simulation. Our goal was to better understand why investors spend so much time and money on actively managed <span class="hlt">mutual</span> funds despite the fact that the vast majority of these funds are outperformed by pas sively managed index funds. Participants' judgments and decisions provided evidence for a number of biases. First, most participants consistently overestimated both the future perfor mance and the past performance of their investments. Second, participants overestimated the intertemporal consistency of portfolio performance. Third, participants were more likely to shift their portfolio allocation following poorer performance than following better performance, and this tendency had a negative impact on portfolio returns. We speculate that these biases in investor behavior may contribute to suboptimal investment decisions in real financial markets. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10433899</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore; Kurtzberg; Fox; Bazerman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sanctions and <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> stability: why do rhizobia fix nitrogen?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Why do rhizobia expend resources on fixing N(2) for the benefit of their host plant, when they could use those resources for their own reproduction? We present a series of theoretical models which counter the hypotheses that N(2) fixation is favoured because it (i) increases the exudation of useful resources to related rhizobia in the nearby soil, or (ii) increases plant growth and therefore the resources available for rhizobia growth. Instead, we suggest that appreciable levels of N(2) fixation are only favoured when plants preferentially supply more resources to (or are less likely to senesce) nodules that are fixing more N(2) (termed plant sanctions). The implications for different agricultural practices and <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> stability in general are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">West, Stuart A; Kiers, E Toby; Simms, Ellen L; Denison, R Ford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3870683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein recognition and selection through conformational and <span class="hlt">mutually</span> induced fit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protein–protein interactions drive most every biological process, but in many instances the domains mediating recognition are disordered. How specificity in binding is attained in the absence of defined structure contrasts with well-established experimental and theoretical work describing ligand binding to protein. The signaling protein calmodulin presents a unique opportunity to investigate mechanisms for target recognition given that it interacts with several hundred different targets. By advancing coarse-grained computer simulations and experimental techniques, mechanistic insights were gained in defining the pathways leading to recognition and in how target selectivity can be achieved at the molecular level. A model requiring <span class="hlt">mutually</span> induced conformational changes in both calmodulin and target proteins was necessary and broadly informs how proteins can achieve both high affinity and high specificity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Qian; Zhang, Pengzhi; Hoffman, Laurel; Tripathi, Swarnendu; Homouz, Dirar; Liu, Yin; Waxham, M. Neal; Cheung, Margaret S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22949595"> <span id="translatedtitle">New findings concerning the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> action of hormones and receptors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The actual mechanisms concerning the role of the hormone-receptor complex cannot satisfactorily explain the various hormone activities. Photobiological studies were performed in order to gain a deeper insight in this respect. 17?-estradiol (17?E(2)) was used as representative hormone and methionine-enkephaline (ME) was used as an adequate model for a receptor. Their biological behaviors and <span class="hlt">mutual</span> interactions were investigated in air-free media (pH~7.4; 37°C) by excitation in singlet state, using monochromatic UV-light (?=254 nm; E=4.85 eV/h?). It was found that tyrosine (Tyr) as a main component of ME, as well as ME itself, can eject solvated electrons (e(aq)(-)), when excited in singlet state. The observed quantum yields, Q (e(aq)(-)), in both cases decreased with an increase of the corresponding substrate concentration. The effect is explained by the formation of associates (unstable complexes of molecules prevailing in the ground state), which consume a proportion of the emitted e(aq)(-). The ME transients, resulting from the electron emission, can partly regenerate by electron transfer from an efficient electron donor, e.g. ascorbate. 17?E(2), like other hormones, can also eject electrons under the same experimental conditions. In a mix of 17?E(2) and ME in air-free media (40/60 water/ethanol, pH~7.4; 37°C), a <span class="hlt">mutual</span> electron exchange takes place. Thereby 17?E(2) transients, being in status nascendy state, can partly regenerate by electron transfer from ME. Thus, the duration and action of 17?E(2) are prolonged. To our knowledge this fact is reported for the first time and it is a finding of basic biological and medical importance. PMID:22949595</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Getoff, Nikola; Steinbrecher, Melanie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013075"> <span id="translatedtitle">MIDER: Network Inference with <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information Distance and Entropy Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information–theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide range of problems without requiring tuning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Villaverde, Alejandro F.; Ross, John; Moran, Federico; Banga, Julio R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.138p4901D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solvation of polymers as <span class="hlt">mutual</span> association. I. General theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Flory-Huggins (FH) type lattice theory of self-assembly is generalized to describe the equilibrium solvation of long polymer chains B by small solvent molecules A. Solvation is modeled as a thermally reversible <span class="hlt">mutual</span> association between the polymer and a relatively low molar mass solvent. The FH Helmholtz free energy F is derived for a mixture composed of the A and B species and the various possible <span class="hlt">mutual</span> association complexes AiB, and F is then used to generate expressions for basic thermodynamic properties of solvated polymer solutions, including the size distribution of the solvated clusters, the fraction of solvent molecules contained in solvated states (an order parameter for solvation), the specific heat (which exhibits a maximum at the solvation transition), the second and the third osmotic virial coefficients, and the boundaries for phase stability of the mixture. