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Sample records for mutually responsive orientation

  1. Learning Design and Service-Oriented Architectures: A Mutual Dependency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Patrick; Weller, Martin; Barrett-Baxendale, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at how the concept of reusability has gained currency in e-learning. Initial attention was focused on reuse of content, but recently attention has focused on reusable software tools and reusable activity structures. The former has led to the proposal of service-oriented architectures, and the latter has seen the development of the…

  2. Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian P S

    2006-01-01

    Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

  3. Mutual information and the fidelity of response of gene regulatory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbaa, Omar P.; Jayaprakash, C.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate cellular response to extracellular signals by using information theory techniques motivated by recent experiments. We present results for the steady state of the following gene regulatory models found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: a linear transcription-translation model and a positive or negative auto-regulatory model. We calculate both the information capacity and the mutual information exactly for simple models and approximately for the full model. We find that (1) small changes in mutual information can lead to potentially important changes in cellular response and (2) there are diminishing returns in the fidelity of response as the mutual information increases. We calculate the information capacity using Gillespie simulations of a model for the TNF-?-NF-? B network and find good agreement with the measured value for an experimental realization of this network. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the differences in cellular response when comparing experimentally measured mutual information values of different gene regulatory models. Our calculations demonstrate that Gillespie simulations can be used to compute the mutual information of more complex gene regulatory models, providing a potentially useful tool in synthetic biology.

  4. Managing Mutual Orientation in the Absence of Physical Copresence: Multiparty Voice-Based Chat Room Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Christopher Joseph; Brandt, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the interactional work involved in ratifying mutual participation in online, multiparty, voice-based chat rooms. The purpose of this article is to provide a preliminary sketch of how talk and participation is managed in a spoken communication environment that comprises interactants who are not physically copresent but are…

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATIONSHORT COMMUNICATION Mutualism variation in the nodulation response to nitrate

    E-print Network

    Stinchcombe, John

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONSHORT COMMUNICATION Mutualism variation in the nodulation response to nitrate K) and nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia. Rhizobia live in symbiotic nodules on the roots of host plants and therein in legume-rhizobium coevolution is the number of root nodules formed. Nodule number is truly a trait

  6. Numerical responses in resource-based mutualisms: A time scale approach.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Tomás A

    2015-08-01

    Many mutualisms involve inter-specific resource exchanges, making consumer-resource approaches ideal for studying their dynamics. Also in many cases these resources are short lived (e.g. flowers) compared with the population dynamics of their producers and consumers (e.g. plants and insects), which justifies a separation of time scales. As a result, we can derive the numerical response of one species with respect to the abundance of another. For resource consumers, the numerical responses can account for intra-specific competition for mutualistic resources (e.g. nectar), thus connecting competition theory and mutualism mechanistically. For species that depend on services (e.g. pollination, seed dispersal), the numerical responses display saturation of benefits, with service handling times related with rates of resource production (e.g. flower turnover time). In both scenarios, competition and saturation have the same underlying cause, which is that resource production occurs at a finite velocity per individual, but their consumption tracks the much faster rates of population growth characterizing mutualisms. The resulting models display all the basic features seen in many models of facultative and obligate mutualisms, and they can be generalized from species pairs to larger communities. PMID:25936757

  7. Geographical matching of volatile signals and pollinator olfactory responses in a cycad brood-site mutualism.

    PubMed

    Suinyuy, Terence N; Donaldson, John S; Johnson, Steven D

    2015-10-01

    Brood-site mutualisms represent extreme levels of reciprocal specialization between plants and insect pollinators, raising questions about whether these mutualisms are mediated by volatile signals and whether these signals and insect responses to them covary geographically in a manner expected from coevolution. Cycads are an ancient plant lineage in which almost all extant species are pollinated through brood-site mutualisms with insects. We investigated whether volatile emissions and insect olfactory responses are matched across the distribution range of the African cycad Encephalartos villosus. This cycad species is pollinated by the same beetle species across its distribution, but cone volatile emissions are dominated by alkenes in northern populations, and by monoterpenes and a pyrazine compound in southern populations. In reciprocal choice experiments, insects chose the scent of cones from the local region over that of cones from the other region. Antennae of beetles from northern populations responded mainly to alkenes, while those of beetles from southern populations responded mainly to pyrazine. In bioassay experiments, beetles were most strongly attracted to alkenes in northern populations and to the pyrazine compound in southern populations. Geographical matching of cone volatiles and pollinator olfactory preference is consistent with coevolution in this specialized mutualism. PMID:26446814

  8. Mutual inductance Mutual induction

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Mutual inductance Mutual induction ­ current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due = dt d N 21 2 -=2 dt di M 1 21-=2 #12;Mutual inductance Reverse roles of coils What is induced emf

  9. Social Anhedonia and Medial Prefrontal Response to Mutual Liking in Late Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kati L.; Morgan, Judith; Musselman, Samuel C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depression defined as difficulty experiencing pleasure, is also a possible endophenotype and prognostic factor for the development of depression. The onset of depression typically occurs during adolescence, a period in which social status and affiliation are especially salient. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in reward, self-relevant processing, and social cognition, exhibits altered function in adults with anhedonia, but its association with adolescent anhedonia has yet to be investigated. We examined neural response to social reward in 27 late adolescents, 18–21 years old, who varied in social anhedonia. Participants reported their social anhedonia, completed ratings of photos of unfamiliar peers, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving feedback about being liked. Adolescents with higher social anhedonia exhibited greater mPFC activation in response to mutual liking (i.e., being liked by someone they also liked) relative to received liking (i.e., being liked by someone whom they did not like). This association held after controlling for severity of current depressive symptoms, although depressive severity was also associated with greater mPFC response. Adolescents with higher levels of social anhedonia also had stronger positive connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the mPFC during mutual versus received liking. These results, the first on the pathophysiology of adolescent anhedonia, support altered neural reward-circuit response to social reward in young people with social anhedonia. PMID:24412087

  10. Social anhedonia and medial prefrontal response to mutual liking in late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Healey, Kati L; Morgan, Judith; Musselman, Samuel C; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-08-01

    Anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depression defined as difficulty experiencing pleasure, is also a possible endophenotype and prognostic factor for the development of depression. The onset of depression typically occurs during adolescence, a period in which social status and affiliation are especially salient. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in reward, self-relevant processing, and social cognition, exhibits altered function in adults with anhedonia, but its association with adolescent anhedonia has yet to be investigated. We examined neural response to social reward in 27 late adolescents, 18-21years old, who varied in social anhedonia. Participants reported their social anhedonia, completed ratings of photos of unfamiliar peers, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving feedback about being liked. Adolescents with higher social anhedonia exhibited greater mPFC activation in response to mutual liking (i.e., being liked by someone they also liked) relative to received liking (i.e., being liked by someone whom they did not like). This association held after controlling for severity of current depressive symptoms, although depressive severity was also associated with greater mPFC response. Adolescents with higher levels of social anhedonia also had stronger positive connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the mPFC during mutual versus received liking. These results, the first on the pathophysiology of adolescent anhedonia, support altered neural reward-circuit response to social reward in young people with social anhedonia. PMID:24412087

  11. Ethics of care in medical tourism: Informal caregivers' narratives of responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism through an ethics of care lens. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery, asking questions that dealt with their experiences prior to, during and after travel. Thematic analysis revealed three themes central to an ethics of care: responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality. Ethics of care theorists have highlighted how care has been historically devalued. We posit that medical tourism reproduces dominant narratives about care in a novel care landscape. Informal care goes unaccounted for by the industry, as it occurs in largely private spaces at a geographic distance from the home countries of medical tourists. PMID:26313855

  12. Mutualism variation in the nodulation response to nitrate K. D. HEATH*, A. J. STOCK & J. R. STINCHCOMBE

    E-print Network

    Heath, Katy

    Mutualism variation in the nodulation response to nitrate K. D. HEATH*, A. J. STOCK & J. R in symbiotic nodules on the roots of host plants and therein fix atmospheric dinitrogen to plant is the number of root nodules formed. Nodule number is truly a trait of the symbiosis, as the phenotype

  13. Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  14. The influence of sensor orientation on activity-based rate responsive pacing. Sensor Orientation Study Group.

    PubMed

    Theres, H; Philippon, F; Melzer, C; Combs, W; Prest-Berg, K

    1998-11-01

    Piezoelectric activity-based rate responsive pacemakers are commonly implanted with the sensor facing inward. This study was conducted to assess the safe and effective rate response of an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker implanted with the sensor facing outward. A comparison were made to a previously studied patient group with sensor facing inward. Patient and pacemaker data was collected at predischarge and 2-month follow-up. Two-minute hall walks in conjunction with programmer-assisted rate response assessment were utilized to standardize initial rate response parameter settings for both patient groups. At 2-month follow-up, sensor rate response to a stage 3 limited CAEP protocol was recorded. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for both patient groups. No difference was noted in reported patient complications for both groups. A statistically significant difference in programmed rate response curve setting and activity threshold for the two groups was noted at 2-month follow-up. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for a patient population implanted with an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker with sensor facing outward. In this orientation, one higher rate response curve setting and an activity threshold one value more sensitive were required on average when compared to the normal sensor orientation group. PMID:9826862

  15. INTRODUCTION In many animals, oriented locomotion in response to specific

    E-print Network

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    1863 INTRODUCTION In many animals, oriented locomotion in response to specific environmental cues in Earth's magnetic field as a kind of `map' to guide their swimming within the gyre (Lohmann et al., 2007 as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at different locations along the migratory route

  16. The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, G

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this review is to compare two divergent lines of research on signal-centered behavior: the orienting reflex (OR) and autoshaping. A review of conditioning experiments in animals and humans suggests that the novelty hypothesis of the OR is no longer tenable. Only stimuli that represent biological "relevance" elicit ORs. A stimulus may be relevant a priori (i.e., unconditioned) or as a result of conditioning. Exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts a positive reinforcer causes the animal to orient to it throughout conditioning. Within the CS-US interval, the initial CS-directed orienting response is followed by US-directed tendencies. Experimental evidence is shown that the development and maintenance of the conditioned OR occur in a similar fashion both in response-independent (classical) and response-dependent (instrumental) paradigms. It is proposed that the conditioned OR and the signal-directed autoshaped response are identical. Signals predicting aversive events repel the subject from the source of the CS. It is suggested that the function of the CS is not only to signal the probability of US occurrence, but also to serve as a spatial cue to guide the animal in the environment. PMID:7097153

  17. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Influence of epitaxial properties on the mutual inductance response of high-quality YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M. L.; Santamaria, J.; Sánchez-Quesada, F.; Lopera, W.; Gómez, M. E.; Prieto, P.

    1996-02-01

    High-quality YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x films have been produced on SrTiO 3 (001) and NdGaO 3 (001) substrates. X-ray ? scans show a good in-plane texture but do not exclude the presence of domains at 90°. Diamagnetic shielding properties obtained from mutual-inductance measurements show a double peak structure which may be ascribed to the presence of those domains. This point is further supported with an analysis of the normal-state resistivity. Films with an interdomain resistivity of 10 -5 ? cm show a double peak structure in the mutual-inductance measurements and relatively low values of the critical current densities (1.5 × 10 5 A cm -2 at 77 K), while films with interdomain resistivities lower than 10 -6 ? cm show a narrow single peak and higher values of the critical current (10 6 A cm -2 at 77 K).

  19. Functional Response, Prey Stage Preference, and Mutual Interference of the Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Tomato and Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Campos-Figueroa, Manuel; Silva, Adrian; Henne, Donald C

    2015-04-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (šulc), has been detrimental to potato, tomato, and other solanaceous crop production in many countries. Management of B. cockerelli is dominated by frequent insecticide applications, but other approaches need consideration, including biological control. The sole arrhenotokous ectoparasitoid of nymphal potato psyllids is Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Here, laboratory evaluations of host stage preference, parasitoid mutual interference, and functional response of T. triozae were conducted with varying host B. cockerelli nymphal stages and densities on both tomato and bell pepper plant leaves. Significant differences in prey stage preferences were found on both host plants. In a no-choice host stage test, significantly greater parasitism of fourth- and fifth-instar B. cockerelli nymphs occurred, and no parasitism of first or second instars was found. Similar preferences were found in a host stage choice test. Effect of mutual interference on per capita female parasitism was significant when confining two or three simultaneously ovipositing female T. triozae adults on a given host density versus solitary females. The per capita search efficiency (s) of female T. triozae was significantly and negatively correlated with T. triozae density. The functional response of T. triozae to nymphal B. cockerelli was a Type III form on both host plants. In addition, host plant type did not exert a significant bottom-up effect on either parasitism or functional response of female T. triozae. The feasibility of using bell pepper as a potential banker plant for T. triozae augmentation is also discussed. PMID:26470152

  20. The Magnetospheric Response to Abrupt Variations in the IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    We run the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic model at NASA/GSFC's CCMCto study the magnetospheric response to abrupt variations in the IMF orientation but constant solar wind plasmaparameters. IMF rotations from southward to duskward orientations diminish reconnection rates and the flow ofplasma to the dayside magnetopause, launch Alfven waves that carry strong duskward magnetic field perturbationsto the cusp ionosphere, introduce a weak duskward magnetic field perturbation to the outer dayside magnetosphere, twistthe magnetotail current sheet counterclockwise when viewed from the Sun, flatten the north/south dimensions of the distant magnetotail, andgenerate a broad slow-mode fan on the magnetotail flanks. Southward IMF turnings strengthen the Region 1 Birkelandcurrents, prominently depressing magnetic field strengths in the inner dayside magnetosphere and to a lesserdegree those in the outer magnetosphere, consistent with inward dayside magnetopause erosion. The daysidemagnetopause becomes blunter. As evidenced by enhanced magnetosheath thermal and magnetosphericmagnetic pressures, the magnetopause therefore becomes subject to a greater fraction of the incident solar winddynamic pressure at locations away from the subsolar point.

  1. Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Holland, J. Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the fraction of flowers pollinated or seeds parasitized in pollination (pre-dispersal) seed-parasitism mutualisms, such as those between fig wasps and fig trees or yucca moths and yucca plants. Here we examine the appropriate functional responses for how the fraction of flowers pollinated and seeds parasitized vary with the density of pollinators (predator dependence) or the ratio of pollinator and flower densities (ratio dependence). We show that both types of functional responses can emerge from minor, but biologically important variations on a single model. An individual-based model was first used to describe plant–pollinator interactions. Conditional upon on whether the number of flowers visited by the pollinator was limited by factors other than search time (e.g., by the number of eggs it had to lay, if it was also a seed parasite), and on whether the pollinator could directly find flowers on a plant, or had to search, the simulation results lead to either a predator-dependent or a ratio-dependent functional response. An analytic model was then used to show mathematically how these two cases can arise.

  2. Selective Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses During Live Mutual Gaze Interactions in Human Infants: An fNIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in processing multimodal communicative ostensive signals in infants, we measured cerebral hemodynamic responses by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the social interactive play "peek-a-boo", in which both visual (direct gaze) and auditory (infant-directed speech) stimuli were presented. The infants (mean age, around 7 months) sat on their mother's lap, equipped with an NIRS head cap, and looked at a partner's face during "peek-a-boo". An eye-tracking system simultaneously monitored the infants' visual fixation patterns. The results indicate that, when the partner presented a direct gaze, rather than an averted gaze, toward an infant during social play, the infant fixated on the partner's eye region for a longer duration. Furthermore, hemodynamic activity increased more prominently dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to social play with a partner's direct gaze compared to an averted gaze. In contrast, hemodynamic activity increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (R-lPFC) regardless of a partner's eye gaze direction. These results indicate that a partner's direct gaze shifts an infant's attention to the partner's eyes for interactive communication, and specifically activates the mPFC. The differences in hemodynamic responses between the mPFC and R-lPFC suggest functional differentiation within the PFC, and a specific role of the mPFC in the perception of face-to-face communication, especially in mutual gaze, which is essential for social interaction. PMID:25367848

  3. Orientational Behaviors and EAG Responses of Male Codling Moth After Exposure to Synthetic Sex

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Orientational Behaviors and EAG Responses of Male Codling Moth After Exposure to Synthetic Sex + Business Media, Inc. 2006 Abstract The effect of brief pheromone exposures on responses of codling moth nearly eliminated moth orientations to 0.1 mg codlemone [(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol] and 0.1 mg three

  4. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. PMID:25651579

  5. Internal auditors and healthcare access managers: are our responsibilities mutually exclusive?

    PubMed

    Englander, J R

    1995-01-01

    Internal auditing should not be looked upon as a threat. It is a management tool that can assist patient access professionals by minimizing risk of loss, improving the reliability of data, enhancing productivity, and crossing "political" lines. Access professionals should feel comfortable in asking their internal auditors for assistance, particularly when they are concerned that there are barriers preventing optimal performance in their areas of responsibility. In general, in organizations with internal audit functions, admitting and registration personnel should expect to see more of them. PMID:10143984

  6. Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

  7. Alkaloid metabolism in thrips-Papaveraceae interaction: recognition and mutual response.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Ingeborg; Moritz, Gerald B; Roos, Werner

    2014-01-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), the Western Flower Thrips (WFT), is a polyphagous and highly adaptable insect of the order Thysanoptera. It has a broad host range but is rarely found on Papaveraceae, which might be due to deterrent effects of alkaloids present in most species of this family. In order to test the adaptive potential of WFT, we investigated its interaction with two Papaveraceae offered as sole feeding source. We found that WFT are able to live and feed on leaves of Eschscholzia californica and Chelidonium majus. Both plants respond to thrips feeding by the enhanced production of benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Furthermore, cell cultures of E. californica react to water insoluble compounds prepared from adult thrips with enhanced alkaloid production. During feeding, WFT take up benzophenanthridine alkaloids from either plant and from an artificial feeding medium and convert them to their less toxic dihydroderivatives. This was shown in detail with sanguinarine, the most cytotoxic benzophenanthridine. A similar conversion is used in plants to prevent self-intoxication by their own toxins. We conclude that WFT causes a phytoalexin-like response in Papaveraceae, but is able to adapt to such host plants by detoxification of toxic alkaloids. PMID:24331426

  8. Sex differences in affective and physiological responses to relationship orientations 

    E-print Network

    Hebl, Michelle Rae

    1993-01-01

    This study examined whether men's and women's different orientations to relationships would be apparent in their reactions to power and linking themes. In addition, this study explored the possibility that communal and agentic individuals...

  9. PHYSIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND TOXICOLOGY Antennal and Behavioral Responses of Virgin and Mated Oriental Fruit

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Females to Their Sex Pheromone L. L. STELINSKI,1 A. L. IL) and behavioral responses of female oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and the time of calling termination did not differ between pheromone-exposed and control moths. Oviposition

  10. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Orientation Selectivity of Color-Responsive Neurons in

    E-print Network

    Shapley, Robert

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Orientation Selectivity of Color-Responsive Neurons in Macaque V1 York, New York 10003 Form has a strong influence on color perception. We investigated the neural basis of the form­color link in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) by studying orientation selectivity of single V1

  11. Relationship between suspicious coincidence in natural images and contour-salience in oriented filter responses 

    E-print Network

    Sarma, Subramonia P.

    2004-09-30

    response to visual input. Visual response activity in the early stages of visual processing can be approximated by a sequence of convolutions of the input scene with the difference-of-Gaussian (DoG) and the oriented Gabor filters. The filtered responses...

  12. Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and

    E-print Network

    Mikulas, Szabolcs

    Chapter 5 Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and Synchronization Operating Systems: Internals and Design · Data incoherency · Deadlock: processes are "frozen" because of mutual dependency on each other Regions Mutual exclusion using critical regions #12;Mutual exclusion Critical region: part of the program

  13. Orientation-dependent shock response of explosive crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Some orientations of PETN crystals have anomalously high shock initiation sensitivity around 4 to 5 GPa. Results of a series of laser interferometry experiments at 4.2 GPa show that this is associated with an elastic-plastic, two-wave structure with large elastic precursors. Implications for the initiation mechanism in single crystals is discussed. Initial work on beta phase, monoclinic HMX is also described.

  14. Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

  15. Effect of grain orientation on mechanical properties and thermomechanical response of Sn-based solder interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hongtao; Yan, Bingbing; Yang, Ming; Ma, Xin; Li, Mingyu

    2013-11-15

    The thermomechanical response of Sn-based solder interconnects with differently oriented grains was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction technique under thermal cycling and thermal shock testing in this study. The results showed that deformation and cracking of solder interconnects have a close relationship with the unique characteristics of grain orientation and boundaries in each solder interconnect, and deformation was frequently confined within the high-angle grain boundaries. The micro Vickers hardness testing results showed that the hardness varied significantly depending on the grain orientation and structure, and deformation twins can be induced around the indents by the indentation testing. - Highlights: • Thermomechanical response shows a close relationship with the grain structure. • Deformation was frequently confined within the high-angle grain boundaries. • Different grain orientations exhibit different hardness. • Deformation twins can be induced around the indents in SAC105 solder interconnects.

  16. Futures Tended: Care and Future-Oriented Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Barbara; Groves, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of technological hazards, whose existence is only revealed many years after they were initially produced, shows that the question of our responsibilities toward future generations is of urgent importance. However, the nature of technological societies means that they are caught in a condition of structural irresponsibility: the…

  17. Blobs versus bars: psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision.

    PubMed

    Gheiratmand, Mina; Meese, Tim S; Mullen, Kathy T

    2013-01-01

    The classic hypothesis of Livingstone and Hubel (1984, 1987) proposed two types of color pathways in primate visual cortex based on recordings from single cells: a segregated, modular pathway that signals color but provides little information about shape or form and a second pathway that signals color differences and so defines forms without the need to specify their colors. A major problem has been to reconcile this neurophysiological hypothesis with the behavioral data. A wealth of psychophysical studies has demonstrated that color vision has orientation-tuned responses and little impairment on form related tasks, but these have not revealed any direct evidence for nonoriented mechanisms. Here we use a psychophysical method of subthreshold summation across orthogonal orientations for isoluminant red-green gratings in monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions to differentiate between nonoriented and orientation-tuned responses to color contrast. We reveal nonoriented color responses at low spatial frequencies (0.25-0.375 c/deg) under monocular conditions changing to orientation-tuned responses at higher spatial frequencies (1.5 c/deg) and under binocular conditions. We suggest that two distinct pathways coexist in color vision at the behavioral level, revealed at different spatial scales: one is isotropic, monocular, and best equipped for the representation of surface color, and the other is orientation-tuned, binocular, and selective for shape and form. This advances our understanding of the organization of the neural pathways involved in human color vision and provides a strong link between neurophysiological and behavioral data. PMID:23283693

  18. Modeling the relation between head orientations and otolith responses in humans

    E-print Network

    Haslwanter, Thomas

    Modeling the relation between head orientations and otolith responses in humans R. Jaeger a;Ă , A element simulation of realistic displacements of otolith membranes by static linear accelerations coupling in the otolith membrane is insufficient. Hair cell excitations on any place of the macula are only

  19. The anatomical and functional relationship between the P3 and autonomic components of the orienting response

    E-print Network

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    -activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system and the peripheral sympathetic nervous system by their common of the functional significance of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system and the peripheral sympathetic nervous system suggests that the P3 and orienting response reflect complementary cognitive and physical

  20. Using Audience Response Systems to Encourage Student Engagement and Reflection on Ethical Orientation and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheletto, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…

  1. Liberty Mutual Insurance Lisa Henry, Liberty Mutual Insurance

    E-print Network

    Cai, Jin-Yi

    Liberty Mutual Insurance Lisa Henry, Liberty Mutual Insurance Behavior Based Interviewing #12;Liberty Mutual Insurance Liberty Mutual Insurance "...helping people live safer, more secure lives by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. #12;Liberty Mutual Insurance Information Technology: More

  2. Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

  3. Inductive response of oriented UPt sub 3 in the superconducting state

    SciTech Connect

    Signore, P.J.C.; Koster, J.P.; Knetsch, E.A.; van Woerkens, C.M.C.M.; Meisel, M.W.; Brown, S.E. ); Fisk, Z. )

    1992-05-01

    The inductive response of single crystals of UPt{sub 3} have been studied from 1 K to 70 mK using mutual inductance techniques to measure {chi}{prime} and {chi}{prime}{prime} at 31.7 and 317 Hz and tunnel-diode resonant methods at 3 and 16 MHz, for the excitation fields parallel to the symmetry axis of the crystal. A double bump in the {chi}{prime}{prime} measurements is clearly distinguishable and is consistent with the {ital H}=0 phase diagrams of other workers. The temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth has been extracted from the measurements, which indicate that the low-frequency results are linear for {ital T}/{ital T}{sub {ital c}}{lt}0.5, while the high-frequency data indicate a power-law dependence close to {ital T}{sup 2}.

