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1

Mutually Responsive Orientation between Parents and Their Young Children: Toward Methodological Advances in the Science of Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors captured mother-child and father-child relationships when children were 7 and 15 months old by coding 4 explicitly dyadic components of mutually responsive orientation (MRO): coordinated routines, harmonious communication, mutual cooperation, and emotional ambiance. These components were coded in 102 families in naturalistic contexts…

Askan, Nazan; Kockanska, Grazyna; Ortmann, Margaret R.

2006-01-01

2

Mother-Infant Responsiveness: Timing, Mutual Regulation, and Interactional Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated from a dynamic systems perspective mutual regulation during naturalistic interaction of mothers with their 4-month-olds. Found that mothers and infants communicated primarily through vocal signals and responses. Levels of contingent responsiveness between partners were significantly associated and occurred within distinct behavioral…

Van Egeren, Laurie A,; Barratt, Marguerite S.; Roach, Mary A.

2001-01-01

3

Mother–Infant Responsiveness: Timing, Mutual Regulation, and Interactional Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual regulation during the naturalistic interaction of 150 mothers and their 4-month-old infants was investigated from a dynamic systems perspective. Microanalyses of a wide range of behaviors and analysis of contingencies indicated that a 3-s time period best captured contingencies. Both mothers and infants communicated primarily through vocal signals and responses, although maternal touches and infant looks also elicited responses.

Laurie A. Van Egeren; Marguerite S. Barratt; Mary A. Roach

2001-01-01

4

Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy  

PubMed Central

Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

Anderson, Ian PS

2006-01-01

5

Mutualism fails when climate response differs between interacting species.  

PubMed

Successful species interactions require that both partners share a similar cue. For many species, spring warming acts as a shared signal to synchronize mutualist behaviors. Spring flowering plants and the ants that disperse their seeds respond to warming temperatures so that ants forage when plants drop seeds. However, where warm-adapted ants replace cold-adapted ants, changes in this timing might leave early seeds stranded without a disperser. We investigate plant seed dispersal south and north of a distinct boundary between warm- and cold-adapted ants to determine if changes in the ant species influence local plant dispersal. The warm-adapted ants forage much later than the cold-adapted ants, and so we first assess natural populations of early and late blooming plants. We then transplant these plants south and north of the ant boundary to test whether distinct ant climate requirements disrupt the ant-plant mutualism. Whereas the early blooming plant's inability to synchronize with the warm-adapted ant leaves its populations clumped and patchy and its seedlings clustered around the parents in natural populations, when transplanted into the range of the cold-adapted ant, effective seed dispersal recovers. In contrast, the mutualism persists for the later blooming plant regardless of location because it sets seed later in spring when both warm- and cold-adapted ant species forage, resulting in effective seed dispersal. These results indicate that the climate response of species interactions, not just the species themselves, is integral in understanding ecological responses to a changing climate. Data linking phenological synchrony and dispersal are rare, and these results suggest a viable mechanism by which a species' range is limited more by biotic than abiotic interactions - despite the general assumption that biotic influences are buried within larger climate drivers. These results show that biotic partner can be as fundamental a niche requirement as abiotic resources. PMID:24399754

Warren, Robert J; Bradford, Mark A

2014-02-01

6

Risk Taking by Mutual Funds as a Response to Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a potential agency conflict between mutual fund investors and mutual fund companies. Investors would like the fund company to use its judgment to maximize risk-adjusted fund returns, the fund company has an incentive to increase the inflow of investments. The authors estimate the shape of the flow-performance relationship for a sample of growth and growth and income

Judith Chevalier; Glenn Ellison

1997-01-01

7

Performance Evaluation of U.S. Socially Responsible Mutual Funds: Revisiting Doing Good and Doing Well  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do socially responsible funds, as a whole, perform as well as the average of all mutual funds in their respective categories? This paper examines fund characteristics as well as risk and performance measures of all available socially responsible funds (SRFs) in the U.S. mutual fund industry over the last fifteen years. The contribution of this paper is two unique findings.

C. Edward Chang; H. Doug Witte

2010-01-01

8

Mutual orientation of absorbing chromophores and long wavelength pigments in photosystem I particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence anisotropy of photosystem I particles, isolated from spinach chloroplasts and containing approximately 200 chlorophyll molecules per reaction center, has been investigated at low temperatures. Fluorescence anisotropy has been measured upon excitation with laser lines at 476.5 and 632.8 nm. Using our data for the fluorescence anisotropy at these conditions and the new `practical' formula for the degree of polarization of a triple-chromophore complex under steady-state excitation, derived recently by Demidov, we estimate the mutual orientation of absorbing chromophores and long wavelength pigments—chlorophyll a molecules, that absorb at wavelengths longer than the corresponding reaction center, in Photosystem I particles. The angle between the transition dipole moments of chlorophyll a, belonging to the light-harvesting complex of PS I and absorbing the excitation at 632.8 nm, and the emitting long wavelength pigment at 735 nm is estimated to be 40°, whereas the angle between the transition dipole moments of chlorophyll b, belonging to the light-harvesting complex of PS I and absorbing the excitation at 476.5 nm, and the emitting long wavelength pigment at 735 nm—60°.

Andreeva, Atanaska; Velitchkova, Maya

1998-04-01

9

Managing Mutual Orientation in the Absence of Physical Copresence: Multiparty Voice-Based Chat Room Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the interactional work involved in ratifying mutual participation in online, multiparty, voice-based chat rooms. The purpose of this article is to provide a preliminary sketch of how talk and participation is managed in a spoken communication environment that comprises interactants who are not physically copresent but are…

Jenks, Christopher Joseph; Brandt, Adam

2013-01-01

10

Mutual information and the fidelity of response of gene regulatory models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate cellular response to extracellular signals by using information theory techniques motivated by recent experiments. We present results for the steady state of the following gene regulatory models found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: a linear transcription-translation model and a positive or negative auto-regulatory model. We calculate both the information capacity and the mutual information exactly for simple models and approximately for the full model. We find that (1) small changes in mutual information can lead to potentially important changes in cellular response and (2) there are diminishing returns in the fidelity of response as the mutual information increases. We calculate the information capacity using Gillespie simulations of a model for the TNF-?-NF-? B network and find good agreement with the measured value for an experimental realization of this network. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the differences in cellular response when comparing experimentally measured mutual information values of different gene regulatory models. Our calculations demonstrate that Gillespie simulations can be used to compute the mutual information of more complex gene regulatory models, providing a potentially useful tool in synthetic biology.

Tabbaa, Omar P.; Jayaprakash, C.

2014-08-01

11

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

12

Overt responses during covert orienting.  

PubMed

A distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain areas controls our oculomotor behavior. This network includes the superior colliculus (SC), which coordinates an ancient visual grasp reflex via outputs that ramify widely within the brainstem and spinal cord, accessing saccadic and other premotor and autonomic circuits. In this Review, we discuss recent results correlating subliminal SC activity in the absence of saccades with diverse components of the visual grasp reflex, including neck and limb muscle recruitment, pupil dilation, and microsaccade propensity. Such subtle manifestations of covert orienting are accessible in the motor periphery and may provide the next generation of oculomotor biomarkers in health and disease. PMID:24945769

Corneil, Brian D; Munoz, Douglas P

2014-06-18

13

What matters for socially responsible investment (SRI) in the natural resources sectors? SRI mutual funds and forestry in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially responsible investment mutual funds have played an active role in encouraging sustainability in the natural resources sectors, particularly in North America's forest industry which tends to be reactive in adopting sustainable practices. A survey of socially responsible investment mutual funds in Canada and the US was first undertaken in 2006 and then replicated in 2010–11 to understand the implications

William Nikolakis; David H. Cohen; Harry W. Nelson

2012-01-01

14

Mutual inductance Mutual induction  

E-print Network

Mutual inductance Mutual induction � current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from self-induction Mutual inductance, M21 of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is 1 212 21 i N M = i N L B = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

15

Adaptation of grasping responses to distorted object size and orientation.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the adaptive plasticity of the grasp component of prehensile movements. Subjects saw visual objects (V) of various sizes and orientations and were instructed to seize them with the thumb and index finger without manipulating them. The subjects' hand disappeared from view during the response and made contact with a haptic object (H), which could differ with respect to size or orientation from V. In Experiment A, we found that the grasp aperture adaptively increased when H > V and decreased when H < V. This confirms earlier observations and expands them by documenting that grasp size adaptation occurs even when grasping is not integrated into an intentional behavioral context (i.e., object manipulation). However, the magnitude of the observed adaptive size change was not monotonously related to the visual-haptic size difference, as one would expect for an adequate adaptive response. In Experiment B, we observed for the first time that the orientation of the grasp aperture adaptively changed when H was differently oriented than V. This change generalized to an unpracticed size and orientation of V, even in the absence of confirmative haptic feedback about dowel orientation. This outcome indicates that grasp orientation adaptation was at least partly based on the recalibration of sensory-to-motor transformation rules, rather than being completely due to strategic adjustments. PMID:17333005

Weigelt, Cornelia; Bock, Otmar

2007-07-01

16

Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background  

PubMed Central

Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

Gundel, Pedro E; Martinez-Ghersa, Maria A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Rios, Raul; Ghersa, Claudio M

2012-01-01

17

Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background.  

PubMed

Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

2012-12-01

18

Modulation of stimulus contrast on the human pupil orienting response.  

PubMed

The sudden appearance of a novel stimulus initiates a series of responses to orient the body for appropriate actions, including not only shifts of gaze and attention, but also transient pupil dilation. Modulation of pupil dynamics by stimulus properties is less understood, although its effects on other components of orienting have been extensively explored. Microstimulation of the superior colliculus evoked transient pupil dilation, and the initial component of pupil dilation evoked by microstimulation was similar to that elicited by the presentation of salient sensory stimuli, suggesting a coordinated role of the superior colliculus on this behavior, although evidence in humans is yet to be established. To examine pupil orienting responses in humans, we presented visual stimuli while participants fixated on a central visual spot. Transient pupil dilation in humans was elicited after presentation of a visual stimulus in the periphery. The evoked pupil responses were modulated systematically by stimulus contrast, with faster and larger pupil responses triggered by higher contrast stimuli. The pupil response onset latencies for high contrast stimuli were similar to those produced by the light reflex and significantly faster than the darkness reflex, suggesting that the initial component of pupil dilation is probably mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic pathway. The contrast modulation was pronounced under different levels of baseline pupil size. Together, our results demonstrate visual contrast modulation on the orienting pupil response in humans. PMID:24911340

Wang, Chin-An; Munoz, Douglas P

2014-09-01

19

Mutual illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report theoretical and experimental results which underline the importance of mutual illumination to visual modules dealing with shape and with surface lightness. The experiments are in good agreement with results obtained with a simple theoretical model. These results show the effects of mutual illumination in pictures of simple objects, and indicate that these effects must be accounted for

David Forsyth; Andrew Zisserman

1989-01-01

20

Measurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented  

E-print Network

and the resulting magnitudes of the surface plasmon frequencies. In recent years, semiconductor nanowires haveMeasurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented Germanium Nanowires using Optical-Pump Terahertz-Probe Spectroscopy Jared H. Strait,*, Paul A. George, Mark Levendorf, Martin Blood

Afshari, Ehsan

21

Mutual modulation between norepinephrine and nitric oxide in haemocytes during the mollusc immune response.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important immune molecules in innate immunity of invertebrates, and it can be regulated by norepinephrine in ascidian haemocytes. In the present study, the mutual modulation and underlying mechanism between norepinephrine and NO were explored in haemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation, NO production increased to a significant level at 24?h, and norepinephrine concentration rose to remarkable levels at 3?h and 12~48?h. A significant decrease of NO production was observed in the haemocytes concomitantly stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist, while a dramatic increase of NO production was observed in the haemocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist. Meanwhile, the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) decreased significantly in the haemocytes treated by lipopolysaccharide and ?/?-adrenoceptor agonist, while the content of Ca(2+) was elevated in those triggered by lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist. When the haemocytes was incubated with NO donor, norepinephrine concentration was significantly enhanced during 1~24?h. Collectively, these results suggested that norepinephrine exerted varied effects on NO production at different immune stages via a novel ?/?-adrenoceptor-cAMP/Ca(2+) regulatory pattern, and NO might have a feedback effect on the synthesis of norepinephrine in the scallop haemocytes. PMID:25376551

Jiang, Qiufen; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Tiantian; Song, Linsheng

2014-01-01

22

Mutual modulation between norepinephrine and nitric oxide in haemocytes during the mollusc immune response  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important immune molecules in innate immunity of invertebrates, and it can be regulated by norepinephrine in ascidian haemocytes. In the present study, the mutual modulation and underlying mechanism between norepinephrine and NO were explored in haemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation, NO production increased to a significant level at 24?h, and norepinephrine concentration rose to remarkable levels at 3?h and 12~48?h. A significant decrease of NO production was observed in the haemocytes concomitantly stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist, while a dramatic increase of NO production was observed in the haemocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist. Meanwhile, the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) decreased significantly in the haemocytes treated by lipopolysaccharide and ?/?-adrenoceptor agonist, while the content of Ca2+ was elevated in those triggered by lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist. When the haemocytes was incubated with NO donor, norepinephrine concentration was significantly enhanced during 1~24?h. Collectively, these results suggested that norepinephrine exerted varied effects on NO production at different immune stages via a novel ?/?-adrenoceptor-cAMP/Ca2+ regulatory pattern, and NO might have a feedback effect on the synthesis of norepinephrine in the scallop haemocytes. PMID:25376551

Jiang, Qiufen; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Tiantian; Song, Linsheng

2014-01-01

23

Orientational Polarizability and Stress Response of Biological Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded\\u000a in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes random forces as well as forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix\\u000a and those due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate both the

S. A. Safran; R. de; A. Zemel

2010-01-01

24

Think differently: a brain orienting response to task novelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive £exibility hinges on a readiness to direct attention to no- vel events, and on an ability to change one's mental set to ¢nd new solutions for old problems. Human event-related potential (ERP) studies have described a brain'orienting' response to discrete novel events, marked by a frontally distributed positive potential peaking 300^ 400 ms post-stimulus (P3a). This brain potential has

Robert T. Knight

2002-01-01

25

Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

2000-01-01

26

The Relation of Entrepreneurs' Social Responsibility Orientation with the Social and Organizational Performances of the Corporate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is certain relationship among leaders' social responsibility orientation, social performance and organizational performance of the corporate. According to the past research, the corporate social responsibility includes four dimensions-economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. Corporate social performance can be divided into seven factors-employee, consumer, stockholder, compulsory environment protection, voluntary environment protection, community, special groups; organizational performance can

Gang Chao; Changyu Lu; Pin Yuan

2009-01-01

27

Usefulness of Differentiating Arousal Responses Within Communication Theories: Orienting Response or Defensive Arousal Within Nonverbal Theories of Expectancy Violation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that arousal has become a central variable within much of communication research from deception to emotional communication. Describes a two-part study that explored the application of the "orienting response" to these interpersonal communication theories explaining violations of expectancies. Concludes that the orientation response did…

Le Poire, Beth A.; Burgoon, Judee K.

1996-01-01

28

Direction orientation of the sand fiddler crab Uca pugilator (BOSC) in water: Onshore escape response  

Microsoft Academic Search

When dislocated offshore at their home beach, the sand fiddler crab Uca pugilator displayed an escape response, in which they moved directionally in the onshore direction. This response probably functions for predator avoidance of an area containing predators such as blue crabs. Directional orientation using celestial cues, beach slope, waves, and landmarks were tested. Male crabs correctly oriented in the

H. Scott Cameron Jr; Richard B. Forward Jr

1993-01-01

29

Orienting responses to various visual stimuli in children with visual processing impairments or infantile nystagmus syndrome.  