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the ``entropic'' contribution ?s to the FH interaction parameter ? of polymer solutions, both with and without associative interactions. The entropic ?s parameter arises from correlations associated with polymer chain connectivity and disparities in molecular structure between the components of the mixture. Our analysis provides the first explanation of the longstanding enigma of why ?s for polymer solutions significantly exceeds ?s for binary polymer blends. Our calculations also reveal that ?s becomes temperature dependent when interactions are strong, in sharp contrast to models currently being used for fitting thermodynamic data of associating polymer-solvent mixtures, where ?s is simply assumed to be an adjustable constant based on experience with solutions of homopolymers in nonassociating solvents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Invasional meltdown: invader-invader <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> facilitates a secondary invasion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In multiply invaded ecosystems, introduced species should interact with each other as well as with native species. Invader-invader interactions may affect the success of further invaders by altering attributes of recipient communities and propagule pressure. The invasional meltdown hypothesis (IMH) posits that positive interactions among invaders initiate positive population-level feedback that intensifies impacts and promotes secondary invasions. IMH remains controversial: few studies show feedback between invaders that amplifies their effects, and none yet demonstrate facilitation of entry and spread of secondary invaders. Our results show that supercolonies of an alien ant, promoted by <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> with introduced honeydew-secreting scale insects, permitted invasion by an exotic land snail on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Modeling of land snail spread over 750 sites across 135 km2 over seven years showed that the probability of land snail invasion was facilitated 253-fold in ant supercolonies but impeded in intact forest where predaceous native land crabs remained abundant. Land snail occurrence at neighboring sites, a measure of propagule pressure, also promoted land snail spread. Site comparisons and experiments revealed that ant supercolonies, by killing land crabs but not land snails, disrupted biotic resistance and provided enemy-free space. Predation pressure on land snails was lower (28.6%), survival 115 times longer, and abundance 20-fold greater in supercolonies than in intact forest. Whole-ecosystem suppression of supercolonies reversed the probability of land snail invasion by allowing recolonization of land crabs; land snails were much less likely (0.79%) to invade sites where supercolonies were suppressed than where they remained intact. Our results provide strong empirical evidence for IMH by demonstrating that <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> between invaders reconfigures key interactions in the recipient community. This facilitates entry of secondary invaders and elevates propagule pressure, propagating their spread at the whole-ecosystem level. We show that identification and management of key facilitative interactions in invaded ecosystems can be used to reverse impacts and restore resistance to further invasions. PMID:21939072</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Abbott, Kirsti L; Jeffery, Mick; Retallick, Kent; Mac Nally, Ralph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23307414"> <span id="translatedtitle">The bonobo-dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A positive interaction is any interaction between individuals of the same or different species (<span class="hlt">mutualism</span>) that provides a benefit to both partners such as increased fitness. Here we focus on seed dispersal <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> between an animal (bonobo, Pan paniscus) and a plant (velvet tamarind trees, Dialium spp.). In the LuiKotale rainforest southwest of Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, seven species of the genus Dialium account for 29.3% of all trees. Dialium is thus the dominant genus in this forest. Dialium fruits make up a large proportion of the diet of a habituated bonobo community in this forest. During the 6 months of the fruiting season, more than half of the bonobos' feeding time is devoted to Dialium fruits. Furthermore, Dialium fruits contribute a considerable proportion of sugar and protein to bonobos' dietary intake, being among the richest fruits for these nutrients. Bonobos in turn ingest fruits with seeds that are disseminated in their feces (endozoochory) at considerable distances (average: 1.25 km after 24 hr of average transit time). Endozoochory through the gut causes loss of the cuticle protection and tegumentary dormancy, as well as an increase in size by water uptake. Thus, after gut passage, seeds are better able to germinate. We consider other primate species as a potential seed disperser and conclude that Dialium germination is dependent on passage through bonobo guts. This plant-animal interaction highlights positive effects between two major organisms of the Congo basin rainforest, and establishes the role of the bonobo as an efficient disperser of Dialium seeds. Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23307414</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beaune, David; Bretagnolle, François; Bollache, Loïc; Hohmann, Gottfried; Surbeck, Martin; Bourson, Chloé; Fruth, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24806471"> <span id="translatedtitle">MIDER: Network Inference with <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information Distance and Entropy Reduction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide range of problems without requiring tuning. PMID:24806471</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Villaverde, Alejandro F; Ross, John; Morán, Federico; Banga, Julio R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MARW17007W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electric field control of the cell <span class="hlt">orientation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many physiological processes depend on the <span class="hlt">response</span> of biological cells to external forces. The natural electric field at a wound controls the <span class="hlt">orientation</span> of the cell and its division.[1] We model the cell as an elongated elliptical particle with given Young's modulus with surface charge distribution in the external electric field. Using this simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to electrostatics and the elasticity of cells, we calculated analytically the <span class="hlt">response</span> of the cell <span class="hlt">orientation</span> and its dynamics in the presence of time varying electric field. The calculations reflect many experimentally observed features. Our model predicts the <span class="hlt">response</span> of the cellular <span class="hlt">orientation</span> to a sinusoidally varying applied electric field as a function of frequency similar to recent stress-induced effects.[2] *Bing Song, Min Zhao, John V. Forrester, and Colin D. McCaig, ``Electrical cues regulate the <span class="hlt">orientation</span> and frequency of cell division and the rate of wound healing in vivo'', PNAS 2002, vol. 99 , 13577-13582. *R. De, A. Zemel, and S.A. Safran, ``Dynamics of cell <span class="hlt">orientation</span>'', Nature Physics 2007, vol.3, 655.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westman, Christopher; Sabirianov, Renat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..523A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Events in the Uranian satellite system in 2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The equinox time on the giant planets When the Sun crosses the equatorial plane of a giant planet, it is the equinox time occurring every half orbit of the planet, i.e. every 6 years for Jupiter, 14 years for Saturn, 42 years for Uranus and 82 years for Neptune. Except Neptune, each planet have several major satellites orbiting in the equatorial plane, then, during the equinox time, the satellites will eclipse each other <span class="hlt">mutually</span>. Since the Earth follows the Sun, during the equinox time, a terrestrial observer will see each satellite occulting each other during the same period. These events may be observed with photometric receivers since the light from the satellites will decrease during the events. The light curve will provide information on the geometric configuration of the the satellites at the time of the event with an accuracy of a few kilometers, not depending on the distance of the satellite system. Then, we are able to get an astrometric observation with an accuracy several times better than using direct imaging for positions. Equinox on Uranus in 2007 In 2007, it was equinox time on Uranus. The Sun crossed the equatorial plane of Uranus on December 6, 2007. Since the opposition Uranus-Sun was at the end of August 2007, observations were performed from May to December 2007. Since the declination of Uranus was between -5 and -6 degrees, observations were better to make in the southern hemisphere. However, some difficulties had to be solved: the faintness of the satellites (magnitude between 14 and 16), the brightness of the planet (magnitude 5) making difficult the photometric observation of the satellites. The used of K' filter associated to a large telescope allows to increase the number of observable events. Dynamics of the Uranian satellites One of the goals of the observations was to evaluate the accuracy of the current dynamical models of the motion of the satellites. This knowledge is important for several reasons: most of time the Uranian system is observed "pole-on" and the relative inclinations of the orbits of the satellites are very difficult to know. More, this knowledge should allow us to determine the precession of Uranus which is not yet known. Another reason to improve the dynamics of the Uranian satellites is to quantify the dissipation of energy inside the satellites because of the tides: only very accurate astrometric observations may allow to reach such a result. We used two models for our purpose: the one from Laskar and Jacobson (GUST86) based upon observations made using observations made from 1911 to 1986 [1] and the one from Arlot, Lainey and Thuillot (LA06) [2] based upon a different sets of observations made from 1950 to 2006. Astrometric observations Since the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> events are observable only every 42 years (in fact, 2007 was the first time where <span class="hlt">mutual</span> events were observed on the Uranian system), many other astrometric observations were performed, mainly with photographic plates, CCD targets or using a meridian transit circle. These observations and their accuracy will be compared with <span class="hlt">mutual</span> events. Note that these observations introduce some biases in the data (date of the opposition, absolute position of the planet), different than those of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> events (equinox time). Observations of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> events in 2007 Due to the difficulty of the observations, very few observations were made: about 15 events were observed using telescopes with apertures from 40 cm to 8 meters... The observing sites which reported observations were Marseille and Pic du Midi (France), Canarian Islands (Spain), La Silla and Paranal (Chile), Itajuba (Brazil), Tubitak (Turkey), Hanle (India) and Siding Spring (Australia). A preliminary analysis Some light curves were reduced and a comparison has been made with the theoretical calculations of the events. A preliminary