  4. Human Maxilla Bone Response to 30° Oriented Impacts and Comparison With Frontal Bone Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Karine, BRUYERE; François, BERMOND; Robert, BOUQUET; Yves, CAIRE; Michelle, RAMET; Eric, VOĎGLIO

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the responses of human maxilla and frontal bones under 30°-oriented impacts. Maxilla and frontal bones of the same subject were impacted by a guided horizontal steel cylinder. Linear acceleration time histories and force time histories were plotted and corridors were proposed for maxilla bone response. Sensitivity of head dynamics in regard to impact energy level and localization showed the protection of the intracranial contents by the facial bones crushing. Injury risk curves were established for impact on frontal bone, showing a 50% risk injury for impact energy of 265 J or impact force of 7500 N. PMID:11558085

  5. Method of unconfounding orientation and direction tunings in neuronal response to moving bars and gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun

    2005-10-01

    When an oriented bar or grating is drifted across the receptive field of a cortical neuron at various orientations, the tuning function reflects both, and thus confounds the orientation (ORI) and the direction-of-motion (DIR) selectivity of the cell. Since ORI (or DIR), by definition, has a period of 180(or 360) deg/cycle, a popular method for separating these two components, due to Wörgötter and Eysel [Biol. Cybern. 57, 349 (1987)], is to Fourier decompose the neuron's response along the angular direction and then identify the first and the second harmonic with DIR and ORI, respectively (the SDO method). Zhang [Biol. Cybern. 63, 135 (1990)] pointed out that this interpretation is misconceived-all odd harmonics (not just the first harmonic) reflect the DIR component, whereas all even harmonics (including the second harmonic) contain contributions from both DIR and ORI. Here, a simplified procedure is proposed to accomplish the goal of unconfounding ORI and DIR. We first construct the sum of all odd harmonics of the overall tuning curve, denoted ODDSUM, by calculating the difference in the neuronal response to opposite drifting directions. Then we construct ODDSUM+|ODDSUM| and identify it with DIR (here |.| denotes the absolute value). Subtracting DIR, that is ODDSUM+|ODDSUM|, from the overall tuning curve gives ORI. Our method ensures that (i) the reconstructed DIR contains only one, positive peak at the preferred direction and can have power in all harmonics, and (ii) the reconstructed ORI has two peaks separated by 180° and has zero power for all odd harmonics. Using this procedure, we have unconfounded orientation and direction components for a considerable sample of macaque striate cortical cells, and compared the results with those obtained using Wörgötter and Eysel's SDO method. We found that whereas the estimate of the peak angle of ORI remains largely unaffected, Wörgötter and Eysel's method considerably overestimated the relative strength of ORI. To conclude, a simple method is provided for appropriately separating the orientation and directional tuning in a neuron's response that is confounded as a result of the use of drifting oriented stimuli.

  6. Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined infants' negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) on children's self-regulation (n = 102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months.…

  7. Mars' "Magnetospheric" Response to Interplanetary Field Orientation: Inferences from Models for MAVEN Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Dong, C.; Ma, Y.-J.; Curry, S. M.; Alvarez, K.; Hara, T.; Halekas, J.; Brain, D. A.; Bougher, S.; Espley, J.

    2015-10-01

    Planetary space weather at Mars has attracted much interest, but the focus is usually on the response to solar activity and its related disturbances in the solar wind. While this aspect is important and may be key to understanding Mars' atmosphere evolution, an additional consideration is based on the sensitivity of Earth's magnetospheric solar wind interaction to southward interplanetary magnetic fields. The study described here investigates whether Mars has its own specific interplanetary field orientation sensitivities that might be identified in the MAVEN data analyses.

  8. The Effects of Ant Mutualism on the Foraging and Diet

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    12 The Effects of Ant Mutualism on the Foraging and Diet of Lycaenid Caterpillars Matthew Baylis; Atsatt 198 Ib; Cottrell 1984; Pierce 1987). Mutualisms in which the fitness of each partner is increased-ant mutualisms and the responses of Iycaenids to those challenges. We will begin with a brief overview of some

  9. Modeling the effect of orientation on the shock response of a damageable composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, Alexander A.

    2012-10-01

    A carbon fiber-epoxy composite (CFEC) shock response in the through thickness orientation and in one of the fiber directions is significantly different. The hydrostatic pressure inside anisotropic materials depends on deviatoric strain components as well as volumetric strain. Non-linear effects, such as shock effects, can be incorporated through the volumetric straining in the material. Thus, a new basis is required to couple the anisotropic material stiffness and strength with anisotropic shock effects, associated energy dependence, and damage softening process. This article presents these constitutive equations for shock wave modeling of a damageable carbon fiber-epoxy composite. Modeling the effect of fiber orientation on the shock response of a CFEC has been performed using a generalized decomposition of the stress tensor [A. A. Lukyanov, Int. J. Plast. 24, 140 (2008)] and Mie-Grüneisen's extrapolation of high-pressure shock Hugoniot states to other thermodynamics states for shocked CFEC materials. The three-wave structure (non-linear anisotropic, fracture, and isotropic elastic waves) that accompanies damage softening process is also proposed in this work for describing CFEC behavior under shock loading which allows to remove any discontinuities observed in the linear case for relation between shock velocities and particle velocities [A. A. Lukyanov, Eur. Phys. J. B 74, 35 (2010)]. Different Hugoniot stress levels are obtained when the material is impacted in different directions; their good agreement with the experiment demonstrates that the anisotropic equation of state, strength, and damage model are adequate for the simulation of shock wave propagation within damageable CFEC material. Remarkably, in the through thickness orientation, the material behaves similar to a simple polymer whereas in the fiber direction, the proposed in this paper model explains an initial ramp, before at sufficiently high stresses, and a much faster rising shock above it. The numerical results for shock wave modeling using proposed constitutive equations are presented, discussed, and future studies are outlined.

  10. [The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Trabert, G

    2008-02-01

    The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility is critically reflected by examining the medical care of those who are deprived. Poverty in Germany is dramatically increasing. There are confirmed findings on the correlation of being poor and being ill. Poverty leads to an increased number of cases of illness and a higher mortality rate. And vice versa, chronic illnesses very often cause impoverishment. This correlation has largely been ignored not only by the public but also by experts, especially when public health-care issues are on the political agenda. With reference to the current discussion about public health-care and the widespread disregard of the living conditions of the poor, the categories of "reasonable behaviour" (Kant) and "communicative behaviour" (Habermas) are reflected on in a philosophical excursion. Further interest groups affecting the political sphere, such as the pharmaceutical industry, the medical profession, patients and scientists are also examined with regard to public health-care. What are the premises of a health-care discussion that is controlled by economic considerations, particularly when keeping in mind the humanistic and Christian ethics of our society? And what does this mean for our responsibility for those who are handicapped and are in need of our help? Do decision makers and participants of the health-care discussion satisfy these ethical challenges? And what are the effects of the so-called "social peace" on social cooperation and economic power of a country? The increasing market orientation (commercialisation) of the public health sector can only be accepted on the basis of practiced humanity and social responsibility. In the light of a human public health-care, deprived people are in need of our solidarity. PMID:18278701

  11. Thermoregulatory responses of rats exposed to 9.3-GHz microwaves: a comparison of E and H orientation.

    PubMed

    Frei, M R; Jauchem, J R

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exposure orientation relative to electric and magnetic fields (E and H fields) on the thermal, cardiovascular, and respiratory changes in ketamine-anesthetized rats exposed to far-field, continuous-wave, 9.3-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Irradiation (specific absorption rate = 12.5 W/kg in both orientations; power levels of 79 and 59 mW/cm2 in E and H orientations, respectively) was conducted to produce 1 degree C colonic temperature changes (38.5 to 39.5 degrees C). During experimentation, arterial blood pressure and respiratory rate, colonic (Tc) tympanic (Tt) left and right subcutaneous (Tsl & Tsr) (sides toward and away from RFR source), and tail temperatures (Tta) were continuously recorded. The Tsr change during E-orientation exposure was considerably less than the Tc change; the Tt and Tsr (H-orientation) changes approximated the Tc increase; and the Tsl and Tta changes (both orientations) were considerably greater than the Tc increase. The Tt and Tsl increases were virtually equal under the two exposure conditions; however, the Tsr increase was significantly greater during H-orientation irradiation, and the Tta increase was significantly greater during E-orientation exposure. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased significantly during irradiation; however the cardiovascular responses were not affected by exposure orientation. The latter findings at 9.3 GHz contrast with the marked cardiovascular response differences between E- and H-orientation exposure noted during previous studies at 0.7 to 2.45 GHz. PMID:1594657

  12. Orienting response reinstatement and dishabituation: effects of substituting, adding, and deleting components of nonsignificant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shakhar, G; Gati, I; Ben-Bassat, N; Sniper, G

    2000-01-01

    The prediction that orienting response (OR) reinstatement is negatively related to the measure of common features, shared by the stimulus input and representations of preceding events, and positively related to the measure of their distinctive features, was examined. A nonsignificant test stimulus (TS) was presented after nine repetitions of a standard stimulus (SS), followed by two additional repetitions of SS. TS was created by either substituting 0, 1, or 2 components of SS (Experiment 1), or by either adding or deleting 0, 1, or 2 components of SS (Experiment 2). Skin conductance changes to TS (OR reinstatement) and the subsequent SS (dishabituation) were used as dependent measures. The results of Experiment 1 supported the prediction that substituting components of neutral stimuli affects OR reinstatement, with a larger effect for between-categories than within-categories substitution. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding and deleting components similarly affects OR reinstatement. PMID:10705772

  13. Response of amphibian egg cytoplasm to novel gravity orientation and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Wakahara, M.; Jurand, A.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inversion and centrifugation on the compartmentalization of cytoplasm in Xenopus laevis eggs are investigated experimentally. The rearrangement of yolk-platelet compartments (YPC) characterized by morphology, density, and viscosity differences is studied in fertilized, unfertilized, and unfertilized electrically activated eggs in normal, and inverted positions and with and without centrifugation at 10-183 x g for 5 min. The eggs are fixed and embedded in plastic or paraffin prior to sagittal sectioning (0.5, 4, or 8 microns) and microscopic examination; the results are presented in a diagram and discussed. A density-compartment model combining both animal/vegetal and dorsal/ventral polarities is proposed: YPC determined without gravity orientation during oogenesis respond to both sperm entrance point and gravity after fertilization, and the response involves breaking of the radial symmetry of the egg. It is predicted that Xenopus eggs in a microgravity environment will encounter difficulties in establishing a primary embryonic axis.

  14. Evolution of mutualism between species

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  15. Elimination of the E ects of Mutual Coupling in an Adaptive Nulling System with a Look

    E-print Network

    Adve, Raviraj

    Elimination of the E ects of Mutual Coupling in an Adaptive Nulling System with a Look Direction, Syracuse, NY 13244. Introduction Gupta and Ksienski 1] demonstrate that the mutual coupling between (SINR). The mutual coupling also slows the response of the array. To compensate for the e ect of mutual

  16. Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding James A. Coana

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding James A. Coana *, Shelley Kasleb data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest

  17. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  18. Kinematic responses to changes in walking orientation and gravitational load in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mendes, César S; Rajendren, Soumya V; Bartos, Imre; Márka, Szabolcs; Mann, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects. PMID:25350743

  19. Kinematic Responses to Changes in Walking Orientation and Gravitational Load in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, César S.; Rajendren, Soumya V.; Bartos, Imre; Márka, Szabolcs; Mann, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects. PMID:25350743

  20. Weak mutually unbiased bases

    E-print Network

    M. Shalaby; A. Vourdas

    2012-03-05

    Quantum systems with variables in ${\\mathbb Z}(d)$ are considered. The properties of lines in the ${\\mathbb Z}(d)\\times {\\mathbb Z}(d)$ phase space of these systems, are studied. Weak mutually unbiased bases in these systems are defined as bases for which the overlap of any two vectors in two different bases, is equal to $d^{-1/2}$ or alternatively to one of the $d_i^{-1/2},0$ (where $d_i$ is a divisor of $d$ apart from $d,1$). They are designed for the geometry of the ${\\mathbb Z}(d)\\times {\\mathbb Z}(d)$ phase space, in the sense that there is a duality between the weak mutually unbiased bases and the maximal lines through the origin. In the special case of prime $d$, there are no divisors of $d$ apart from $1,d$ and the weak mutually unbiased bases are mutually unbiased bases.

  1. Behavioral Ecology: Manipulative Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David P

    2015-09-21

    A new study reveals that an apparent mutualism between lycaenid caterpillars and their attendant ants may not be all it seems, as the caterpillars produce secretions that modify the brains and behavior of their attendant ants. PMID:26394105

  2. On mutually unbiased bases

    E-print Network

    Thomas Durt; Berthold-Georg Englert; Ingemar Bengtsson; Karol ?yczkowski

    2010-10-20

    Mutually unbiased bases for quantum degrees of freedom are central to all theoretical investigations and practical exploitations of complementary properties. Much is known about mutually unbiased bases, but there are also a fair number of important questions that have not been answered in full as yet. In particular, one can find maximal sets of ${N+1}$ mutually unbiased bases in Hilbert spaces of prime-power dimension ${N=p^\\m}$, with $p$ prime and $\\m$ a positive integer, and there is a continuum of mutually unbiased bases for a continuous degree of freedom, such as motion along a line. But not a single example of a maximal set is known if the dimension is another composite number ($N=6,10,12,...$). In this review, we present a unified approach in which the basis states are labeled by numbers ${0,1,2,...,N-1}$ that are both elements of a Galois field and ordinary integers. This dual nature permits a compact systematic construction of maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases when they are known to exist but throws no light on the open existence problem in other cases. We show how to use the thus constructed mutually unbiased bases in quantum-informatics applications, including dense coding, teleportation, entanglement swapping, covariant cloning, and state tomography, all of which rely on an explicit set of maximally entangled states (generalizations of the familiar two--q-bit Bell states) that are related to the mutually unbiased bases. There is a link to the mathematics of finite affine planes. We also exploit the one-to-one correspondence between unbiased bases and the complex Hadamard matrices that turn the bases into each other. The ultimate hope, not yet fulfilled, is that open questions about mutually unbiased bases can be related to open questions about Hadamard matrices or affine planes, in particular the ...[rest deleted

  3. When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion?

    E-print Network

    Borgs, Christian

    When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion? Leslie Lamport, Sharon Perl, William Weihl 23 November 1998 revised 23 Mar 2000 Dijkstra introduced mutual exclusion for an N critical section" [1]. This requirement, which we call true mutual exclusion, is still the standard

  4. When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion?

    E-print Network

    Borgs, Christian

    When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion? Leslie Lamport, Sharon Perl, William Weihl 23 November 1998 revised 23 Mar 2000 Dijkstra introduced mutual exclusion for an N critical section'' [1]. This requirement, which we call true mutual exclusion, is still the standard

  5. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  6. Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: differences between exposure in E and H orientation.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, J R; Frei, M R; Padilla, J M

    1990-09-01

    Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm2 for E and 45 mW/cm2 for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur. PMID:2388907

  7. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options. PMID:25898342

  8. A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.

  9. Oviposition and flight orientation response of Aedes aegypti to certain aromatic aryl hydrazono esters.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Sathe, Manisha; Sharma, Pratibha; Parashar, B D; Kaushik, M P

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is a day-biting, highly anthropophilic mosquito and a potential vector of dengue and chikungunya in India. A. aegypti is a container breeder, generally oviposit in the stored and fresh water bodies, and discarded containers near residential areas that provide suitable habitats for oviposition by gravid females. The diurnal activity and endophilic nature of these mosquitoes have increased the frequency of contact with human being. Assured blood meal from human host in an infested area leads to increased disease occurrence. Gravid mosquitoes can potentially be lured to attractant-treated traps and could subsequently be killed with insecticides or growth regulators. In this direction, oviposition by A. aegypti females to aryl hydrazono esters (AHE)-treated bowls at 10 ppm concentration was tested in dual choice experiment, and their orientation response to these ester compounds was studied in Y-tube olfactometer. Among the esters tested, AHE-2, AHE-11 and AHE-12 elicited increased egg deposition with oviposition activity indices (OAI) of +0.39, +0.24 and +0.48, respectively, compared to control; in contrast, AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 showed negative oviposition response with OAI of -0.46, -0.35 and -0.29, respectively, at 10 mg/L. In the Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, AHE-2 attracted 60 % females compared to control, while to the odour of AHE-11 and AHE-12, about 70 % of the females were trapped in treated chambers. In contrast, only 27-30 % of gravid females entered the chamber releasing AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 odour plumes, while 70 % entered control chamber, evincing a possible non-preference of treatment odours as well as interference with olfactory receptors. These compounds have the potential for application as oviposition stimulants or deterrents for surveillance and control of mosquito population using ovitraps. PMID:22552771

  10. Development of the PRO-SDLS: A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Susan L.; Brockett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-directedness in learning among college students based on an operationalization of the personal responsibility orientation (PRO) model of self-direction in learning. The resultant 25-item Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-Direction in Learning Scale…

  11. Developing relationships, being cool, and not looking like a loser: social goal orientation predicts children's responses to peer aggression.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Abaied, Jamie L; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically, development (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance (minimizing negative judgments). Children (N = 373; M age = 7.97, SD = .34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grades. Validity of the social goal orientation construct was established through correlations with situation-specific goals and social adjustment. Development goals predicted adaptive responses (more effortful engagement, problem solving, advice seeking; fewer involuntary responses); demonstration goals predicted maladaptive responses (less effortful engagement, problem solving; more disengagement, retaliation). This study contributes to theoretical understanding of the process of peer aggression and interventions to promote optimal social health. PMID:21883154

  12. Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Abaied, Jamie L; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

    Little is known about individual differences in how children respond to peer aggression. This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically development goals (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach goals (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance goals (minimizing negative judgments). Children (M age = 7.97, SD = .34) were followed from 2(nd) to 3(rd) grade. Validity of the social goal orientation construct was established through correlations with situation-specific goals and social adjustment. Development goals predicted adaptive responses (more effortful engagement, problem solving, advice seeking; fewer involuntary responses); demonstration goals predicted maladaptive responses (less effortful engagement, problem solving; more disengagement, retaliation). This study contributes to theoretical understanding of the process of peer aggression and interventions to promote optimal social health. PMID:21765534

  13. Quantum mutual independence

    E-print Network

    Michal Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Andreas Winter

    2009-11-05

    We introduce the concept of mutual independence -- correlations shared between distant parties which are independent of the environment. This notion is more general than the standard idea of a secret key -- it is a fully quantum and more general form of privacy. The states which possess mutual independence also generalize the so called private states -- those that possess private key. We then show that the problem of distributed compression of quantum information at distant sources can be solved in terms of mutual independence, if free entanglement between the senders and the receiver is available. Namely, we obtain a formula for the sum of rates of qubits needed to transmit a distributed state between Alice and Bob to a decoder Charlie. We also show that mutual independence is bounded from above by the relative entropy modulo a conjecture, saying that if after removal of a single qubit the state becomes product, its initial entanglement is bounded by 1. We suspect that mutual independence is a highly singular quantity, i.e. that it is positive only on a set of measure zero; furthermore, we believe that its presence is seen on the single copy level. This appears to be born out in the classical case.

  14. Cuttlefish responses to visual orientation of substrates, water flow and a model of motion camouflage.

    PubMed

    Shohet, A J; Baddeley, R J; Anderson, J C; Kelman, E J; Osorio, D

    2006-12-01

    Low-level mechanisms in vertebrate vision are sensitive to line orientation. Here we investigate orientation sensitivity in the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, by allowing animals to settle on stripe patterns. When camouflaging themselves cuttlefish are known to be sensitive to image parameters such as contrast and spatial scale, but we find no effect of background orientation on the patterns displayed. It is nonetheless clear that the animals see orientation, because they prefer to rest with the body-axis perpendicular to the stripes. We consider three possible mechanisms to account for this behaviour. Firstly, that the body patterns are themselves oriented, and that the cuttlefish align themselves to aid static camouflage. This is unlikely, as the patterns displayed have no dominant orientation at any spatial scale. A second possibility is that motion camouflage favours alignment of the body orthogonal to background stripes, and we suggest how this alignment can minimise motion signals produced by occlusion. Thirdly we show that cuttlefish prefer to rest with their body-axis parallel to the water flow, and it is possible that they use visual patterns such as sand ripples to determine water flow. PMID:17114404

  15. Mutual fund trading and liquidity

    E-print Network

    Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

  16. Parallel development of orientation maps and spatial frequency selectivity in cat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Tani, Toshiki; Ribot, Jérôme; O'Hashi, Kazunori; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    In an early stage of the postnatal development of cats, orientation maps mature and spatial frequency selectivity is consolidated. To investigate the time course of orientation map maturation associated with the consolidation of spatial frequency selectivity, we performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals in areas 17 and 18 of cats under the stimulation of drifting square-wave gratings with different orientations and spatial frequencies. First, orientation maps for lower spatial frequencies emerged in the entire part of the lateral gyrus, which includes areas 17 and 18, and then these orientation maps in the posterior part of the lateral gyrus disappeared as orientation maps for higher spatial frequencies matured. Independent of age, an anteroposterior gradient of response strengths from lower to higher spatial frequencies was observed. This indicates that the regional distribution of spatial frequencies is innately determined. The size of iso-orientation domains tended to decrease as the stimulus spatial frequency increased at every age examined. In contrast, orientation representation bias changed with age. In cats younger than 3 months, the cardinal (vertical and horizontal) orientations were represented predominantly over the oblique orientations. However, in young adult cats from 3 to 9 months old, the representation bias switched to predominantly oblique orientations. These age-dependent changes in the orientation representation bias imply that orientation maps continue to elaborate within postnatal 1 year with the consolidation of spatial frequency selectivity. We conclude that both intrinsic and mutual factors lead to the development of orientation maps and spatial frequency selectivity. PMID:22211742

  17. Differential Responsiveness of Cortical Microtubule Orientation to Suppression of Cell Expansion among the Developmental Zones of Arabidopsis thaliana Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

    2013-01-01

    ?he bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

  18. Large Families of Mutually Embeddable

    E-print Network

    Bonato, Anthony

    Large Families of Mutually Embeddable Vertex-Transitive Graphs Anthony Bonato1 and Claude Tardif2 Cartesian product; mutually embeddable graphs; infinite random graph; universal graphs 1. INTRODUCTION All (see [1]) proves that mutual embeddings of sets imply the existence of a bijection between the sets

  19. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...insurance companies exclusively issuing perpetual policies or whose principal...

  20. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...insurance companies exclusively issuing perpetual policies or whose principal...

  1. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...insurance companies exclusively issuing perpetual policies or whose principal...

  2. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...insurance companies exclusively issuing perpetual policies or whose principal...

  3. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...insurance companies exclusively issuing perpetual policies or whose principal...

  4. The ecology of mutualism

    E-print Network

    Boucher, D. H.; James, Samuel W.; Keeler, K. H.

    1982-11-01

    ). After initiation with insect species in the Coleoptera and Diptera, the mutualism has been developed in several other orders, most notably the Hymenoptera (110, 127, 129, 158, 252, 297). There is a variety of vertebrates involved, including birds, bats..., 35, 70, 132, 141, 143, 149, 150, 154, 163, 165, 167, 168, 171, 176, 229, 239). Ants and other insects are also mutualists with some herbivorous and sap-feeding insects, the ants providing protection in return for honeydew, a sugary secretion extruded...

  5. YIELD RESPONSE TO PEANUT ROW ORIENTATION AND SEEDING RATE WHEN IRRIGATED USING SDI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are typically planted in a single or twin row orientation, however, research indicates that peanut planted at equidistance between rows and plants in alternating rows (diamond shape) and using the same planting rate can increase pod yield. A study was conducted to eval...

  6. Cotton response to crop row offset and orientation to subsurface drip irrigation laterals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent increase in the use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) for cotton production in the Texas High Plains has resulted in questions concerning drip lateral position and orientation relative to crop rows. Field experiments were conducted at Halfway, Texas to evaluate traditional SDI installat...

  7. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  8. Displaying Orientation in the Classroom: Students' Multimodal Responses to Teacher Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezemer, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the displays of orientation that students use to participate in the classroom. It is argued that students use their direction of gaze, body posture, gesture and other modes of communication to realize such displays and respond to what goes on when they are not nominated speakers. The focus of the paper is on the silent but…

  9. Reflexive Orienting in Response to Eye Gaze and an Arrow in Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one…

  10. Response characteristics of the cells of cortical area 21a of the cat with special reference to orientation specificity.