PubMed

Quantification of orienting responses can be used to differentiate between children with cerebral visual impairment and infantile nystagmus syndrome. To further improve the sensitivity of this method, we compared orienting responses to a Cartoon stimulus, which contains all sorts of visual information, to stimuli that contain only Contrast, Form coherence, Motion coherence, Color and Motion detection. The stimuli were shown on an eye tracker monitor using a preferential looking paradigm. We found that both groups of children showed general slowing in orienting responses compared to controls. The children with cerebral visual impairment had significantly prolonged responses to Cartoon compared to the children with nystagmus, whereas the children with nystagmus had prolonged responses to Motion detection and larger fixation areas. Previously reported differences in orienting responses to Cartoon were replicated. Application of specific visual information did not alter the sensitivity of the method to distinguish between children with visual processing deficits. PMID:24334347

Pel, J J M; Kooiker, M J G; van der Does, J M E; Boot, F H; de Faber, J T; van der Steen-Kant, S P; van der Steen, J

2014-12-01

30

Responses to Orientation Discontinuities in V1 and V2: Physiological Dissociations and Functional Implications  

PubMed Central

Segmenting the visual image into objects is a crucial stage of visual processing. Object boundaries are typically associated with differences in luminance, but discontinuities in texture also play an important role. We showed previously that a subpopulation of neurons in V2 in anesthetized macaques responds to orientation discontinuities parallel to their receptive field orientation. Such single-cell responses could be a neurophysiological correlate of texture boundary detection. Neurons in V1, on the other hand, are known to have contextual response modulations such as iso-orientation surround suppression, which also produce responses to orientation discontinuities. Here, we use pseudorandom multiregion grating stimuli of two frame durations (20 and 40 ms) to probe and compare texture boundary responses in V1 and V2 in anesthetized macaque monkeys. In V1, responses to texture boundaries were observed for only the 40 ms frame duration and were independent of the orientation of the texture boundary. However, in transient V2 neurons, responses to such texture boundaries were robust for both frame durations and were stronger for boundaries parallel to the neuron's preferred orientation. The dependence of these processes on stimulus duration and orientation indicates that responses to texture boundaries in V2 arise independently of contextual modulations in V1. In addition, because the responses in transient V2 neurons are sensitive to the orientation of the texture boundary but those of V1 neurons are not, we suggest that V2 responses are the correlate of texture boundary detection, whereas contextual modulation in V1 serves other purposes, possibly related to orientation “pop-out.” PMID:24599456

Purpura, Keith P.; Victor, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

31

Responses to orientation discontinuities in V1 and V2: physiological dissociations and functional implications.  

PubMed

Segmenting the visual image into objects is a crucial stage of visual processing. Object boundaries are typically associated with differences in luminance, but discontinuities in texture also play an important role. We showed previously that a subpopulation of neurons in V2 in anesthetized macaques responds to orientation discontinuities parallel to their receptive field orientation. Such single-cell responses could be a neurophysiological correlate of texture boundary detection. Neurons in V1, on the other hand, are known to have contextual response modulations such as iso-orientation surround suppression, which also produce responses to orientation discontinuities. Here, we use pseudorandom multiregion grating stimuli of two frame durations (20 and 40 ms) to probe and compare texture boundary responses in V1 and V2 in anesthetized macaque monkeys. In V1, responses to texture boundaries were observed for only the 40 ms frame duration and were independent of the orientation of the texture boundary. However, in transient V2 neurons, responses to such texture boundaries were robust for both frame durations and were stronger for boundaries parallel to the neuron's preferred orientation. The dependence of these processes on stimulus duration and orientation indicates that responses to texture boundaries in V2 arise independently of contextual modulations in V1. In addition, because the responses in transient V2 neurons are sensitive to the orientation of the texture boundary but those of V1 neurons are not, we suggest that V2 responses are the correlate of texture boundary detection, whereas contextual modulation in V1 serves other purposes, possibly related to orientation "pop-out." PMID:24599456

Schmid, Anita M; Purpura, Keith P; Victor, Jonathan D

2014-03-01

32

Mutual Funds Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutual Funds Interactive is provided by Brill Editorial Services, Inc. The aim of the site is to provide independent financial advice to investors. The highlight of the site is the expert's corner, where leading mutual fund experts provide market analysis, opinions and recommendations. There are also profiles of mutual funds managers and columns on mutual funds. For new investors, there is Funds 101, which helps explain what a mutual fund is. The site also features discussion groups, a glossary of mutual fund terms and a list of mutual funds.

1998-01-01

33

Orientation-dependent shock response of explosive crystals  

SciTech Connect

Some orientations of PETN crystals have anomalously high shock initiation sensitivity around 4 to 5 GPa. Results of a series of laser interferometry experiments at 4.2 GPa show that this is associated with an elastic-plastic, two-wave structure with large elastic precursors. Implications for the initiation mechanism in single crystals is discussed. Initial work on beta phase, monoclinic HMX is also described.

Dick, J.J.

1995-09-01

34

The heritability of the skin conductance orienting response: A longitudinal twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orienting response is a widely used experimental paradigm that reflects the association between electrodermal activity and psychological processes. The present study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) magnitude in a sample of twins assessed at ages 9–10, 11–13 and 14–16 years. Structural equation modeling at each visit showed that genetic influences explained 56%,

Catherine Tuvblad; Yu Gao; Joshua Isen; Theodore Botwick; Adrian Raine; Laura A. Baker

35

Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

2011-01-01

36

Crystal orientation dependence of polarized infrared reflectance response of hexagonal sapphire crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized infrared (IR) reflectance responses of c-, a- and r-plane sapphire crystals were investigated. The sapphire crystals with differently oriented surfaces exhibited different reststrahlen features. Except for c-plane sapphire, the polarized IR reflectance responses were sensitive to the orientation of the samples. The spectral features for a- and r-plane sapphire crystals were modulated by just rotating the samples about their surface normal. To analyze the observations, a theoretical model for the polarized IR reflectivity that considers the effects of crystal orientation of a hexagonal crystal system was employed. Overall, the theoretical predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. The crystal orientation information deduced from the polarized IR reflectance spectra is consistent with that acquired from X-ray diffraction measurements.

Lee, S. C.; Ng, S. S.; Abu Hassan, H.; Hassan, Z.; Dumelow, T.

2014-11-01

37

Theoretical Orientation and Responses to Abuse in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing home ombudsmen are often the first agents to learn of cases of elder abuse and neglect. As such, they are in a critical position in the response system. In this research, we surveyed 203 ombudsmen from 26 states to examine: the process used to address allegations of abuses against older persons; how ombudsmen define abuse; what problems they confront;

Brian K. Payne; Charles Gray

2002-01-01

38

Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P\\/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the

Donald L. DeAngelis; J. Nathaniel Holland

2006-01-01

39

Brain responses to facial expressions by adults with different attachment-orientations.  

PubMed

Behavior studies demonstrate that the attachment-orientation difference is a powerful predictor for emotional processing in children and adults, with anxious individuals being hyperactive and avoidant individuals being deactive to emotional stimuli. This study used the event-related potential technique to explore brain responses to facial expressions by adults with anxious, avoidant, or secure attachment-orientation. Differences were found in N1, N2, P2, and N400 components between the groups of participants, suggesting that adults with different attachment-orientations have differences in both earlier, automatic encoding of the structural properties of faces and later, more elaborative retrieval of emotional contents. PMID:18287942

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Tonggui; Zhou, Xiaolin

2008-03-01

40

Metatheoretical Assumptions and Psychotherapy Orientation: Clinician Attributions of Patients’ Problem Causality and Responsibility for Treatment Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of metatheoretical assumptions regarding clinicians’ attributions of patient responsibility for problem cause and therapeutic change in contributing to similarities and dissimilarities in theoretical orientation and investigated the implications of these assumptions for clinical practice. Forty-three experienced clinicians with either psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, family-systems, or eclectic orientations participated. Two case vignettes served as stimuli in assessing

Mark P. McGovern; Frederick L. Newman; Stephen Mark Kopta

1986-01-01

41

Teacher Responses to Bullying in Relation to Moral Orientation and Seriousness of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little research has focused on factors influencing teachers' decisions about whether and how to intervene in bullying incidents. Such factors have the potential to influence the role of teachers as agents in counteracting bullying. Aims: To examine: (a) whether moral orientation predicts teachers' responses to bullying, (b) the role of…

Ellis, Alicia A.; Shute, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

42

Cutaneous responses to topical methyl nicotinate in black, oriental, and caucasian subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of human skin to topical methyl nicotinate (MN) has been monitored in black, oriental, and caucasian subjects. The study aimed to address the question: “Do racial differences in percutaneous absorption and microcirculatory sensitivity exist?” MN-induced vasodilation was assessed visually and by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). At three dose levels, in the three subject populations, four parameters were compared:

C. J. Gean; E. Tur; H. I. Maibach; R. H. Guy

1989-01-01

43

Social Skills Training with Children: Responsiveness to Modeling and Coaching as a Function of Peer Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coaching and modeling were equivalent procedures for teaching social skills to isolated children. The abbreviated combination of coaching and modeling did not add to the effects. Peer orientation proved to be only a relatively weak modulator of responsiveness to social skills training. (Author)

Gresham, Frank M.; Nagle, Richard J.

1980-01-01

44

The Relationship of Individual Differences in the Orienting Response to Complex Learning in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heart rate change was used as the index of the orienting response (OR) of 102 kindergarten children. Heart rate change was measured by recording heart rate upon the presentation of tones. 15 similar tones followed by a different, 16th tone, were used. From this data the children were divided into high, medium, or low orientors. Following the "OR"…

Farley, Frank H.; Manske, Mary E.

45

The corporate social responsiveness orientation of hospital directors: does occupational background make a difference?  

PubMed

The results of a survey of 184 directors from 15 hospitals are analyzed to determine their corporate social responsiveness orientation. They indicate that board members whose occupational background is not in health care exhibit greater concern for economic performance and the legal component of corporate responsibility than their counterparts whose occupational background is in health care. No significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to the ethical and discretionary dimensions of corporate social responsibility. Some explanations as well as limited generalizations and implications are developed. PMID:10808420

Ibrahim, N A; Angelidis, J P; Howard, D P

2000-01-01

46

Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23678099

Lutz, Claudia C.; Robinson, Gene E.

2013-01-01

47

Evolution of mutualism between species  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

1980-01-01

48

Orientation-specific responses to sustained uniaxial stretching in focal adhesion growth and turnover  

PubMed Central

Cells are mechanosensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) deformation, which can be caused by muscle contraction or changes in hydrostatic pressure. Focal adhesions (FAs) mediate the linkage between the cell and the ECM and initiate mechanically stimulated signaling events. We developed a stretching apparatus in which cells grown on fibronectin-coated elastic substrates can be stretched and imaged live to study how FAs dynamically respond to ECM deformation. Human bone osteosarcoma epithelial cell line U2OS was transfected with GFP-paxillin as an FA marker and subjected to sustained uniaxial stretching. Two responses at different timescales were observed: rapid FA growth within seconds after stretching, and delayed FA disassembly and loss of cell polarity that occurred over tens of minutes. Rapid FA growth occurred in all cells; however, delayed responses to stretch occurred in an orientation-specific manner, specifically in cells with their long axes perpendicular to the stretching direction, but not in cells with their long axes parallel to stretch. Pharmacological treatments demonstrated that FA kinase (FAK) promotes but Src inhibits rapid FA growth, whereas FAK, Src, and calpain 2 all contribute to delayed FA disassembly and loss of polarity in cells perpendicular to stretching. Immunostaining for phospho-FAK after stretching revealed that FAK activation was maximal at 5 s after stretching, specifically in FAs oriented perpendicular to stretch. We hypothesize that orientation-specific activation of strain/stress-sensitive proteins in FAs upstream to FAK and Src promote orientation-specific responses in FA growth and disassembly that mediate polarity rearrangement in response to sustained stretch. PMID:23754369

Chen, Yun; Pasapera, Ana M.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Waterman, Clare M.

2013-01-01

49

Orientation-specific responses to sustained uniaxial stretching in focal adhesion growth and turnover.  

PubMed

Cells are mechanosensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) deformation, which can be caused by muscle contraction or changes in hydrostatic pressure. Focal adhesions (FAs) mediate the linkage between the cell and the ECM and initiate mechanically stimulated signaling events. We developed a stretching apparatus in which cells grown on fibronectin-coated elastic substrates can be stretched and imaged live to study how FAs dynamically respond to ECM deformation. Human bone osteosarcoma epithelial cell line U2OS was transfected with GFP-paxillin as an FA marker and subjected to sustained uniaxial stretching. Two responses at different timescales were observed: rapid FA growth within seconds after stretching, and delayed FA disassembly and loss of cell polarity that occurred over tens of minutes. Rapid FA growth occurred in all cells; however, delayed responses to stretch occurred in an orientation-specific manner, specifically in cells with their long axes perpendicular to the stretching direction, but not in cells with their long axes parallel to stretch. Pharmacological treatments demonstrated that FA kinase (FAK) promotes but Src inhibits rapid FA growth, whereas FAK, Src, and calpain 2 all contribute to delayed FA disassembly and loss of polarity in cells perpendicular to stretching. Immunostaining for phospho-FAK after stretching revealed that FAK activation was maximal at 5 s after stretching, specifically in FAs oriented perpendicular to stretch. We hypothesize that orientation-specific activation of strain/stress-sensitive proteins in FAs upstream to FAK and Src promote orientation-specific responses in FA growth and disassembly that mediate polarity rearrangement in response to sustained stretch. PMID:23754369

Chen, Yun; Pasapera, Ana M; Koretsky, Alan P; Waterman, Clare M

2013-06-25

50

Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined infants' negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) on children's self-regulation (n = 102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months.…

Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

2012-01-01

51

Influence of Sn Grain Size and Orientation on the Thermomechanical Response and Reliability of Pb-free Solder Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and crystal orientation of Sn grains in Pb-free, near eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints were examined. A clear dependence of the thermomechanical fatigue response of these solder joints on Sn grain orientation was observed (Sn has a body centered tetragonal crystal structure). Fabricated joints tend to have three orientations in a cyclic twin relationship, but among the population of

Thomas R. Bieler; Hairong Jiang; Lawrence P. Lehman; Tim Kirkpatrick; Eric J. Cotts; Bala Nandagopal

2008-01-01

52

The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A Dimensional Measure for Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of…

Mosconi, Matthew W.; Reznick, J. Steven; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

2009-01-01

53

Quantum Mechanics Measurements, Mutually  

E-print Network

Quantum Mechanics Measurements, Mutually Unbiased Bases and Finite Geometry Or why six is the first) #12;Quantum Mechanics for Dummies Finite dimensional quantum states are represented by trace one,1 -icS1,1[ ] #12;Quantum systems evolve and are measured. The evolution of a quantum system using

Gruner, Daniel S.

54

Mutual fund styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual funds are typically grouped by their investment objectives or the ‘style’ of their managers. We propose a new empirical to the determination of manager ‘style’. This approach is simple to apply, yet it captures nonlinear patterns of returns that result from virtually all active portfolio management styles. Our classifications are superior to common industry classifications in predicting cross-sectional future

Stephen J. Brown; William N. Goetzmann

1997-01-01

55

Floral scents: their roles in nursery pollination mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms are interspecies interactions in which each participant gains net benefits from interacting with its partner. In\\u000a nursery pollination mutualisms, pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. In these systems, each partner\\u000a depends directly on the other for its reproduction. Therefore, the signal responsible for partner encounter is crucial in\\u000a these horizontally transmitted mutualisms, in which the association between specific

Martine Hossaert-McKey; Catherine Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Magali Proffit

2010-01-01

56

Mutual fund trading and liquidity  

E-print Network

This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

2010-01-01

57

Optical Response of Oriented and Highly Anisotropic Subwavelength Metallic Nanostructure Arrays  

SciTech Connect

Here we describe the optical transmission response of novel coatings with subwavelength metallic structures based on a quasi-open ring resonator design fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering. This offers a relatively simple approach to the fabrication of dense arrays of optically responsive subwavelength structures over large areas with an oriented two-dimensional array of parallel Au nanoshells. The cross-section of the individual lines is “L” shaped with an approximately 95 nm width, 75 nm height, and pitch of 140 nm to yield a resonant optical response in the visible/near infrared spectrum. Along the long axis of the shells, the geometry is wire-like and quasi-infinite in length compared to the cross-section. This highly anisotropic structure has a strongly polarization-dependent optical response. The coatings are characterized via optical transmission measurements as a function of wavelength, polarization, and angle are presented along with complementary numerical modeling results predicting the resonance shift with corresponding changes in fabrication parameters.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Danny J.; Mendoza, Albert; Suter, Jonathan D.