analysis shows that LA06 has smaller residuals in the longitudes of the satellites than GUST86 but the residuals are equivalent in latitude. This confirms the problem due to the "pole-on" observation of this system and shows the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arlot, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800040095&hterms=bionics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbionics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal estimator model for human spatial <span class="hlt">orientation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model is being developed to predict pilot dynamic spatial <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in <span class="hlt">response</span> to multisensory stimuli. Motion stimuli are first processed by dynamic models of the visual, vestibular, tactile, and proprioceptive sensors. Central nervous system function is then modeled as a steady-state Kalman filter which blends information from the various sensors to form an estimate of spatial <span class="hlt">orientation</span>. Where necessary, this linear central estimator has been augmented with nonlinear elements to reflect more accurately some highly nonlinear human <span class="hlt">response</span> characteristics. Computer implementation of the model has shown agreement with several important qualitative characteristics of human spatial <span class="hlt">orientation</span>, and it is felt that with further modification and additional experimental data the model can be improved and extended. Possible means are described for extending the model to better represent the active pilot with varying skill and work load levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borah, J.; Young, L. R.; Curry, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24967662"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Customer <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in ambulant medicine].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Due to developments of the health market, economic aspects of the health system are more relevant. In this upcoming market the patient is regarded as customer and the doctor as provider of medical services. Studies on customer <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in the ambulant medicine lag behind this dynamic. An aim of the study is to comprehend the attitudes of the doctors referring to the customer <span class="hlt">orientation</span>. In a second step the findings are discussed according to statements of health-care paticipants. Developments in role comprehension of doctor and patient are focused to gain results in scientific and practical applications. Method: Guideline-supported, partly narrative interviews with n=9 gynaecologists and n=11 general practitioners in Freiburg/Germany are recorded, transcribed and reviewed in a qualitative analysis. Results: The statements of the doctors show patient satisfaction has an incremental meaning sspecially regarding the sequence of patient relationship and economic management of the doctor's workplace. The doctor's role comprehension meets with a refusal of the role of salesman and the patient as customer. Discussion: The method of interviews is suitable to gather empirical impressions of the doctors. The control sample is adequate, however a bias due to inhomogeneous thematic affinitiy and local social-demographics might be possible. The customer <span class="hlt">orientation</span> has become an important factor in doctor-patient relationtships. The relevance of the doctor-patient conversation and the risk of misuse of the patient confidence are mentioned by the doctors. The doctor as paternalistic care provider gives way to the customer-focused service provider. The doctor's necessity of autonomyssss and dependency on patient satisfaction have potential for conflict. Conclusion: Intensive mention of customer <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in medicine in the media emphasises its importance. Rational handling with the possibilities of individual health markets is a prospective challange. Further research could be established in all aspects of customer <span class="hlt">orientation</span>, especially the changing relevance of ethical <span class="hlt">responsibility</span>. An enlargement or comparison with other control samples (n>20, other medical subfields, structurally weak areas) could be illuminating. The results of this qualitative study can be used to develop quantitative inquiries. PMID:24967662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heinrich, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4054014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for adjustable bandwidth <span class="hlt">orientation</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The standard model of early vision claims that <span class="hlt">orientation</span> and spatial frequency are encoded with multiple, quasi-independent channels that have fixed spatial frequency and <span class="hlt">orientation</span> bandwidths. The standard model was developed using detection and discrimination data collected from experiments that used deterministic patterns such as Gabor patches and gratings used as stimuli. However, detection data from experiments using noise as a stimulus suggests that the visual system may use adjustable-bandwidth, rather than fixed-bandwidth, channels. In our previous work, we used classification images as a key piece of evidence against the hypothesis that pattern detection is based on the <span class="hlt">responses</span> of channels with an adjustable spatial frequency bandwidth. Here we tested the hypothesis that channels with adjustable <span class="hlt">orientation</span> bandwidths are used to detect two-dimensional, filtered noise targets that varied in <span class="hlt">orientation</span> bandwidth and were presented in white noise. Consistent with our previous work that examined spatial frequency bandwidth, we found that detection thresholds were consistent with the hypothesis that observers sum information across a broad range of <span class="hlt">orientations</span> nearly optimally: absolute efficiency for stimulus detection was 20–30% and approximately constant across a wide range of <span class="hlt">orientation</span> bandwidths. Unlike what we found with spatial frequency bandwidth, the results of our classification image experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that the <span class="hlt">orientation</span> bandwidth of internal filters were adjustable. Thus, for <span class="hlt">orientation</span> summation, both detection thresholds and classification images support the adjustable channels hypothesis. Classification images also revealed hallmarks of inhibition or suppression from uninformative spatial frequencies and/or <span class="hlt">orientations</span>. This work highlights the limitations of the standard model of summation for <span class="hlt">orientation</span>. The standard model of <span class="hlt">orientation</span> summation and tuning was chiefly developed with narrow-band stimuli that were not presented in noise, stimuli that are arguably less naturalistic than the variable bandwidth stimuli presented in noise used in our experiments. Finally, the disagreement between the results from our experiments on spatial frequency summation with the data presented in this paper suggests that <span class="hlt">orientation</span> may be encoded more flexibly than spatial frequency channels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, Christopher P.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED324984.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cultural <span class="hlt">Orientation</span>. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cultural <span class="hlt">orientation</span> curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal <span class="hlt">responsibility</span>), knowledge of cultural…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1479856"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical <span class="hlt">orientation</span> of advanced metal particle dispersions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of metal particle pigment dispersions using pulsed field techniques has been undertaken. Our data indicate that mechanical <span class="hlt">orientation</span> of the magnetic particles is initiated in fields of magnitude less than that required for the onset of Neel reversal and in <span class="hlt">response</span> to pulsed fields of duration less than 100 ?s. Differences in chemical formulation and dispersion quality can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. S. Prichard; K. O'Grady; P. I. Mayo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=io&pg=5&id=ED192237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Scale of Interpersonal <span class="hlt">Orientation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The construct Interpersonal <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> (IO) refers to the degree to which a person is <span class="hlt">responsive</span> to the interpersonal aspects of his relationships with other people. A self-report measure of IO was devised whose construct validity was supported by correlational data. Two experiments were conducted to assess the potential usefulness of IO in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swap, Walter C.; Rubin, Jeffrey Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22human+resources+management%22&pg=3&id=EJ855173"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of New Hire <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> Programs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire <span class="hlt">orientation</span> (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign <span class="hlt">responsibility</span> for the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/663482"> <span id="translatedtitle">A laboratory for teaching object <span class="hlt">oriented</span> thinking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is difficult to introduce both novice and experienced procedural programmers to the anthropomorphic perspective necessary for object-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> design. We introduce CRC cards, which characterize objects by class name, <span class="hlt">responsibilities</span>, and collaborators, as a way of giving learners a direct experience of objects. We have found this approach successful in teaching novice programmers the concepts of objects, and in introducing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kent Beck; Ward Cunningham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60572243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">orient</span> cycle, toward realizing intensified transmutation and utilization of radioactive wastes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To minimize the ecological burden originating in nuclear fuel recycling, a new R and D strategy, Adv.- <span class="hlt">ORIENT</span> (Advanced Optimization by Recycling Instructive Elements) cycle, was set forth. In this context, <span class="hlt">mutual</span> separation of f-elements, such as minor actinide (MA)\\/lanthanide (Ln) and Am\\/Cm, are essential to enhance the MA (particularly ²¹Am) burning. Isotope separation before transmutation is inevitably required in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masaki Ozawa; Shinichi Koyama; Tatsuya Suzuki; Yasuhiko Fujii; Reiko Fujita; Hitoshi Mimura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN23B1505G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities <span class="hlt">responsible</span> for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information of RMCAB. As expected, it was found that the stations with average concentrations close to the network mean tend to have larger <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information, whereas stations with atypical values share less information. The degree of dispersion around the mean of the RMCAB measurements does not exhibit a strong correlation with the tendencies observed for the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information. In general, the stations around the geographical center of Bogota or close to areas of large emissions, i.e. industrial areas, share the most information, while the stations located on the city outskirts are particularly singular. This degree of correlation as well as its underlying variables provides an approach to identifying the distribution of the pollutants over the city, which in turn gives insight into the spatial influence on monitoring networks. Moreover, it has the potential to contribute to the reconfiguration of existing networks in order to both improve their influence and optimize