    PubMed

    Wimborne, B M; Henry, G H

    1992-04-01

    1. Extracellular recording using tungsten-in-glass microelectrodes was conducted on 115 neurons in area 21a of fifteen anaesthetized cats. Quantitative analysis using computer-controlled display and collecting routines were used to investigate the excitatory and inhibitory regions of the receptive field and to see if interaction, within and between these regions, contributed to the response properties of the cells. 2. The responses of the cells in the sample appeared to arise from a single, homogeneous class. All cells had single discharge regions which responded with composite ON/OFF firing to a stationary flashing bar. The same region also responded to moving light and dark bars and edges. There was little evidence of inhibition as measured by the suppression of spontaneous or induced firing. Most cells had relatively small receptive fields (primary width: mean = 2.1 +/- 0.9 deg (S.D.); n = 108), all were binocular and were located within 15.0 deg of the visual axes. 3. All cells responded well to slowly moving stimuli but generally failed to respond to stimuli moving faster than 10.0 deg s-1. All responses were bi-directional and, although many showed evidence of length summation, there was no sign of linear summation. 4. Despite the absence of significant sideband inhibition many cells were acutely tuned for orientation (half-width at half-height: mean = 15.6 +/- 5.3 deg; n = 48). To investigate this property further, cells were analysed to assess the effect of changing the length of a moving bar stimulus on the acuteness of the orientation tuning curve. Short bars, of similar length to the width of the receptive field, had orientation tuning curves of equivalent sharpness to those obtained with longer bars. 5. The equivalence of orientation tuning for long and short bars stands in contrast to the results obtained for both simple (S) and complex (C) cells of the striate cortex where tuning for the longer bar is sharper than that for the shorter. The result from area 21a cells is consistent with the absence of sideband inhibition and can be related to an input from the striate cortex that passes through a threshold barrier. 6. The orientation tuning of cells of area 21a can be explained if it is assumed that they receive their major input from C or complex cells of the striate cortex in which firing must reach a threshold frequency to activate the recipient cell. PMID:1522518

  11. Thermal and physiological responses of rats exposed to 2.45-GHz radiofrequency radiation: a comparison of E and H orientation.

    PubMed

    Frei, M R; Jauchem, J R; Padilla, J M; Merritt, J H

    1989-01-01

    Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in both E and H orientations to far-field 2.45-GHz continuous-wave radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at a power density of 60 mW/cm2 (whole-body average specific absorption rate of approximately 14 W/kg). Intermittent exposures were performed in both orientations in the same animal to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C. Tympanic, subcutaneous (sides toward and away from RFR source), and colonic temperature, ECG, arterial blood pressure, and respiratory rate were continuously recorded. The pattern of heat distribution within the animal and the physiological responses were significantly different between E- and H-orientation exposure. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater peripheral and tympanic heating, while irradiation in H orientation resulted in greater core heating. Heart rate and blood pressure increased significantly during irradiation and returned to baseline levels when exposure was discontinued; the increases were significantly greater in E than in H orientation. Respiratory rate increased significantly during irradiation in H, but not in E orientation. The physiological responses could have been influenced by the different levels or rates of subcutaneous and tympanic heating, or the differential between core and peripheral heating during E- and H-orientation irradiation. These results suggest that, when interpreting results of RFR exposure, animal orientation during irradiation must be considered. PMID:2798772

  12. Influence of crystallographic orientation on the response of copper crystallites to nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.; Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S. E-mail: kost@ispms.tsc.ru; Zolnikov, Konstantin P. E-mail: kost@ispms.tsc.ru; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2014-11-14

    Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the features of nucleation and development of plastic deformation in copper crystallites in nanoindentation with different crystallographic orientations of their loaded surface: (011), (001), and (111). Atomic interaction was described by a potential constructed in terms of the embedded atom method. It is shown that behavior of the crystallite reaction force correlates well with a change in the fraction of atoms involved in local structural rearrangements. The generation of local structural changes decreases the slope of the crystallite reaction force curve or results in an extremum due to internal stress relaxation. Analysis of structural changes in the material being indented demonstrates that the orientation of its loaded surface greatly affects the features of nucleation and development of plastic deformation.

  13. Approach- and Withdrawal-Oriented Responses to Social Rejection: The Role of Asymmetrical Frontal Cortical Activity 

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carly Kathryn

    2011-02-22

    , negative affect usually ____________ This thesis follows the style of Psychophysiology. 2 describes both anger and sadness, which have been shown to increase as a result of ostracism (Williams, 2007b). Williams (2007a) even refers to these distinct..., & Curtin, 2009) and desire (Harmon-Jones & Gable, 2009), whereas relative right frontal cortical activity relates to withdrawal-oriented emotions such as sadness (Jacobs & Snyder, 1996; Jones & Fox, 1992; Schmidt & Trainor, 2001), fear, and disgust (Coan...

  14. A response to reform: Teachers' attitudes and practice of inquiry-oriented instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeffrey D.

    The intention of the current reform effort in Connecticut is to influence the way science is taught to improve student achievement. To meet this goal, the State aligned curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices with the most recent versions of the Core Science Curriculum Framework, CAPT Handbook for Science, and the Connecticut Aptitude Performance Test (CAPT). The lack of widespread and sustainable implementation of instructional reforms, such as implementing inquiry-oriented standards-based curriculum, is an issue that has evolved out of reform efforts similar to the one in Connecticut. A possible explanation for this problem might be traced back to teacher attitudes towards the proposed instructional changes. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the attitudes of six high school earth science teachers toward reform in one Connecticut suburban school district and the impact these attitudes may have had on the implementation of inquiry-oriented instructional reforms. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess teacher attitudes toward the reform and the expected impact on the way they would enact inquiry-oriented instruction. This was followed by classroom observations of each teacher's implementation of one of the State released inquiry-oriented labs found in the CAPT Handbook for Science, so as to determine whether the labs were carried out as the teachers had intended and as was expected by the State. At the end of year, semi-structured interviews were also conducted to verify whether their attitudes changed over the course of the year. Originally, it was thought that teacher attitudes would impact the way they would carry out the State recommended labs. However, teacher attitudes in this study were only one predictor of the way the inquiry-oriented labs were implemented. Teacher experience, familiarity with the content, and knowledge of inquiry-based pedagogy also were found to be possible influences on how they described and implemented the State reforms. The results of this work highlight the need for large-scale reforms to consider the multiple factors that influence teachers' understanding and implementation in order for such instructional changes to be successful.

  15. Relationship between mutual fund flow and fund performance : a study in China

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Use publically available data set on Chinese stock oriented mutual funds, examine whether the fund flow within one period depends on the past performance of this individual fund, and if there's a relationship, then what ...

  16. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance. PMID:25169973

  17. Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

  18. Sex Differences in Orienting to Pictures with and without Humans: Evidence from the Cardiac Evoked Response (ECR) and the Cortical Long Latency Parietal Positivity (LPP)

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; van der Schaft, Lutske; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tucha, Oliver; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of social relevance in affective pictures on two orienting responses, i.e. the evoked cardiac response (ECR), and a long latency cortical evoked potential (LPP) and whether this effect would differ between males and females. Assuming that orienting to affective social information is fundamental to experiencing affective empathy, associations between self-report measures of empathy and the two orienting responses were investigated. Method ECRs were obtained from 34 female and 30 male students, and LPPs from 25 female and 27 male students viewing 414 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Pictures portrayed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Results Both the ECR and LPP showed the largest response to pictures with humans in unpleasant situations. For both measures, the responses to pictures with humans correlated with self-report measures of empathy. While we found a greater male than female responsiveness to the pictures without humans in the ECR, a greater female than male responsiveness was observed in the LPP response to pictures with humans. Conclusion and Significance The sensitivity of these orienting responses to social relevance and their differential contribution to the prediction of individual differences underline the validity of their combined use in clinical studies investigating individuals with social disabilities. PMID:25330003

  19. Interactive effects of citalopram and serotonin transporter genotype on neural correlates of response inhibition and attentional orienting.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Adrian G; Endrass, Tanja; Goebel, Ingrid; Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Kubisch, Christian; Ullsperger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The brain's serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in controlling impulsive behavior and attentional orienting and linked to impulse control and anxiety related disorders. However, interactions between genotypical variation and responses to serotonergic drugs impede both treatment efficacy and neuroscientific research. We examine behavioral and electrophysiological responses to acute intravenous administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) while controlling for major genetic differences regarding 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) genotypes. Out of a genotyped sample of healthy Caucasian subjects (n=878) two extreme-groups regarding 5-HTT genotypes were selected (n=32). A homozygous high-expressing group based on tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR and rs25532 (LAC/LAC=LL) was compared to homozygous S allele carriers (SS). Both groups were administered a low dose of citalopram (10mg) intravenously in a double blind crossover fashion and performed a novelty NoGo paradigm while high density EEG was recorded. Interactions between drug and genotype were seen on both behavioral and neurophysiological levels. Reaction slowing following inhibitory events was decreased by the administration of citalopram in the LL but not SS group. This was accompanied by decreases in the amplitude of the inhibitory N2 EEG component and the P3b in the LL group, which was not seen in the SS group. SS subjects showed an increase in P3a amplitudes following SSRI administration to any type of deviant stimulus possibly reflecting increased attentional capture. The acute SSRI response on inhibitory processes and attentional orienting interacts with genotypes regulating 5-HTT gene expression. SS subjects may show increased attentional side effects reflected in increases in P3a amplitudes which could contribute to treatment discontinuation. Inhibitory processes and their neural correlates are affected only in LL subjects. These findings may indicate an underlying mechanism that could relate genotypical differences to altered side effect profiles and drug responses and are compatible with a non-monotonic relationship between 5-HT levels and optimal functioning. PMID:25957993

  20. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  1. The Evolution of Interspecific Mutualisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doebeli, Michael; Knowlton, Nancy

    1998-07-01

    Interspecific mutualisms are widespread, but how they evolve is not clear. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is the main theoretical tool to study cooperation, but this model ignores ecological differences between partners and assumes that amounts exchanged cannot themselves evolve. A more realistic model incorporating these features shows that strategies that succeed with fixed exchanges (e.g., Tit-for-Tat) cannot explain mutualism when exchanges vary because the amount exchanged evolves to 0. For mutualism to evolve, increased investments in a partner must yield increased returns, and spatial structure in competitive interactions is required. Under these biologically plausible assumptions, mutualism evolves with surprising ease. This suggests that, contrary to the basic premise of past theoretical analyses, overcoming a potential host's initial defenses may be a bigger obstacle for mutualism than the subsequent recurrence and spread of noncooperative mutants.

  2. Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and palliative care related to end-of-life circumstances. Specifically, the complementarity of grief and palliative care, as well as a controvertible view thereof, will be considered. PMID:25278758

  3. The Mutually Unbiased Bases Revisited

    E-print Network

    M. Combescure

    2006-05-10

    The study of Mutually Unbiased Bases continues to be developed vigorously, and presents several challenges in the Quantum Information Theory. Two orthonormal bases in $\\mathbb C^d, B {and} B'$ are said mutually unbiased if $\\forall b\\in B, b'\\in B'$ the scalar product $b\\cdot b'$ has modulus $d^{-1/2}$. In particular this property has been introduced in order to allow an optimization of the measurement-driven quantum evolution process of any state $\\psi \\in \\mathbb C^d$ when measured in the mutually unbiased bases $B\\_{j} {of} \\mathbb C^d$. At present it is an open problem to find the maximal umber of mutually Unbiased Bases when $d$ is not a power of a prime number. \

  4. Uncertainty Relation for Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    James Schneeloch; Curtis J. Broadbent; John C. Howell

    2014-12-17

    We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or...-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual... insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on an...

  6. Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

  7. Learning from Examples with Quadratic Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Learning from Examples with Quadratic Mutual Information Dongxin Xu, Jose C .Principe Computational criteria (entropy or mutual information) directly from a training set. l'he method is based on a Parzen the algorithm for entropy estimation to the impor- tiint case of mutual information. The mutual information

  8. Shannon Meets Carnot: Mutual Information Via Thermodynamics

    E-print Network

    Siegel, Paul H.

    1 Shannon Meets Carnot: Mutual Information Via Thermodynamics Ori Shental and Ido Kanter Abstract-output mutual information in terms of thermodynamic quantities. This thermodynamic description of the mutual and the most fundamental laws of nature - the laws of thermodynamics. Index Terms: Thermodynamics, mutual

  9. Mutually Unbiased Product Bases for Multiple Qudits

    E-print Network

    Daniel McNulty; Bogdan Pammer; Stefan Weigert

    2015-10-27

    We investigate the interplay between mutual unbiasedness and product bases for multiple qudits of possibly different dimensions. A product state of such a system is shown to be mutually unbiased to a product basis only if each of its factors is mutually unbiased to all the states which occur in the corresponding factors of the product basis. This result implies both a tight limit on the number of mutually unbiased product bases which the system can support and a complete classification of mutually unbiased product bases for multiple qubits or qutrits. In addition, only maximally entangled states can be mutually unbiased to a maximal set of mutually unbiased product bases.

  10. Photosynthesis-dependent and -independent responses of stomata to blue, red and green monochromatic light: differences between the normally oriented and inverted leaves of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2011-03-01

    The effects of growth light environment on stomatal light responses were analyzed. We inverted leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) for 2 weeks until their full expansion, and measured gas exchange properties of the adaxial and abaxial sides separately. The sensitivity to light assessed as the increase in stomatal conductance was generally higher in the abaxial stomata than in the adaxial stomata, and these differences could not be completely changed by the inversion treatment. We also treated the leaves with DCMU to inhibit photosynthesis and evaluated the photosynthesis-dependent and -independent components of stomatal light responses. The red light response of stomata in both normally oriented and inverted leaves relied only on the photosynthesis-dependent component. The blue light response involved both the photosynthesis-dependent and photosynthesis-independent components, and the relative contributions of the two components differed between the normally oriented and inverted leaves. A green light response was observed only in the abaxial stomata, which also involved the photosynthesis-dependent and photosynthesis-independent components, strongly suggesting the existence of a green light receptor in sunflower leaves. Moreover, acclimation of the abaxial stomata to strong direct light eliminated the photosynthesis-independent component in the green light response. The results showed that stomatal responses to monochromatic light change considerably in response to growth light environment, although some of these responses appear to be determined inherently. PMID:21257606

  11. Rethinking mutualism stability: cheaters and the evolution of sanctions.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2013-12-01

    How cooperation originates and persists in diverse species, from bacteria to multicellular organisms to human societies, is a major question in evolutionary biology. A large literature asks: what prevents selection for cheating within cooperative lineages? In mutualisms, or cooperative interactions between species, feedback between partners often aligns their fitness interests, such that cooperative symbionts receive more benefits from their hosts than uncooperative symbionts. But how do these feedbacks evolve? Cheaters might invade symbiont populations and select for hosts that preferentially reward or associate with cooperators (often termed sanctions or partner choice); hosts might adapt to variation in symbiont quality that does not amount to cheating (e.g., environmental variation); or conditional host responses might exist before cheaters do, making mutualisms stable from the outset. I review evidence from yucca-yucca moth, fig-fig wasp, and legume-rhizobium mutualisms, which are commonly cited as mutualisms stabilized by sanctions. Based on the empirical evidence, it is doubtful that cheaters select for host sanctions in these systems; cheaters are too uncommon. Recognizing that sanctions likely evolved for functions other than retaliation against cheaters offers many insights about mutualism coevolution, and about why mutualism evolves in only some lineages of potential hosts. PMID:24552098

  12. Multiparty Operational Quantum Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Asutosh Kumar

    2015-04-27

    Mutual information is the reciprocal information that is common to or shared by two or more parties. Quantum mutual information (QMI) for bipartite quantum systems is non-negative, and bears the interpretation of total correlation between the two subsystems.This may, however, be no longer true for three or more party quantum systems. It is possible that three-party QMI can be negative. That QMI can assume negative value is confronting, and we give operational definition of QMI which is non-negative. We then define multiparty operational quantum discord, and give some examples. Interestingly, we observe that quantum discord increases when measurement is performed on larger number of subsystems. Consequently, the symmetric version of quantum discord, which involves measurement on all parties, reveals the maximal quantumness. This raises question on the interpretation of measured mutual information as classical correlation.

  13. Hierarchical clustering using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraskov, A.; Stögbauer, H.; Andrzejak, R. G.; Grassberger, P.

    2005-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple method for hierarchical clustering of data called mutual information clustering (MIC) algorithm. It uses mutual information (MI) as a similarity measure and exploits its grouping property: The MI between three objects X, Y, and Z is equal to the sum of the MI between X and Y, plus the MI between Z and the combined object (XY). We use this both in the Shannon (probabilistic) version of information theory and in the Kolmogorov (algorithmic) version. We apply our method to the construction of phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial DNA sequences and to the output of independent components analysis (ICA) as illustrated with the ECG of a pregnant woman.

  14. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    PubMed

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. PMID:26453930

  15. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R

    1997-02-01

    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result. PMID:10164378

  16. MUTUAL DIAMOND Sy D. Friedman

    E-print Network

    MUTUAL DIAMOND Sy D. Friedman Department of Mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Zoran Spasojevi´c Department of Mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology ABSTRACT: We formulate a diamond that P is not + -saturated unless = = 1. We use it here to formulate a diamond-like principle

  17. Mutual Respect and Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary theories of civic education frequently appeal to an ideal of mutual respect in the context of ethical, ethical and religious disagreement. This paper critically examines two recently popular criticisms of this ideal. The first, coming from a postmodern direction, charges that the ideal is hypocritical in its effort to be maximally…

  18. MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL

    E-print Network

    Roegel, Denis

    TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

  19. Mutual Gains Means Everyone Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bernard L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual gains negotiation is an innovative system that emphasizes interests instead of positions and problem solving instead of preconceived solutions. The process can reverse social disintegration, reverse worker alienation, and address a shifting educational environment. It can resolve difficult labor-management problems such as contracting out,…

  20. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H.; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT. PMID:25997025

  1. Supplemental choline does not attenuate the effects of neonatal ethanol administration on habituation of the heart rate orienting response in rats.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Pamela S; Jacobson, Sarah E; Kim, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Several studies using rodent subjects have now shown that extra dietary choline may prevent or even reverse the deleterious effects of pre- and early post-natal ethanol administration. Choline supplementation has been shown to attenuate many, although not all, of ethanol's effects on brain development and behavior. Our laboratory has consistently reported impaired habituation of the heart rate orienting response to a novel olfactory stimulus in animals exposed to ethanol on postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Here we examine whether supplemental choline given both during and after ethanol administration could alleviate these ethanol-induced deficits. Subjects were given 5g/kg/day ethanol or sham intubations on PD 4-9. Half of the subjects in each group were given a single daily s.c. injection of choline chloride on PD 4-20, while the other half were injected daily with saline. Pups were tested for heart rate orienting and response habituation in a single test session on PD 23. Results replicated the ethanol-induced impairment in response habituation. However, choline supplementation had no effect on orienting or habituation in either neonatal treatment group. These findings indicate that habituation deficits induced by ethanol are not alleviated by extra dietary choline using these parameters. Choline holds great promise as a treatment for some fetal alcohol effects, but is not an effective treatment for all ethanol-related deficits. PMID:24907459

  2. An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity

    E-print Network

    Rudgers, Jennifer

    and carnivores in the ecosystem may respond directly to the presence of plant mutualisms or may be influencedLETTER An invasive plant­fungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity Jennifer A. Rudgers1 the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium

  3. Automated Surface Matching Using Mutual Information Applied

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Automated Surface Matching Using Mutual Information Applied to Riemann Surface Structures Yalin an algorithm to automate the matching of surface features. It extends the mutual in- formation method. Mutual information is used as a cost functional to drive a fluid flow in the parameter domain

  4. Estimation-Theoretic Representation of Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    VerdĂş, Sergio

    Estimation-Theoretic Representation of Mutual Information Daniel P. Palomar and Sergio Verd theory was recently unveiled for the Gaussian channel, relating the derivative of mutual information numerical computation of mutual infor- mation for cases in which it was previously infeasible

  5. Sequential Detection with Mutual Information Stopping Cost

    E-print Network

    Gevers, Michel

    1 Sequential Detection with Mutual Information Stopping Cost Vikram Krishnamurthy, Robert Bitmead that involves the mutual information (stochastic observability) of a Gaussian process observed in noise is to maintain the mutual information of all targets within a specified bound. We illustrate the problem

  6. Large families of mutually singular Radon measures

    E-print Network

    Plebanek, Grzegorz

    Large families of mutually singular Radon measures David H. Fremlin & Grzegorz Plebanek \\Lambda Abstract We investigate how many mutually singular measures one can define on a given space. In particular mutually singular Radon probability measures. 1. Introduction. We present here a partial answer

  7. A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Leslie Lamport

    E-print Network

    Lamport ,Leslie

    A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Leslie Lamport November 14, 1985 revised October 31, 1986 #12. #12; Author's Abstract A new solution to the mutual exclusion problem is presented that or write, it is necessary to implement mutual exclusion using only these operations. Solutions

  8. Surface Mutual Information for Brain Mapping

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Surface Mutual Information for Brain Mapping 1Yalin Wang , 2Ming-Chang Chiang, 2Arthur W. Toga, 2 correspondences, we developed an algorithm to automate the matching of surface features. It extends the mutual these scalar fields, we use a fluid registration technique in the parameter domain that is driven by mutual

  9. Conditional mutual information and self-commutator

    E-print Network

    Lin Zhang

    2013-01-22

    A simpler approach to the characterization of vanishing conditional mutual information is presented. Some remarks are given as well. More specifically, relating the conditional mutual information to a commutator is a very promising approach towards the approximate version of SSA. That is, it is conjectured that small conditional mutual information implies small perturbation of quantum Markov chain.

  10. Mutual Exclusion Scheduling Brenda S. Baker

    E-print Network

    Coffman Jr., E. G.

    Mutual Exclusion Scheduling Brenda S. Baker Edward G. Coffman, Jr. AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mutual exclusion scheduling is the problem of scheduling unit­time tasks non­preemptively on m processors by a mutual exclusion graph G in which each vertex represents a task requiring one unit of running time

  11. Mutual Exclusion Revisited Boleslaw K. Szymanski

    E-print Network

    Szymanski, Boleslaw K.

    Mutual Exclusion Revisited Boleslaw K. Szymanski Computer Science Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180 Abstract A family of four mutual exclusion algorithms is pre- sented. Its members vary from a simple three-bit linear wait mutual exclusion to the four-bit first-come first- served

  12. Medical evaluation of children with chronic abdominal pain: impact of diagnosis, physician practice orientation, and maternal trait anxiety on mothers' responses to the evaluation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sara E; Smith, Craig A; Bruehl, Stephen P; Gigante, Joseph; Walker, Lynn S

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the effects of diagnosis (functional versus organic), physician practice orientation (biomedical versus biopsychosocial), and maternal trait anxiety (high versus low) on mothers' responses to a child's medical evaluation for chronic abdominal pain. Mothers selected for high (n=80) and low (n=80) trait anxiety imagined that they were the mother of a child with chronic abdominal pain described in a vignette. They completed questionnaires assessing their negative affect and pain catastrophizing. Next, mothers were randomly assigned to view one of four video vignettes of a physician-actor reporting results of the child's medical evaluation. Vignettes varied by diagnosis (functional versus organic) and physician practice orientation (biomedical versus biopsychosocial). Following presentation of the vignettes, baseline questionnaires were re-administered and mothers rated their satisfaction with the physician. Results indicated that mothers in all conditions reported reduced distress pre- to post-vignette; however, the degree of the reduction differed as a function of diagnosis, presentation, and anxiety. Mothers reported more post-vignette negative affect, pain catastrophizing, and dissatisfaction with the physician when the physician presented a functional rather than an organic diagnosis. These effects were significantly greater for mothers with high trait anxiety who received a functional diagnosis presented by a physician with a biomedical orientation than for mothers in any other condition. Anxious mothers of children evaluated for chronic abdominal pain may be less distressed and more satisfied when a functional diagnosis is delivered by a physician with a biopsychosocial rather than a biomedical orientation. PMID:19767148

  13. Pluto-charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Binzel, R.P. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  14. Correlation function and mutual information

    E-print Network

    R. X. Dong; D. L. Zhou

    2010-08-27

    Correlation function and mutual information are two powerful tools to characterize the correlations in a quantum state of a composite system, widely used in many-body physics and in quantum information science, respectively. We find that these two tools may give different conclusions about the order of the degrees of correlation in two specific two-qubit states. This result implies that the orderings of bipartite quantum states according to the degrees of correlation depend on which correlation measure we adopt.

  15. Mutual information challenges entropy bounds

    E-print Network

    H. Casini

    2007-03-14

    We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.