2013-05-23

58

Dynamic modulation of an orientation preference map by GABA responsible for age-related cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive declines in old (healthy) animals could arise from depression of intracortical inhibition, for which a decreased ability to produce GABA during senescence might be responsible. By simulating a neural network model of a primary visual cortical (V1) area, we investigated whether and how a lack of GABA affects cognitive performance of the network: detection of the orientation of a visual bar-stimulus. The network was composed of pyramidal (P) cells and GABAergic interneurons such as small (S) and large (L) basket cells. Intrasynaptic GABA-release from presynaptic S or L cells contributed to reducing ongoing-spontaneous (background) neuronal activity in a different manner. Namely, the former exerted feedback (S-to-P) inhibition and reduced the frequency (firing rate) of action potentials evoked in P cells. The latter reduced the number of saliently firing P cells through lateral (L-to-P) inhibition. Non-vesicular GABA-release, presumably from glia and/or neurons, into the extracellular space reduced the both, activating extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and providing P cells with tonic inhibitory currents. By this combinatorial, spatiotemporal inhibitory mechanism, the background activity as noise was significantly reduced, compared to the stimulus-evoked activity as signal, thereby improving signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Interestingly, GABA-spillover from the intrasynaptic cleft into the extracellular space was effective for improving orientation selectivity (orientation bias), especially when distractors interfered with detecting the bar-stimulus. These simulation results may provide some insight into how the depression of intracortical inhibition due to a reduction in GABA content in the brain leads to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22990592

Miyamoto, Ai; Hasegawa, Jun; Hoshino, Osamu

2012-11-01

59

Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to determine if dispositional achievement goal orientation profiles that are reported in the literature would be observed in a sample of youth athletes, and (b) to examine potential achievement goal orientation profile differences on perceptions of the motivational climate, perceptions of peer relationships, and motivation-related responses. Male soccer players (n = 223) aged 9–12

Alan L. Smith; Isabel Balaguer; Joan L. Duda

2006-01-01

60

Response of amphibian egg cytoplasm to novel gravity orientation and centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of inversion and centrifugation on the compartmentalization of cytoplasm in Xenopus laevis eggs are investigated experimentally. The rearrangement of yolk-platelet compartments (YPC) characterized by morphology, density, and viscosity differences is studied in fertilized, unfertilized, and unfertilized electrically activated eggs in normal, and inverted positions and with and without centrifugation at 10-183 x g for 5 min. The eggs are fixed and embedded in plastic or paraffin prior to sagittal sectioning (0.5, 4, or 8 microns) and microscopic examination; the results are presented in a diagram and discussed. A density-compartment model combining both animal/vegetal and dorsal/ventral polarities is proposed: YPC determined without gravity orientation during oogenesis respond to both sperm entrance point and gravity after fertilization, and the response involves breaking of the radial symmetry of the egg. It is predicted that Xenopus eggs in a microgravity environment will encounter difficulties in establishing a primary embryonic axis.

Neff, A. W.; Wakahara, M.; Jurand, A.; Malacinski, G. M.

1983-01-01

61

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2012-04-01

62

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2010-04-01

63

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2011-04-01

64

Enablers of Excess: Mutual Funds & the Overpaid American CEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] In this report, the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), AFL-CIO, and The Corporate Library (TCL) examine mutual fund proxy voting on executive compensation issues. Our purpose is to determine the extent to which mutual funds have exercised their responsibility to vote in their shareholders’ best interests on measures that would reasonably restrain executive compensation and

2006-01-01

65

Who incentivizes the mutual fund manager, new or old shareholders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests whether mutual fund shareholders continue to trade in response to fund returns after they make their initial investment in fund shares. It decomposes the relationship between fund returns and shareholder flow in a large, proprietary panel of all shareholder transactions in one midsize no-load mutual fund family. Results show that both new and old shareholders buy shares

Woodrow T. Johnson

2010-01-01

66

12 CFR 333.4 - Conversions from mutual to stock form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY EXTENSION OF CORPORATE POWERS Regulations § 333.4 Conversions from mutual...breach of the board of directors' or trustees' fiduciary responsibility. In addition, no converted insured mutual state...

2010-01-01

67

The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A dimensional measure for preschool-aged children  

PubMed Central

Children with autism show deficits in social orienting, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale that is designed to be used in the context of video-recorded Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) sessions. The SOC-RS was shown to be reliable and valid, and when applied to a longitudinal sample of children with autism studied at 2 and 4 years of age, was shown to be sensitive to decreased levels of social referencing, joint attention, orientating to name, and social smiling in autism. The implications of these findings and potential applications of the SOC-RS are discussed. PMID:18648919

Mosconi, M.W.; Reznick, J.S.; Mesibov, G.; Piven, J.

2011-01-01

68

Kinematic Responses to Changes in Walking Orientation and Gravitational Load in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects. PMID:25350743

Mendes, Cesar S.; Rajendren, Soumya V.; Bartos, Imre; Marka, Szabolcs; Mann, Richard S.

2014-01-01

69

Fast Response, vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electric double layer capacitors synthesized from C(2)H(2).  

PubMed

The growth and electrical characteristics of vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from C2H2 feedstock on nickel substrates and used as electrodes in symmetric electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) are presented. The nanosheets exhibited 2.7 times faster growth rate and much greater specific capacitance for a given growth time than CH4 synthesized films. Raman spectra showed that the intensity ratio of the D band to G band versus temperature initially decreased to a minimum value of 0.45 at a growth temperature of 750 °C, but increased rapidly with further temperature increase (1.15 at 850 °C). The AC specific capacitance at 120 Hz of these EDLC devices increased in a linear fashion with growth temperature, up to 265 ?F/cm(2) (2 ?m high film, 850 °C with 10 min growth). These devices exhibited ultrafast frequency response: the frequency response at -45° phase angle reached over 20 kHz. Consistent with the increase in D band to G band ratio, the morphology of the films became less vertical, less crystalline, and disordered at substrate temperatures of 800 °C and above. This deterioration in morphology resulted in an increase in graphene surface area and defect density, which, in turn, contributed to the increased capacitance, as well as a slight decrease in frequency response. The low equivalent series resistance varied from 0.07 to 0.08 ? and was attributed to the significant carbon incorporation into the Ni substrate. PMID:24797018

Cai, Minzhen; Outlaw, Ronald A; Quinlan, Ronald A; Premathilake, Dilshan; Butler, Sue M; Miller, John R

2014-06-24

70

How to control self-promotion among performance-oriented employees : The roles of task clarity and personalized responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the performance orientation of employees and self-promotion in the form of overstating one's performance. It is hypothesized that this relationship depends on task clarity and personalized responsibility. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected by means of a survey among 281 employees of two Dutch organizations, one active in

Eric Molleman; Ben Emans; Nonna Turusbekova

2012-01-01

71

An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Degree of Religiousness Upon an Individual's Corporate Social Responsiveness Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent failures and scandals involving many large businesses have highlighted the importance of corporate social responsibility\\u000a as a fundamental factor in the soundness of the free market system. The corporate social responsiveness orientation of business\\u000a executives plays an important role in corporate decision making since managers make important decisions on behalf of their\\u000a corporations. This paper explores whether there

John Angelidis; Nabil Ibrahim

2004-01-01

72

Developing a Short Form of Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test: An Item Response Theory Approach  

PubMed Central

The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton’s words, “as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived.” The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test-retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct validity as shown through neuroanatomical localization studies (Tranel, Vianna, Manzel, Damasio, & Grabowski, 2009). Despite its popularity and strong psychometric properties, the full-length version of the test (30 items) has been criticized as being unnecessarily long (Straus, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006). There have been many attempts at developing short forms; however, these forms have been limited in their ability to estimate scores accurately. Taking advantage of a large sample of JLO performances from 524 neurological patients with focal brain lesions, we used techniques from Item Response Theory (IRT) to estimate each item’s difficulty and power to discriminate among various levels of ability. A random item IRT model was used to estimate the influence of item stimulus properties as predictors of item difficulty. These results were used to optimize the selection of items for a shorter method of administration which maintained comparability with the full form using significantly fewer items. This effectiveness of this method was replicated in a second sample of 82 healthy elderly participants. The findings should help broaden the clinical utility of the JLO and enhance its diagnostic applications. PMID:21469016

Calamia, Matthew; Markon, Kristian; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

2011-01-01

73

A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.

Li, W.; Ren, Y.

2013-12-01

74

Effects of a belowground mutualism on an aboveground mutualism  

E-print Network

LETTER Effects of a belowground mutualism on an aboveground mutualism Benjamin E. Wolfe, Brian C cent seed set of this plant in the field by up to two times compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. We). Conversely, soil organisms can change the morphology or chemical composition of plant tissues, altering

Pringle, Anne

75

Polarized Raman Anisotropic Response of Collagen in Tendon: Towards 3D Orientation Mapping of Collagen in Tissues  

PubMed Central

In this study, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) was used to characterize the anisotropic response of the amide I band of collagen as a basis for evaluating three-dimensional collagen fibril orientation in tissues. Firstly, the response was investigated theoretically by applying classical Raman theory to collagen-like peptide crystal structures. The theoretical methodology was then tested experimentally, by measuring amide I intensity anisotropy in rat tail as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization. For the theoretical study, several collagen-like triple-helical peptide crystal structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank were rotated “in plane” and “out of plane” to evaluate the role of molecular orientation on the intensity of the amide I band. Collagen-like peptides exhibit a sinusoidal anisotropic response when rotated “in plane” with respect to the polarized incident laser. Maximal intensity was obtained when the polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the molecule and minimal when parallel. In the case of “out of plane” rotation of the molecular structure a decreased anisotropic response was observed, becoming completely isotropic when the structure was perpendicular to the plane of observation. The theoretical Raman response of collagen was compared to that of alpha helical protein fragments. In contrast to collagen, alpha helices have a maximal signal when incident light is parallel to the molecule and minimal when perpendicular. For out-of-plane molecular orientations alpha-helix structures display a decreased average intensity. Results obtained from experiments on rat tail tendon are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the high potential of PRS for experimental evaluation of the three-dimensional orientation of collagen fibers in biological tissues. PMID:23691057

Galvis, Leonardo; Dunlop, John W. C.; Duda, Georg; Fratzl, Peter; Masic, Admir

2013-01-01

76

Equality, diversity and corporate responsibility : Sexual orientation and diversity management in the UK private sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the triggers to the development of sexual orientation diversity policy and practice in the UK private sector, based on the perspectives of those “championing” sexual orientation diversity work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on 22 in-depth key informant interviews which can be broken down as follows: diversity specialists (5),

Fiona Colgan

2011-01-01

77

The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): a dimensional measure for preschool-aged children.  

PubMed

Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of video-recorded Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) sessions. The SOC-RS was shown to be reliable and valid, and when applied to a longitudinal sample of children studied at 2 and 4 years of age, was shown to be sensitive to decreased levels of social referencing, joint attention, orienting to name, and social smiling in autism. The implications of these findings and potential applications of the SOC-RS are discussed. PMID:18648919

Mosconi, Matthew W; Steven Reznick, J; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

2009-02-01

78

The effects of mutual inductances in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is developed to investigate the effects of mutual inductance on the voltage-field (V-B) characteristics of two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions. The V-B characteristics were numerically simulated for arrays with and without mutual inductance contributions. We find mutual inductances can have a strong impact on the voltage response of SQUID arrays and mutual inductance contributions from nearest neighboring SQUIDs only do not represent a good approximation.

Dalichaouch, T. N.; Cybart, S. A.; Dynes, R. C.

2014-06-01

79

INITIATIVE #1: Positive & Team-Oriented Culture Description and details about the program or initiative that is being proposed  

E-print Network

the department. Members of the Athletics Senior Team will model and encourage a positive, team-oriented culture by mutual respect and safety · Pride in our institution, our unique qualities and our vital role EXECUTION of Athletics and all members of the Athletics Senior Team share leadership responsibility for this initiative

Saldin, Dilano

80

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis...policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis...companies and mutual fire or flood insurance companies exclusively...

2013-04-01

81

Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality  

PubMed Central

Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and palliative care related to end-of-life circumstances. Specifically, the complementarity of grief and palliative care, as well as a controvertible view thereof, will be considered.

Moon, Paul J

2013-01-01

82

Orienting Response and Memory for Web Advertisements:Exploring Effects of Pop-Up Window and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of pop-up windows and animation on online users’ orienting response and memory for Web advertisements. All participants (N = 60) in a mixed-design factorial experiment were exposed to four online portal Web sites, each containing a banner ad that was either animated or static and a pop-up ad that was also either animated or static.

Fangfang Diao; S. Shyam Sundar

2004-01-01

83

Leaf orientation and the response of the xanthophyll cycle to incident light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves from two species, Euonymus kiautschovicus and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, with a variety of different orientations and exposures, were examined in the field with regard to the xanthophyll cycle (the interconversion of three carotenoids in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes). East-, south-, and west-facing leaves of E. kiautschovicus were sampled throughout the day and all exhibited a pronounced and progressive conversion of

W. W. Adams; M. Volk; A. Hoehn; B. Demmig-Adams

1992-01-01

84

Neuroticism and Social Comparison Orientation as Moderators of Affective Responses to Social Comparison at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism (N) and to social com- parison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and identification were higher, and negative affect was lower, in the upward than in the downward comparison

Bram P. Buunk; Karen Van der Zee; Nico W. VanYperen

2001-01-01

85

"With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do students from privileged communities respond to educational efforts encouraging them to become justice-oriented citizens? Observational and interview data collected during a semester-long case study of eleven high school students in a social studies class at an elite private school reveal four markedly different interpretations of their…

Swalwell, Katy

2013-01-01

86

Displaying Orientation in the Classroom: Students' Multimodal Responses to Teacher Instructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the displays of orientation that students use to participate in the classroom. It is argued that students use their direction of gaze, body posture, gesture and other modes of communication to realize such displays and respond to what goes on when they are not nominated speakers. The focus of the paper is on the silent but…

Bezemer, Jeff

2008-01-01

87

A response to reform: Teachers' attitudes and practice of inquiry-oriented instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of the current reform effort in Connecticut is to influence the way science is taught to improve student achievement. To meet this goal, the State aligned curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices with the most recent versions of the Core Science Curriculum Framework, CAPT Handbook for Science, and the Connecticut Aptitude Performance Test (CAPT). The lack of widespread and sustainable implementation of instructional reforms, such as implementing inquiry-oriented standards-based curriculum, is an issue that has evolved out of reform efforts similar to the one in Connecticut. A possible explanation for this problem might be traced back to teacher attitudes towards the proposed instructional changes. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the attitudes of six high school earth science teachers toward reform in one Connecticut suburban school district and the impact these attitudes may have had on the implementation of inquiry-oriented instructional reforms. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess teacher attitudes toward the reform and the expected impact on the way they would enact inquiry-oriented instruction. This was followed by classroom observations of each teacher's implementation of one of the State released inquiry-oriented labs found in the CAPT Handbook for Science, so as to determine whether the labs were carried out as the teachers had intended and as was expected by the State. At the end of year, semi-structured interviews were also conducted to verify whether their attitudes changed over the course of the year. Originally, it was thought that teacher attitudes would impact the way they would carry out the State recommended labs. However, teacher attitudes in this study were only one predictor of the way the inquiry-oriented labs were implemented. Teacher experience, familiarity with the content, and knowledge of inquiry-based pedagogy also were found to be possible influences on how they described and implemented the State reforms. The results of this work highlight the need for large-scale reforms to consider the multiple factors that influence teachers' understanding and implementation in order for such instructional changes to be successful.

Thomas, Jeffrey D.

88

Raman response of (11N)-oriented GaAs\\/AlAs superlattices within the framework of the bond polarizability model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Raman response of (11N)-oriented GaAs\\/AlAs superlattices is studied within the framework of the bond polarizability model. We focus our attention on the cases of the (110), (111) and (112) orientations. We discuss the role that the mode mixing, the interface contribution and the lack of parity play in the Raman response. Analytical expressions for the Raman intensities are presented.

Pedro Castrillo; Gaspar Armelles; Juan Barbolla

1996-01-01

89

Mutual reaction between interstitial clusters in bcc Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are commonly observed in microstructure of irradiated metals. These clusters can be formed directly in high-energy displacement cascades or as a result of interaction between individual SIAs. The majority of these clusters has features of glissile dislocation loops and perform fast thermally-activated one-dimensional glide. In this paper we present results of systematic molecular dynamics study of reactions where glissile clusters are involved. On the example of bcc iron we demonstrate that the reactions can result in a number of specific microstructural objects with different properties which may affect the microstructure evolution of irradiated metals. Particularly the reactions between the most common glissile clusters of (111) crowdions can result in coarsening, formation of immobile complexes and change of the crowdion orientation to (100) -type direction. However, particular mechanism responsible for that was found to be different from the one reported in the similar computer simulation studies. Properties of the products of mutual reactions between clusters are quite different which can influence the total microstructure evolution under irradiation. The results are obtained with the most promising interatomic potential for iron.