operational costs. Finally, the results of this method shall be compared with those obtained by diagnostic atmospheric dispersion models in order to improve our understanding of the pollution phenomena and to reduce uncertainties. This is an ongoing research topic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://ritdml.rit.edu/bitstream/handle/1850/250/FreshmanOrientationWorkingPaper2004.pdf;jsessionid=3548B870FCCFD98F88A7C8DB647624E6?sequence=1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freshman <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to discuss the experience and positive results in this year's freshmen <span class="hlt">orientation</span> at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). Before classes started in the fall freshman in Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering Technology (ECTET) programs were asked to work with faculty as they programmed an inexpensive robot and built maps of the RIT campus for the robots to navigate. The paper discusses these activities in detail, provides the tutorials that were developed and discusses the student survey completed after the <span class="hlt">orientation</span>.The goals met in the <span class="hlt">orientation</span> were: faculty-student interaction, student-student interaction, increased student knowledge of the campus, team participation by all, students meeting the office staff and, students working with their advisors to review their schedule before classes began. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciccarelli, Steven; Cliver, Richard; Eastman, Michael; Lillie, Jeffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23617406"> <span id="translatedtitle">The state of the science of family caregiver-care receiver <span class="hlt">mutuality</span>: a systematic review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review critically examines the current state of the science on the concept of family caregiver-care receiver <span class="hlt">mutuality</span>, summarizes accomplishments and gaps and identifies directions for future theory development and research. <span class="hlt">Mutuality</span> between family caregivers and care receivers is of increasing interest to researchers. However, no analysis of the current state of the science of this important concept has been published. Our literature search revealed 34 research articles that met inclusion criteria. The studies were assessed in terms of conceptualization of <span class="hlt">mutuality</span>, instrument development, populations studied, research designs and methods and findings. Significant scientific progress during the past 30 years includes the development of clear definitions and new instruments, expansion of research beyond the clinical populations in which <span class="hlt">mutuality</span> was first studied, the use of a variety of research designs, and increasingly sophisticated methods of data analysis. Growing evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">mutuality</span> is associated with caregiver emotional health outcomes and may decrease over time in the context of chronic illness. Directions for future research include development of new theoretical frameworks grounded in relational theory, development of theory on the dynamics of <span class="hlt">mutuality</span> over time, exploration of <span class="hlt">mutuality</span> in diverse cultures and populations, and intervention studies aimed at enhancing <span class="hlt">mutuality</span>. PMID:23617406</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Esther O; Schumacher, Karen L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plunkett&pg=3&id=EJ825939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning Words over Time: The Role of Stimulus Repetition in <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Exclusivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the second year of life, infants develop a preference to attach novel labels to novel objects. This behavior is commonly known as "<span class="hlt">mutual</span> exclusivity" (Markman, 1989). In an intermodal preferential looking experiment with 19.5- and 22.5-month-olds, stimulus repetition was critical for observing <span class="hlt">mutual</span> exclusivity. On the first occasion that…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mather, Emily; Plunkett, Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54247617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computing Highly Correlated Positions Using <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information and Graph Theory for G Protein-Coupled Receptors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning proteins involved in a wide array of physiological functions and are the most common targets of pharmaceuticals. This study aims to identify a cohort or clique of positions that share high <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information. Using a multiple sequence alignment of the transmembrane (TM) domains, we calculated the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information between all</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarosh N. Fatakia; Stefano Costanzi; Carson C. Chow; Matthieu Louis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1618916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis, computation, and mitigation of radio systems' <span class="hlt">mutual</span> interference effects in collocated vehicular transceivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent increase in the use of mobile radios and systems has enhanced the operation probability and harmful <span class="hlt">mutual</span> interference resulting from the collocation of two transceivers in the same vehicle. Military mobile systems are especially vulnerable to the collocation operation. Civilian systems, however, are now also being affected. This paper provides a better understanding of the effects of <span class="hlt">mutual</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacques Gavan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=assertive+AND+community+AND+treatment&id=EJ383615"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community Treatment of the Mentally Ill: The Promise of <span class="hlt">Mutual</span>-Help Organizations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reviews literature on alternatives to hospitalization for mentally ill. Describes <span class="hlt">mutual</span>-help organizations which, if successful, involve individually tailored, assertive, and long-term support. Presents one <span class="hlt">mutual</span>-help organization which has been observed for five years as an example. (Author/ABL)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salem, Deborah A.