  16. Responses of Adaxial and Abaxial Stomata of Normally Oriented and Inverted Leaves of Vicia faba L. to Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Yera, Ramon; Davis, Stephen; Frazer, John; Tallman, Gary

    1986-01-01

    Stomatal conductances of normally oriented and inverted leaves were measured as light levels (photosynthetic photon flux densities) were increased to determine whether abaxial stomata of Vicia faba leaves were more sensitive to light than adaxial stomata. Light levels were increased over uniform populations of leaves of plants grown in an environmental chamber. Adaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum water vapor conductances at a light level of 60 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which abaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Abaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum conductances at a light level of 500 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which adaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Maximum conductances in both normally oriented and inverted leaves were about 200 millimoles per square meter per second for adaxial stomata and 330 millimoles per square meter per second for abaxial stomata. Regardless of whether leaves were normally oriented or inverted, when light levels were increased to values high enough that upper leaf surfaces reached maximum conductances (about 500 micromoles per square meter per second), light levels incident on lower, shaded leaf surfaces were just sufficient (about 60 micromoles per square meter per second) for stomata of those surfaces to reach maximum conductances. This `coordinated' stomatal opening on the separate epidermes resulted in total leaf conductances for normally oriented and inverted leaves that were the same at any given light level. We conclude that stomata in abaxial epidermes of intact Vicia leaves are not more sensitive to light than those in adaxial epidermes, and that stomata in leaves of this plant do not respond to light alone. Additional factors in bulk leaf tissue probably produce coordinated stomatal opening on upper and lower leaf epidermes to optimally meet photosynthetic requirements of the whole leaf for CO2. PMID:16665038

  17. Exploiting Opportunistic Overhearing to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion in

    E-print Network

    Vaidya, Nitin

    Exploiting Opportunistic Overhearing to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Ad Hoc mutual exclusion algorithms for wireless net- works. Our mutual exclusion algorithms are distributed: Wireless networks; opportunistic overhearing; mutual ex- clusion. 1 Introduction A wireless ad hoc network

  18. Exploiting Opportunistic Overhearing to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion in

    E-print Network

    Vaidya, Nitin

    Exploiting Opportunistic Overhearing to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Ad Hoc. We design two mutual exclusion algorithms for wireless net- works. Our mutual exclusion algorithms messages. Keywords: Wireless networks; opportunistic overhearing; mutual ex- clusion. 1 Introduction

  19. Multi-Predicate Induction Schemes for Mutual Recursion 

    E-print Network

    Boulton, Richard

    Where mutually recursive data types are used in programming languages, etc., mutually recursive functions are usually required. Mutually recursive functions are also quite common for non-mutually recursive types. Reasoning ...

  20. 75 FR 77048 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee...facing mutual savings associations. DATES: The Charter...OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee...as Federal savings associations (including Federal...The Mutual Savings Association Advisory...

  1. 77 FR 73115 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...OCC-2012-0018] Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...of the OCC Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC...condition of mutual savings associations, the regulatory changes...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues of...

  2. 78 FR 64600 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...OCC-2013-0019] Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...meeting of the Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC...viability of mutual savings associations and other issues of concern to the existing mutual savings associations. Dated: October 22,...

  3. A wind-oriented sticky trap for evaluating the behavioural response of diabrotica speciosa (germar) to bitter cucurbit extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbitacins attract many species of Luperini leaf beetles, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Males and females feed avidly on these compounds, but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. A wind oriented baited sticky trap was...

  4. Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically, development (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance (minimizing negative judgments). Children (N = 373; M age = 7.97, SD = 0.34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grades. Validity of…

  5. Assumption of Responsibility In return for being permitted to participate in the Personal Training/Fitness Orientation/Exercise

    E-print Network

    McCarthy, John F.

    /Fitness Orientation/Exercise Testing programs, voluntary activities undertaken by the University of Tennessee understand that there are certain changes that may occur during exercise. These include but are not limited exercising, and should any unusual symptoms occur, I will cease my participation and inform the trainer

  6. Adenovirus capsid-display of the retro-oriented human complement inhibitor DAF reduces Ad vector-triggered immune responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Seregin, Sergey S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Appledorn, Daniel M; Hartman, Zachary C; Schuldt, Nathaniel J; Scott, Jeannine; Godbehere, Sarah; Jiang, Haixiang; Frank, Michael M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are widely used in human clinical trials. However, at higher dosages, Ad vector-triggered innate toxicities remain a major obstacle to many applications. Ad interactions with the complement system significantly contribute to innate immune responses in several models of Ad-mediated gene transfer. We constructed a novel class of Ad vectors, genetically engineered to "capsid-display" native and retro-oriented versions of the human complement inhibitor decay-accelerating factor (DAF), as a fusion protein from the C-terminus of the Ad capsid protein IX. In contrast to conventional Ad vectors, DAF-displaying Ads dramatically minimized complement activation in vitro and complement-dependent immune responses in vivo. DAF-displaying Ads did not trigger thrombocytopenia, minimized endothelial cell activation, and had diminished inductions of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses. The retro-oriented display of DAF facilitated the greatest improvements in vivo, with diminished activation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic and natural killer cells. In conclusion, Ad vectors can capsid-display proteins in a manner that not only retains the functionality of the displayed proteins but also potentially can be harnessed to improve the efficacy of this important gene transfer platform for numerous gene transfer applications. PMID:20511542

  7. Sensory imbalance as mechanism of orientation disruption in the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella: elucidation by multivariate geometric designs and response surface models.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P; Hall, David G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2009-08-01

    Experimental designs developed to address mixtures are suited ideally to many areas of experimental biology, including pheromone blend studies, because such designs address the confounding of proportionality and concentration intrinsic to factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. Geometric multivariate designs coupled with response surface modeling allowed us to identify optimal blends of a two-component pheromone for attraction and trap disruption of the leafminer moth, Phyllocnistis citrella, a major pest in citrus growing areas around the world. Field trials confirmed that the natural 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal:(Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal was most effective as an attractant for male moths. However, the response surface generated in mating orientation trials revealed that the triene component alone was more effective than the natural blend in disrupting trap catch. Each individual component was effective at disrupting orientation in field trials, but (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal was approximately 13 times more effective, at the same concentration, compared with (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal alone. In addition, the application of geometric design and response surface modeling to field studies provided insight into a possible mechanism of mating disruption and supported sensory imbalance as the operating mechanism for this species. PMID:19763739

  8. Induction logging device with a pair of mutually perpendicular bucking coils

    DOEpatents

    Koelle, Alfred R. (Los Alamos, NM); Landt, Jeremy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

  9. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  10. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  11. Mutual Information as a Tool for the

    E-print Network

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    Mutual Information as a Tool for the Design, Analysis, and Testing of Modern Communication Systems-6109 mvalenti@wvu.edu #12;6/8/2007 Mutual Information for Modern Comm. Systems 2/51 0.5 1 1.5 2 10 -7 10 -6 10 with Shannon capacity: ­ Unconstrained: 0 dB. ­ With BPSK: 0.2 dB. #12;6/8/2007 Mutual Information for Modern

  12. Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (?196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 ?m) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 ?m. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

  13. Mutual information and the F-theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Horacio; Huerta, Marina; Myers, Robert C.; Yale, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    Mutual information is used as a purely geometrical regularization of entanglement entropy applicable to any QFT. A coefficient in the mutual information between concentric circular entangling surfaces gives a precise universal prescription for the monotonous quantity in the c-theorem for d = 3. This is in principle computable using any regularization for the entropy, and in particular is a definition suitable for lattice models. We rederive the proof of the c-theorem for d = 3 in terms of mutual information, and check our arguments with holographic entanglement entropy, a free scalar field, and an extensive mutual information model.

  14. Constructing Mutually Unbiased Bases in Dimension Six

    E-print Network

    Stephen Brierley; Stefan Weigert

    2011-02-07

    The density matrix of a qudit may be reconstructed with optimal efficiency if the expectation values of a specific set of observables are known. In dimension six, the required observables only exist if it is possible to identify six mutually unbiased complex 6x6 Hadamard matrices. Prescribing a first Hadamard matrix, we construct all others mutually unbiased to it, using algebraic computations performed by a computer program. We repeat this calculation many times, sampling all known complex Hadamard matrices, and we never find more than two that are mutually unbiased. This result adds considerable support to the conjecture that no seven mutually unbiased bases exist in dimension six.

  15. Mutual information and the F-theorem

    E-print Network

    Horacio Casini; Marina Huerta; Robert C. Myers; Alexandre Yale

    2015-06-20

    Mutual information is used as a purely geometrical regularization of entanglement entropy applicable to any QFT. A coefficient in the mutual information between concentric circular entangling surfaces gives a precise universal prescription for the monotonous quantity in the c-theorem for d=3. This is in principle computable using any regularization for the entropy, and in particular is a definition suitable for lattice models. We rederive the proof of the c-theorem for d=3 in terms of mutual information, and check our arguments with holographic entanglement entropy, a free scalar field, and an extensive mutual information model.

  16. Mutually Unbiased Bases for Continuous Variables

    E-print Network

    Stefan Weigert; Michael Wilkinson

    2008-11-09

    The concept of mutually unbiased bases is studied for N pairs of continuous variables. To find mutually unbiased bases reduces, for specific states related to the Heisenberg-Weyl group, to a problem of symplectic geometry. Given a single pair of continuous variables, three mutually unbiased bases are identified while five such bases are exhibited for two pairs of continuous variables. For N = 2, the golden ratio occurs in the definition of these mutually unbiased bases suggesting the relevance of number theory not only in the finite-dimensional setting.

  17. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  18. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: Buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, James L.; Erickson, Thane M.; Mayer, Stefanie E.; Crocker, Jennifer; Briggs, Hedieh; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical mediator linking stress to health. Understanding how to modulate its reactivity could potentially help reduce the detrimental health effects of HPA axis activation. Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of this system. Access to control and coping responses can reduce its reactivity to pharmacological activation. Compassionate or affiliative behaviors may also moderate stress reactivity. Impact of these moderators on social evaluative threat is unknown. Here, we tested the hypotheses that interventions to increase control, coping, or compassionate (versus competitive) goals could reduce HPA-axis response to social evaluative threat. Methods Healthy participants (n = 54) were exposed to social evaluative threat using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). They were randomly assigned to receive one of four different instructions prior to the stressor: Standard TSST instructions (SI), standard instructions with access to “control” (SI Control), or one of two cognitive interventions (CI) that (1) increased familiarity and helped participants prepare coping strategies (CI Coping), or (2) shifted goal orientation from self-promotion to helping others (CI Compassionate Goals). ACTH and Cortisol were obtained before and after stress exposure via intravenous catheter. Results Control alone had no effect. CI Compassionate Goals significantly reduced ACTH and Cortisol responses to the TSST; CI Coping raised baseline levels. Compassionate Goals reduced hormonal responses without reducing subjective anxiety, stress or fear, while increasing expression of pro-social intentions and focus on helping others. Conclusions Brief intervention to shift focus from competitive self-promotion to a goal orientation of helping-others can reduce HPA-axis activation to a potent psychosocial stressor. This supports the potential for developing brief interventions as inoculation tools to reduce the impact of predictable stressors and lends support to growing evidence that compassion and altruistic goals can moderate the effects of stress. PMID:24767620

  19. College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

  20. Mutual enhancement of diverse terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Casey, Anne; Coenen, Amy; Konicek, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to map the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) nursing diagnoses to the International Classification for Nursing Practice Version 1.0 (ICNP®) and to compare the resulting representations and relationships to those within SNOMED® Clinical Terms (CT). Independent reviewers reached agreement on 25 (i.e. 64%) of the 39 parent-child relationships identified via the mappings between NANDA entities. Other parent-child relationships were more questionable and are in need of further discussion. This work does not seek to promote one terminology over any other. Rather, this collaborative effort has the potential to mutually enhance all three terminologies involved in the study: ICNP®, SNOMED® CT and NANDA. In doing so it provides an example of the type of collaborative effort that is needed to facilitate the development of tools to support interoperability at a global level. PMID:17238355

  1. Cross-orientation suppression and the topography of orientation preferences.

    PubMed

    Koch, Erin; Jin, Jiazhong; Wang, Yushi; Kremkow, Jens; Alonso, Jose Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2015-09-01

    Parallel perception of multiple orientations is essential for identification of patterns and 3-D shapes from texture. While the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores is organized in columns of neurons that respond to the same orientation preferences, neuronal responses to gratings of preferred orientation can be suppressed when another orientation is added to create a plaid. It is currently unknown how the different factors contributing to this cross-orientation suppression vary across the orientation map. To address this question, we performed horizontal penetrations with multielectrode arrays in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized cats and sampled populations of neurons in different cortical orientation domains (32-channel Neuronexus probe, 100 microns inter-electrode distance). Cortical neurons were stimulated with a sequence of static sinusoidal gratings (100 msec duration) containing 8 contrasts, 8 orientations, and 4 phases and a sequence of plaids consisting of superimposed pairs of gratings at 50% contrast, 8 orientations and 4 phases. We first confirmed contrast-invariance of orientation tuning and orientation-invariance of contrast response functions with these sequences of static gratings. We then calculated a Suppression Index as the ratio between the response to the preferred grating at 50% contrast (GR) and the average response to the plaids (PR), as (GR-PR) / (GR+PR). The distribution of Suppression Indices could be accurately fit with a Gaussian function (R2= 0.96, mean= 0.18 ± 0.10). In 95% of neuronal recordings (131 out 138), the added grating suppressed responses below that to the preferred component alone, which clearly rules out contrast saturation. Interestingly, the suppression index was negatively correlated with orientation tuning bandwidth (r = -0.34, p < 0.0001). In addition, preliminary analyses suggest that the response suppression is related to the rate of orientation change in visual cortical domains. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326688

  2. A distributed K-mutual exclusion algorithm 

    E-print Network

    Bulgannawar, Shailaja Gurupad

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a new token-based K-mutual exclusion algorithm for distributed systems. The proposed algorithm uses K tokens to achieve K-mutual exclusion. The system of N nodes is organized as a logical forest, with the node possessing...

  3. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Weyl, E. Glen; Frederickson, Megan E.; Yu, Douglas W.; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2010-01-01

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host–symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume–rhizobia and yucca–moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

  4. Affine Constellations Without Mutually Unbiased Counterparts

    E-print Network

    Stefan Weigert; Thomas Durt

    2010-07-22

    It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations, mostly in dimension six. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

  5. The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

  6. On the Mutual Information in Hawking Radiation

    E-print Network

    Norihiro Iizuka; Daniel Kabat

    2013-08-11

    We compute the mutual information of two Hawking particles emitted consecutively by an evaporating black hole. Following Page, we find that the mutual information is of order exp(-S) where S is the entropy of the black hole. We speculate on implications for black hole unitarity, in particular on a possible failure of locality at large distances.

  7. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-09-01

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

  8. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  9. Mother- And Father-Child Mutuality in Anglo and Indian British Families: A Link with Lower Externalizing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2004-01-01

    We observed mother- and father-child dyadic mutuality (responsiveness, interaction reciprocity, and cooperation), and its association with child behavior problems, in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 125 male (51%) and female 7-to-9-year-old children. Dyadic mutuality and positivity were coded from in-home videotaped structured…

  10. Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

    1977-01-01

    Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

  11. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4%, 5.4%, 10.4%, 30.4%, and 100.1% ...

  12. Antenna Subset Selection for MIMO Channels With Mutual Coupling

    E-print Network

    Santipach, - Wiroonsak

    Antenna Subset Selection for MIMO Channels With Mutual Coupling Dithanon Khrutmuang and Wiroonsak includes spatial correlation and mutual coupling among adjacent antennas, which can have significant impact scattering and no mutual coupling among transmitting or receiving antennas. If the scattering

  13. A COMPARISON OF MULTIVARIATE MUTUAL INFORMATION ESTIMATORS FOR FEATURE SELECTION

    E-print Network

    Verleysen, Michel

    A COMPARISON OF MULTIVARIATE MUTUAL INFORMATION ESTIMATORS FOR FEATURE SELECTION Gauthier Doquire, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium Keywords: Mutual information estimation, Feature selection, Nearest neighbors. Abstract: Mutual Information estimation is an important task for many data mining and machine

  14. Visual Correspondence Using Energy Minimization and Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Field, David

    Visual Correspondence Using Energy Minimization and Mutual Information Junhwan Kim Vladimir- eras. We use maximization of mutual information, a powerful technique for registering images, it has proven difficult to use mutual information to compute dense visual correspondence. Comparing fixed

  15. COOPERATION: Non-relatives Mutualism, Conditional Cooperation, Reciprocal Altruism

    E-print Network

    Caraco, Thomas

    COOPERATION: Non-relatives Mutualism, Conditional Cooperation, Reciprocal Altruism Evolution, Maintenance by Natural Selection Plausible Basis for Ethics, Justice Mutualism: Each Individual Benefits Certain Mutualism Feed Loudest Begging Nestling(s) Avoid Attracting Predators (To Own Offspring

  16. Focus Mutual Information for medical image alignment in

    E-print Network

    de Groen, Pieter

    Focus Mutual Information for medical image alignment in dentistry, orthodontics and craniofacial . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3.2 Mutual information image alignment . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.3 Information theory applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3 Focus Mutual Information alignment 27 3.1 Introduction

  17. Exploring Mutual Engagement in Creative Collaborations .Nick Bryan-Kinns

    E-print Network

    Bryan-Kinns, Nick

    1 Exploring Mutual Engagement in Creative Collaborations .Nick Bryan-Kinns .IMC Group .Department activity. In this paper we explore what constitutes mutually engaging interaction between people instruction, has on mutual engagement between remote participants. Surprisingly the results indicate

  18. Mutually Nonblocking Supervisory Control of Discrete Event Systems

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Mutually Nonblocking Supervisory Control of Discrete Event Systems M. Fabian Department to each individual specification. We call this the problem of mutually nonblocking supervision, which. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a mutually nonblocking

  19. The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) onboard ROSETTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Béghin, Christian; Décréau, Pierrette; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Mazelle, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Schmidt, Walter; Winterhalter, Daniel; Aouad, Youcef; Lagoutte, Dominique; Valličres, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The ROSETTA mission will reach the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and enable, for the first time, the in situ survey of a comet activity during along orbit. On board the ROSETTA orbiter, the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) is one of the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) that aims at monitoring the cometary plasma environment. MIP is a quadrupolar probe that measures the frequency response of the coupling impedance between two emitting and two receiving dipoles. The electron density and temperature are derived from the resonance peak and the interference pattern of the mutual impedance spectrum. We will describe this instrument and discuss the preliminary results obtained during the third ROSETTA Earth flyby to show its expected capabilities. The RPC switch ON for the post-hibernation recommissioning is planned at the end of March. The health status of the instrument will be discussed.

  20. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  1. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. PMID:22011186

  2. Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions. PMID:25883391

  3. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  4. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  5. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    PubMed

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with ?-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate the evolutionary designs of biomineralized microstructures and understand the tolerance to fracture and damage of chiton radular teeth. PMID:25913610

  6. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  7. Mutual Dependence for Secret Key Agreement

    E-print Network

    Chan, Chung

    A mutual dependence expression is established for the secret key agreement problem when all users are active. In certain source networks, the expression can be interpreted as certain notions of connectivity and network ...

  8. On the calculation of mutual information

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Tyrone E.

    1970-07-01

    . 19, No. 1, July 1970 ON THE CALCULATION OF MUTUAL INFORMATION* TYRONE E. DUNCANt 1. Introduction. Calculating the amount of information about one random function contained in another random function has many applications in com- munication theory.... For continuous time stochastic processes an expression for the mutual information has been obtained by Gel’land and Yaglom [1], Chiang [2] and P6rez 3] by generalizing Shannon’s result [4] in a natural way. With a certain absolute continuity condition...

  9. Holographic Mutual Information at small separations

    E-print Network

    Cesar A. Agon; Howard J. Schnitzer

    2015-02-10

    The holographic mutual information for the small separation of two circles and two strips in 2+1 dimensional space-time is considered based on the known exact minimal surfaces spanning the boundaries on AdS4. The results suggest a universality for the leading term in the short-distance expansion of holographic mutual information. A conjecture for a similar result for d > 2 is also presented, as well as comments about the analogous expansion in conformal field theory.

  10. Certainty relations, mutual entanglement, and nondisplaceable manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucha?a, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, ?ukasz; Chabuda, Krzysztof; Paraniak, Miko?aj; ?yczkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    We derive explicit bounds for the average entropy characterizing measurements of a pure quantum state of size N in L orthogonal bases. Lower bounds lead to novel entropic uncertainty relations, while upper bounds allow us to formulate universal certainty relations. For L =2 the maximal average entropy saturates at logN because there exists a mutually coherent state, but certainty relations are shown to be nontrivial for L ?3 measurements. In the case of a prime power dimension, N =pk , and the number of measurements L =N +1 , the upper bound for the average entropy becomes minimal for a collection of mutually unbiased bases. An analogous approach is used to study entanglement with respect to L different splittings of a composite system linked by bipartite quantum gates. We show that, for any two-qubit unitary gate U ?U(4 ) there exist states being mutually separable or mutually entangled with respect to both splittings (related by U ) of the composite system. The latter statement follows from the fact that the real projective space R P3?C P3 is nondisplaceable by a unitary transformation. For L =3 splittings the maximal sum of L entanglement entropies is conjectured to achieve its minimum for a collection of three mutually entangled bases, formed by two mutually entangling gates.

  11. Mutually unbiased bases with free parameters

    E-print Network

    Dardo Goyeneche; Santiago Gomez

    2015-06-27

    We present a systematic method to introduce free parameters in sets of mutually unbiased bases. In particular, we demonstrate that any set of m real mutually unbiased bases in dimension N>2 admits the introduction of (m-1)N/2 free parameters which cannot be absorbed by a global unitary operation. As consequence, there are m=k+1 mutually unbiased bases in every dimension N=k^2 with k^3/2 free parameters, where k is even. We construct the maximal set of triplets of mutually unbiased bases for two-qubits systems and triplets, quadruplets and quintuplets of mutually unbiased bases with free parameters for three-qubits systems. Furthermore, we study the richness of the entanglement structure of such bases and we provide the quantum circuits required to implement all these bases with free parameters in the laboratory. Finally, we find the upper bound for the maximal number of real and complex mutually unbiased bases existing in every dimension. This proof is simple, short and it considers basic matrix algebra.

  12. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Jung, C; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

    2015-02-01

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations. PMID:25234707

  13. Individual differences in preference for mutual gaze duration.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Charlotte; Binetti, Nicola; Coutrot, Antoine; Mareschal, Isabelle; Johnston, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Gaze is an important component of social interaction. While there is a large amount of research about perception of gaze direction, there has been comparatively little looking at gaze duration. As social interactions are inherently dynamic, understanding how long a person looks is at least as important as where they are looking. The current experiment was a normative study investigating individual differences in preference for mutual gaze duration. An international sample (n > 400) were shown a series of video clips of an actor (chosen at random) gazing directly at them for varying lengths of time. Participants then had to classify the amount of eye contact occurring during the clips as being either too long or too short to be "comfortable". Demographic information and personality data based on the Big Five Inventory were also gathered. It was found that the average length of preferred gaze duration was normally distributed with a mean of 3.2 seconds (± 1 second). The results showed a significant correlation between higher agreeableness self-ratings and preference for longer mutual gaze duration; this was particularly true for female participants viewing male actors. Further, higher extraversion and openness scores were found to positively correlate with higher variance in clip classification, indicating that participants who score more highly on these measures have a less strict categorisation of what constitutes a comfortable amount of mutual gaze duration. Differences between nationality and response variance were also found. The results suggest that while on average preference for length of mutual gaze is stable, individual preference in duration is influenced by multiple factors such as gender, age and nationality. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325861

  14. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

  15. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  16. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  17. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  18. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  19. Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples

    E-print Network

    Levenson, Robert W.

    Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples Virginia E. Sturm that differ in their socioemotional presentations. Mutual gaze (i.e. when two individuals make eye contact and trained raters coded mutual gaze from videotaped recordings. Results indicated that mutual gaze

  20. Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    E-print Network

    Sivakumar, Raghupathy

    Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks Ramanuja Vedantham Zhenyun Zhuang Prof Sensor Actor #12;4 The Problem: Mutual Exclusion Three actors act While actually two actors are sufficient in this case #12;5 The Problem: Mutual Exclusion Mutual Exclusion: Identify a minimal set

  1. All Mutually Unbiased Product Bases in Dimension Six

    E-print Network

    Daniel McNulty; Stefan Weigert

    2012-03-24

    All mutually unbiased bases in dimension six consisting of product states only are constructed. Several continuous families of pairs and two triples of mutually unbiased product bases are found to exist but no quadruple. The exhaustive classification leads to a proof that a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases, if it exists, cannot contain a triple of mutually unbiased product bases.

  2. Mutual stationarity in the core model Ralf Schindler

    E-print Network

    Schindler, Ralf

    Mutual stationarity in the core model Ralf Schindler Institut fË?ur Formale Logik, UniversitË?at Wien and Magidor in [3] study mutual stationarity in GË?odel's constructible universe L. We shall extend model. The present paper links mutual stationarity with core model theory. The concept of mutual

  3. 77 FR 74052 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...OCC-2012-0019] Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee Meeting...meeting of the Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC...status of the mutual savings association industry and current topics...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues of...

  4. 76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...OCC-2011-0025] Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...work of the Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC...challenges facing mutual savings associations. The OCC is seeking nominations...directors of mutual savings associations to be considered for...

  5. 78 FR 26424 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...OCC-2013-0004] Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...meeting of the Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues of concern...the existing mutual savings associations. On the day of the...

  6. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  7. Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated?

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated? S. A. WEST-legume mutualism. Introduction The widespread occurrence of mutualisms (mutually beneficial relationships between appropriate for mutualisms (distinct species which compete for different resources and intermediate levels

  8. Distribution of Mutual Information in Multipartite States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2014-06-01

    Using the relative entropy of total correlation, we derive an expression relating the mutual information of n-partite pure states to the sum of the mutual informations and entropies of its marginals and analyze some of its implications. Besides, by utilizing the extended strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy, we obtain generalized monogamy relations for the total correlation in three-partite mixed states. These inequalities lead to a tight lower bound for this correlation in terms of the sum of the bipartite mutual informations. We use this bound to propose a measure for residual three-partite total correlation and discuss the non-applicability of this kind of quantifier to measure genuine multiparty correlations.