Terentyev, Dmitry; Malerba, Lorenzo

2007-04-01

90

Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

1986-01-01

91

Feature-specific attention allocation overrules the orienting response to emotional stimuli.  

PubMed

Emotional stimuli are generally thought to be processed in an unconditional fashion. Recent behavioral studies suggest, however, that emotional stimulus processing is critically dependent on attention toward emotional stimulus features. We set out to test this hypothesis using EEG measurements and a modified oddball paradigm. Unexpected emotional stimuli evoked amplitude variations of the P3a (an ERP marker of attention orienting) when attention was directed to emotional stimulus properties but not when non-emotional stimulus properties were attended to. We conclude that emotional stimulus processing is not unconditional, but dependent on top-down attentional control. PMID:23903491

Everaert, Tom; Spruyt, Adriaan; Rossi, Valentina; Pourtois, Gilles; De Houwer, Jan

2014-09-01

92

Response of liquid scintillator assemblies as a function of angular orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid scintillator detector assemblies contain an inert nitrogen expansion volume to allow for expansion of the liquid with changing temperature. Measurements and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the dependence of pulse height distribution shapes as a function of detector angle for two liquid scintillators assemblies filled with 97% organic-liquid cocktail and a 3% expansion volume. A 12.7-cm diameter by 12.7-cm long and a 7.6-cm diameter by 9.1-cm long EJ-309 liquid scintillator assemblies are investigated using a 137Cs gamma-ray source. Aside from the differences in dimensions, the detector assemblies also differed in the design of the active detector volume: there is no light guide in the 12.7-cm-diameter detector assembly, whereas the 7.6-cm-diameter detector contains a BK7 light guide between the scintillation liquid and optical coupling to the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 12.7-cm-diameter detector show a decrease in the position of the Compton edge ranges from 4% to 40% at detector orientations where the expansion volume exists between scintillating medium and the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 7.6-cm-diameter detector show that the position of the Compton edge is relatively unaffected at all detector orientations due to the presence of light guide.

Naeem, S. F.; Scarpelli, M.; Miller, E.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.

2014-06-01

93

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

94

Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan.  

PubMed

Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result. PMID:10164378

Phillips, R

1997-02-01

95

Mutual Group Hypnosis and Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of mutual group hypnosis as an environment in which to carry out a problem solving program designed to help smokers become nonsmokers. Hypnosis provides a relaxed milieu, heightens imagery and intensifies concentration. Specific techniques used include (1) brainstorming about reasons for wanting to be a nonsmoker; (2) time progression and imagery to consider the possibility

Shirley Sanders

1977-01-01

96

Strategic Orientation and Nursing Home Response to Public Reporting of Quality Measures: An Application of the Miles and Snow Typology  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether differences in strategic orientation of nursing homes as identified by the Miles and Snow typology are associated with differences in their response to the publication of quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare website. Data Sources Administrator survey of a national 10 percent random sample (1,502 nursing homes) of all facilities included in the first publication of the Nursing Home Compare report conducted in May–June 2004; 724 responded, yielding a response rate of 48.2 percent. Study Design The dependent variables are dichotomous, indicating whether or not action was taken and the type of action taken. Four indicator variables were created for each of the four strategic types: Defender, Analyzer, Prospector, and Reactor. Other variables were included in the seven logistic regression models to control for factors other than strategic type that could influence nursing home response to public disclosure of their quality of care. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey data were merged with data on quality measures and organizational characteristics from the first report (November 2002). Principal Findings About 43 percent of surveyed administrators self-typed as Defenders, followed by Analyzers (33 percent), and Prospectors (19 percent). The least self-selected strategic type was the Reactor (6.6 percent). In general, results of the regression models indicate differences in response to quality measure publication by strategic type, with Prospectors and Analyzers more likely, and Reactors less likely, to respond than Defenders. Conclusions While almost a third of administrators took no action at all, our results indicate that whether, when, and how nursing homes reacted to publication of federally reported quality measures is associated with strategic orientation. PMID:18370969

Zinn, Jacqueline S; Spector, William D; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

2008-01-01

97

Design oriented identification of critical times in transient response. [due to dynamic loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two techniques are presented for reducing the computational effort in identifying the critical time points. One approach is an adaptive search technique, well suited for the case where the response is exactly known. The other technique, useful for noisy response, is based on a least-squares spline approximation of the response. The possibility of grouping several closely spaced local peaks to identify a single super peak from each group is also investigated. The computational efficiency of the techniques proposed here is illustrated by two examples.

Haftka, R. T.; Watson, L. T.; Grandhi, R. V.

1984-01-01

98

Orientation-Cue Invariant Population Responses to Contrast-Modulated and Phase-Reversed Contour Stimuli in Macaque V1 and V2  

PubMed Central

Visual scenes can be readily decomposed into a variety of oriented components, the processing of which is vital for object segregation and recognition. In primate V1 and V2, most neurons have small spatio-temporal receptive fields responding selectively to oriented luminance contours (first order), while only a subgroup of neurons signal non-luminance defined contours (second order). So how is the orientation of second-order contours represented at the population level in macaque V1 and V2? Here we compared the population responses in macaque V1 and V2 to two types of second-order contour stimuli generated either by modulation of contrast or phase reversal with those to first-order contour stimuli. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we found that the orientation of second-order contour stimuli was represented invariantly in the orientation columns of both macaque V1 and V2. A physiologically constrained spatio-temporal energy model of V1 and V2 neuronal populations could reproduce all the recorded population responses. These findings suggest that, at the population level, the primate early visual system processes the orientation of second-order contours initially through a linear spatio-temporal filter mechanism. Our results of population responses to different second-order contour stimuli support the idea that the orientation maps in primate V1 and V2 can be described as a spatial-temporal energy map. PMID:25188576

An, Xu; Gong, Hongliang; Yin, Jiapeng; Wang, Xiaochun; Pan, Yanxia; Zhang, Xian; Lu, Yiliang; Yang, Yupeng; Toth, Zoltan; Schiessl, Ingo; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

99

Disorienting Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn's article provides educators with a comprehensive review of possible modes of studying and teaching rabbinic literature. His method of extensive consultation and dialogue with teachers of…

Gillis, Michael

2010-01-01

100

Sex Differences in Orienting to Pictures with and without Humans: Evidence from the Cardiac Evoked Response (ECR) and the Cortical Long Latency Parietal Positivity (LPP)  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the effect of social relevance in affective pictures on two orienting responses, i.e. the evoked cardiac response (ECR), and a long latency cortical evoked potential (LPP) and whether this effect would differ between males and females. Assuming that orienting to affective social information is fundamental to experiencing affective empathy, associations between self-report measures of empathy and the two orienting responses were investigated. Method ECRs were obtained from 34 female and 30 male students, and LPPs from 25 female and 27 male students viewing 414 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Pictures portrayed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Results Both the ECR and LPP showed the largest response to pictures with humans in unpleasant situations. For both measures, the responses to pictures with humans correlated with self-report measures of empathy. While we found a greater male than female responsiveness to the pictures without humans in the ECR, a greater female than male responsiveness was observed in the LPP response to pictures with humans. Conclusion and Significance The sensitivity of these orienting responses to social relevance and their differential contribution to the prediction of individual differences underline the validity of their combined use in clinical studies investigating individuals with social disabilities. PMID:25330003

Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; van der Schaft, Lutske; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tucha, Oliver; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.

2014-01-01

101

Insect mutualisms buffer warming effects on multiple trophic levels.  

PubMed

Insect mutualisms can have disproportionately large impacts on local arthropod and plant communities and their responses to climatic change. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of insect mutualisms affects host plant and herbivore responses to warming. Using open-top warming chambers at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, we manipulated temperature and presence of ants and Chaitophorus populicola aphids on Populus tremuloides host plants and monitored ant attendance and persistence of C. populicola, predator abundance, plant stress, and abundance of Myzus persicae, a pest aphid that colonized plants during the experiment. We found that, regardless of warming, C. populicola persistence was higher when tended by ants, and some ant species increased aphid persistence more than others. Warming had negligible direct but strong indirect effects on plant stress. Plant stress decreased with warming only when both ants and C. populicola aphids were present and engaged in mutualism. Plant stress was increased by warming-induced reductions in predator abundance and increases in M. persicae aphid abundance. Altogether, these findings suggest that insect mutualisms could buffer the effects of warming on specialist herbivores and plants, but when mutualisms are not intact, the direct effects of warming on predators and generalist herbivores yield strong indirect effects of warming on plants. PMID:24649640

Marquis, Michael; Del Toro, Israel; Pelini, Shannon L

2014-01-01

102

Effects of a Body-oriented Response Measure on the Neural Substrate of Imagined Perspective Rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous behavioral studies suggest that response measures related to the body, such as pointing, serve to anchor participants to their physical body during mental rotation tasks in which their perspective must be shifted elsewhere. This study investigated whether such measures engage spatial and lowlevel cortical motor areas of the brain more readily than nonbody-related measures. We directly compared activation found

Maryjane Wraga; Catherine M. Flynn; Holly K. Boyle; Gretchen C. Evans

2009-01-01

103

Orientation of the Fiddler Crab, Uca cumulanta : Responses to Chemical and Visual Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of the fiddler crab Uca cumulanta to flat geometric shapes mimicking natural objects were measured in a circular arena by using zonal recovery as a behavioral measurement. Crabs were tested either in presence or absence of odors from two common predator species, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, and the pufferfish Sphoeroides testudineus. The study tested the hypothesis that

Roberto Chiussi; Humberto Diaz

2002-01-01

104

Mutualism and biodiversity in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soil invertebrates and roots have developed strong interactions with micro-organisms to exploit the organic and mineral resources of soil. Micro-fauna are mainly predators of microorganisms whereas larger organisms interact with micro-organisms through the “external rumen” or facultative endosymbiotic digestive systems. Mobilisation of nutrient and organic resources through mutualism with soil microflora seems to be all the more efficient as

P. Lavelle; C. Lattaud; D. Trigo; I. Barois

1995-01-01

105

Mutual funds: temporary problem or permanent morass?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improprieties in the mutual fund industry that surfaced in the fall of 2003 prompted the passage and drafting of legislation and regulations that cover nearly every facet of mutual fund pricing and operations. While this regulatory flurry is clearly intended to protect shareholders’ interests, the question remains: How will these scandals and regulatory changes ultimately affect mutual fund investors?

Paula A. Tkac

2004-01-01

106

Effects of a Body-oriented Response Measure on the Neural Substrate of Imagined Perspective Rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous behavioral studies suggest that response measures related to the body, such as pointing, serve to anchor participants to their physical body during mental rotation tasks in which their perspective must be shifted elsewhere. This study investigated whether such measures engage spatial and low-level cortical motor areas of the brain more readily than non-body-related measures. We directly compared activation found

Maryjane Wraga; Catherine M. Flynn; Holly K. Boyle; Gretchen C. Evans

2010-01-01

107

How Are Derivatives Used? Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate investment managers' use of derivatives by comparing return distributions for equity mutual funds that use and do not use derivatives. In contrast to public perception, derivative users have risk exposure and return performance that are similar to nonusers. We also analyze changes in fund risk in response to prior fund performance. Changes in risk are substantially less severe

Jennifer Lynch Koski; Jeffrey Pontiff

1999-01-01

108

Effects of a body-oriented response measure on the neural substrate of imagined perspective rotations.  

PubMed

Previous behavioral studies suggest that response measures related to the body, such as pointing, serve to anchor participants to their physical body during mental rotation tasks in which their perspective must be shifted elsewhere. This study investigated whether such measures engage spatial and low-level cortical motor areas of the brain more readily than non-body-related measures. We directly compared activation found in two imagined perspective rotation tasks, using responses that varied in the degree to which they emphasized the human body. In the body minimize condition, participants imagined rotating themselves around an object and judged whether a prescribed part of the object would be visible from the imagined viewpoint. In the body maximize condition, participants imagined rotating around the object and then located the prescribed object part with respect to their bodies. A direct comparison of neural activation in both conditions revealed distinct yet overlapping neural regions. The body maximize condition yielded activation in low-level cortical motor areas such as premotor cortex and primary motor cortex, as well as bilateral spatial processing areas. The body minimize condition yielded activation in nonmotoric egocentric processing regions. However, both conditions showed activation in the parietal-occipital region that is thought to be involved in egocentric transformations. These findings are discussed in the context of recent hypotheses regarding the role of the body percept in imagined egocentric transformations. PMID:19642881

Wraga, Maryjane; Flynn, Catherine M; Boyle, Holly K; Evans, Gretchen C

2010-08-01

109

The need for youth-oriented policies and programmes on responsible sexuality in Argentina.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1990s, several provincial bills have been passed in Argentina mandating the creation of programmes for family planning and sexual health services and education. A National Plan for Integrated Health Care for Adolescents was also passed but resources and actual programmes remain limited. The policy process has been fraught with difficulties, owing to a strong alliance between the State and the Catholic church. Provision of contraceptives to adolescents has been one of the most contentious issues, as adolescents are legally minors and need parental permission to use family planning. NGOs are working with young people to help them to voice their perspectives and demands. The Programme for Responsible Sexuality was launched by the Province of Buenos Aires in 1999, in response to concrete demands on the part of poor communities for sexual and reproductive health services, including for young people. This Programme came to an abrupt end with the change of governor in that same year, illustrating the complexity of the policy-making process. These experiences demonstrate the urgency to develop strategies and set up task forces for effective advocacy of health and social programmes, and to make political leaders more aware of the social costs of refusing to support these. PMID:11468835

Mercer, R; Ramos, S; Szulik, D; Zamberlin, N

2001-05-01

110

Urgent need to orient public health response to rapid nutrition transition.  

PubMed

India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

2012-10-01

111

Parent-Child Dyadic Mutuality and Child Behavior Problems: An Investigation of Gene-Environment Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Parent-child mutuality is comprised of emotional reciprocity, co-responsiveness, and cooperation, which together represent aspects of co-regulation of emotion and behavior that may be important in the etiology of children's behavior problems. Furthermore, individual differences in children's mutuality and behavior problems involve…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

112

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed Central

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-01-01

113

Five new and three improved mutual orbits of transneptunian binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three improved and five new mutual orbits of transneptunian binary systems (58534) Logos-Zoe, (66652) Borasisi-Pabu, (88611) Teharonhiawako-Sawiskera, (123509) 2000 WK 183, (149780) Altjira, 2001 QY 297, 2003 QW 111, and 2003 QY 90 based on Hubble Space Telescope and Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics observations. Combining the five new orbit solutions with 17 previously known orbits yields a sample of 22 mutual orbits for which the period P, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e have been determined. These orbits have mutual periods ranging from 5 to over 800 days, semimajor axes ranging from 1600 to 37,000 km, eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.8, and system masses ranging from 2 × 10 17 to 2 × 10 22 kg. Based on the relative brightnesses of primaries and secondaries, most of these systems consist of near equal-sized pairs, although a few of the most massive systems are more lopsided. The observed distribution of orbital properties suggests that the most loosely-bound transneptunian binary systems are only found on dynamically cold heliocentric orbits. Of the 22 known binary mutual orbits, orientation ambiguities are now resolved for 9, of which 7 are prograde and 2 are retrograde, consistent with a random distribution of orbital orientations, but not with models predicting a strong preference for retrograde orbits. To the extent that other perturbations are not dominant, the binary systems undergo Kozai oscillations of their eccentricities and inclinations with periods of the order of tens of thousands to millions of years, some with strikingly high amplitudes.

Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Nimmo, F.; Roe, H. G.; Buie, M. W.; Porter, S. B.; Benecchi, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Levison, H. F.; Stansberry, J. A.

2011-06-01

114

Consumer Evaluation of Dual Focus Mutual Aid.  