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1564204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved compensation for the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> coupling effect in a dipole array for direction finding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new and practical method is proposed to compensate for the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> coupling effect in a dipole array deployed for direction finding. This method does not require either the current distributions on the antenna elements or the elevation angles of the incoming signals to be known. A new definition of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> impedance is introduced to characterize the effect due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. T. Hui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27077507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical Parameters for <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Inductance Between Rogowski Coil and Primary Conductor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the results of an analytical study aimed at characterizing the critical parameters affecting the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> induc- tance M between Rogowski coils and primary conductors. The analysis is based on the method of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> partial inductances and it is applied to various case studies. Calculations are carried out for Rogowski coils having a few turns, hundreds, and even</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirko Marracci; Bernardo Tellini; Carmine Zappacosta; Guillermo Robles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50770048"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical parameters for <span class="hlt">mutual</span> inductance between Rogowski coil and primary conductor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the results of an analytical study aimed at characterizing the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> inductance M of Rogowski coils for generic paths of the primary wire and for nonuniform windings. In order to obtain such data, we performed a series of calculations based on the method of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> partial inductances and on the application of the Biot-Savart-Laplace law. Finally, we</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Becherini; S. Di Fraia; M. Marracci; B. Tellini; C. Zappacosta; G. Robles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36069633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do locals perform better than foreigners?: An analysis of UK and US <span class="hlt">mutual</span> fund managers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We hypothesize that local knowledge and contacts lead to superior returns for local <span class="hlt">mutual</span> fund managers relative to foreign managers. To test this hypothesis, we study the performance of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> funds in two countries: the US and UK. We examine the effectiveness of UK open end fund managers (foreigners) investing in the US relative to US open end fund managers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ravi K. Shukla; Gregory B. van Inwegen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bme.ogi.edu/~lantian/bibo/feature%20selection/mutual-nn_feature%20selection.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information for selecting features in supervised neural net learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the application of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information criterion to evaluate a set of candidate features and to select an informative subset to be used as input data for a neural network classifier. Because the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information measures arbitrary dependencies between random variables, it is suitable for assessing the “information content” of features in complex classification tasks, where methods</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberto Battiti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54093781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Events of the Uranian Satellites Observed with the Faulkes Telescopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2007 Uranian Equinox allowed unique observations of the planet, its rings and satellites, possible only twice during the planet's 84 year orbit. Among these were <span class="hlt">mutual</span> eclipses and occultations between the 5 classical satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon and Miranda. These ``<span class="hlt">mutual</span>'' events are extremely useful as reality checks of satellite ephemerides. In addition, they provide an opportunity to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apostolos Christou; F. Lewis; M. G. Hidas; T. M. Brown; P. Roche</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5541139"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Funds and Non Banking Financial Companies in Corporate Governance in Pakistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper advances the argument that institutional investors, particularly <span class="hlt">mutual</span> funds can play a vital role in enhancing corporate governance in emerging economies. Accordingly, regulatory framework need to be structured in a manner that would encourage the growth of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> fund industry and enable it to play a proactive role in corporate governance. The paper reviews and evaluates the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moeen Cheema; Sikander A. Shah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mapping&pg=7&id=EJ897573"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Gaze Direction and <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Exclusivity in Guiding 24-Month-Olds' Word Mappings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In these