  9. Holographic Mutual Information for Singular Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Mozaffar, M Reza Mohammadi; Omidi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    We study corner contributions to holographic mutual information for entangling regions composed of a set of disjoint sectors of a single infinite circle in three-dimensional conformal field theories. In spite of the UV divergence of holographic mutual information, it exhibits a first order phase transition. We show that tripartite information is also divergent for disjoint sectors, which is in contrast with the well-known feature of tripartite information being finite even when entangling regions share boundaries. We also verify the locality of corner effects by studying mutual information between regions separated by a sharp annular region. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and hyperscaling violating geometries is also considered for disjoint sectors.

  10. The Effect of Mutualism on Community Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainaka, K.; Yoshida, N.; Terazawa, N.; Nakagiri, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshimura, J.

    2003-04-01

    The so-called Lotka-Volterra model, which is thought to be appropriate for the dynamics of mutualistic relationship, tells us that mutualism does not play positive roles for the stability of ecosystem. When the mutualistic interactions between species are stronger than a certain threshold, population sizes of species unlimitedly increases. In the present paper, in order to prevent the divergence, we apply a lattice model, and introduce extended Lotka-Volterra equations. The latter is the mean-field theory of the former. These models contain the property of competition due to space limitation. In both models population is usually stable, when the intensity of mutualism are strong. In the lattice model, spatial distribution of species naturally evolves into a specific pattern of either mutualism or competition, depending on environmental conditions.

  11. Mutual information rate and bounds for it

    E-print Network

    M. S. Baptista; R. M. Rubinger; E. R. V. Junior; J. C. Sartorelli; U. Parlitz; C. Grebogi

    2012-05-17

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two data sets (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

  12. Mutual neutralization in rare gas halides

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, B.L.; Morgan, W.L.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1983-02-01

    The cross sections for mutual neutralization in Ne/sup +/+F/sup -/, Ar/sup +/+F/sup -/, and K/sup +/+Cl are obtained from two-state close coupling calculations. The Landau--Zener approximation gives adequate results in each case. The rate of neutralization is studied as a function of ambient gas density. Near atmospheric pressure, mutual neutralization is more likely than excimer formation of Ne/sup +/+F/sup -/ collisions, but less likely in Ar/sup +/+F/sup -/ collisions.

  13. Immigration Orientation

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Immigration Orientation: Maintaining Your F-1 Status International Services University of South Florida #12;F-1 Immigration Documents · Passport Your passport must be valid at least 6 months;F-1 Immigration Documents · Visa Stamp This is a travel document. It allows travel into the US

  14. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  15. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities -Sexual Orientation

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE Equal Opportunities - Sexual Orientation INTRODUCTION This document provides a general overview of legislation relating to sexual orientation and The Queen's College response as it endeavours to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of an individual's sexual orientation or gender

  16. Mutual Private Set Intersection with Linear Complexity

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    for [19, 5, 11, 7] is focused on solving the unilateral PSI problem.1 In this problem, two players the state- of-the-art in the computation overhead. To the best of our knowledge, our construction Intersection, Prime Representation 1 Introduction The mutual Private Set Intersection (PSI) problem

  17. Mutual information, Fisher information and population coding

    E-print Network

    Nadal, Jean-Pierre

    Mutual information, Fisher information and population coding Nicolas Brunel and Jean­Pierre Nadal 05, France. email: brunel@lps.ens.fr, nadal@lps.ens.fr. Abstract In the context of parameter al 1989, Bialek et al 1991, van Hateren 1992, Atick 1992, Nadal and Parga 1994). A neurophysiologist

  18. Crisp Boundary Detection Using Pointwise Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Aude

    Crisp Boundary Detection Using Pointwise Mutual Information Phillip Isola, Daniel Zoran, Dilip recovered contours; Contours labeled by humans [1]. Sobel boundaries are crisp but poorly match human drawn crisp and accurate. this border, it is in fact a rather unusual sort of change ­ it only occurs

  19. Time Complexity Bounds for Sharedmemory Mutual Exclusion

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James

    , the RMR (remote­memory­reference) time complexity measure was proposed [84]. Under this measure is the most e#cient mutual exclusion algorithm that can be designed under the RMR measure? This question present an adaptive algorithm with #(min(k, log N)) RMR time complexity under read/write atomicity, where

  20. Mutually unbiased bases and generalized Bell states

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, Andrei B.; Sych, Denis; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.; Leuchs, Gerd

    2009-05-15

    We employ a straightforward relation between mutually unbiased and Bell bases to extend the latter in terms of a direct construction for the former. We analyze in detail the properties of these generalized Bell states, showing that they constitute an appropriate tool for testing entanglement in bipartite multiqudit systems.

  1. Mutually unbiased bases and generalized Bell states

    E-print Network

    A. B. Klimov; D. Sych; L. L. Sanchez-Soto; G. Leuchs

    2009-02-11

    We employ a straightforward relation between mutually unbiased and Bell bases to extend the latter in terms of a direct construction for the former. We analyze in detail the properties of these new generalized Bell states, showing that they constitute an appropriate tool for testing entanglement in bipartite multiqudit systems.

  2. Mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    The generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used, together with the two-dimensional pressure equation, to analyze mutual diffusion in concentrated membrane systems. These equations can be used to investigate the role that both direct and hydrodynamic interactions play in determining diffusive behavior. Here only direct interactions are explicitly incorporated into the theory at high densities; however, both direct and hydrodynamic interactions are analyzed for some dilute solutions. We look at diffusion in the presence of weak attractions, soft repulsions, and hard-core repulsions. It is found that, at low densities, attractions retard mutual diffusion while repulsions enhance it. Mechanistically, attractions tend to tether particles together and oppose the dissipation of gradients or fluctuations in concentration, while repulsions provide a driving force that pushes particles apart. At higher concentrations, changes in the structure of the fluid enhance mutual diffusion even in the presence of attractions. It is shown that the theoretical description of postelectrophoresis relaxation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments must be modified if interacting systems are studied. The effects of interactions on mutual diffusion coefficients have probably already been seen in postelectrophoresis relaxation experiments. PMID:2775829

  3. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

    2012-01-01

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

  4. Dynamic Response of Stereoblock Elastomeric Polypropylene Studied by Rheo-Optics and X-ray Scattering: 2. Orthogonally Oriented Crystalline Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    A combination of tensile stress, rheo-optical birefringence, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was used to probe the dynamic response of the low-tacticity ether-soluble (ES) fraction of elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from metallocene 2-arylindene hafnium catalyst. The ES fraction has isotactic pentad distribution [mmmm] = 21% and a very low amount of crystallinity ({le} 2% by differential scanning calorimetry and WAXS). In tensile stretching and step-strain shearing, ES exhibits unusual deformation behavior of crystalline chains preferentially oriented orthogonal relative to the deformation axis. Under deformation, WAXS shows arcing along the meridian axis at a scattering angle 2{theta} = 16.0{sup o} (d = 0.551 {+-} 0.002 nm) which coincides with one of the characteristic reflections of the {beta}-form; but the higher order reflection for the {beta}-form at 2{theta} = 21.3{sup o} is not observed. The meridional arcing, which signifies crystallization of the low-tacticity fraction of ePP, is also observed when ES is blended with higher tacticity fractions of ePP. The meridional arcing, however, is observed at 2{theta} = 14.0{sup o} corresponding to (110) reflection of the {alpha}-form, instead of at 2{theta} = 16.0{sup o} for the neat ES. The crystallization in the {alpha}-form offers evidence of co-crystallization of the ES fraction with the higher-tacticity components in the same crystalline form as the host matrix. We believe that the co-crystallization occurs through an epitaxial growth in the ac-faces of the {alpha}-form.

  5. Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects. PMID:22381679

  6. Prisoners or Volunteers: Developing Mutual Respect in the Elementary Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Richard A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to investigate how teacher educators might help preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course understand the need for mutual respect rather than coercion between pupil and teacher in an elementary classroom. An evaluation instrument was developed that consisted of a pre and post open-ended response to a…

  7. Orientation effect on the stress response by strain-rate change at 400 K in Ni{sub 3}Al single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, M.; Hirano, T.

    1999-07-01

    Cyclic strain-rate change tests were performed by using binary, stoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al single crystalline specimens with different tensile orientations at 400K. In all the specimens, the flow stress was independent of strain rate in steady state and exhibited a temporary change by the strain-rate change. The characteristics of the temporary stress change, the initial stress change and transient time, were independent of orientation. Based on the multiplication-immobilization model, the authors concluded that the immobilization mechanism, the Kear-Wilsdorf locking mechanism, is independent of orientation in binary, stoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al.

  8. A Novel Prime and Boost Regimen of HIV Virus-Like Particles with TLR4 Adjuvant MPLA Induces Th1 Oriented Immune Responses against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Poteet, Ethan; Lewis, Phoebe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Sheng; Gu, Jianhua; Chen, Changyi; Ho, Sam On; Do, Thai; Chiang, SuMing; Fujii, Gary; Yao, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) present the HIV envelope protein in its native conformation, providing an ideal vaccine antigen. To enhance the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine, we sought to improve upon two components; the route of administration and the additional adjuvant. Using HIV VLPs, we evaluated sub-cheek as a novel route of vaccine administration when combined with other conventional routes of immunization. Of five combinations of distinct prime and boost sequences, which included sub-cheek, intranasal, and intradermal routes of administration, intranasal prime and sub-cheek boost (IN+SC) resulted in the highest HIV-specific IgG titers among the groups tested. Using the IN+SC regimen we tested the adjuvant VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV) + monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) at MPLA concentrations of 0, 7.5, 12.5, and 25 ?g/dose in combination with our VLPs. Mice that received 12.5 or 25 ?g/dose MPLA had the highest concentrations of Env-specific IgG2c (20.7 and 18.4 ?g/ml respectively), which represents a Th1 type of immune response in C57BL/6 mice. This was in sharp contrast to mice which received 0 or 7.5 ?g MPLA adjuvant (6.05 and 5.68 ?g/ml of IgG2c respectively). In contrast to IgG2c, MPLA had minor effects on Env-specific IgG1; therefore, 12.5 and 25 ?g/dose of MPLA induced the optimal IgG1/IgG2c ratio of 1.3. Additionally, the percentage of germinal center B cells increased significantly from 15.4% in the control group to 31.9% in the CALV + 25 ?g MPLA group. These mice also had significantly more IL-2 and less IL-4 Env-specific CD8+ T cells than controls, correlating with an increased percentage of Env-specific central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study shows the strong potential of IN+SC as an efficacious route of administration and the effectiveness of VLPs combined with MPLA adjuvant to induce Env specific Th1-oriented HIV-specific immune responses. PMID:26312747

  9. Identifying Driver Genomic Alterations in Cancers by Searching Minimum-Weight, Mutually Exclusive Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Songjian; Lu, Kevin N.; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Hu, Bo; Ma, Xiaojun; Nystrom, Nicholas; Lu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    An important goal of cancer genomic research is to identify the driving pathways underlying disease mechanisms and the heterogeneity of cancers. It is well known that somatic genome alterations (SGAs) affecting the genes that encode the proteins within a common signaling pathway exhibit mutual exclusivity, in which these SGAs usually do not co-occur in a tumor. With some success, this characteristic has been utilized as an objective function to guide the search for driver mutations within a pathway. However, mutual exclusivity alone is not sufficient to indicate that genes affected by such SGAs are in common pathways. Here, we propose a novel, signal-oriented framework for identifying driver SGAs. First, we identify the perturbed cellular signals by mining the gene expression data. Next, we search for a set of SGA events that carries strong information with respect to such perturbed signals while exhibiting mutual exclusivity. Finally, we design and implement an efficient exact algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem encountered in our approach. We apply this framework to the ovarian and glioblastoma tumor data available at the TCGA database, and perform systematic evaluations. Our results indicate that the signal-oriented approach enhances the ability to find informative sets of driver SGAs that likely constitute signaling pathways. PMID:26317392

  10. Cosmetic Surgeries and Non-Orientable Surfaces Kazuhiro ICHIHARA

    E-print Network

    Ichihara, Kazuhiro

    169 Cosmetic Surgeries and Non-Orientable Surfaces Kazuhiro ICHIHARA Accepted November 14, 2012 Proceedings of the Institute of Natural Sciences, Nihon University No.48 2013 pp.169 174 1 COSMETIC SURGERIES/3- and -10/3-Dehn surgeries on the 2-bridge knot 927 are not cosmetic, i.e., they give mutually non

  11. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  12. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  13. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  14. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  15. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  16. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  17. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...provision of the applicant's charter, constitution or bylaws. (c) Application form...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws or other actions conferring...the mutual association's charter, constitution or bylaws, or as may otherwise...

  18. Mutual diffusion of inclusions in freely-suspended smectic liquid crystal films

    E-print Network

    Zhiyuan Qi; Zoom Hoang Nguyen; Cheol Soo Park; Matthew A. Glaser; Joseph E. Maclennan; Noel A. Clark; Tatiana Kuriabova; Thomas R. Powers

    2014-01-09

    We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size-dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. The observed dependence of the mutual mobilities on inclusion size is described well for arbitrary separations by a model that generalizes the Levine/MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix.

  19. Orientation of chemical bonds at type-II heterointerfaces probed by polarized optical spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Orientation of chemical bonds at type-II heterointerfaces probed by polarized optical spectroscopy of the heterojunction, and related to a tetrahedral orientation of chemical bonds along the 111 directions. An ideal QW: the chemical bonds at the opposite interfaces lie in mutually orthogonal planes (11Ż0), 110 and both contribu

  20. CONSTRUCTIONS OF COMPLEX EQUIANGULAR LINES FROM MUTUALLY UNBIASED BASES

    E-print Network

    Jedwab, Jonathan

    CONSTRUCTIONS OF COMPLEX EQUIANGULAR LINES FROM MUTUALLY UNBIASED BASES JONATHAN JEDWAB AND AMY a combinatorial approach to this conjecture, using mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in the following 3 constructions FROM MUTUALLY UNBIASED BASES M. Appleby [5] observed in 2011: "In spite of strenuous attempts by numer

  1. Stereo Processing by Semiglobal Matching and Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Stereo Processing by Semiglobal Matching and Mutual Information Heiko Hirschmu¨ller Abstract--This paper describes the Semiglobal Matching (SGM) stereo method. It uses a pixelwise, Mutual Information (MI that the presented ideas are working well on practical problems. Index Terms--Stereo, mutual information, global

  2. Exploiting Wireless Broadcast Property to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion

    E-print Network

    Vaidya, Nitin

    Exploiting Wireless Broadcast Property to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion Ghazale at Urbana-Champaign Introduction · Mutual Exclusion (MUTEX) : a group of processors require to enter to improve performance. Correctness · Mutual Exclusion (safety) : At most one node is in CS at any time

  3. THE PROBLEM OF MUTUALLY UNBIASED BASES IN DIMENSION 6

    E-print Network

    Matolcsi, Máté

    THE PROBLEM OF MUTUALLY UNBIASED BASES IN DIMENSION 6 PHILIPPE JAMING, M´AT´E MATOLCSI, AND P´ETER M´ORA Abstract. We outline a discretization approach to determine the maximal number of mutually and phrases. Mutually unbiased bases, complex Hadamard matrices 1. Introduction This paper is based

  4. Synchronization of Mutually Coupled Digital PLLs in Massive MIMO Systems

    E-print Network

    Juelicher, Frank

    Synchronization of Mutually Coupled Digital PLLs in Massive MIMO Systems David J. Jörg , Alexandros that mutually coupled digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) can enable in-phase synchronous clocking in large experiments, thereby providing a proof-of-principle that mutually delay-coupled DPLLs can provide self

  5. Convexity/Concavity of Renyi Entropy and -Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    VerdĂş, Sergio

    Convexity/Concavity of Renyi Entropy and -Mutual Information Siu-Wai Ho Institute´enyi (or Tsallis) divergence. This paper also considers a notion of generalized mutual information, namely -mutual information, which is defined through the R´enyi divergence. The convexity/concavity for different

  6. SYSTEMS OF MUTUALLY UNBIASED HADAMARD MATRICES CONTAINING REAL AND COMPLEX

    E-print Network

    Matolcsi, Máté

    SYSTEMS OF MUTUALLY UNBIASED HADAMARD MATRICES CONTAINING REAL AND COMPLEX MATRICES M. MATOLCSI, I of complex mutually unbiased Hadamard ma- trices (MUHs) in any dimension cannot contain more than one real. Introduction A new approach to the problem of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) was recently given in [18], based

  7. Examining methods for estimating mutual information in spiking neural systems

    E-print Network

    Rozell, Christopher J.

    Examining methods for estimating mutual information in spiking neural systems Christopher J. Rozell Abstract Mutual information enjoys wide use in the computational neuroscience community for analyzing mutual infor- mation that rely on less data. We examine two upper bound techniques and find

  8. The permutation test for feature selection by mutual information.

    E-print Network

    Verleysen, Michel

    The permutation test for feature selection by mutual information. D. Fran¸cois1 , V. Wertz1 and M. The estimation of mutual information for feature selection is often subject to inaccuracies due to noise, small approach. Mutual information is a non-parametric measure of relevance ; it is derived from information

  9. On the strength of mutual stationarity Peter Koepke

    E-print Network

    Welch, Philip

    On the strength of mutual stationarity Peter Koepke Mathematisches Institut der Universit¨at Bonn() = 1, is mutually stationary then V = L. We show that the existence of a sequence (n of mutual stationarity was introduced by M. Foreman and M. Magidor [4] in order to transfer some

  10. FAST EMERGENT OSCILLATIONS IN A MUTUALLY INHIBITORY NETWORK RAMANA DODLA*

    E-print Network

    Dodla, Ramana

    FAST EMERGENT OSCILLATIONS IN A MUTUALLY INHIBITORY NETWORK RAMANA DODLA* & JOHN RINZEL Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 We study a network of mutually alltoall inhibiting AND PAIRWISE CROSS CORRELATIONS In the absence of mutual coupling, the ISI histogram shows a peak

  11. Antenna Array Mutual Coupling Effects on Cellular CDMA Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Blostein, Steven D.

    Antenna Array Mutual Coupling Effects on Cellular CDMA Communication Systems Alexander M. Wyglinski of mutual coupling and thus potentially lead to less accurate system performance predictions. Further­ more, methods for computing beampatterns which con­ sider mutual coupling effects are computationally inten

  12. On the Optimality of Mutual Information Analysis for Discrete Leakages

    E-print Network

    Rioul, Olivier

    On the Optimality of Mutual Information Analysis for Discrete Leakages Eloi de Ch´erisey, Annelie Heuser, Sylvain Guilley and Olivier Rioul Telecom ParisTech Abstract Recent works investigated mutual. We also propose new strategies for estimating conditional entropy and mutual information using fast

  13. Gradient of Mutual Information in Linear Vector Gaussian Channels

    E-print Network

    VerdĂş, Sergio

    Gradient of Mutual Information in Linear Vector Gaussian Channels Daniel P. Palomar and Sergio Verd for the gradient of the mutual information with respect to arbitrary parameters of the system, and ii) fundamental recently unveiled by Guo, Shamai, and Verd´u [1], we show that the gradient of the mutual information

  14. On the strength of mutual stationarity Peter Koepke

    E-print Network

    Welch, Philip

    On the strength of mutual stationarity Peter Koepke Mathematisches Institut der UniversitË?at Bonn with ## # Sn cof(#) = #1 , is mutually stationary then V #= L. We show that the existence of a sequence (#n )n of mutual stationarity was introduced by M. Foreman and M. Magidor [4] in order to transfer some

  15. The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions

    E-print Network

    Lamport ,Leslie

    56b The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions L. Lamport1 Digital Equipment developed in Part I is used to state the mutual exclusion problem and several additional fairness.1 The Mutual Exclusion Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 The One-Bit Solution

  16. Mutual State Capability-Based Role Assignment Model (Extended Abstract)

    E-print Network

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    Mutual State Capability-Based Role Assignment Model (Extended Abstract) Somchaya Liemhetcharat 15213, USA veloso@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT We formally present the Mutual State Capability-Based Role not only on its own individual skills, but also on its teammates and their mutual state. The MuSCRA model

  17. Mutual Information and MMSE in Gaussian Channels Dongning Guo2

    E-print Network

    VerdĂş, Sergio

    Mutual Information and MMSE in Gaussian Channels Dongning Guo2 Shlomo Shamai3 Sergio Verd´u 2 2 the input- output mutual information and the minimum mean- square error (MMSE) of an estimate of the input given the output: The derivative of the mutual in- formation (nats) with respect to the signal

  18. Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay

    E-print Network

    Wünsche, Hans-Jürgen "Ede"

    Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay Nikolay Korneyev a und Stochastik, Mohrenstr. 39, 10117 Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT Distant lasers with mutual optical coupled by mutual injection of a certain fraction of the radiation emitted from each laser into the other

  19. Mutual Information Aspects of Scale Space Arjan Kuijper

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Mutual Information Aspects of Scale Space Images Arjan Kuijper Abstract In image registration mutual information is a well-performing measure based on principles of uncertainty. Similarly, in image in a parametrized mutual information measure using local information of the image. For single modality matching

  20. Mutual Information Analysis A Universal Differential Side-Channel Attack

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Mutual Information Analysis A Universal Differential Side-Channel Attack Benedikt Gierlichs1, Lejla-channel attack. We build a distinguisher which uses the Mutual Information between the observed and the leaked values as a statistical test. The Mutual Information is maximal when the hypothetical key guessed

  1. Mutual Information Coefficient Analysis Yanis Linge1,2

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Mutual Information Coefficient Analysis Yanis Linge1,2 , C´ecile Dumas1 , and Sophie Lambert a secret key, as the Pearson coefficient or the Mutual Information. In this paper we propose to study. [13] to compare two random variables. The MIC is based on the mutual information but it is easier

  2. Mutual Inactivation of Notch Receptors and Ligands Facilitates Developmental Patterning

    E-print Network

    Elowitz, Michael

    Mutual Inactivation of Notch Receptors and Ligands Facilitates Developmental Patterning David and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual

  3. Mutual information of words and pictures Kobus Barnard

    E-print Network

    Yanai, Keiji

    Mutual information of words and pictures Kobus Barnard Department of Computer Science University@cs.uec.ac.jp Abstract-- We quantify the mutual information between words and images or their components in the context mutual information between im- ages and associated text. For example, given an image, we are not overly

  4. Mutual Authentication for Low-Power Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Mutual Authentication for Low-Power Mobile Devices Markus Jakobsson1 and David Pointcheval2 1://www.di.ens.fr/users/pointche Abstract. We propose methods for mutual authentication and key ex- change. Our methods are well suited power, medical informatics, mutual authentication, gap problem. 1 Introduction Computers can

  5. Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Shalene Jha1

    E-print Network

    Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters Shalene Jha1 *, David Allen2 , Heidi Liere3 ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates

  6. Mutually embeddable graphs and the Tree Alternative conjecture

    E-print Network

    Bonato, Anthony

    Mutually embeddable graphs and the Tree Alternative conjecture Anthony Bonato a a Abstract We prove that if a rayless tree T is mutually embeddable and non-isomorphic with another rayless tree, then T is mutually embeddable and non-isomorphic with in- finitely many rayless trees. The proof

  7. Mutual Engagement in Social Music Making Nick Bryan-Kinns

    E-print Network

    Bryan-Kinns, Nick

    Mutual Engagement in Social Music Making Nick Bryan-Kinns Interactional Sound and Music Group 7882 7845; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7882 7064 nick.bryan-kinns@eecs.qmul.ac.uk Abstract. Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together. In this paper we suggest that mutual engagement is key

  8. Beyond Mutual Information: a simple and robust alternative

    E-print Network

    Modersitzki, Jan

    Beyond Mutual Information: a simple and robust alternative Eldad Haber 1 and Jan Modersitzki 2 1 and/or modalities. Starting in 1995, mutual information has shown to be a very successful distance measure for multi­modal image registration. However, as it is well­known, mutual information also has

  9. A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission Minh Quoc Nguyen of optimizing the efficiency of a wireless power transmission system in terms of mutual inductance. A circuit model was developed in PSpice to simulate the effect of mutual inductance by inductive coupling on power

  10. The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions

    E-print Network

    Lamport ,Leslie

    56b The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions L. Lamport 1 Digital Equipment The theory developed in Part I is used to state the mutual exclusion problem and several additional fairness.1 The Mutual Exclusion Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 The One­Bit Solution

  11. Modeling Mutual Capabilities in Heterogeneous Teams for Role Assignment

    E-print Network

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    Modeling Mutual Capabilities in Heterogeneous Teams for Role Assignment Somchaya Liemhetcharat, where an agent's capability depends on its teammate and their mutual state, i.e., the agent's state mutual interactions between more than two agents. I. INTRODUCTION Role assignment in heterogeneous teams

  12. Mutual positive effects between shrubs in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Tirado, Reyes; Brĺthen, Kari Anne; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

    2015-01-01

    One-way facilitation in plants has been found in many harsh environments and their role as structural forces governing species composition in plant communities is now well established. However, reciprocal positive effects benefiting two interacting species have seldom been reported and, in recent reviews, conceptually considered merely as facilitation when in fact there is room for adaptive strategies and evolutionary responses. We tested the existence of such reciprocal positive effects in an arid environment in SE Spain using spatial pattern analysis, a species removal experiment, and a natural experiment. We found that the spatial association between Maytenus senegalensis and Whitania frutescens, two shrub species of roughly similar size intimately interacting in our community, resulted in mutual benefit for both species. Benefits included improved water relations and nutritional status and protection against browsing, and did occur despite simultaneous competition for resources. Our data suggest two-way facilitation or, rather, a facultative mutualism among higher plant species, a process often overlooked which could be a main driver of plant community dynamics allowing for evolutionary processes. PMID:26419958

  13. Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

  14. Mutual positive effects between shrubs in an arid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Reyes; Brĺthen, Kari Anne; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2015-01-01

    One-way facilitation in plants has been found in many harsh environments and their role as structural forces governing species composition in plant communities is now well established. However, reciprocal positive effects benefiting two interacting species have seldom been reported and, in recent reviews, conceptually considered merely as facilitation when in fact there is room for adaptive strategies and evolutionary responses. We tested the existence of such reciprocal positive effects in an arid environment in SE Spain using spatial pattern analysis, a species removal experiment, and a natural experiment. We found that the spatial association between Maytenus senegalensis and Whitania frutescens, two shrub species of roughly similar size intimately interacting in our community, resulted in mutual benefit for both species. Benefits included improved water relations and nutritional status and protection against browsing, and did occur despite simultaneous competition for resources. Our data suggest two-way facilitation or, rather, a facultative mutualism among higher plant species, a process often overlooked which could be a main driver of plant community dynamics allowing for evolutionary processes. PMID:26419958

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance...companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or policies for which...