PubMed

Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a "dual focus," 12 step-based mutual aid program tailored to assist recovery from co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine consumers' perceptions of DTR's usefulness for their recoveries and the relationships between perceived DTR usefulness and self-help processes, self-efficacy to cope with problems in recovery, and changes in behaviors conducive to dual recovery. METHODS: Consumers attending DTR groups, located within a psychiatric day-treatment program, completed anonymous surveys 8 months (N=19) and 20 months (N=61) after DTR was implemented. RESULTS: DTR participants rated DTR favorably and length of DTR attendance was significantly associated with increased self-efficacy for recovery and positive changes in recovery-oriented behaviors. Perceived DTR usefulness was significantly associated with greater engagement in three specific self-help processes and increased self-efficacy for recovery; notably, these associations were independent of consumers' overall satisfaction with the treatment program. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to document consumers' perceived usefulness of DTR in relation to indicators of recovery. Overall, the study provides additional evidence for the benefits of implementing consumer-led dual focus groups in treatment programs. PMID:23136558

Magura, Stephen; Villano, Cherie L; Rosenblum, Andrew; Vogel, Howard S; Betzler, Thomas

2008-01-01

115

Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.  

PubMed

The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

2014-11-18

116

Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

2009-01-01

117

The Relationship of Individual Differences in the Orienting Response to Complex Learning in Kindergartners. Report from the Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning and Retention Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heart rate change was used as the index of the orienting response (OR) of 102 kindergarten children. Heart rate change was measured by recording heart rate upon the presentation of tones. 15 similar tones followed by a different, 16th tone, were used. From this data the children were divided into high, medium, or low orientors. Following the "OR"…

Farley, Frank H.; Manske, Mary E.

118

Measuring praise and criticism: Inference of semantic orientation from association  

E-print Network

The evaluative character of a word is called its semantic orientation. Positive semantic orientation indicates praise (e.g., “honest”, “intrepid”) and negative semantic orientation indicates criticism (e.g., “disturbing”, “superfluous”). Semantic orientation varies in both direction (positive or negative) and degree (mild to strong). An automated system for measuring semantic orientation would have application in text classification, text filtering, tracking opinions in online discussions, analysis of survey responses, and automated chat systems (chatbots). This article introduces a method for inferring the semantic orientation of a word from its statistical association with a set of positive and negative paradigm words. Two instances of this approach are evaluated, based on two different statistical measures of word association: pointwise mutual information (PMI) and latent semantic analysis (LSA). The method is experimentally tested with 3,596 words (including adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs) that have been manually labeled positive (1,614 words) and negative (1,982 words). The method attains an accuracy of 82.8 % on the full test set, but the accuracy rises above 95 % when the algorithm is allowed to abstain from classifying mild words.

Peter D. Turney; Michael L. Littman

2003-01-01

119

Elevation and orientation of external loads influence trunk neuromuscular response and spinal forces despite identical moments at the L5-S1 level.  

PubMed

A wide range of loading conditions involving external forces with varying magnitudes, orientations and locations are encountered in daily activities. Here we computed the effect on trunk biomechanics of changes in force location (two levels) and orientation (5 values) in 4 subjects in upright standing while maintaining identical external moment of 15 Nm, 30 Nm or 45 Nm at the L5-S1. Driven by measured kinematics and gravity/external loads, the finite element models yielded substantially different trunk neuromuscular response with moderate alterations (up to 24% under 45 Nm moment) in spinal loads as the load orientation varied. Under identical moments, compression and shear forces at the L5-S1 as well as forces in extensor thoracic muscles progressively decreased as orientation of external forces varied from downward gravity (90°) all the way to upward (-25°) orientation. In contrast, forces in local lumbar muscles followed reverse trends. Under larger horizontal forces at a lower elevation, lumbar muscles were much more active whereas extensor thoracic muscle forces were greater under smaller forces at a higher elevation. Despite such differences in activity pattern, the spinal forces remained nearly identical (<6% under 45 Nm moment). The published recorded surface EMG data of extensor muscles trend-wise agreed with computed local muscle forces as horizontal load elevation varied but were overall different from results in both local and global muscles when load orientation altered. Predictions demonstrate the marked effect of external force orientation and elevation on the trunk neuromuscular response and spinal forces and questions attempts to estimate spinal loads based only on consideration of moments at a spinal level. PMID:25065729

El Ouaaid, Z; Shirazi-Adl, A; Plamondon, A; Arjmand, N

2014-09-22

120

31 CFR 1024.320 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...duties” shall not include the disclosure of a SAR, or any information...in response to a request for disclosure of non-public information or...any mutual fund, that makes a voluntary disclosure of any possible violation...

2011-07-01

121

Induction logging device with a pair of mutually perpendicular bucking coils  

DOEpatents

An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

Koelle, Alfred R. (Los Alamos, NM); Landt, Jeremy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

122

Of Tournaments and Temptations: An Analysis of Managerial Incentives in the Mutual Fund Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test the hypothesis that, when their compensation is linked to relative performance, managers of investment portfolios likely to end up as 'losers' will manipulate fund risk differently than those managing portfolios likely to be 'winners.' An empirical investigation of the performance of 334 growth-oriented mutual funds during 1976 to 1991 demonstrates that mid-year losers tend to increase fund

Keith C Brown; W. V. Harlow; Laura T Starks

1996-01-01

123

An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological theory holds that competition and predation are the most important biotic forces affecting the composition of communities. Here, we expand this framework by demonstrating that mutualism can fundamentally alter community and food web structure. In large, replicated field plots, we manipulated the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum). The presence of the

Jennifer A. Rudgers; Keith Clay

2008-01-01

124

Age and Emotional Experience During Mutual Reminiscing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, the authors examined age differences in the emotional experiences involved in talking about past events. In Study 1, 129 adults in an experience-sampling study reported whether they were engaged in mutual reminiscing and their concurrent experience of positive and negative emotion. Their experiences of positive and negative emotion during mutual reminiscing were compared with emotional experience

Monisha Pasupathi; Laura L. Carstensen

2003-01-01

125

Anomalous mutual coupling between microstrip antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymptotic expansion of the microstrip Green's function is used to facilitate a study of mutual coupling between two printed antennas, and coupling versus element separation is presented for substrate parameters of practical interest. For certain substrate parameters, it is found that the magnitude of mutual coupling does not decay monotonically with increasing element separation. Instead, the magnitude exhibits a

P. R. Haddad; D. M. Pozar

1994-01-01

126

Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

2010-01-01

127

Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism  

PubMed Central

Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host–symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume–rhizobia and yucca–moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

Weyl, E. Glen; Frederickson, Megan E.; Yu, Douglas W.; Pierce, Naomi E.

2010-01-01

128

Entanglement detection using mutually unbiased measurements  

E-print Network

We study the entanglement detection by using mutually unbiased measurements and provide a quantum separability criterion that can be experimentally implemented for arbitrary $d$-dimensional bipartite systems. We show that this criterion is more effective than the criterion based on mutually unbiased bases. For isotropic states our criterion becomes both necessary and sufficient.

Bin Chen; Teng Ma; Shao-Ming Fei

2014-07-01

129

Entanglement detection using mutually unbiased measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study entanglement detection by using mutually unbiased measurements and provide a quantum separability criterion that can be experimentally implemented for arbitrary d-dimensional bipartite systems. We show that this criterion is more effective than the criterion based on mutually unbiased bases. For isotropic states our criterion becomes both necessary and sufficient.

Chen, Bin; Ma, Teng; Fei, Shao-Ming

2014-06-01

130

Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

2012-01-01

131

Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters  

PubMed Central

For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

2012-01-01

132

Mutual Orbits of Transneptunian Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the latest results from a program of high spatial resolution imaging to resolve the individual components of binary transneptunian objects. These observations use Hubble Space Telescope and also laser guide star adaptive optics systems on Keck and Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea. From relative astrometry over multiple epochs, we determine the mutual orbits of the components, and thus the total masses of the systems. Accurate masses anchor subsequent detailed investigations into the physical characteristics of these systems. For instance, dynamical masses enable computation of bulk densities for systems where the component sizes can be estimated from other measurements. Additionally, patterns in the ensemble characteristics of binary orbits offer clues to circumstances in the protoplanetary nebula when these systems formed, as well as carrying imprints of various subsequent dynamical evolution processes. The growing ensemble of known orbits shows intriguing patterns that can shed light on the evolution of this population of distant objects. This work has been supported by an NSF Planetary Astronomy grant and by several Hubble Space Telescope and NASA Keck data analysis grants. The research makes use of data from the Gemini Observatory obtained through NOAO survey program 11A-0017, from a large number of Hubble Space Telescope programs, and from several NASA Keck programs.

Grundy, William M.; Noll, K. S.; Roe, H. G.; Porter, S. B.; Trujillo, C. A.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.

2012-10-01

133

On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer ( ?-2 ?) with the CuK? radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments.

Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Zadam, M.

2008-01-01

134

Multidimensional steric effects for the XeI* (B, C) formations in the oriented Xe* (3P2,MJ=2)+oriented CF3I reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steric effects for the XeI* (B) and XeI* (C) formations in the oriented Xe* (3P2,MJ=2)+oriented CF3I reaction have been observed as a function of the mutual configuration between molecular orientation and atomic alignment in the collision frame. The mutual configuration exercises the significant influences on the stereoanisotropy for both the reactivity and the branching to the XeI* (B) and XeI* (C) channels.

Ohoyama, H.; Kubo, F.; Kasai, T.

2009-10-01

135

Multidimensional steric effects for the XeI* (B, C) formations in the oriented Xe* (3P(2),M(J) = 2) + oriented CF3I reaction.  

PubMed

Steric effects for the XeI(*) (B) and XeI(*) (C) formations in the oriented Xe(*) ((3)P(2),M(J)=2)+oriented CF(3)I reaction have been observed as a function of the mutual configuration between molecular orientation and atomic alignment in the collision frame. The mutual configuration exercises the significant influences on the stereoanisotropy for both the reactivity and the branching to the XeI(*) (B) and XeI(*) (C) channels. PMID:19814552

Ohoyama, H; Kubo, F; Kasai, T

2009-10-01

136

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2010-04-01

137

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2012-04-01

138

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2011-04-01

139

The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) onboard ROSETTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ROSETTA mission will reach the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and enable, for the first time, the in situ survey of a comet activity during along orbit. On board the ROSETTA orbiter, the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) is one of the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) that aims at monitoring the cometary plasma environment. MIP is a quadrupolar probe that measures the frequency response of the coupling impedance between two emitting and two receiving dipoles. The electron density and temperature are derived from the resonance peak and the interference pattern of the mutual impedance spectrum. We will describe this instrument and discuss the preliminary results obtained during the third ROSETTA Earth flyby to show its expected capabilities. The RPC switch ON for the post-hibernation recommissioning is planned at the end of March. The health status of the instrument will be discussed.

Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Béghin, Christian; Décréau, Pierrette; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Mazelle, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Schmidt, Walter; Winterhalter, Daniel; Aouad, Youcef; Lagoutte, Dominique; Vallières, Xavier

2014-05-01

140

Mutual Dependence for Secret Key Agreement  

E-print Network

A mutual dependence expression is established for the secret key agreement problem when all users are active. In certain source networks, the expression can be interpreted as certain notions of connectivity and network ...

Chan, Chung

141

76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

2011-06-22

142

76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to determine whether...

2011-04-12

143

Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense  

E-print Network

population partners is enhanced by the association. Mutual benefits are often the result of some emergent. Stolfo like viruses and bacteria to fungi and to flora and fauna. When considered within the digital

Yang, Junfeng

144

Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations\\u000a among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination\\u000a and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife\\u000a should be managed for human benefit and are more likely

Jerry J. Vaske; Maarten H. Jacobs; Mette T. J. Sijtsma

2011-01-01

145

Morningstar Ratings and Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the degree to which the well-known Morningstar rating system is a predictorof out-of-sample mutual fund performance, an important issue given that high-rated funds receivethe lion's share of investor cash inflow. We use a data set based on growth mutual funds that isfree from survivorship bias and adjusted for load fees to examine the predictive qualities of therating

Christopher R. Blake; Matthew R. Morey

1999-01-01

146

Orienting responses and vocalizations produced by microstimulation in the superior colliculus of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An echolocating bat actively controls the spatial acoustic information that drives its behavior by directing its head and ears and by modulating the spectro-temporal structure of its outgoing sonar emissions. The superior colliculus may function in the coordination of these orienting components of the bat's echolocation system. To test this hypothesis, chemical and electrical microstimulation experiments were carried out in

Doreen E. Valentine; Shiva R. Sinha; Cynthia F. Moss

2002-01-01

147

The cognitive, affective and behavioural responses of self-oriented perfectionists following successive failure on a muscular endurance task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that self-oriented perfectionism may be a positive dimension of perfectionism. However, Flett and Hewitt (2005, 2006) have argued that while this dimension may appear to have some desirable consequences, it renders those high in the disposition vulnerable to psychological and motivational difficulties when personal standards are not met. The present investigation sought to examine this assertion by

Andrew P. Hill; Howard K. Hall; Joan L. Duda; Paul R. Appleton

2011-01-01

148

Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2005-01-01

149

Mutual fund investment in emerging markets - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

International mutual funds are one of the main channels for capital flows to emerging economies. Although mutual funds have become important contributors to financial market integration, little is known about their investment allocation, and strategies. The authors provide an overview of mutual fund activity in emerging markets. First, they describe international mutual funds'relative size, asset allocation, and country allocation. Second,

Graciela L. Kaminsky; Richard K. Lyons; Sergio L. Schmukler

2001-01-01

150

The Effect of Mutualism on Community Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called Lotka-Volterra model, which is thought to be appropriate for the dynamics of mutualistic relationship, tells us that mutualism does not play positive roles for the stability of ecosystem. When the mutualistic interactions between species are stronger than a certain threshold, population sizes of species unlimitedly increases. In the present paper, in order to prevent the divergence, we apply a lattice model, and introduce extended Lotka-Volterra equations. The latter is the mean-field theory of the former. These models contain the property of competition due to space limitation. In both models population is usually stable, when the intensity of mutualism are strong. In the lattice model, spatial distribution of species naturally evolves into a specific pattern of either mutualism or competition, depending on environmental conditions.

Tainaka, K.; Yoshida, N.; Terazawa, N.; Nakagiri, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshimura, J.

2003-04-01

151

Uniformity and diversity of response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex: selectivity for orientation, direction of motion, and stimulus size from center to far periphery.  

PubMed

Although the primary visual cortex (V1) is one of the most extensively studied areas of the primate brain, very little is known about how the far periphery of visual space is represented in this area. We characterized the physiological response properties of V1 neurons in anaesthetized marmoset monkeys, using high-contrast drifting gratings. Comparisons were made between cells with receptive fields located in three regions of V1, defined by eccentricity: central (3-5°), near peripheral (5-15°), and far peripheral (>50°). We found that orientation selectivity of individual cells was similar from the center to the far periphery. Nonetheless, the proportion of orientation-selective neurons was higher in central visual field representation than in the peripheral representations. In addition, there were similar proportions of cells representing all orientations, with the exception of the representation of the far periphery, where we detected a bias favoring near-horizontal orientations. The proportions of direction-selective cells were similar throughout V1. When the center/surround organization of the receptive fields was tested with gratings with varying diameters, we found that the population of neurons that was suppressed by large gratings was smaller in the far periphery, although the strength of suppression in these cells tended to be stronger. In addition, the ratio between the diameters of the excitatory centers and suppressive surrounds was similar across the entire visual field. These results suggest that, superimposed on the broad uniformity of V1, there are subtle physiological differences, which indicate that spatial information is processed differently in the central versus far peripheral visual fields. PMID:24160942

Yu, Hsin-Hao; Rosa, Marcello G P

2014-01-01

152

Linking Work Design and Corporate Social Responsibility Through an Exploratory Model for the Interdependency of Work Characteristics and Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation  

E-print Network

characteristics that can result in desired organizational outcomes. Specifically, in current times, organizations are looking to develop socially responsible outcomes, otherwise referred as corporate social responsibility (CSR). A possible link between work design...