studies, we examined how a default assumption about word meaning, the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> exclusivity assumption and an intentional cue, gaze direction, interacted to guide 24-month-olds' object-word mappings. In Expt 1, when the experimenter's gaze was consistent with the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> exclusivity assumption, novel word mappings were facilitated. When the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, Susan A.; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Collins, Sarah; Olineck, Kara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22alignment%22&pg=3&id=EJ979079"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> alignment analogy in the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VULNERABILITY&id=EJ851229"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Vulnerability: A Key Principle in a Humanising Pedagogy in Post-Conflict Societies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article we argue that education in post-conflict and traumatised societies should be partly underpinned by the principle of "<span class="hlt">mutual</span> vulnerability" as central to a humanising pedagogy. We explain the conceptual links between "reconciliation pedagogies", "<span class="hlt">mutual</span> vulnerability" and "humanising pedagogies" and associate them with the broader…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zinn, Denise; Proteus, Kimberley; Keet, Andre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=root+AND+reinforcement&id=ED229477"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Adaptation Concept: Its Roots and Relatives. Documentation and Technical Assistance in Urban Schools.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper explores the roots of the concept of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> adaptation in the literature of cognitive psychology, anthropology, biology, organizational behavior, and policy analysis. It is said that while educational researchers use the concept, their neglect of the literature on it is due, in part, to contradictory definitions of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> adaptation as…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meara, Hannah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hx6wj8qpvpaclrbl.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of obligate pollination <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span>: senita cactus and senita moth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a new obligate pollination <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> involving the senita cactus, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae, Pachyceereae), and the senita moth, Upiga virescens (Pyralidae, Glaphyriinae) in the Sonoran Desert and discuss the evolution of specialized pollination <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span>. L. schottii is a night-blooming, self-incompatible columnar cactus. Beginning at sunset, its flowers are visited by U. virescens females, which collect pollen on specialized abdominal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Theodore H. Fleming; J. Nathaniel Holland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13303977"> <span id="translatedtitle">AFMAP: Anonymous Forward-Secure <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Authentication Protocols for RFID Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we propose two <span class="hlt">mutual</span> authentication protocols for RFID systems. Generally, in RFID systems, a reader can authenticate tags in the real-time and batch modes. This paper proposes the first authentication protocol for the real-time mode. It also proposes an efficient robust <span class="hlt">mutual</span> authentication protocol for the batch mode. Some significant characteristics of the protocols are forward security,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alireza Sadighian; Rasool Jalili</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://perso.telecom-paristech.fr/~najim/Proceedings/itw08tlc.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information of large dimensional MIMO channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, large random matrix theory is used to study Shannonpsilas <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information of a general class of multiple input multiple output radio channels with random correlated gains. In the literature, there exists an approximation of this <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information in the asymptotic regime where the number of transmitting antennas and the number of receiving antennas grow toward infinity at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walid Hachem; Philippe Loubaton; Jamal Najim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37558060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bargain Hunting or Star Gazing? Investors' Preferences for Stock <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Funds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Investors who wish to purchase shares in <span class="hlt">mutual</span> funds balance many types of information, from a variety of sources, when making their fund selection. This research examines how investors choose a <span class="hlt">mutual</span> fund within a given class of funds. Among the major findings are that investors pay a great deal of attention to past performance and vastly overweight loads relative</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1528653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rotor position sensing in switched reluctance motor drives by measuring <span class="hlt">mutually</span> induced voltages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a new method of indirect rotor position sensing for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. The principle is based on measuring the <span class="hlt">mutually</span> induced voltage in an inactive phase which is either adjacent or opposite to the energized phase of an SRM. The <span class="hlt">mutual</span> voltage in the “off” phase, induced due to the current in the active phase,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iqbal Husain; Mehrdad Ehsani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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