  16. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance...companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or policies for which...

  17. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance...companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or policies for which...

  18. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance...companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or policies for which...

  19. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section 1...mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance...companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or policies for which...

  20. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  1. Estimating Mutual Information by Local Gaussian Approximation

    E-print Network

    Gao, Shuyang; Galstyan, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Estimating mutual information (MI) from samples is a fundamental problem in statistics, machine learning, and data analysis. Recently it was shown that a popular class of non-parametric MI estimators perform very poorly for strongly dependent variables and have sample complexity that scales exponentially with the true MI. This undesired behavior was attributed to the reliance of those estimators on local uniformity of the underlying (and unknown) probability density function. Here we present a novel semi-parametric estimator of mutual information, where at each sample point, densities are {\\em locally} approximated by a Gaussians distribution. We demonstrate that the estimator is asymptotically unbiased. We also show that the proposed estimator has a superior performance compared to several baselines, and is able to accurately measure relationship strengths over many orders of magnitude.

  2. Understanding the differential thermal behaviour of an oriented polymeric film, in response to the modulated differential scanning calorimetry variables, for determination of the degree of crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambardekar, Rohan; Karandikar, Hrushikesh; Kelly, Adrian; Caton-Rose, Phil; Coates, Phil; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-05-01

    The degree and the nature of crystallinity determine several key properties of an oriented polymeric system. Thermal analysis, although widely used for crystallinity determination, may have limited precision with oriented polymers, due to the differential nature and overlap of multiple thermal events (cold-crystallisation, chain-relaxation, etc). In this paper we have studied, how MDSC (Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry) variables manipulate the thermal behaviour of oriented materials, so that the degree and the nature of crystallisation can be well defined. MDSC curves suggested that the thermal events were significantly shaped by the amplitude (?) and the period (?) of thermal modulations. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of the oriented PLA film lead to generation of an error in the calculation of non-reversible signal, seen as an artefact in the crystallisation exotherm. Higher amplitude increased the sensitivity of the method. However, when the rise in the amplitude lead to a shift from a `heat-only' to a `heat-cool-heat' cycle, contribution from a poor baseline resulted in the low estimate of the crystallinity. For the `heat-only' cycles, measured crystallinity decreased inversely with the heating rate and ?, due to time dependent crystallisation and melting. Heat-cool-heat cycles lead to crystallisation of some part of the polymer in a more perfected crystal form, whose melting was visible as a non-reversible event. The observations suggested that the heat-only cycles with longer period and faster heating rates favour estimation of the crystallinity, whereas heat-cool-heat cycles with higher amplitude help in understanding pre-melting thermal events associated with polymer orientation. A clear understanding of such an effect is necessary to establish the suitability of MDSC in rapid estimation of crystallinity of the oriented polymers. Accuracy of the method was evaluated by studying the films oriented to different draw ratios and comparison to other established methods. However, this part is not included in this brief communication.

  3. PHASES Differential Astrometry and the Mutual Inclination of the V819 Herculis Triple Star System

    E-print Network

    Matthew W. Muterspaugh; Benjamin F. Lane; Maciej Konacki; Bernard F. Burke; M. M. Colavita; S. R. Kulkarni; M. Shao

    2005-09-30

    V819 Herculis is a well-studied triple star system consisting of a ``wide'' pair with 5.5 year period, one component of which is a 2.2-day period eclipsing single-line spectroscopic binary. Differential astrometry measurements from the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES) are presented and used to determine a relative inclination between the short- and long-period orbits of 23.6 +- 4.9 degrees. This represents only the sixth unambiguous determination of the mutual inclination of orbits in a hierarchical triple system. This result is combined with those for the other five systems for analysis of the observed distribution of mutual inclinations in nearby triple systems. It is found that this distribution is different than that which one would expect from random orientations with statistical significance at the 94% level; implications for studying the spatial distribution of angular momentum in star forming regions is discussed.

  4. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    E-print Network

    A. Hamma; S. M. Giampaolo; F. Illuminati

    2016-01-06

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and to show that they actually feature the least macroscopic correlations compared to their symmetric superpositions is highly non trivial. We prove this result in general, by considering the quantum mutual information based on the $2-$R\\'enyi entanglement entropy and using a locality result stemming from quasi-adiabatic continuation. Moreover, in the paradigmatic case of the exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum $XY$ model, we further verify the general result by considering also the quantum mutual information based on the von Neumann entanglement entropy.

  5. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin )

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  6. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-04-01

    A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. PMID:24428169

  7. Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2013-02-01

    The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

  8. Homemaker Orientation Related to Marketing. 

    E-print Network

    Stubbs, Alice

    1965-01-01

    &M UNIVERSITY Texas Agricultural Experiment Station - R. E. Patterson, Director, College Station, Texas Contents Summary I Introduction Orientation of the Homemaker Homemaker Knowledge Socio-characteristics of the Homemnk~r Homemaker's Response to Mass... knowledge. Also, additional work needs to be done on tvay- of determining homemaker orientation. No conclusive result can be reported on the responsp 01 the homemakers to the mass media educational programs. Tl~e number who saw or heard these programs...

  9. 75 FR 24775 - Open Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...The OTS Mutual Savings Associations Advisory Committee...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues...

  10. 75 FR 76524 - Closed Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...The OTS Mutual Savings Associations Advisory Committee...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee will...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues...

  11. 75 FR 38188 - Closed Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...The OTS Mutual Savings Associations Advisory Committee...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee will...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues...

  12. 12 CFR 544.8 - Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of a Federal mutual savings association. 544.8 Section 544... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Availability...a Federal mutual savings association. (a) Right of communication...a Federal mutual savings association has the right to...

  13. 75 FR 61572 - Open Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY...The OTS Mutual Savings Associations Advisory Committee...the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee will...viability of mutual savings associations, and other issues...

  14. A mutually assured destruction mechanism attenuates light signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xu, Shou-Ling; Tepperman, James M; Stanley, David J; Maltby, Dave A; Gross, John D; Burlingame, Alma L; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Quail, Peter H

    2014-06-01

    After light-induced nuclear translocation, phytochrome photoreceptors interact with and induce rapid phosphorylation and degradation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), to regulate gene expression. Concomitantly, this interaction triggers feedback reduction of phytochrome B (phyB) levels. Light-induced phosphorylation of PIF3 is necessary for the degradation of both proteins. We report that this PIF3 phosphorylation induces, and is necessary for, recruitment of LRB [Light-Response Bric-a-Brack/Tramtrack/Broad (BTB)] E3 ubiquitin ligases to the PIF3-phyB complex. The recruited LRBs promote concurrent polyubiqutination and degradation of both PIF3 and phyB in vivo. These data reveal a linked signal-transmission and attenuation mechanism involving mutually assured destruction of the receptor and its immediate signaling partner. PMID:24904166

  15. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields.

    PubMed

    Finkes, Laura K; Cady, Alan B; Mulroy, Juliana C; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2006-03-01

    Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch biomass, a habitat feature of known importance to spiders. The richness of both spider families and morphospecies was greater in the absence of the endophyte, although total spider abundance was not affected. Thatch removal reduced both spider abundance and richness, and endophyte and thatch effects were largely additive. Spider families differed in responses, with declines in Linyphiidae and Thomisidae due to the endophyte and declines in Lycosidae due to thatch removal. Results demonstrate that the community impacts of non-native plants can depend on plants' mutualistic associates, such as fungal endophytes. PMID:16958901

  16. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  17. Mutually injection locked lasers for enhanced frequency response

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A; Chow, Weng W

    2014-04-01

    Semiconductor light-emitting devices; methods of forming semi-conductor light emitting devices, and methods of operating semi-conductor light emitting devices are provided. A semiconductor light-emitting device includes a first laser section monolithically integrated with a second laser section on a common substrate. Each laser section has a phase section, a gain section and at least one distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure. The first laser section and the second laser section are optically coupled to permit optical feedback therebetween. Each phase section is configured to independently tune a respective one of the first laser section and second laser section relative to each other.

  18. Unobservable mutual events of the Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sôma, M.

    2002-11-01

    Mutual eclipses and occultations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter which will occur in 2002-2003 were predicted independently by J.-E. Arlot and by K. Aksnes, and information on the visibility of the events from any site on the Earth is provided on the IMCCE web site based on Arlot's predictions. However, many unobservable events, such as the eclipsed satellites are in the shadow of Jupiter, are included in Arlot's predictions and there is no way of eliminating of such unobservable events from his predictions. This paper lists all such events.

  19. Quantum reconstruction of the mutual coherence function.

    PubMed

    Hradil, Z; Rehácek, J; Sánchez-Soto, L L

    2010-07-01

    Light is a major carrier of information about the world around us, from the microcosmos to the macrocosmos. The present methods of detection are sensitive both to robust features, such as intensity, or polarization, and to more subtle effects, such as correlations. Here we show how wave front detection, which allows for registering the direction of the incoming wave flux at a given position, can be used to reconstruct the mutual coherence function when combined with some techniques previously developed for quantum information processing. PMID:20867424

  20. Quantum reconstruction of the mutual coherence function

    E-print Network

    Z. Hradil; J. Rehacek; L. L. Sanchez-Soto

    2014-02-14

    Light is a major carrier of information about the world around us, from the microcosmos to the macrocosmos. The present methods of detection are sensitive both to robust features, such as intensity, or polarization, and to more subtle effects, such as correlations. Here we show how wave front detection, which allows for registering the direction of the incoming wave flux at a given position, can be used to reconstruct the mutual coherence function when combined with some techniques previously developed for quantum information processing.

  1. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-02-15

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  2. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

  3. Orientation-restricted continuous visual exposure induces marked reorganization of orientation maps in early life.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Ribot, Jérôme; Imamura, Kazuyuki; Tani, Toshiki

    2006-04-01

    To elucidate the effect of visual experience on the development of orientation maps, we conducted intrinsic signal optical imaging of the visual cortex of kittens that were continuously exposed to a single orientation through cylindrical-lens-fitted goggles under a freely moving condition starting at post-natal week 3. We observed a rapid reorganization of orientation maps, characterized by extensive representation of exposed orientations with reduced responsiveness to unexposed orientations. The over-representation of exposed orientation was marked for 1-2 weeks of goggle rearing. A longer period of goggle rearing, however, decreased the degree of over-representation, which still remained at a remarkable level. Dark rearing episodes daily interleaved between single orientation exposures moderated the over-representation effect. Unit recording from goggle-reared kittens showed preferred orientations consistent with optical imaging. Using c-Fos immunoreactivity mapping, we showed that the number of neurons strongly responding to the exposed orientation was 3 times larger in a goggle-reared cat than the number of neurons responding to the vertical orientation in a normal cat. Taken together, these results suggest that the reorganization of orientation maps was caused by the expansion of domains maximally responding to exposed orientation as well as the strong reduction of responses to unexposed orientations. PMID:16275019

  4. No Evidence of Emotional Dysregulation or Aversion to Mutual Gaze in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Pupillometry Study.

    PubMed

    Nuske, Heather J; Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2015-11-01

    The 'gaze aversion hypothesis', suggests that people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) avoid mutual gaze because they experience it as hyper-arousing. To test this hypothesis we showed mutual and averted gaze stimuli to 23 mixed-ability preschoolers with ASD (M Mullen DQ = 68) and 21 typically-developing preschoolers, aged 2-5 years, using eye-tracking technology to measure visual attention and emotional arousal (i.e., pupil dilation). There were no group differences in attention to the eye region or pupil dilation. Both groups dilated their pupils more to mutual compared to averted gaze. More internalizing symptoms in the children with ASD related to less emotional arousal to mutual gaze. The pattern of results suggests that preschoolers with ASD are not dysregulated in their responses to mutual gaze. PMID:26031923

  5. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping.

    PubMed

    Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression. PMID:26360706

  6. Detecting companions to extrasolar planets using mutual events

    E-print Network

    J. Cabrera; J. Schneider

    2007-03-23

    We investigate a new approach to the detection of companions to extrasolar planets beyond the transit method. We discuss the possibility of the existence of binary planets. We develop a method based on the imaging of a planet-companion as an unresolved system (but resolved from its parent star). It makes use of planet-companion mutual phenomena, namely mutual transits and mutual shadows. We show that companions can be detected and their radius measured down to lunar sizes.

  7. Synchronization of Mutually Versus Unidirectionally Coupled Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers

    E-print Network

    Noam Gross; Wolfgang Kinzel; Ido Kanter; Michael Rosenbluh; Lev Khaykovich

    2006-04-26

    Synchronization dynamics of mutually coupled chaotic semiconductor lasers are investigated experimentally and compared to identical synchronization of unidirectionally coupled lasers. Mutual coupling shows high quality synchronization in a broad range of self-feedback and coupling strengths. It is found to be tolerant to significant parameter mismatch which for unidirectional coupling would result in loss of synchronization. The advantages of mutual coupling are emphasized in light of its potential use in chaos communications.

  8. Competition between Mutually Exclusive Object States in Event Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sarah H; Hindy, Nicholas C; Altmann, Gerry T M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Successful language comprehension requires one to correctly match symbols in an utterance to referents in the world, but the rampant ambiguity present in that mapping poses a challenge. Sometimes the ambiguity lies in which of two (or more) types of things in the world are under discussion (i.e., lexical ambiguity); however, even a word with a single sense can have an ambiguous referent. This ambiguity occurs when an object can exist in multiple states. Here, we consider two cases in which the presence of multiple object states may render a single-sense word ambiguous. In the first case, one must disambiguate between two states of a single object token in a short discourse. In the second case, the discourse establishes two different tokens of the object category. Both cases involve multiple object states: These states are mutually exclusive in the first case, whereas in the second case, these states can logically exist at the same time. We use fMRI to contrast same-token and different-token discourses, using responses in left posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pVLPFC) as an indicator of conflict. Because the left pVLPFC is sensitive to competition between multiple, incompatible representations, we predicted that state ambiguity should engender conflict only when those states are mutually exclusive. Indeed, we find evidence of conflict in same-token, but not different-token, discourses. Our data support a theory of left pVLPFC function in which general conflict resolution mechanisms are engaged to select between multiple incompatible representations that arise in many kinds of ambiguity present in language. PMID:26284994

  9. Customers' perceptions of salespersons' orientation and susceptibility to salespersons' influence.

    PubMed

    Goff, Brent G; Jackson, Gary B

    2003-10-01

    This study examined correlations of scores for salespersons' and customers' orientation, as indicated by a modified Salesperson Orientation-Customer Orientation scale, with self-reported consumers' susceptibility to salespersons' information, recommendations, and relational influence. Vehicle purchasers provided 508 useable survey responses. Correlations for customers' perceptions of both salespersons' orientation (-.39 and -.21) and customers' orientation (.39 and .24) were related to self-reports of susceptibility to salespersons' information and relational influence. PMID:14650664

  10. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  11. Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

  12. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    E-print Network

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  13. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  14. Quantum Corrections to Holographic Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Agón, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy \\cite{Cardy:2013nua}. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal\\cite{Faulkner:2013ana} this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  15. Quantum Corrections to Holographic Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Cesar Agón; Thomas Faulkner

    2015-11-25

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy \\cite{Cardy:2013nua}. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal\\cite{Faulkner:2013ana} this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  16. Vestibular compensation and orientation during locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphan, T.; Imai, T.; Moore, S. T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Body, head, and eye movements were studied in three dimensions while walking and turning to determine the role of the vestibular system in directing gaze and maintaining spatial orientation. The body, head, and eyes were represented as three-dimensional coordinate frames, and the movement of these frames was related to a trajectory frame that described the motion of the body on a terrestrial plane. The axis-angle of the body, head, and eye rotation were then compared to the axis-angle of the rotation of the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA). We inferred the role of the vestibular system during locomotion and the contributions of the VCR and VOR by examining the interrelationship between these coordinate frames. Straight walking induced head and eye rotations in a compensatory manner to the linear accelerations, maintaining head pointing and gaze along the direction of forward motion. Turning generated a combination of compensation and orientation responses. The head leads and steers the turn while the eyes compensate to maintain stable horizontal gaze in space. Saccades shift horizontal gaze as the turn is executed. The head pitches, as during straight walking. It also rolls so that the head tends to align with the orientation of the GIA. Head orientation changes anticipate orientation changes of the GIA. Eye orientation follows the changes in GIA orientation so that the net orientation gaze is closer to the orientation of the GIA. The study indicates that the vestibular system utilizes compensatory and orienting mechanisms to stabilize spatial orientation and gaze during walking and turning.

  17. Global Square and Mutual Stationarity at the n Peter Koepke

    E-print Network

    Koepke, Peter

    Global Square and Mutual Stationarity at the n Peter Koepke Dept. of Mathematics, University to ++ , and use it to prove the following theorem on mutual stationarity at the n. Let 1 denote the first sequence (Sn)nmutually stationary, then there is an inner model

  18. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mutually exclusive applications. 101.45 Section 101.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually exclusive applications. (a) The Commission...

  19. Breakdown and delayed cospeciation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism

    E-print Network

    from mutualism to parasitism originates from two specialized reproductive mutualisms (i.e. yucca­yucca there are yucca moths and fig wasps that lay their eggs into flowers without pollinating them. These parasites-Mack 1999, 2000). In fact, there are only two parasitic species emanating from the yucca­yucca moth

  20. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  1. 76 FR 20459 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number: 1550-0014. Form Numbers... furnished in the application in order to determine the safety and soundness of the proposed stock...

  2. 76 FR 35084 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number... proposed stock conversion. The purpose of the information collection is to provide OTS with the...

  3. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  4. Orientation selective DEER measurements on vinculin tail at X-band frequencies reveal spin label orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abé, Christoph; Klose, Daniel; Dietrich, Franziska; Ziegler, Wolfgang H.; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Double electron electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has been established as a valuable method to determine distances between spin labels bound to protein molecules. Caused by selective excitation of molecular orientations DEER primary data also depend on the mutual orientation of the spin labels. For a doubly spin labeled variant of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin tail strong orientation selection can be observed already at X-band frequencies, which allows us to reduce the problem to the relative orientation of two molecular axes and the spin-spin axis parameterized by three angles. A full grid search of parameter space reveals that the DEER experiment introduces parameter-space symmetry higher than the symmetry of the spin Hamiltonian. Thus, the number of equivalent parameter sets is twice as large as expected and the relative orientation of the two spin labels is ambiguous. Except for this inherent ambiguity the most probable relative orientation of the two spin labels can be determined with good confidence and moderate uncertainty by global fitting of a set of five DEER experiments at different offsets between pump and observer frequency. The experiment provides restraints on the angles between the z axis of the nitroxide molecular frame and the spin-spin vector and on the dihedral between the two z axes. When using the same type of label at both sites, assignment of the angle restraints is ambiguous and the sign of the dihedral restraint is also ambiguous.

  5. Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion

    E-print Network

    Muller, Melanie JI; Nelson, David R; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions benefit both partners, promoting coexistence and genetic diversity. Spatial structure can promote cooperation, but spatial expansions may also make it hard for mutualistic partners to stay together, since genetic drift at the expansion front creates regions of low genetic and species diversity. To explore the antagonism between mutualism and genetic drift, we grew cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae on agar surfaces as a model for mutualists undergoing spatial expansions. By supplying varying amounts of the exchanged nutrients, we tuned strength and symmetry of the mutualistic interaction. Strong mutualism suppresses genetic demixing during spatial expansions and thereby maintains diversity, but weak or asymmetric mutualism is overwhelmed by genetic drift even when mutualism is still beneficial, slowing growth and reducing diversity. Theoretical modeling using experimentally measured parameters predicts the size of demixed regions and how strong mutualism must be ...

  6. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...company is __(the “Mutual Holding Company”). Section 2: Duration. The duration of the Mutual Holding Company is perpetual. Section 3: Purpose and powers. The purpose of the Mutual Holding Company is to pursue any or all of the...

  8. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

  9. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

  10. Validating Gene Clusterings by Selecting Informative Gene Ontology Terms with Mutual

    E-print Network

    Validating Gene Clusterings by Selecting Informative Gene Ontology Terms with Mutual Information Ontology structure guided by mutual information. Our approach yields a global assessment of the clustering approaches. Keywords: cluster validation, external index, gene ontology, mutual information. 1 Introduction

  11. Some open problems in mutual stationarity involving inner model theory: a commentary.

    E-print Network

    Welch, Philip

    Some open problems in mutual stationarity involving inner model theory: a commentary. P are interested here in particular problems in the theory of mutual sta- tionarity as defined by Foreman| mutually stationary if the following set

  12. Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds),

    E-print Network

    Segrč, Daniel

    Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds), Exobiology: Matter Publishers, The Netherlands, 1998. MUTUALLY CATALYTIC AMPHIPHILES: SIMULATED CHEMICAL EVOLUTION in which the mutually catalytic molecules are spontaneously aggregating amphiphiles. When such amphiphiles

  13. A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm

    E-print Network

    Klinger, Rob; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    and Ginzburg 2000). Mutualisms between plants and seedplant species that the relationship is consid- ered a mutualism (mutualisms likely leave a dispropor- tionately strong historic imprint on the population structure and distribution of long-lived plant

  14. 12 CFR 575.7 - Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies...7 Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No savings association subsidiary of a mutual holding...

  15. 77 FR 73700 - Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...File No. 812-14059] Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of...APPLICANTS: Mutual of America Life Insurance Company (``Mutual of America''), Wilton Reassurance Life Company of New York...

  16. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  17. Crystal Chirality Selected by Mutual Antagonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukio Saito,; Hiroyuki Hyuga,

    2010-08-01

    To explore the mechanism of chiral symmetry breaking in a process of crystal growth under grinding, we propose a simple irreversible growth model of a lattice-gas with four possible states on a site: occupied by an achiral molecule A, or by a chiral enantiomer R or S, or empty. After two A molecules on neighboring sites form a chiral dimer R2 or S2, clusters grow by incorporating A’s at cluster periphery, irreversibly. Only the grinding recycles products R or S back to A. It is then demonstrated in kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations that chirality selection takes place in the presence of the grinding. The cause for this realization is attributed to mutual antagonistic inhibition: that is, clusters of opposite enantiomeric types are brought into contact through stirring, and they block crystallization sites on cluster peripheries each other. The density evolution obtained by time integration of the rate equations with this antagonistic inhibition fits well with results of KMC simulations.