Kurup, Priya Darshini

2012-02-14

153

What is connected by mutual gaze?: user's behavior in video-mediated communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-mediated communication systems such as teleconferencing and videophone have become popular. As with face-to-face communication, non-verbal cues such as gaze, facial expression, head orientation and gestures in visual systems play an important role. Existing systems, however, do not support mutual gaze because the lay-out of the camera and monitor is restricted. Thus, conversations using visual systems differ from those in

Naoki Mukawa; Tsugumi Oka; Kumiko Arai; Masahide Yuasa

2005-01-01

154

Cues to Mutual Knowledge N. Bryan-Kinns, P. G. T. Healey, D. Papworth, and A. Vaduuva  

E-print Network

Cues to Mutual Knowledge N. Bryan-Kinns, P. G. T. Healey, D. Papworth, and A. Vaduuva IMC Group (Watts and Monk, 1998). We can analyze collaborative activities as distributed cognitive systems oriented collaboration, but also to support creative collaborations (Bryan-Kinns and Healey, 2007). Gutwin

Bryan-Kinns, Nick

155

Mutual Causation in Highway Construction and Economic  

E-print Network

Mutual Causation in Highway Construction and Economic Development Michael Iacono David Levinson Temporal relationships (e.g. highways, employment) State/province level Sectoral disaggregation County productivity #12;Present Study Builds on previous approaches More spatial detail (county-level) Highway

Minnesota, University of

156

Temporal Planning with Mutual Exclusion Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many planning domains require a richer no­ tion of time in which actions can overlap and have different durations. The key to fast per­ formance in classical planners (e.g., Graphplan, IPP, and Blackbox) has been the use of a dis­ junctive representation with powerful mutual exclusion reasoning. This paper presents TGP, a new algorithm for temporal planning. TGP operates by

David E. Smith; Daniel S. Weld

1999-01-01

157

Why constrain your mutual fund manager?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the form, adoption rates, and economic rationale for various mutual fund investment restrictions. A sample of U.S. domestic equity funds from 1994 to 2000 reveals systematic patterns in investment constraints, consistent with an optimal contracting equilibrium in the fund industry. Restrictions are more common when (i) boards contain a higher proportion of inside directors, (ii) the portfolio manager

Andres Almazan; Keith C. Brown; Murray Carlson; David A. Chapman

2004-01-01

158

Mutual coupling between log-periodic antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical techniques are used for the analysis of mutual coupling in arrays of log-periodic dipole antennas. The analysis is formulated in terms of impedance and admittance matrices for the dipole and transmission line networks. Approximations are made to allow the solution for moderately sized arrays to be practical with the existing generation of computers. Antenna patterns for the array are

R. Kyle

1970-01-01

159

On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample free of survivor bias, the author demonstrates that common factors in stock returns and investment expenses almost completely explain persistence in equity mutual funds' mean and risk-adjusted returns. Darryll Hendricks, Jayendu Patel, and Richard Zeckhauser's (1993) 'hot hands' result is mostly driven by the one-year momentum effect of Narasimham Jegadeesh and Sheridan Titman (1993), but individual funds

Mark M Carhart

1997-01-01

160

Costly Search and Mutual Fund Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the flows of funds into and out of equity mutual funds. Consumers base their fund purchase decisions on prior performance information, but do so asymmetrically, investing disproportionately more in funds that performed very well the prior period. Search costs seem to be an important determinant of fund flows. High performance appears to be most salient for funds

Erik R. Sirri; Peter Tufano

1998-01-01

161

Aggregate mutual fund flows and security returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I find that aggregate security returns are highly correlated with concurrent unexpected cash flows into mutual funds, but unrelated to concurrent expected flows. An unexpected inflow equal to 1% of total stock fund assets ($4.75 billion) corresponds to a 5.7% increase in the stock price index. Further, fund flows are correlated with the returns of the securities

Vincent A. Warther

1995-01-01

162

The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1992-01-01

163

Cognitive Dissonance and Mutual Fund Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence from questionnaire studies of mutual fundinvestors about recollections of past fund performance. We findthat investor memories exhibit a positive bias, consistent withcurrent psychological models. We find that the degree of bias isconditional upon previous investor choice, a phenomenon relatedto the well known theory of cognitive dissonance.

William N. Goetzmann; Nadav Peles

1995-01-01

164

Survivorship Bias and Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual fund attrition can create problems for a researcher because funds that disappear tend to do so due to poor performance. In this article we estimate the size of the bias by tracking all funds that existed at the end of 1976. When a fund merges we calculate the return, taking into account the merger terms. This allows a precise

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

1996-01-01

165

Biologically inspired mutual synchronization of manufacturing machines  

E-print Network

Biologically inspired mutual synchronization of manufacturing machines Erjen Lefeber,a,1 , Herman machine is developed. This control system is based on a synchronization mechanism of enzymes replacing of a single turnover cycle. In manufacturing, batch machines serve several jobs simultaneously, e.g., heat

Armbruster, Dieter

166

The Effect of Mutualism on Community Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called Lotka-Volterra model, which is thought to be appropriate for the dynamics of mutualistic relationship, tells us that mutualism does not play positive roles for the stability of ecosystem. When the mutualistic interactions between species are stronger than a certain threshold, population sizes of species unlimitedly increases. In the present paper, in order to prevent the divergence, we apply

K. Tainaka; N. Yoshida; N. Terazawa; N. Nakagiri; T. Hashimoto; Y. Takeuchi; J. Yoshimura

2003-01-01

167

Quantum entanglements and entangled mutual entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical structure of quantum entanglement is studied and classified from the point of view of quantum compound states. We show that t he classical-quantum correspondences such as encodings can be treated as dia gonal (d-) entanglements. The mutual entropy of the d-compound and entangled states lead to two different types of entropies for a given quantum state: t he

Viacheslav P Belavkin; Masanori Ohya

1998-01-01

168

Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

Sanders, Shirley

169

Human-robot mutual communication system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores a human-robot mutual communication system, which human users can either communicate with or use as an information terminal. In particular, we propose a robotic vision system, which changes its visual attention according to the environment. We also propose a deformation based facial expression system. Firstly, the system must have advanced abilities to express its intention by making

Toshio Fukuda; Daisuke Tachibana; Fumihito Arai; Jun Taguri; Masakazu Nakashima; Yasuhisa Hasegawa

2001-01-01

170

ARE TILLAGE AND SOIL QUALITY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE  

E-print Network

, feel, look, taste? Soil Quality Index MORE QUANTITATIVE Chemical · pH, O.M., nutrients Physical measurements Nutrient availability Structure and aggregate stability Water relationships Temperature SoilARE TILLAGE AND SOIL QUALITY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science

Balser, Teri C.

171

The Landscape of Host Transcriptional Response Programs Commonly Perturbed by Bacterial Pathogens: Towards Host-Oriented Broad-Spectrum Drug Targets  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of drug-resistant pathogen strains and new infectious agents pose major challenges to public health. A promising approach to combat these problems is to target the host’s genes or proteins, especially to discover targets that are effective against multiple pathogens, i.e., host-oriented broad-spectrum (HOBS) drug targets. An important first step in the discovery of such drug targets is the identification of host responses that are commonly perturbed by multiple pathogens. Results In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and the drug Simvastatin for hematopoietic pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Conclusions Using a combination of automated analysis of host-response gene expression data and manual study of the literature, we have been able to suggest host-oriented treatments for specific bacterial infections. The analyses and suggestions made in this study may be utilized to generate concrete hypothesis on which gene sets to probe further in the quest for HOBS drug targets for bacterial infections. All our results are available at the following supplementary website: http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/ murali/supplements/2013-kidane-plos-one PMID:23516507

Kidane, Yared H.; Lawrence, Christopher; Murali, T. M.

2013-01-01

172

Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

173

Subgroup 4 R2R3-MYBs in conifer trees: gene family expansion and contribution to the isoprenoid- and flavonoid-oriented responses.  

PubMed

Transcription factors play a fundamental role in plants by orchestrating temporal and spatial gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Several R2R3-MYB genes of the Arabidopsis subgroup 4 (Sg4) share a C-terminal EAR motif signature recently linked to stress response in angiosperm plants. It is reported here that nearly all Sg4 MYB genes in the conifer trees Picea glauca (white spruce) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) form a monophyletic clade (Sg4C) that expanded following the split of gymnosperm and angiosperm lineages. Deeper sequencing in P. glauca identified 10 distinct Sg4C sequences, indicating over-representation of Sg4 sequences compared with angiosperms such as Arabidopsis, Oryza, Vitis, and Populus. The Sg4C MYBs share the EAR motif core. Many of them had stress-responsive transcript profiles after wounding, jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, or exposure to cold in P. glauca and P. taeda, with MYB14 transcripts accumulating most strongly and rapidly. Functional characterization was initiated by expressing the P. taeda MYB14 (PtMYB14) gene in transgenic P. glauca plantlets with a tissue-preferential promoter (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) and a ubiquitous gene promoter (ubiquitin). Histological, metabolite, and transcript (microarray and targeted quantitative real-time PCR) analyses of PtMYB14 transgenics, coupled with mechanical wounding and JA application experiments on wild-type plantlets, allowed identification of PtMYB14 as a putative regulator of an isoprenoid-oriented response that leads to the accumulation of sesquiterpene in conifers. Data further suggested that PtMYB14 may contribute to a broad defence response implicating flavonoids. This study also addresses the potential involvement of closely related Sg4C sequences in stress responses and plant evolution. PMID:20732878

Bedon, Frank; Bomal, Claude; Caron, Sébastien; Levasseur, Caroline; Boyle, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

2010-09-01

174

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport  

E-print Network

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport Digital Equipment Corporation 14 Language. Random House, New York, second edition, 1987. 2 #12; [5] Leslie Lamport. A new solution] Leslie Lamport. The mutual exclusion prob

Rajamani, Sriram K.

175

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport  

E-print Network

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport Digital Equipment Corporation 14- glish Language. Random House, New York, second edition, 1987. 2 #12;[5] Leslie Lamport. A new solution] Leslie Lamport. The mutual exclusion problem--p

Rajamani, Sriram K.

176

How not to Rényi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information  

E-print Network

We study the relation between the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information and the quantum $\\alpha$-R\\'enyi divergences. We show how not to Renyi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information by considering the totally antisymmetric state.

Paul Erker

2014-04-14

177

Maximally Entangled States via Mutual Unbiased collective Bases  

E-print Network

Relative and center of mass cordinates are used to generalize mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and define mutually unbiased bases (MUCB). Maximal entangled states are given as product staes in the collective varibles

M. Revzen

2009-10-16

178

76 FR 20459 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift...Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number: 1550-0014...and soundness of the proposed stock conversion. The purpose of the information...

2011-04-12

179

76 FR 35084 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift...Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number: 1550-0014...and soundness of the proposed stock conversion. The purpose of the information...

2011-06-15

180

Mutual information on the fuzzy sphere  

E-print Network

We numerically calculate entanglement entropy and mutual information for a massive free scalar field on commutative (ordinary) and noncommutative (fuzzy) spheres. We regularize the theory on the commutative geometry by discretizing the polar coordinate, whereas the theory on the noncommutative geometry naturally posseses a finite and adjustable number of degrees of freedom. Our results show that the UV-divergent part of the entanglement entropy on a fuzzy sphere does not follow an area law, while the entanglement entropy on a commutative sphere does. Nonetheless, we find that mutual information (which is UV-finite) is the same in both theories. This suggests that nonlocality at short distances does not affect quantum correlations over large distances in a free field theory.

Philippe Sabella-Garnier

2014-09-24

181

Mutual information on the fuzzy sphere  

E-print Network

We numerically calculate entanglement entropy and mutual information for a massive free scalar field on commutative (ordinary) and noncommutative (fuzzy) spheres. We regularize the theory on the commutative geometry by discretizing the polar coordinate, whereas the theory on the noncommutative geometry naturally posseses a finite and adjustable number of degrees of freedom. Our results show that the UV-divergent part of the entanglement entropy on a fuzzy sphere does not follow an area law, while the entanglement entropy on a commutative sphere does. Nonetheless, we find that mutual information (which is UV-finite) is the same in both theories. This suggests that nonlocality at short distances does not affect quantum correlations over large distances in a free field theory.

Sabella-Garnier, Philippe

2014-01-01

182

Uncertainty relations based on mutually unbiased measurements  

E-print Network

We derive uncertainty relation inequalities according to the mutually unbiased measurements. Based on the calculation of the index of coincidence of probability distribution given by $d+1$ MUMs on any density operator $\\rho$ in $\\mathbb{C}^{d}$, both state-dependent and state-independent forms of lower entropic bounds are given. Furthermore, we formulate uncertainty relations for MUMs in terms of R\\'{e}nyi and Tsallis entropies.

Bin Chen; Shao-Ming Fei

2014-07-25

183

Termination of Mutually Recursive Functions Andreas Abel  

E-print Network

: v w. f@v f@w · Goal: w D. f@w · Proof by wellfounded induction. 3 #12;Slide 7 Mutually g" · Straightforward extension of predicate "terminates at": f@w : g f, v w. g@v F@w : f F. f@w · Goal: w D. F@w · Proof by wellfounded induction. · But: criterion to strict! Slide 8 Call Graphs

Abel, Andreas

184

Termination of Mutually Recursive Functions Andreas Abel  

E-print Network

: f@v + f@w + #15; Goal: 8w 2 D: f@w + #15; Proof by wellfounded induction. 3 #12; Slide 7 Mutually ! g \\f calls g" #15; Straightforward extension of predicate \\terminates at": f@w + :() 8g #22; f; v w: g@v + F@w + :() 8f 2 F : f@w + #15; Goal: 8w 2 D: F@w + #15; Proof by wellfounded induction. #15

Abel, Andreas

185

Employability - creating a contract of mutual investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employability can be a new form of job security. It involves a new mutual psychological contract where employers provide self-development for vulnerable employees (i.e. all employees) and employees take advantage of those opportunities. It is important that the self-enhancement is in tune with business goals. There needs to be an ongoing dialogue about the present and future needs of the

Michael Bagshaw

1997-01-01

186

Are ETFs Replacing Index Mutual Funds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flows to an Open-Ended Mutual Fund (OEF) can signiflcantly hamper its sub- sequent performance due to ?ow-induced trading costs. An Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) is designed not to have this cost and hence is advertised as the more e-cient in- dex vehicle. We develop an equilibrium model to investigate whether the ETF structure is indeed the dominant organizational form. We flnd

Ilan Guedj; Jennifer Huang

187

Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1993-01-01

188

Human eye iris recognition using the mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the new biometric electro-optical measuring method supported by PC for identification of a person by its eye iris image recognition. The aim of this approach is to show the ability of mutual information to such recognition. Couples of the comparative human iris images were geometrically aligned by maximization of their mutual information and subsequently recognized. The mutual

M. Dobes; L. Machala; P. Tichavsky; J. Pospisil

2004-01-01

189

Mutual Friction in Superfluid Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We discuss vortex-mediated mutual friction in the two-fluid model for superfluid neutron star cores. Our discussion is based on the general formalism developed by Carter and collaborators, which makes due distinction between transport velocity and momentum for each fluid. This is essential for an implementation of the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the flow of one fluid imparts momentum in the other and vice versa. The mutual friction follows by balancing the Magnus force that acts on the quantised neutron vortices with a resistive force due to the scattering of electrons off of the magnetic field with which each vortex core is endowed. We derive the form of the macroscopic mutual friction force which is relevant for a model based on smooth-averaging over a collection of vortices. We discuss the coefficients that enter the expression for this force, and the timescale on which the two interpenetrating fluids in a neutron star core are coupled. This discussion confirms that our new formulation accords well with previous work in this area.

N. Andersson; T. Sidery; G. L. Comer

2005-10-03

190

Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.  

PubMed

The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

2013-02-01

191

An investigation of pheromonal responses and odor orientation in the rotifers Asplanchna brightwelli (Gosse) and Brachionus calyciflorus (Pallas) (Rotatoria: Monogononta)  

E-print Network

- Brachionus female aggregation ph o e t t p naa ity a d Chi-sq e values 34 Experiment three - Brachionus response to ~hs la ch od pr b bility and Chi-sq a values 39 E pe i t fo r - f ale ~as la ch gg egati pheromone test probability and Chi-square... distr ibution f the ot ot fo A~el ch t th fi 1 run of each repetition. Experiment two. --Chi-square plot of the female Brachionus aggregation pheromone test. 31 33 Figure Page 10. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16, 17. Experiment two. --percentage...

Souchek, Russell Douglas

2012-06-07

192

[Sexual orientations].  

PubMed

In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

Schweizer, K; Brunner, F

2013-02-01

193

Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

2013-04-01

194

Prisoners or Volunteers: Developing Mutual Respect in the Elementary Science Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate how teacher educators might help preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course understand the need for mutual respect rather than coercion between pupil and teacher in an elementary classroom. An evaluation instrument was developed that consisted of a pre and post open-ended response to a…

Huber, Richard A.; And Others

195

Mutual diffusion of inclusions in freely-suspended smectic liquid crystal films  

E-print Network

We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size-dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. The observed dependence of the mutual mobilities on inclusion size is described well for arbitrary separations by a model that generalizes the Levine/MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix.