  18. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  19. Orientation and mutual location of ions at the surface of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Vera; Sedev, Rossen; Harmer, Sarah; Ralston, John; Horne, Mike; Rodopoulos, Theo

    2010-11-01

    The structure of the liquid-vacuum interface in room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) is investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). By varying the polar angle and comparing the results for the chosen ionic liquids, we identify the presence of a surface layer that is chemically different to the bulk. In particular, this layer: (i) is enriched by aliphatic carbon atoms from the saturated carbon chains of the anions and cations, and (ii) contains an unequal distribution of cations and anions in a direction normal to the surface. This unequal distribution creates a potential gradient which extends from the surface into the liquid. We show unequivocally that this layer is not due to the presence of impurities. PMID:20856971

  20. Mutualism Between Fire Ants and Mealybugs Reduces Lady Beetle Predation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shoujie; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-08-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest that has a negative impact on biodiversity. However, current knowledge regarding the ecological effects of its interaction with honeydew-producing hemipteran insects is inadequate. To partially address this problem, we assessed whether the interaction between the two invasive species S. invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley mediated predation of P. solenopsis by Propylaea japonica Thunbery lady beetles using field investigations and indoor experiments. S. invicta tending significantly reduced predation by the Pr. japonica lady beetle, and this response was more pronounced for lady beetle larvae than for adults. A field investigation showed that the species richness and quantity of lady beetle species in plots with fire ants were much lower than in those without fire ants. In an olfaction bioassay, lady beetles preferred to move toward untended rather than tended mealybugs. Overall, these results suggest that mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis may have a serious impact on predation of P. solenopsis by lady beetles, which could promote growth of P. solenopsis populations. PMID:26470296

  1. Models, Attention, and Awareness in SLA: A Response to Simard and Wong's "Alertness, Orientation, and Detection: The Conceptualization of Attentional Functions in SLA."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Reacts to a response by Simard and Wong (2001) to Tomlin and Villa's (1994) discussion of a model that postulates a fine-grained analysis of attention for second language acquisition and the prediction that awareness at the level of detection is not crucial for further processing of second or foreign language data. (Author/VWL)

  2. Does the growth response of woody plants to elevated CO2 increase with temperature? A model-oriented meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Sofia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Mercado, Lina M; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics of the Rubisco enzyme implies that, at the level of a chloroplast, the response of photosynthesis to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca ) will increase with increasing air temperature. Vegetation models incorporating this interaction predict that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated CO2 (eCa ) will increase with rising temperature and will be substantially larger in warm tropical forests than in cold boreal forests. We tested these model predictions against evidence from eCa experiments by carrying out two meta-analyses. Firstly, we tested for an interaction effect on growth responses in factorial eCa  × temperature experiments. This analysis showed a positive, but nonsignificant interaction effect (95% CI for above-ground biomass response = -0.8, 18.0%) between eCa and temperature. Secondly, we tested field-based eCa experiments on woody plants across the globe for a relationship between the eCa effect on plant biomass and mean annual temperature (MAT). This second analysis showed a positive but nonsignificant correlation between the eCa response and MAT. The magnitude of the interactions between CO2 and temperature found in both meta-analyses were consistent with model predictions, even though both analyses gave nonsignificant results. Thus, we conclude that it is not possible to distinguish between the competing hypotheses of no interaction vs. an interaction based on Rubisco kinetics from the available experimental database. Experiments in a wider range of temperature zones are required. Until such experimental data are available, model predictions should aim to incorporate uncertainty about this interaction. PMID:25940760

  3. Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics

    E-print Network

    Masanori Ohya

    2004-06-30

    After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.

  4. How not to Rényi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Paul Erker

    2015-06-22

    We study the relation between the quantum conditional mutual information and the quantum $\\alpha$-R\\'enyi divergences. Considering the totally antisymmetric state we show that it is not possible to attain a proper generalization of the quantum conditional mutual information by optimizing the distance in terms of quantum $\\alpha$-R\\'enyi divergences over the set of all Markov states. The failure of the approach considered arises from the observation that a small quantum conditional mutual information does not imply that the state is close to a quantum Markov state.

  5. Reconnection Dynamics and Mutual Friction in Quantum Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Jason; Baggaley, Andrew W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the mutual friction force in finite temperature quantum turbulence in He, paying particular attention to the role of quantized vortex reconnections. Through the use of the vortex filament model, we produce three experimentally relevant types of vortex tangles in steady-state conditions, and examine through statistical analysis, how local properties of the tangle influence the mutual friction force. Finally, by monitoring reconnection events, we present evidence to indicate that vortex reconnections are the dominant mechanism for producing areas of high curvature and velocity leading to regions of high mutual friction, particularly for homogeneous and isotropic vortex tangles.

  6. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Sung, Kang; Chang-Ho, Hong; Jino, Heo; Jong-In, Lim; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Korea University.

  7. Mutual Coupling and Compensation in FMCW MIMO Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Christian M.; Feger, Reinhard; Wagner, Christoph; Stelzer, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with mutual coupling, its effects and the compensation thereof in frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array radar systems. Starting with a signal model we introduce mutual coupling and its primary sources in FMCW MIMO systems. We also give a worst-case boundary of the effects that mutual coupling can have on the side lobe level of an array. A method of dealing with and compensating for these effects is covered in this paper and verified by measurements from a 77-GHz FMCW radar system.

  8. Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution

    E-print Network

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Aram W. Harrow; Jonathan Oppenheim; Sergii Strelchuk

    2015-08-18

    We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularised relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution.

  9. Mutual and coherent informations for infinite-dimensional quantum channels

    E-print Network

    A. S. Holevo; M. E. Shirokov

    2010-12-05

    The work is devoted to study of quantum mutual information and coherent information -- the two important characteristics of quantum communication channel. Appropriate definitions of these quantities in the infinite-dimensional case are given and their properties are studied in detail. Basic identities relating quantum mutual information and coherent information of a pair of complementary channels are proved. An unexpected continuity property of quantum mutual information and coherent information following from the above identities is observed. An upper bound for the coherent information is obtained.

  10. Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture

    E-print Network

    Ulrich Seyfarth; Kedar S. Ranade

    2012-03-27

    We relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i. e., mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator, in power-of-two dimensions to the problem of finding a symmetric matrix over F_2 with an irreducible characteristic polynomial that has a given Fibonacci index. For dimensions of the form 2^(2^k) we present a solution that shows an analogy to an open conjecture of Wiedemann in finite field theory. Finally, we discuss the equivalence of mutually unbiased bases.

  11. Mutually Unbiased Bases and Semi-definite Programming

    E-print Network

    Stephen Brierley; Stefan Weigert

    2010-06-01

    A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Grobner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

  12. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  13. Information-Disturbance Theorem for Mutually Unbiased Observables

    E-print Network

    Takayuki Miyadera; Hideki Imai

    2006-02-05

    We derive a novel version of information-disturbance theorems for mutually unbiased observables. We show that the information gain by Eve inevitably makes the outcomes by Bob in the conjugate basis not only erroneous but random.

  14. Modelling Mediator Assistance in Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Mutual

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    of affective states is an important criterion of empathy. In unassisted joint decision-making it can,11]). It is difficult to establish the occurrence of mutual empathic understanding during an unassisted joint decision

  15. Studies of exon scrambling and mutually exclusive alternative splicing

    E-print Network

    Kong, Rong, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this thesis work were to study two special alternative splicing events: exon scrambling at the RNA splicing level and mutually exclusive alternative splicing (MEAS) by computational and experimental methods. ...

  16. Predictive Mutual Cuts in Graphs: Learning in Bioinformatics

    E-print Network

    Predictive Mutual Cuts in Graphs: Learning in Bioinformatics K. Pelckmans, J.A.K. Suykens, and B a case-study in bioinformatics. Learning tasks in bioinformatics are often characterized by considerable

  17. Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution

    E-print Network

    Harrow, Aram W.

    We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its ...

  18. Analysis of mutual information for informative forecasting using mobile sensors

    E-print Network

    Choi, Han-Lim

    This paper presents several analysis of mutual information that is often used to define the objective function for trajectory planning (and scheduling) of sensor networks, when the goal is to improve the forecast accuracy ...

  19. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  20. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  1. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  2. Mutuality for Football Clubs? Lessons from the Financial Sector. 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Andrew T; Armitage, Seth

    2002-01-01

    The mutualisation of two English third division football clubs in 2001 and the creation of a number of supporters' trusts has offered hope to supporters of many larger clubs who see mutual status as protection from the ...

  3. Word Association Norms, Mutual Information, and Lexicography Kenneth Ward Church

    E-print Network

    Word Association Norms, Mutual Information, and Lexicography Kenneth Ward Church Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, N.J. Patrick Hanks CoLlins Publishers Glasgow, Scotland Abstract The term word assaciation

  4. Nonatomic Mutual Exclusion with Local Spinning Yong-Jik Kim

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James

    of mutual exclusion algorithms that are both nonatomic and use local spinning. We exclusively use the RMR references that cause an interconnect traversal are counted under this measure. We assess the RMR time

  5. Nonatomic Mutual Exclusion with Local Spinning # YongJik Kim

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James

    of mutual exclusion algorithms that are both nonatomic and use local spinning. We exclusively use the RMR references that cause an interconnect traversal are counted under this measure. We assess the RMR time

  6. Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information

    E-print Network

    Corso, Jason J.

    Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information Jiang Li, Sergey based fingerprint matching algorithms are wildly used in fingerprint identification and verification the matching rate. The overall minutiae distribution pattern between two fingerprints is represented

  7. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  8. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  9. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  10. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  11. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  12. On uncertainty relations and entanglement detection with mutually unbiased measurements

    E-print Network

    Alexey E. Rastegin

    2015-05-06

    We formulate some properties of a set of several mutually unbiased measurements. These properties are used for deriving entropic uncertainty relations. Applications of mutually unbiased measurements in entanglement detection are also revisited. First, we estimate from above the sum of the indices of coincidence for several mutually unbiased measurements. Further, we derive entropic uncertainty relations in terms of the R\\'{e}nyi and Tsallis entropies. Both the state-dependent and state-independent formulations are obtained. Using the two sets of local mutually unbiased measurements, a method of entanglement detection in bipartite finite-dimensional systems may be realized. A certain trade-off between a sensitivity of the scheme and its experimental complexity is discussed.

  13. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP 1906: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP - 1906: ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PATERSON, N.J. (4x5 NEGATIVE) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  14. Professional investor psychology and investment performance: evidence from mutual funds 

    E-print Network

    Eshraghi, Arman

    2012-06-26

    In the seven decades following the Investment Company Act of 1940 coming into force in the United States, the mutual fund industry has undergone dramatic changes including, some argue, a transition from stewardship to ...

  15. Altered orienting of attention in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Franchetti, Lorena; Carli, Lorenza; Todisco, Patrizia; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-09-30

    The study of cognitive processes in anorexia nervosa (AN) is largely unexplored, although recent evidence suggests the presence of impairments in both social cognition and attention processing. Here we investigated AN patients' ability to orient attention in response to social and symbolic visual stimuli. AN patients and matched controls performed a task in which gaze and pointing gestures acted as social directional cues for spatial attention. Arrows were also included as symbolic cue. On each trial, a centrally-placed cue appeared oriented rightwards or leftwards. After either 200 or 700ms, a lateralized neutral target (a letter) requiring a discrimination response appeared in a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with the directional cue. Controls showed a reliable orienting irrespective of both temporal interval and cue type. AN patients showed a reliable orienting at both temporal intervals only in response to pointing gestures. Both gaze and arrow cues failed to orient attention at the short temporal interval, that is when attention is under reflexive control, whereas a reliable orienting emerged at the long temporal interval. These results provide preliminary evidence of altered reflexive orienting of attention in AN patients that does not extend to body-related cues such as pointing gestures. PMID:26184992

  16. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  17. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Pregnant? What to Expect Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > Parents > Emotions & Behavior > Feelings & Emotions > Sexual Orientation Print A A ...

  18. Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo

    2001-10-01

    In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

  19. The Orientalism of Byron

    E-print Network

    Osborne, Edna-Pearle

    1914-01-01

    11 of Mile, de Scud^ry. IV. The eighteenth century. A. Antoine Gallandfs Gallicized Version of "The Arabian Nights* links the seventeenth with the eighteenth century from an Oriental point of viem B. Satiric Oriental tale. 1. In French... by Addison and Steele . The heroic play. Martha Pike Conant divides the Oriental stories into four groups: 1. The Imaginative. a. "Arabian Nights", 1700. b. "Persian Tales." c. "Thousand and One Days." d. "Vathek". e. "Oriental Eclogues". 2...

  20. Certainty relations, mutual entanglement and non-displacable manifolds

    E-print Network

    Zbigniew Pucha?a; ?ukasz Rudnicki; Krzysztof Chabuda; Miko?aj Paraniak; Karol ?yczkowski

    2015-07-15

    We derive explicit bounds for the average entropy characterizing measurements of a pure quantum state of size $N$ in $L$ orthogonal bases. Lower bounds lead to novel entropic uncertainty relations, while upper bounds allow us to formulate universal certainty relations. For $L=2$ the maximal average entropy saturates at $\\log N$ as there exists a mutually coherent state, but certainty relations are shown to be nontrivial for $L \\ge 3$ measurements. In the case of a prime power dimension, $N=p^k$, and the number of measurements $L=N+1$, the upper bound for the average entropy becomes minimal for a collection of mutually unbiased bases. Analogous approach is used to study entanglement with respect to $L$ different splittings of a composite system, linked by bi-partite quantum gates. We show that for any two-qubit unitary gate $U\\in \\mathcal{U}(4)$ there exist states being mutually separable or mutually entangled with respect to both splittings (related by $U$) of the composite system. The latter statement follows from the fact that the real projective space $\\mathbb{R}P^{3}\\subset\\mathbb{C}P^{3}$ is non-displacable. For $L=3$ splittings the maximal sum of $L$ entanglement entropies is conjectured to achieve its minimum for a collection of three mutually entangled bases, formed by two mutually entangling gates.

  1. Selected Reading TA Orientation

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Selected Reading TA Orientation School of Physics and Astronomy Fall, 2007 #12;#12;TA Orientation Groups Brown, Collins, & Duguid ­ Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning Section 4. Sexual Minnesota Daily Article - Orientation Leaders Fired UMn Board of Regents Policy ­ Student Conduct Code #12

  2. Selected Reading TA Orientation

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Selected Reading TA Orientation School of Physics and Astronomy Fall, 2006 #12;#12;TA Orientation Groups Brown, Collins, & Duguid ­ Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning Section 4. Sexual Minnesota Daily Article - Orientation Leaders Fired UMn Board of Regents Policy ­ Student Conduct Code #12

  3. Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

    2009-12-01

    Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this has been the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of prior interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80percent faster and were up to 30percent more productive (biomass yield per mole substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis but not D. vulgaris. Together, these results show that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution.

  4. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Exclusive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    E-print Network

    D. M. Snyder

    2001-08-12

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics either one of two different wave functions predicting specific values for quantities represented by non-commuting Hermitian operators can characterize the same physical existent, without a physical interaction responsible for which wave function occurs. This result means that one can make predictions regarding mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena. Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people may have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive physical phenomena, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is addressed at the end of the paper.

  5. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48-96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  6. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  7. Unconscious orientation processing.

    PubMed

    Rajimehr, Reza

    2004-02-19

    Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions, different psychophysical paradigms were designed in six experiments to probe unconscious orientation processing. First we demonstrated orientation-selective adaptation and color-contingent orientation adaptation for peripheral unresolvable Gabor patches. The next experiments showed the modulatory effects of perceptually indiscriminable orientations on apparent motion processing and attentional mechanisms. Finally we investigated disappearance patterns of unresolvable Gabor stimuli during motion-induced blindness (MIB). Abrupt changes in local unresolvable orientations truncated MIB; however, orientation-based grouping failed to affect the MIB pattern when the orientations were unresolvable. Overall results revealed that unresolvable orientations substantially influence perception at multiple levels. PMID:14980213

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix...—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may be... mutual holding company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix...—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may be... mutual holding company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of...

  10. Time Evolution of the Mutual Fund Size Distribution By Author Undisclosed

    E-print Network

    Time Evolution of the Mutual Fund Size Distribution By Author Undisclosed We investigate the process of mutual fund growth both empirically and theoretically. Empirically the mutual fund size. Surprisingly, investor choice does not determine the size distribution of mutual funds. 1 #12;2 AUGUST 2008

  11. 708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 52, NO. 3, MAY 2003 Mutual Interference Between

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 52, NO. 3, MAY 2003 Mutual Interference Between the likelihood of mutual interference, as the number of colocated piconets increases, mutual interference becomes more likely. Mutual interference is also dependent on the performance requirements dictated

  12. 77 FR 73700 - Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application December 5, 2012. AGENCY... the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. APPLICANTS: Mutual of America Life Insurance Company (``Mutual of America''), Wilton Reassurance Life Company of New York (``Wilton,'' and, together with Mutual...

  13. Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's Ulrich Seyfarth and Kedar S. Ranade

    E-print Network

    Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture Ulrich Seyfarth) Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture Ulrich Seyfarth1,a relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i.e., mutually unbiased

  14. Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 527535 Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner's

    E-print Network

    Stephens, David W.

    Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 527­535 Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner relatively little attention. The simplest alternative is mutualism, in which mutual cooperation always pays controlled iterated mutualism and Prisoner's Dilemma games. Although the jays readily cooperated

  15. Preferential allocation to beneficial symbiont with spatial structure maintains mycorrhizal mutualism

    E-print Network

    , mutualisms are common and persistent, even in the largely promiscuous associations between plants and soil mutualisms between plants and root symbionts. Keywords Cheaters, mutualism, mycorrhizae, partner choice is one factor that may contribute to the stability of the mutualisms between plants and root symbionts

  16. The Effects of Sound Duration on Newborns' Head Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the importance of sound duration for eliciting head orientation responses from newborn infants. Results suggest that newborns' head orientation response may reflect a motor program that is initiated by auditory input and then executed in a similar fashion regardless of further stimulation. (Author/AS)

  17. Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haire, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

  18. Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Mutual Impedance on Multi-Cell CMUT Configurations.

    PubMed

    Park, K K; Kupnik, M; Lee, H J; Khuri-Yakub, B T; Wygant, I O

    2010-10-11

    This paper presents a numerical method for calculating the frequency response of a CMUT with a large number of cells. In a multi-cell configuration, commonly found in CMUTs, each cell is affected by the acoustic loading from neighboring cells. Thus, for an accurate model of a multi-cell CMUT element it is better to consider the mutual acoustic impedance instead of the acoustic impedance of a single cell only. We calculate the velocity of every cell (plate movement) simultaneously, with the mutual impedance effects taken into account. The model predicts that the cells exhibit different frequency responses, based on their locations in the element. We used a laser interferometer to validate the model by measuring the displacement response of a CMUT immersed in vegetable oil. The device has 169 circular cells (single crystal silicon plates, 500 nm thick, 21 ?m radii) placed in a hexagonal cell arrangement. The measurement results agree well with the numerical results. The computation time of our method is significantly shorter than finite element based calculations. Our model can be used for finding optimized cell configurations for CMUTs utilized in various applications such as medical imaging and therapeutic treatment. PMID:21822364

  19. Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Mutual Impedance on Multi-Cell CMUT Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Park, K. K.; Kupnik, M.; Lee, H. J.; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Wygant, I. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for calculating the frequency response of a CMUT with a large number of cells. In a multi-cell configuration, commonly found in CMUTs, each cell is affected by the acoustic loading from neighboring cells. Thus, for an accurate model of a multi-cell CMUT element it is better to consider the mutual acoustic impedance instead of the acoustic impedance of a single cell only. We calculate the velocity of every cell (plate movement) simultaneously, with the mutual impedance effects taken into account. The model predicts that the cells exhibit different frequency responses, based on their locations in the element. We used a laser interferometer to validate the model by measuring the displacement response of a CMUT immersed in vegetable oil. The device has 169 circular cells (single crystal silicon plates, 500 nm thick, 21 ?m radii) placed in a hexagonal cell arrangement. The measurement results agree well with the numerical results. The computation time of our method is significantly shorter than finite element based calculations. Our model can be used for finding optimized cell configurations for CMUTs utilized in various applications such as medical imaging and therapeutic treatment. PMID:21822364

  20. Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential chemoprevention through nuclear factor kappa B and p53 mutual antagonism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- ?B) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is largely considered as a critical determinant in the initiation and progression of various forms of cancer. Mechanistically, NF- ?B favors this process by inducing various genes responsible for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion while at the same time antagonizing growth regulators including tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown by various independent investigations that a down regulation of NF- ?B activity directly, or indirectly through the activation of the p53 pathway reduces tumor growth substantially. Therefore, there is a huge effort driven by many laboratories to understand the NF- ?B signaling pathways to intervene the function of this crucial player in inflammation and tumorigenesis in order to find an effective inhibitor directly, or through the p53 tumor suppressor. We discuss here on the role of NF- ?B in chronic inflammation and cancer, highlighting mutual antagonism between NF- ?B and p53 pathways in the process. We also discuss prospective pharmacological modulators of these two pathways, including those that were already tested to affect this mutual antagonism. PMID:25152696

  1. Lightcurve Signatures of Multiple Object Systems in Mutual Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    The lightcurves of objects in mutual orbits will display occultation and/or eclipse events, collectively referred to as 'mutual events', under favorable geometric circumstances. Given that the unresolved image of a multiple object system is simply the sum of the scattered light from each individual object, these mutual events will appear as attenuations in the total detected light when one object (resulting in an occultation) or its shadow (resulting in an eclipse) passes in front of the other. Under certain geometric circumstances, it is possible to have both types of events occurring simultaneously, resulting in an even deeper minimum of the observed lightcurve. The identification of mutual event signatures in the lightcurves of asteroids has led to the detection of several asynchronous Near Earth Asteroid (Pravec et al. 2006) and Main Belt (Ryan et al. 2004, Warner et al. 2005, and Krugly et al. 2005) binary systems. Such asynchronous systems, where the rotation period of the primary object differs from the mutual orbital period of the system, usually display the most unambiguous signature of a binary system. Suspected binary systems where the primary's rotational and the mutual orbit's period are synchronous have also been observed (Behrend et al. 2004). However, the binary nature of these systems is more difficult to confirm since the signatures of the mutual events appear simply as more extended depressions in the minima already resulting from the asteroid's rotation. Recently, there has been interest in identifying potentially hostile companions to artificial satellites. The detection of mutual events as described above is one possible method to accomplish this for non-resolved systems. However, these companions will typically be much smaller relative to the parent body than previously observed asteroid binary systems, and hence, the expected attenuations due to the mutual events will be rather modest. Therefore, we will explore the parameter space of relative sizes, orbital dimensions, and surface characteristics, and report on the practicality of applying this technique to the detection of maneuvering microsatellite companions to artificial resident space objects.

  2. Social orienting: reflexive versus voluntary control

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Julia L.; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a Cue onset to Target onset Delay (CTD) of 150 ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500 ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200 ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer’s responses up to a CTD of 200 ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system. PMID:20673778

  3. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

  4. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described. PMID:22398886

  5. The Calculation of Mutual Coupling Between Two Antennas and its Application to the Reduction of Mutual Coupling Effects in a Pseudo-Random Phased Array

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    1 The Calculation of Mutual Coupling Between Two Antennas and its Application to the Reduction of Mutual Coupling Effects in a Pseudo-Random Phased Array Aaron Kerkhoff (ARL:UT) 8/23/2007 Introduction of mutual coupling between antenna elements in the pseudo-random array layout in order to improve

  6. Float pool orientation.

    PubMed

    Libby, D L; Bolduc, P C

    1995-01-01

    Orienting new staff members to competently deliver care on a single unit is a challenging endeavor. This challenge escalates when orienting float staff members to 10 medical/surgical and 2 parent-child units. In this article, the authors describe the process for development and implementation of a competency-based orientation for float pool staff members. These principles also may be used to cross-train nursing staff members who occasionally float. PMID:8699265

  7. Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Bernamonti, Alice

    2014-03-01

    We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulas for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

  8. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-01-01

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise. PMID:26501284

  9. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484

  10. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-01-01

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise. PMID:26501284

  11. Algorithmic significance, mutual information, and DNA sequence comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Milosavljevic, A.

    1993-12-31

    The newly proposed algorithmic significance method [6] enables recognition of patterns in DNA sequences at prespecified significance levels via minimal length encoding. We extend the method to provide a formal framework for DNA sequence comparisons via mutual information. While in this paper we restrict our discussion to DNA sequence analysis, the methods that are presented are potentially applicable in many other domains. Under a few simplifying assumptions, we show that significance of sequence similarity depends exponentially on mutual information. In addition to this estimate of significance, the concept of mutual information provides solutions to the following two problems in DNA sequence comparisons: Factoring out contribution of shared repetitive patterns and factoring out bias due to partial sequencing.

  12. Thermalization of Mutual Information in Hyperscaling Violating Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Mohammad Reza Tanhayi

    2015-12-13

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in \\cite{Alishahiha:2014jxa} to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description for entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We find that in hyperscaling violating backgrounds the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior (\\emph{e.g.,} at the pre-local-equilibration regime) of the mutual information during the thermalization process. While the scaling violating parameter appears in redefinition of the dimension of the theory.

  13. Thermalization of Mutual Information in Hyperscaling Violating Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Tanhayi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in \\cite{Alishahiha:2014jxa} to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description for entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We find that in hyperscaling violating backgrounds the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior (\\emph{e.g.,} at the pre-local-equilibration regime) of the mutual information during the thermalization process. While the scaling violating parameter appears in redefinition of the dimension of the theory.