Zhiyuan Qi; Zoom Hoang Nguyen; Cheol Soo Park; Matthew A. Glaser; Joseph E. Maclennan; Noel A. Clark; Tatiana Kuriabova; Thomas R. Powers

2014-01-09

196

Orientation response of haematophagous bugs to CO2: the effect of the temporal structure of the stimulus.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is generally recognized as an important cue used by haematophagous insects to locate a food source. When the mammalian hosts of these insects breathe, they normally emanate considerable amounts of CO2 at discrete intervals, i.e. with each exhalation. In this work, we analysed the effect of temporally pulsing CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour of Triatoma infestans. We investigated the ability of T. infestans to follow continuous and intermittent air pulses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Hz that included different concentrations of CO2. We found that insects were attracted to pulsed airstreams of 0.25 and 0.5 Hz transporting 400 ppm of CO2 above the ambient levels and to continuous streams added with the same amount of CO2. On the other hand, insects walked away from streams pulsed at rates of 1 Hz regardless of the amount of CO2 they bear. The walking trajectories displayed by bugs to attractive CO2-pulsed streams were as rectilinear and accurate as those to CO2-continuous streams. Our results are discussed in the frame of the interaction between olfactory and mechanoreceptive inputs as affecting the behavioural response of bugs. PMID:16586085

Barrozo, R B; Lazzari, C R

2006-08-01

197

Dynamics of additional food provided predator-prey system with mutually interfering predators.  

PubMed

Use of additional/alternative food source to predators is one of the widely recognised practices in the field of biological control. Both theoretical and experimental works point out that quality and quantity of additional food play a vital role in the controllability of the pest. Theoretical studies carried out previously in this direction indicate that incorporating mutual interference between predators can stabilise the system. Experimental evidence also point out that mutual interference between predators can affect the outcome of the biological control programs. In this article dynamics of additional food provided predator-prey system in the presence of mutual interference between predators has been studied. The mutual interference between predators is modelled using Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response. The system analysis highlights the role of mutual interference on the success of biological control programs when predators are provided with additional food. The model results indicate the possibility of stable coexistence of predators with low prey population levels. This is in contrast to classical predator-prey models wherein this stable co-existence at low prey population levels is not possible. This study classifies the characteristics of biological control agents and additional food (of suitable quality and quantity), permitting the eco-managers to enhance the success rate of biological control programs. PMID:24018292

Prasad, B S R V; Banerjee, Malay; Srinivasu, P D N

2013-11-01

198

Response-oriented measuring inequalities in Tehran: second round of UrbanHealth Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2), concepts and framework  

PubMed Central

Background Current evidence consistently confirm inequalities in health status among socioeconomic none, gender,ethnicity, geographical area and other social determinants of health (SDH), which adversely influence health ofthe population. SDH refer to a wide range of factors not limited to social component, but also involve economic, cultural,educational, political or environmental problems. Measuring inequalities, improving daily living conditions, andtackling inequitable distribution of resources are highly recommended by international SDH commissioners in recentyears to ‘close the gaps within a generation’. To measure inequalities in socio-economic determinants and core healthindicators in Tehran, the second round of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2)was conducted in November 2011, within the main framework of WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe Centre). Method For ‘assessment’ part of the project, 65 indicators in six policy domains namely ‘physical and infrastructure’,‘human and social’, ‘economic’, ‘governance’, ‘health and nutrition’, and also ‘cultural’ domain were targetedeither through a population based survey or using routine system. Survey was conducted in a multistage random sampling,disaggregated to 22 districts and 368 neighborhoods of Tehran, where data of almost 35000 households(118000 individuals) were collected. For ‘response’ part of the project, widespread community based development(CBD) projects were organized in all 368 neighborhoods, which are being undertaken throughout 2013. Conclusion Following the first round of Urban HEART project in 2008, the second round was conducted to trackchanges over time, to institutionalize inequality assessment within the local government, to build up community participationin ‘assessment’ and ‘response’ parts of the project, and to implement appropriate and evidence-based actionsto reduce health inequalities within all neighborhoods of Tehran. PMID:24926187

Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Cherghian, Bahman; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Golmakani, Mehdi; Haeri-Mehrizi, Ali-Asghar; Hesari, Hossein; Kalantari, Naser; Kamali, Mohammad; Kordi, Ramin; Malek-Afzali, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Motevallian, Abbas; Noorbala, Ahmad; Raghfar, Hossein; Razzaghi, Emran

2013-01-01

199

Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables  

SciTech Connect

Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

Sheppeard, M. D. [Oxford University Computing Laboratory, Wolfson Building, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

200

Quantum reconstruction of the mutual coherence function  

E-print Network

Light is a major carrier of information about the world around us, from the microcosmos to the macrocosmos. The present methods of detection are sensitive both to robust features, such as intensity, or polarization, and to more subtle effects, such as correlations. Here we show how wave front detection, which allows for registering the direction of the incoming wave flux at a given position, can be used to reconstruct the mutual coherence function when combined with some techniques previously developed for quantum information processing.

Z. Hradil; J. Rehacek; L. L. Sanchez-Soto

2014-02-14

201

MIRA: mutual information-based reporter algorithm for metabolic networks  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Discovering the transcriptional regulatory architecture of the metabolism has been an important topic to understand the implications of transcriptional fluctuations on metabolism. The reporter algorithm (RA) was proposed to determine the hot spots in metabolic networks, around which transcriptional regulation is focused owing to a disease or a genetic perturbation. Using a z-score-based scoring scheme, RA calculates the average statistical change in the expression levels of genes that are neighbors to a target metabolite in the metabolic network. The RA approach has been used in numerous studies to analyze cellular responses to the downstream genetic changes. In this article, we propose a mutual information-based multivariate reporter algorithm (MIRA) with the goal of eliminating the following problems in detecting reporter metabolites: (i) conventional statistical methods suffer from small sample sizes, (ii) as z-score ranges from minus to plus infinity, calculating average scores can lead to canceling out opposite effects and (iii) analyzing genes one by one, then aggregating results can lead to information loss. MIRA is a multivariate and combinatorial algorithm that calculates the aggregate transcriptional response around a metabolite using mutual information. We show that MIRA’s results are biologically sound, empirically significant and more reliable than RA. Results: We apply MIRA to gene expression analysis of six knockout strains of Escherichia coli and show that MIRA captures the underlying metabolic dynamics of the switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. We also apply MIRA to an Autism Spectrum Disorder gene expression dataset. Results indicate that MIRA reports metabolites that highly overlap with recently found metabolic biomarkers in the autism literature. Overall, MIRA is a promising algorithm for detecting metabolic drug targets and understanding the relation between gene expression and metabolic activity. Availability and implementation: The code is implemented in C# language using .NET framework. Project is available upon request. Contact: cicek@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online PMID:24931981

Cicek, A. Ercument; Roeder, Kathryn; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin

2014-01-01

202

Industrial Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

203

Immigration Orientation  

E-print Network

Immigration Orientation: Maintaining Your F-1 Status International Services University of South Florida #12;F-1 Immigration Documents · Passport Your passport must be valid at least 6 months;F-1 Immigration Documents · Visa Stamp This is a travel document. It allows travel into the US

Meyers, Steven D.

204

Immigration Orientation  

E-print Network

Immigration Orientation: Maintaining Your J-1 Status International Services International Affairs University of South Florida #12;J-1 Immigration Documents · Passport Your passport must be valid at least 6 of status to J-1. #12;J-1 Immigration Documents · Visa Stamp This is a travel document. It allows travel

Meyers, Steven D.

205

ORIENTATION APPLICATION  

E-print Network

a SOL include opportunities to build and improve your leadership abilities, self- confidence Leader? Welcome new students and family members to UC Lead discussion groups with incoming students and family members Assist in the preparation, organization, and presentation of orientation activities

Papautsky, Ian

206

Can the evolution of plant defense lead to plant-herbivore mutualism?  

PubMed

Moderate rates of herbivory can enhance primary production. This hypothesis has led to a controversy as to whether such positive effects can result in mutualistic interactions between plants and herbivores. We present a model for the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore systems to address this question. In this model, herbivores have a positive indirect effect on plants through recycling of a limiting nutrient. Plants can evolve but are constrained by a trade-off between growth and antiherbivore defense. Although evolution generally does not lead to optimal plant performance, our evolutionary analysis shows that, under certain conditions, the plant-herbivore interaction can be considered mutualistic. This requires in particular that herbivores efficiently recycle nutrients and that plant reproduction be positively correlated with primary production. We emphasize that two different definitions of mutualism need to be distinguished. A first ecological definition of mutualism is based on the short-term response of plants to herbivore removal, whereas a second evolutionary definition rests on the long-term response of plants to herbivore removal, allowing plants to adapt to the absence of herbivores. The conditions for an evolutionary mutualism are more stringent than those for an ecological mutualism. A particularly counterintuitive result is that higher herbivore recycling efficiency results both in increased plant benefits and in the evolution of increased plant defense. Thus, antagonistic evolution occurs within a mutualistic interaction. PMID:18707340

de Mazancourt, C; Loreau, M; Dieckmann, U

2001-08-01

207

Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles  

PubMed Central

There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant step towards understanding the coevolution and population dynamics of mutualistic interactions. PMID:23166478

Boza, Gergely; Kun, Adam; Scheuring, Istvan; Dieckmann, Ulf

2012-01-01

208

Synchronization of Mutually Versus Unidirectionally Coupled Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers  

E-print Network

Synchronization dynamics of mutually coupled chaotic semiconductor lasers are investigated experimentally and compared to identical synchronization of unidirectionally coupled lasers. Mutual coupling shows high quality synchronization in a broad range of self-feedback and coupling strengths. It is found to be tolerant to significant parameter mismatch which for unidirectional coupling would result in loss of synchronization. The advantages of mutual coupling are emphasized in light of its potential use in chaos communications.

Noam Gross; Wolfgang Kinzel; Ido Kanter; Michael Rosenbluh; Lev Khaykovich

2006-04-26

209

Managers, Investors, and Crises: Mutual Fund Strategies in Emerging Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

July 2000This study of an important class of investors-U.S. mutual funds-finds that mutual funds do engage in momentum trading (buying winners and selling losers). They also engage in contagion trading strategies (selling assets from one country when asset prices fall in another).Kaminsky, Lyons, and Schmukler address the trading strategies of mutual funds in emerging markets. The data set they develop

Sergio Schmukler; Richard K. Lyons

1999-01-01

210

Concurrent behavior: Are the interpretations mutually exclusive?  

PubMed Central

The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure. PMID:22478568

Lyon, David O.

1982-01-01

211

Quantum entanglements and entangled mutual entropy  

E-print Network

The mathematical structure of quantum entanglement is studied and classified from the point of view of quantum compound states. We show that theclassical-quantum correspondences such as encodings can be treated as diagonal (d-) entanglements. The mutual entropy of the d-compound and entangled states lead to two different types of entropies for a given quantum state: the von Neumann entropy, which is achieved as the supremum of the information over all d-entanglements, and the dimensional entropy, which is achieved at the standard entanglement, the true quantum entanglement, coinciding with a d-entanglement only in the case of pure marginal states. The q-capacity of a quantum noiseless channel, defined as the supremum over all entanglements, is given by the logarithm of the dimensionality of the input algebra. It doubles the classical capacity, achieved as the supremum over all d-entanglements (encodings), which is bounded by the logarithm of the dimensionality of a maximal Abelian subalgebra.

Belavkin, V P; Belavkin, Viacheslav P; Ohya, Masanori

1998-01-01

212

Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

213

Side-band mutual interactions in the magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

Man-made whistler-mode waves (WM) in the magnetosphere can interact with other WM waves at nearby frequencies. This interaction must involve nonlinear processes because linear mechanisms cannot explain energy exchange between waves at different frequencies. Using the Siple VLF transmitter, an experiment was performed to determine the critical frequency separation within which wave-wave interaction (WWI) occurs. Using frequency-shift-keying (FSK) modulation techniques, several constant-frequency waves (side bands) were generated simultaneously. Preliminary results show that the energetic electrons in the magnetosphere can interact only with side bands generated by signals with short modulation periods, indicating that electrons have a finite 'memory time' during interaction with the waves. Using the value of this memory time, the length of the electron interaction region is estimated to lie between 2000 and 4000 km. It is also found that side bands with less than 50-Hz spacing mutually interact. Suppression and energy coupling among the side bands are often observed. The experiments in general reveal the 50Hz is the order of magnitude of the critical frequency range within which side bands interact. Mutual interaction between two side bands is explained by the overlap of the ranges of the parallel velocity (V/sub double-prime/) of electrons which the side bands can organize. The electrons in the overlap can exchange energy with both side bands and thus are responsible for the interaction. By estimating the size of the perturbed V/sub double-prime/ range the wave intensity is estimated to be of the order of 2.5--10 m..gamma.., in good agreement with satellite measurements.

Chang, D.C.D.; Helliwell, R.A.; Bell, T.F.

1980-04-01

214

Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

Bailey, M. C.

1996-01-01

215

Dynamic Response of Stereoblock Elastomeric Polypropylene Studied by Rheo-Optics and X-ray Scattering: 2. Orthogonally Oriented Crystalline Chains  

SciTech Connect

A combination of tensile stress, rheo-optical birefringence, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was used to probe the dynamic response of the low-tacticity ether-soluble (ES) fraction of elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from metallocene 2-arylindene hafnium catalyst. The ES fraction has isotactic pentad distribution [mmmm] = 21% and a very low amount of crystallinity ({le} 2% by differential scanning calorimetry and WAXS). In tensile stretching and step-strain shearing, ES exhibits unusual deformation behavior of crystalline chains preferentially oriented orthogonal relative to the deformation axis. Under deformation, WAXS shows arcing along the meridian axis at a scattering angle 2{theta} = 16.0{sup o} (d = 0.551 {+-} 0.002 nm) which coincides with one of the characteristic reflections of the {beta}-form; but the higher order reflection for the {beta}-form at 2{theta} = 21.3{sup o} is not observed. The meridional arcing, which signifies crystallization of the low-tacticity fraction of ePP, is also observed when ES is blended with higher tacticity fractions of ePP. The meridional arcing, however, is observed at 2{theta} = 14.0{sup o} corresponding to (110) reflection of the {alpha}-form, instead of at 2{theta} = 16.0{sup o} for the neat ES. The crystallization in the {alpha}-form offers evidence of co-crystallization of the ES fraction with the higher-tacticity components in the same crystalline form as the host matrix. We believe that the co-crystallization occurs through an epitaxial growth in the ac-faces of the {alpha}-form.

Pople, John A

2002-08-06

216

Cyclic deformation behavior of Cu-30 wt% Zn single crystals oriented for single slip. 1: Cyclic deformation response and slip band behavior  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic deformation behavior of Cu-30% Zn single crystals oriented for single slip was studied at constant plastic shear strain amplitudes ({gamma}{sub pi}) in the range of 3.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}--6.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} in order to understand systematically the fundamental fatigue behavior of low stacking fault energy materials. Results indicate that the cyclic hardening behavior strongly depends on the strain amplitude applied. For low strain amplitudes ({gamma}{sub pi} < 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}), cyclic saturation occurred after an initial cyclic hardening stage, but for high strain amplitudes ({gamma}{sub pi} {ge} 6.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}) saturation could not be reached until fatigue failure. The initial cyclic hardening rate ({theta}{sub 0.2}) was found to decrease with increase in the applied strain amplitude. Slip bands were found to behave very similarly to Jueders band appearance at the beginning as well as in the middle stage of cyclic deformation. Particularly, the similarity of the cyclic hardening behavior at low and high strain amplitudes to the work hardening response in stages I and II of tensile deformation of the same alloy has been pointed out. Cyclic stress was further decomposed into two terms, the effective stress and the internal stress, and both were found to increase continuously with cyclic deformation. It has been demonstrated that the activities of secondary slips played an important role in the continuous cyclic hardening at high {gamma}{sub pi}. A comparison of the present result with previous relevant work on both wavy and planar slip materials has been attempted. The transition of wavy slip mode to planar slip mode of Cu-Al and Cu-Zn alloys has been discussed in terms of the electron-atom ratio and the critical value of the ratio for such a transition is found to be 1.18--1.19 for both alloys.