  14. Mutual information and electron correlation in momentum space

    E-print Network

    Robin P. Sagar; Nicolais L. Guevara

    2006-02-03

    Mutual information and information entropies in momentum space are proposed as measures of the non-local aspects of information. Singlet and triplet state members of the helium isoelectronic series are employed to examine Coulomb and Fermi correlation, and their manifestations, in both the position and momentum space mutual information measures. The triplet state measures exemplify that the magnitude of the spatial correlations relative to the momentum correlations, depends on, and may be controlled by the strength of the electronic correlation. Examination of one and two-electron Shannon entropies in the triplet state series yields a crossover point, which is characterized by a localized momentum density. The mutual information density in momentum space illustrates that this localization is accompanied by strong correlation at small values of $p$.

  15. Evaluation of mutual information estimators on nonlinear dynamic systems

    E-print Network

    A. Papana; D. Kugiumtzis

    2008-09-12

    Mutual information is a nonlinear measure used in time series analysis in order to measure the linear and non-linear correlations at any lag $\\tau$. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used mutual information estimators, i.e. estimators based on histograms (with fixed or adaptive bin size), $k$-nearest neighbors and kernels. We assess the accuracy of the estimators by Monte-Carlo simulations on time series from nonlinear dynamical systems of varying complexity. As the true mutual information is generally unknown, we investigate the existence and rate of consistency of the estimators (convergence to a stable value with the increase of time series length), and the degree of deviation among the estimators. The results show that the $k$-nearest neighbor estimator is the most stable and less affected by the method-specific parameter.

  16. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  17. Mutualism–parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models

    PubMed Central

    Mandyam, Keerthi G.; Jumpponen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSEs) that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures – melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the “mutualism-parasitism-continuum” paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi – environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization. PMID:25628615

  18. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I{sub ?}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.

  19. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I?(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.

  20. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-08-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states.

  1. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    E-print Network

    Utsunomiya, Shoko; Takata, Kenta; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Inoue, Shuichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or p even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser.

  2. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-01-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states. PMID:26278628

  3. Computer modelling of electronegative plasma sheaths and their mutual interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, Jakub; Ibehej, Tomas; Hrach, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Our paper focuses on investigation of sheath structures formed in the vicinity of biased solid objects immersed in electronegative plasma. In Particular, phenomena during mutual interaction of several plasma sheaths were investigated. Our results show the manner in which the sheath of a cylindrical probe is affected by the presence of another cylindrical probe with smaller radius in its surroundings. Number density of charged particles, electric field intensity and fluxes of charged particles on the probes were observed to quantify the mutual interaction of sheaths. The study was done by means of the 2D particle-in-cell model with Monte Carlo treatment of collisions.

  4. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    E-print Network

    Shoko Utsunomiya; Naoto Namekata; Kenta Takata; Daisuke Akamatsu; Shuichiro Inoue; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2015-04-02

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or p even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser.

  5. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Shoko; Namekata, Naoto; Takata, Kenta; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Inoue, Shuichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-03-01

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or ? even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser. PMID:25836827

  6. Holographic mutual information in global Vaidya-BTZ spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziogas, Vaios

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the evolution of the mutual information between two spatial subsystems in a compact 1+1 dimensional CFT after a quantum quench. To this end, we use the dual holographic process, given by the 2+1 dimensional Vaidya-BTZ spacetime in global coordinates, which describes the collapse of a spherically symmetric null shell. So, we first discuss the spacelike geodesic structure of this geometry and then we present the various behaviors of the holographic mutual information observed in this case. We also consider the analogous process in the adiabatic limit and compare these two cases from a geometrical point of view.

  7. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-01-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states. PMID:26278628

  8. Holographic mutual information in global Vaidya-BTZ spacetime

    E-print Network

    Vaios Ziogas

    2015-07-13

    We investigate the evolution of the mutual information between two spatial subsystems in a compact 1+1 dimensional CFT after a quantum quench. To this end, we use the dual holographic process, given by the 2+1 dimensional Vaidya-BTZ spacetime in global coordinates, which describes the collapse of a spherically symmetric null shell. So, we first discuss the spacelike geodesic structure of this geometry and then we present the various behaviors of the holographic mutual information observed in this case. We also consider the analogous process in the adiabatic limit and compare these two cases from a geometrical point of view.

  9. Synchronization in a Mutualism Ecosystem Induced by Noise Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Rong; Shao, Yuan-Zhi; Bie, Meng-Jie; He, Zhen-Hui

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the cause of the synchronization of population evolution is an important issue for ecological improvement. Here we present a Lotka Volterra-type model driven by two correlated environmental noises and show, via theoretical analysis and direct simulation, that noise correlation can induce a synchronization of the mutualists. The time series of mutual species exhibit a chaotic-like fluctuation, which is independent of the noise correlation, however, the chaotic fluctuation of mutual species ratio decreases with the noise correlation. A quantitative parameter defined for characterizing chaotic fluctuation provides a good approach to measure when the complete synchronization happens.

  10. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  11. Activity Book TA Orientation

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Activity Book TA Orientation School of Physics and Astronomy University of Minnesota Fall 2007 #12/Answer Sheet Activity #9: How to Teach the First Lab and Discussion Session Activity #10: Sexual harassment, academic honesty, diversity, & gender issues #12;#12;TA Orientation 2007 Activity #1 TA Duties

  12. Activity Book TA Orientation

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Activity Book TA Orientation School of Physics and Astronomy University of Minnesota Fall 2006 #12/Answer Sheet Activity #9: How to Teach the First Lab and Discussion Session Activity #10: Sexual harassment, academic honesty, diversity, & gender issues #12;#12;TA Orientation 2006 Activity #1 TA Duties

  13. Curved motions in horizontal and vertical orientations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J G; Ogeil, R P

    2010-10-01

    A consideration of handwriting demonstrates that motions can be remarkably constant, even when performed with different effectors. Nevertheless, the transposition of writing from horizontal to vertical orientations, as occurs when writing on blackboards, poses additional problems for the constraint of movement. Motions in horizontal and vertical planes potentially challenge the mechanisms responsible for motor constancy. Gravitational fields impose different accelerative forces on vertical (up/down) compared with horizontal (left/right) motions. A 1/3 power law linking tangential velocity and radius of curvature is sometimes invoked to explain how equivalent motions can be performed by different effectors. To evaluate the operation of the power law when movements are performed in different orientations, 12 participants drew ellipses in horizontal and vertical planes at about 1 or 2 Hz. Mean tangential velocity, radius of curvature and the strength of the 1/3 power law were analyzed. The power law was strongest for curved motions at faster speeds. The power law was weakest at slower speeds in the vertical orientation. As participants controlled their movement periodicity, this placed tighter constraints upon curvature in the vertical orientations than the horizontal orientations. Speed of motion had a greater effect upon curvatures in the horizontal than the vertical orientation. The data offer insights into variations in the strength of the power law under different orientations, and indicate a limited role for the 1/3 power law in motor constancy. PMID:20800304

  14. Paganism in Restoration France: Eckstein's Traditionalist Orientalism.

    PubMed

    McCalla, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Early nineteenth-century Orientalism was bound up with the rival responses of conservatives and liberals to the question of whether or not post-Revolutionary society rests on religious foundations. Ferdinand d'Eckstein's (1790-1861) writings in the Catholique (1826-1829) comprise the most extensive exemplar of Catholic Traditionalist Orientalism. This article, after outlining Eckstein's intellectual formation, elucidates his version of Orientalism, characterized by Traditionalist understandings of revelation and paganism; discusses its status as a critique of contemporary mythography and as an alleged "Indo-Christianity"; and assesses Eckstein's place in the intellectual and socio-political life of early-nineteenth-century France by linking his Orientalism to Catholic science and liberal-Catholicism. PMID:26522712

  15. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  16. Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

  17. Mutual Radiation Impedance of Uncollapsed CMUT Cells with Different Radii

    E-print Network

    Ozgurluk, Alper; Atalar, Abdullah; Koymen, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial approximation is proposed for the mutual acoustic impedance between uncollapsed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) cells with different radii in an infinite rigid baffle. The resulting approximation is employed in simulating CMUTs with a circuit model. A very good agreement is obtained with the corresponding finite element simulation (FEM) result.

  18. Discrete interband mutual focusing in nonlinear photonic lattices

    E-print Network

    nonlinear coupling of mutually incoherent beams associated with different Floquet-Bloch waves in a one of America OCIS codes: (190.4420) Nonlinear optics, transverse effects in; (190.5940) Self-action effects. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, "Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays," Phys

  19. A Statistical Test for Information Leaks Using Continuous Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Chothia, Tom

    information leaks in systems with continuous outputs. We use continuous mutual information to detect detect an information leak. I. INTRODUCTION Security faults come in all shapes and sizes; it would observer, whereas other systems might leak a small amount of information that could, over time

  20. Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion

    E-print Network

    Murray, Andrew W.

    Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion Melanie J. I. Müllera,b,c,1, but spatial expansions may also make it hard for mutualistic partners to stay together, because genetic drift at the expansion front creates regions of low genetic and species diversity. To explore the antagonism between

  1. Enhancing Web-Based Courses through a Mutual Aid Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Randolph, Karen A.; Vinton, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Students taking a class together belong to a group where members typically develop a sense of connection to each other by engaging in mutual support and assistance through shared experiences and knowledge. Some have argued that the lack of face-to-face interaction precludes such processes and prevents the effective teaching of social work in an…

  2. Mutual Storytelling: An Intervention for Depressed and Suicidal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Kathy; Kottman, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Briefly reviews literature on depression and suicide among children, concluding that many counselors who have not traditionally worked with depressed and suicidal children will need to acquire knowledge and skills in order to deal with these clients. Presents a case study to describe how mutual storytelling was used to help seven-year-old play…

  3. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  4. Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

  5. Chinese and American Women: Issues of Mutual Concern. Wingspread Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    This article briefly describes a conference of Chinese and American women held to discuss womens' issues and promote mutual understanding between the two groups. The cultural exchange of information at the conference focused on discussion of the All China Womens' Federation (ACWF); the roles of women in China and the United States in the areas of…

  6. Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms

    E-print Network

    Traveset, Anna

    Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms Anna Traveset1 and David M, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain 2 Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany & Zoology, University Biological invasions threaten global biodiversity by altering the structure and functioning of ecosystems [1

  7. Quantum correlation in degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the quantum dynamics of two degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections. The cavity mode in the optical coupling path between the two oscillator facets is explicitly considered. Stochastic equations for the oscillators and mutual injection path based on the positive P representation are derived. The system of two gradually pumped oscillators with out-of-phase mutual injections is simulated, and its quantum state is investigated. When the incoherent loss of the oscillators other than the mutual injections is small, the squeezed quadratic amplitudes p ? in the oscillators are positively correlated near the oscillation threshold. It indicates finite quantum correlation, estimated via Gaussian quantum discord, and the entanglement between the intracavity subharmonic fields. When the loss in the injection path is low, each oscillator around the phase transition point forms macroscopic superposition even under a small pump noise. It suggests that the squeezed field stored in the low-loss injection path weakens the decoherence in the oscillators.

  8. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  9. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with the rules in subpart P and subpart T of this part. Two or more pending applications are... “application for initial authorization” is: (i) Any application requesting an authorization for a new system or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for mutually exclusive...

  10. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the rules in subpart P and subpart T of this part. Two or more pending applications are... “application for initial authorization” is: (i) Any application requesting an authorization for a new system or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for mutually exclusive...

  11. No effect of diffraction on Pluto-Charon mutual events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    Mulholland and Gustafson (1987) made the interesting suggestion that observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events might show significant dependence on both wavelength and telescope aperture because of diffraction effects. In this letter, observations are presented that show the predicted effects to be absent and demonstrate that the parameters of the system are such that the events can be accurately analyzed with geometrical optics.

  12. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.

    1988-01-01

    Circumstances for 90 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1989 opposition are presented. It is found that the deepest and longest events will occur near postopposition quadrature in early August. Two new stars are selected as comparison stars for events occurring before opposition in 1989, and it is noted that the 1988 comparison stars should be used for events occurring after opposition.

  13. The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

    1991-01-01

    The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

  14. A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.

    PubMed

    Peng, Po; Blamires, Sean J; Agnarsson, Ingi; Lin, Hui-Chen; Tso, I-Min

    2013-01-21

    The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another. PMID:23260470

  15. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled to... frequency conflicts with authorized stations or other pending applications which would otherwise...

  16. 77 FR 48566 - The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application August 8, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of...

  17. Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Schumacher; Michael D. Westmoreland

    2006-04-27

    Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB.

  18. Mutuality as a Means of Overcoming Student Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Mutuality practice in the composition classroom attempts to create equal subject positions between teachers and students, mitigating the effects of dominant power structures inherent to an authority-driven classroom while showing teachers that their students are fully capable, though fledgling, members of an academic community. Understanding how…

  19. Detecting Mutual Functional Gene Clusters from Multiple Related Diseases

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Detecting Mutual Functional Gene Clusters from Multiple Related Diseases Nan Du, Xiaoyi Li, Yuan opportunity for understanding the functional genomics of a specific disease. Due to its strong power the gene clusters for various diseases. However, more and more evidence suggest that human diseases

  20. Mutually refining DPCM system with applications in frame erasure channels 

    E-print Network

    Sutharsan, Thirunathan

    1996-01-01

    description is obtained. The performance of the MR-DPCM system is analyzed theoretically, and verified by simulation using Gauss-Markov sources. A sub-optimum MR-DPCM scheme is also analyzed, and conditions necessary for mutual refinement are derived. The MR...

  1. Thermocline Theories and WOCE: A Mutual Challenge Geoffrey K. Vallis

    E-print Network

    Vallis, Geoff

    Thermocline Theories and WOCE: A Mutual Challenge Geoffrey K. Vallis GFDL/Princeton University such dynamical theories and observational programs. WOCE is, as a whole, the most ambitious ocean observing.' This short article asks the questions can observational data be effectively used to test dynamical theories

  2. Tight RMR Lower Bounds for Mutual Exclusion and Other Problems

    E-print Network

    Woelfel, Philipp

    Tight RMR Lower Bounds for Mutual Exclusion and Other Problems (Extended Abstract) Hagit Attiya to remote memory they generate [7, 14]. The remote memory references complexity measure, abbreviated RMR on a memory location that is locally available is con- sidered free. The RMR cost is considered to accurately

  3. A Time Complexity Lower Bound for Adaptive Mutual Exclusion #

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James

    (RMR) is a memory access that requires a traversal of the global processors­to­memory interconnect. This complexity measure is known as the RMR time complexity measure [6]. In prior work, we presented an adaptive mutual exclusion algorithm with O(min(k, log N)) RMR time complexity that is based only on reads

  4. Cooperative Efforts: Voluntary Resettlement Agencies and Mutual Assistance Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Migration and Refugee Affairs, New York, NY. Refugee Center.

    In 1983, the Refugee Resource Center conducted a survey of Mutual Assistance Associations (MAA's) and local voluntary resettlement agency affiliates to find out how the two types of organizations worked together to carry out refugee resettlement. According to the survey, the relations between agency affiliates and MAA's generally revolved around…

  5. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  6. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

  7. Comment on "Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping"

    E-print Network

    Gan Gao

    2015-09-19

    Kang et al. [Chin. Phys. B 24 (2015) 090306] proposed a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol. We find that the proposed protocol is not secure, that is, Charlie can eavesdrop the shared keys between Alice and Bob without being detected.

  8. Mutual information area laws for thermal free fermions

    E-print Network

    H. Bernigau; M. J. Kastoryano; J. Eisert

    2015-02-10

    We provide a rigorous and asymptotically exact expression of the mutual information of translationally invariant free fermionic lattice systems in a Gibbs state. In order to arrive at this result, we introduce a novel frameworkfor computing determinants of Toeplitz operators with smooth symbols, and for treating Toeplitz matrices with system size dependent entries. The asymptotically exact mutual information for a partition of the one-dimensional lattice satisfies an area law, with a prefactor which we compute explicitly. As examples, we discuss the fermionic XX model in one dimension and free fermionic models on the torus in higher dimensions in detail. Special emphasis is put onto the discussion of the temperature dependence of the mutual information, scaling like the logarithm of the inverse temperature, hence confirming an expression suggested by conformal field theory. We also comment on the applicability of the formalism to treat open systems driven by quantum noise. In the appendix, we derive useful bounds to the mutual information in terms of purities. Finally, we provide a detailed error analysis for finite system sizes. This analysis is valuable in its own right for the abstract theory of Toeplitz determinants.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  10. Mutual feedback between star formation and nuclear activity

    E-print Network

    Gian Luigi Granato

    2006-10-30

    In this invited contribution I review the justifications for the attempts, currently very popular, to include in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation prescriptions to describe the mutual link between the star formation and nuclear activity in galaxies, which has been for surprisingly long time neglected.

  11. On mutually unbiased bases: Passing from d to d**2

    E-print Network

    Maurice Robert Kibler

    2013-05-06

    We show how to transform the problem of finding d+1 mutually unbiased bases in the d-dimensional Hilbert space into the one of finding d(d+1) vectors in the N-dimensional Hilbert space with N=d**2. The transformation formulas admit a solution when d is a prime number.

  12. Long-term morphological stasis maintained by a plantpollinator mutualism

    E-print Network

    Davis, Charles

    Long-term morphological stasis maintained by a plant­pollinator mutualism Charles C. Davisa,1 present evidence that the conserved floral morphology of a species-rich flowering plant clade- pighiaceae show a burst in species diversification coinciding with the origin of this plant

  13. Electric field control of the cell orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westman, Christopher; Sabirianov, Renat

    2008-03-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to external forces. The natural electric field at a wound controls the orientation of the cell and its division.[1] We model the cell as an elongated elliptical particle with given Young's modulus with surface charge distribution in the external electric field. Using this simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to electrostatics and the elasticity of cells, we calculated analytically the response of the cell orientation and its dynamics in the presence of time varying electric field. The calculations reflect many experimentally observed features. Our model predicts the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied electric field as a function of frequency similar to recent stress-induced effects.[2] *Bing Song, Min Zhao, John V. Forrester, and Colin D. McCaig, ``Electrical cues regulate the orientation and frequency of cell division and the rate of wound healing in vivo'', PNAS 2002, vol. 99 , 13577-13582. *R. De, A. Zemel, and S.A. Safran, ``Dynamics of cell orientation'', Nature Physics 2007, vol.3, 655.

  14. Causality orientations, failure, and achievement.

    PubMed

    Koestner, R; Zuckerman, M

    1994-09-01

    Two studies examined similarities between Deci and Ryan's (1985) causality orientations theory and Dweck and Leggett's (1988) social-cognitive theory of achievement. Study 1 examined the conceptual similarity between the individual difference measures central to the two theories. It was shown that autonomous college students are likely to adopt learning goals and report high confidence in their academic abilities; controlled students are likely to adopt performance goals and to report high levels of confidence in their ability; and impersonal students are likely to possess the classic helpless pattern of performance goals and low confidence in their academic abilities. Study 2 examined whether causality orientations, like Dweck's measures of goals and confidence, moderate the impact of failure feedback on motivation as measured in persistence and performance. The results suggested that autonomous individuals respond to failure in a mastery-oriented fashion, whereas impersonal individuals respond in a helpless manner. The response of controlled individuals to failure parallels that of people described as ego-involved or reactive. PMID:7965562

  15. Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Richard Edward

    The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an alternative global optimizer, called MIMIC, which is unrelated to Genetic Algorithms. Advancement to the current practice demonstrates the use of MIMIC as a global method that explicitly models problem structure with mutual information, providing an alternate method for globally searching multi-modal domains. By leveraging discovered problem inter- dependencies, MIMIC may be appropriate for highly coupled problems or those with large function evaluation cost. This work introduces a useful addition to the MIMIC algorithm that enables its use on continuous input variables. By leveraging automatic decision tree generation methods from Machine Learning and a set of randomly generated test problems, decision trees for which method to apply are also created, quantifying decomposition performance over a large region of the design space.

  16. Evolutionary origin of insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Obligate insect–bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host’s growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin–manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

  17. Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2013-01-01

    1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

  18. Subject-Oriented Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggins, James M.

    Object-Oriented Programming is enabled by advances in compiler technology and programming language design supporting encapsulation and inheritance. This technical adjustment has had a surprisingly broad impact on strategies for design and development of software. This paper explains what Object-Oriented Programming is, why it has attracted so much interest, and then critically examines its impact. The conclusion is that the optimal use of OOP occurs when application clients are empowered to contribute to the inspection, testing and development of the software they need, in a strategy I call Subject-Oriented Programming. The paper concludes by examining what the next important advance in software technology is likely to be.

  19. Orientation of Hittite Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

  20. SISS Orientation Accommodation & Meal Reservation

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship or status as covered veteran (special disabled veteranSISS Orientation Accommodation & Meal Reservation University of California, Davis September 15 for guests attending the SISS Orientation Program. Your accommodations include lodging, meals, and access

  1. DRAMMS: Deformable registration via attribute matching and mutual-saliency weighting.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yangming; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Paragios, Nikos; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-08-01

    A general-purpose deformable registration algorithm referred to as "DRAMMS" is presented in this paper. DRAMMS bridges the gap between the traditional voxel-wise methods and landmark/feature-based methods with primarily two contributions. First, DRAMMS renders each voxel relatively distinctively identifiable by a rich set of attributes, therefore largely reducing matching ambiguities. In particular, a set of multi-scale and multi-orientation Gabor attributes are extracted and the optimal components are selected, so that they form a highly distinctive morphological signature reflecting the anatomical and geometric context around each voxel. Moreover, the way in which the optimal Gabor attributes are constructed is independent of the underlying image modalities or contents, which renders DRAMMS generally applicable to diverse registration tasks. A second contribution of DRAMMS is that it modulates the registration by assigning higher weights to those voxels having higher ability to establish unique (hence reliable) correspondences across images, therefore reducing the negative impact of those regions that are less capable of finding correspondences (such as outlier regions). A continuously-valued weighting function named "mutual-saliency" is developed to reflect the matching uniqueness between a pair of voxels implied by the tentative transformation. As a result, voxels do not contribute equally as in most voxel-wise methods, nor in isolation as in landmark/feature-based methods. Instead, they contribute according to the continuously-valued mutual-saliency map, which dynamically evolves during the registration process. Experiments in simulated images, inter-subject images, single-/multi-modality images, from brain, heart, and prostate have demonstrated the general applicability and the accuracy of DRAMMS. PMID:20688559

  2. 47 CFR 90.720 - Channels available for public safety/mutual aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Channels available for public safety/mutual aid...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Channels available for public safety/mutual aid...transmit: (1) Communications relating to the immediate...of and by members of organizations established for...

  3. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-5 Mutual insurance company taxable income. (a) Mutual insurance...

  4. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-5 Mutual insurance company taxable income. (a) Mutual insurance...

  5. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-5 Mutual insurance company taxable income. (a) Mutual insurance...

  6. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-5 Mutual insurance company taxable income. (a) Mutual insurance...

  7. 26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.822-5 Mutual insurance company taxable income. (a) Mutual insurance...

  8. 77 FR 5585 - Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application... financial instruments. Applicants: Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. (``Company'') and Mason Street... Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090; Applicants, 720 East Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin...

  9. Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You

  10. 78 FR 4145 - Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform AGENCY: Financial... Register proposed recommendations regarding money market mutual funds (``MMFs'') pursuant to Section 120 of... problems spreading among bank holding companies and nonbank financial companies, financial markets of...

  11. 12 CFR 250.406 - Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. 250...406 Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. ...and other clients, as an investment advisor and manager. However, it...

  12. 12 CFR 250.406 - Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. 250...406 Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. ...and other clients, as an investment advisor and manager. However, it...

  13. 12 CFR 250.406 - Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. 250...406 Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. ...and other clients, as an investment advisor and manager. However, it...

  14. 12 CFR 250.406 - Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. 250...406 Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. ...and other clients, as an investment advisor and manager. However, it...

  15. 12 CFR 250.406 - Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. 250...406 Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation. ...and other clients, as an investment advisor and manager. However, it...

  16. 77 FR 5585 - Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application January 30, 2012. AGENCY...Mutual Series Fund, Inc. (``Company'') and Mason Street Advisors, LLC (``MSA''). DATES: Filing Dates: The...

  17. Development of a Scale of Interpersonal Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swap, Walter C.; Rubin, Jeffrey Z.

    The construct Interpersonal Orientation (IO) refers to the degree to which a person is responsive to the interpersonal aspects of his relationships with other people. A self-report measure of IO was devised whose construct validity was supported by correlational data. Two experiments were conducted to assess the potential usefulness of IO in…

  18. A Tale of Two Graduate Orientations

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Erin L.; Ghouse, Nikhat J.

    2007-06-18

    resource selection and key library services such as interlibrary loan and citation management software. Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTA’s) are responsible for teaching up to two courses a semester. The orientation for GTA’s is a discussion of research...

  19. Cultural Orientation. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The cultural orientation curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…

  20. The Role of New Hire Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale

    2009-01-01

    A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…