Wang, Z.; Gong, B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Wang, Z.G. [Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. for Fatigue and Fracture] [Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. for Fatigue and Fracture

1998-12-11

217

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

218

Symmetrical Communications: Developing Mutual Understanding and Consensus in Course Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of symmetrical communication and its application in course teams at Deakin University, Australia, are considered. Symmetry in communications is evident in groups characterized by mutual recognition by members of one another as persons accepted and appreciated in their common striving for mutual understanding and consensus. The technique…

Kemmis, Stephen

219

Social Climate Comparison of Mutual Help and Psychotherapy Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…

Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian

220

SIMULATION OF MUTUALLY COUPLED OSCILLATORS USING NONLINEAR PHASE MACROMODELS  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF MUTUALLY COUPLED OSCILLATORS USING NONLINEAR PHASE MACROMODELS DAVIT HARUTYUNYAN oscillators. These models can be used to accurately predict the behavior of individual and mutually cou- pled oscillators under perturbation at a lower cost than full circuit simulations. The approach is illustrated

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

221

Mutual Rényi information for two disjoint compound systems  

E-print Network

The leading term for the mutual R\\'enyi information is studied for two widely separated identical compound systems for free scalar fields in $(d+1)$ Euclidean space. The compound system consists of two identical spheres in contact, with a result consistent with a universal form for the leading term for the mutual R\\'enyi information.

Howard J. Schnitzer

2014-06-04

222

Mutual information of words and pictures Kobus Barnard  

E-print Network

Mutual information of words and pictures Kobus Barnard Department of Computer Science University@cs.uec.ac.jp Abstract-- We quantify the mutual information between words and images or their components in the context report results of using information theoretic measures to determine whether or not a word is "visual

Yanai, Keiji

223

Returns from Investing in Equity Mutual Funds 1971 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies suggest that equity mutual fund managers achieve superior returns and that considerable persistence in performance exists. This study utilizes a unique data set including returns from all equity mutual funds existing each year. These data enables the author to more precisely examine performance and the extent of survivorship bias. In the aggregate, funds have underperformed benchmark portfolios

Burton G Malkiel

1995-01-01

224

Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

1989-01-01

225

Analysis of Functional MRI Data Using Mutual Information ?  

E-print Network

of an experiment. Mutual information for fMRI analysis is employed because it has been shown to be robust the relationship between the two waveforms. Mutual information is appropriate for fMRI analysis because it has been activity. The speci c area of fMRI analysis we address in this paper is the identi - cation of those voxels

Fisher III, John

226

Mutual Impedance between Vertical Antennas of Unequal Heights  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression is derived for the resistive and reactive components of the mutual impedance between vertical antennas of unequal heights, located above a perfectly conducting ground. Mutual-impedance curves for typical combinations of antenna heights are plotted for spacings between 0.1 and 1.0 wavelength.

C. R. Cox

1947-01-01

227

Mutualism, Parasitism, and Evolutionary Adaptation Richard A. Watson1  

E-print Network

adaptation. Previous work has illustrated how the formation of mutualist groups can guide genetic variation, formerly mutualistic, was critical in enabling the independence of the first. We offer a biological example, is often taken to mean mutually exclusive competition. Accordingly, mutually beneficial relationships

Pollack, Jordan B.

228

Complex degree of mutual polarization for biological tissue coherent images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article is directed to study of statistics of the complex degree of mutual polarization of biological tissues speckle-images. The totality of diagnostic criteria (skewness and kurtosis of two-dimensional distributions of complex degree of mutual polarization) of pathological changes of muscular, skin derma and bone tissues is defined.

Ushenko, Ye. G.; Tomka, Yu. Y.

2006-05-01

229

Mutual aid groups in psychiatry and substance misuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mutuality is a feature of many ‘self-help groups’ for people with mental health and\\/or substance misuse needs. These groups are diverse in terms of membership, aims, organisation and resources. Collectively, in terms of the pathways for seeking help, support, social capital or simply validation as people, mutual aid groups figure at some time in the life story of many

Alex Baldacchino; Woody Caan; Carol Munn-Giddings

2008-01-01

230

Internet and the lifeworld: updating Schutz's theory of mutual knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to understand the formation of mutual knowledge in the online world using the phenomenological framework that Alfred Schutz and his associates constructed for the examination of the lifeworld. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study consists of three parts: reviewing Schutz's theory of the constitution of intersubjectivity in the lifeworld; extending Schutz's analysis to the acquisition of mutual

Shanyang Zhao

2007-01-01

231

Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion  

E-print Network

Mutualistic interactions benefit both partners, promoting coexistence and genetic diversity. Spatial structure can promote cooperation, but spatial expansions may also make it hard for mutualistic partners to stay together, since genetic drift at the expansion front creates regions of low genetic and species diversity. To explore the antagonism between mutualism and genetic drift, we grew cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae on agar surfaces as a model for mutualists undergoing spatial expansions. By supplying varying amounts of the exchanged nutrients, we tuned strength and symmetry of the mutualistic interaction. Strong mutualism suppresses genetic demixing during spatial expansions and thereby maintains diversity, but weak or asymmetric mutualism is overwhelmed by genetic drift even when mutualism is still beneficial, slowing growth and reducing diversity. Theoretical modeling using experimentally measured parameters predicts the size of demixed regions and how strong mutualism must be ...

Muller, Melanie JI; Nelson, David R; Murray, Andrew W

2014-01-01

232

Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits  

E-print Network

Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system's state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward for equal-sized subsystems, however their minimisation displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides: a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with respect to individual marginal entropies, and the presence of a "see-saw effect" for these entropies forces a finer analysis to determine the optimal tableau.

Sania Jevtic; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

2011-12-14

233

Quantum mutual information along unitary orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyze the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system's state with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimization problem for the smallest system of two qubits and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward for equal-sized subsystems, however their minimization displays nontrivial structures. We characterize a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides: a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular “Young tableau” form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with respect to individual marginal entropies, and the presence of a “see-saw effect” for these entropies forces a finer analysis to determine the optimal tableau.

Jevtic, Sania; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

2012-05-01

234

Entanglement, Quantum Entropy and Mutual Information  

E-print Network

The operational structure of quantum couplings and entanglements is studied and classified for semifinite von Neumann algebras. We show that the classical-quantum correspondences such as quantum encodings can be treated as diagonal semi-classical (d-) couplings, and the entanglements characterized by truly quantum (q-) couplings, can be regarded as truly quantum encodings. The relative entropy of the d-compound and entangled states leads to two different types of entropy for a given quantum state: the von Neumann entropy, which is achieved as the maximum of mutual information over all d-entanglements, and the dimensional entropy, which is achieved at the standard entanglement -- true quantum entanglement, coinciding with a d-entanglement only in the case of pure marginal states. The d- and q- information of a quantum noisy channel are respectively defined via the input d- and q- encodings, and the q-capacity of a quantum noiseless channel is found as the logarithm of the dimensionality of the input algebra. The quantum capacity may double the classical capacity, achieved as the supremum over all d-couplings, or encodings, bounded by the logarithm of the dimensionality of a maximal Abelian subalgebra.

V. P. Belavkin; M. Ohya

2002-08-15

235

Quantum entanglements and entangled mutual entropy  

E-print Network

The mathematical structure of quantum entanglement is studied and classified from the point of view of quantum compound states. We show that t he classical-quantum correspondences such as encodings can be treated as dia gonal (d-) entanglements. The mutual entropy of the d-compound and entangled states lead to two different types of entropies for a given quantum state: t he von Neumann entropy, which is achieved as the supremum of the information over all d-entanglements, and the dimensional entropy, which is achieved at the standard entanglement, the true quantum entanglement, coinciding with a d-entanglement only in the case of pure marginal states. The q-capacity of a quantum noiseless channel, defined as the supremum over all entanglements, i s given by the logarithm of the dimensionality of the input algebra. It doub les the classical capacity, achieved as the supremum over all d-entanglement s (encodings), which is bounded by the logarithm of the dimensionality of a maximal Abelian subalgebra.

Viacheslav P Belavkin; Masanori Ohya

1998-12-30

236

Asymmetrical representation of body orientation.  

PubMed

The perceived orientation of objects, gravity, and the body are biased to the left. Whether this leftward bias is attributable to biases in sensing or processing vestibular, visual, and body sense cues has never been assessed directly. The orientation in which characters are most easily recognized--the perceived upright (PU)--can be well predicted from a weighted vector sum of these sensory cues. A simple form of this model assumes that the directions of the contributing inputs are coded accurately and as a consequence participants tilted left- or right-side-down relative to gravity should exhibit mirror symmetric patterns of responses. If a left/right asymmetry were present then varying these sensory cues could be used to assess in which sensory modality or modalities a PU bias may have arisen. Participants completed the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) while manipulating body posture and visual orientation cues relative to gravity. The response patterns showed systematic differences depending on which side they were tilted. An asymmetry of the PU was found to be best modeled by adding a leftward bias of 5.6° to the perceived orientation of the body relative to its actual orientation relative to the head. The asymmetry in the effect of body orientation is reminiscent of the body-defined left-leaning asymmetry in the perceived direction of light coming from above and reports that people tend to adopt a right-leaning posture. PMID:23378132

Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Jenkin, Heather L; Dyde, Richard T; Jenkin, Michael R; Harris, Laurence R

2013-01-01

237

Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds),  

E-print Network

Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds), Exobiology: Matter Publishers, The Netherlands, 1998. MUTUALLY CATALYTIC AMPHIPHILES: SIMULATED CHEMICAL EVOLUTION in which the mutually catalytic molecules are spontaneously aggregating amphiphiles. When such amphiphiles

Segrè, Daniel

238

12 CFR 575.7 - Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acquired by the mutual holding company and is not a resulting association...subsidiary of a mutual holding company to persons other than the association's mutual holding company, consistent with any other applicable laws and regulations. (6)...

2010-01-01

239

12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its mutual holding company parent or to members of the mutual holding company parent. (4) The proposed price...company's mutual holding company parent at the close of the proposed...offering or direct community marketing, shall be completed as...

2012-01-01

240

12 CFR 575.7 - Issuances of stock by savings association subsidiaries of mutual holding companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its mutual holding company parent or to members of the mutual holding company parent. (4) The proposed price...association's mutual holding company parent at the close of the proposed...offering or direct community marketing, shall be completed as...

2012-01-01

241

Discrete phase-space approach to mutually orthogonal Latin squares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show there is a natural connection between Latin squares and commutative sets of monomials defining geometric structures in finite phase-space of prime power dimensions. A complete set of such monomials defines a mutually unbiased basis (MUB) and may be associated with a complete set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS). We translate some possible operations on the monomial sets into isomorphisms of Latin squares, and find a general form of permutations that map between Latin squares corresponding to unitarily equivalent mutually unbiased sets.

Gaeta, Mario; Di Matteo, Olivia; Klimov, Andrei B.; de Guise, Hubert

2014-10-01

242

Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics  

E-print Network

After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.

Masanori Ohya

2004-06-30

243

Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture  

E-print Network

We relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i. e., mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator, in power-of-two dimensions to the problem of finding a symmetric matrix over F_2 with an irreducible characteristic polynomial that has a given Fibonacci index. For dimensions of the form 2^(2^k) we present a solution that shows an analogy to an open conjecture of Wiedemann in finite field theory. Finally, we discuss the equivalence of mutually unbiased bases.

Ulrich Seyfarth; Kedar S. Ranade

2011-04-01

244

EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

2008-11-01

245

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

246

Evaluating the Mutual Impacts between Global Warming and Industry Economy in Nanjing Based on Structural VAR Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, few researches consider about the dynamic mutual influences between meteorological factor and economic system. So the impulse response function (IRF) and variance decomposition method based on SVAR model are adopted to make a try in this paper. First, multi-variable SVAR models are built with 3 variables (i.e., temperature, industry production value and GDP), and 3 restrictions are taken to

Ning Sun; Lianshui Li

2008-01-01

247

Mutual diffusion dynamics as matter transfer mechanism in inorganic nanoparticles dispersed photopolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual diffusion dynamics as matter transfer mechanism is proposed to describe the nanoparticles distribution and the grating formation in inorganic nanoparticles dispersed photopolymer. The chemical potentials as driving forces of diffusions are characterized to deduce the theoretical model, and the corresponding dynamics processes are described by the mutual diffusion model with nonlocal response. By introducing the Stokes-Einstein relation, nanoparticles redistribution and grating formation are discussed under various conditions, including nanoparticles size, nanoparticles concentration, viscosity of polymer matrix, chain length of polymer, etc. The theoretical results indicate the best nanoparticles dispersion takes place at low viscosity of polymer resin, low recording intensity, and small nanoparticle size. In experiment, the temporal evolutions of diffraction efficiency are measured in SiO2 nanoparticle dispersed PQ-PMMA photopolymers. Experimental results with various nanoparticle concentrations and recording conditions finally provide several evidences for the predictions of the theoretical model.

Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Wang, Weibo; Geng, Yaohui; Yang, Li

2014-11-01

248

Explosive welding: Mixing of metals without mutual solubility (iron-silver)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results obtained for joints of dissimilar metals, iron-silver (earlier, copper-tantalum), which form immiscible liquid suspensions, explain why they are mixed in explosive welding. Inhomogeneities of the wavy interface, such as protrusions and zones of localized melting, were observed. The effect of granulating fragmentation, which is responsible for crushing initial materials into particles, was understood as one of the most efficient ways to dissipate the supplied energy. It is shown that, in the case of joints of metals without mutual solubility, zones of localized melting represent colloidal solutions, which form either emulsions or suspensions. At solidification, the emulsion represents a hazard for joint stability due to possible separation; on the contrary, suspension can enable the dispersion strengthening of the joint. The results can be used in the development of new metal joints without mutual solubility.

Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Volkova, A. Yu.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.

2012-11-01

249

12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual...elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of...law selected for its corporate governance procedures, and shall...

2010-01-01

250

Studies of exon scrambling and mutually exclusive alternative splicing  

E-print Network

The goals of this thesis work were to study two special alternative splicing events: exon scrambling at the RNA splicing level and mutually exclusive alternative splicing (MEAS) by computational and experimental methods. ...

Kong, Rong, 1979-

2005-01-01

251

Information-Disturbance Theorem for Mutually Unbiased Observables  

E-print Network

We derive a novel version of information-disturbance theorems for mutually unbiased observables. We show that the information gain by Eve inevitably makes the outcomes by Bob in the conjugate basis not only erroneous but random.

Takayuki Miyadera; Hideki Imai

2006-02-05

252

Predictive Mutual Cuts in Graphs: Learning in Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

Predictive Mutual Cuts in Graphs: Learning in Bioinformatics K. Pelckmans, J.A.K. Suykens, and B a case-study in bioinformatics. Learning tasks in bioinformatics are often characterized by considerable

253

Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information  

E-print Network

Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information Jiang Li, Sergey based fingerprint matching algorithms are wildly used in fingerprint identification and verification the matching rate. The overall minutiae distribution pattern between two fingerprints is represented

Corso, Jason J.

254

7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE...Mutual interest exists when both parties benefit in the same qualitative way from the objectives of the agreement. If one party to...

2010-01-01

255

Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A moment method solution to the problem of input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antenna elements is presented. The formulation uses the grounded dielectric slab Green's function to account rigorously for the presence of the substrate and surface waves. Both entire basis (EB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) expansion modes are used, and their relative advantages are noted. Calculations of input impedance and mutual coupling are compared with measured data and other calculations.

Pozar, D. M.

1982-01-01

256

Mutual Grooming in Human Dyadic Relationships: An Ethological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its widespread practice among primates writ large, social scientists have given mutual grooming among humans little\\u000a attention. This research provides an important first step in describing mutual grooming among humans. A scale was developed\\u000a to measure self-reported giving and receiving of grooming. In Study 1, 184 female and 94 male participants first indicated\\u000a their closest emotional relationship (for example,

Holly Nelson; Glenn Geher

2007-01-01

257

Evolutionary stability of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTERSPECIFIC mutualisms inherently possess a conflict of interests between the interacting species in that fitness increases of one species occur at the expense of the other. This holds for mutualisms as diverse as plant associations with mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen-fixing bacteria, animals and endosymbionts, and obligate plant-pollinator associations1-6. Prevailing models of interspecific cooperation predict that mutualistic interactions are evolutionary stable

Olle Pellmyr; Chad J. Huth

1994-01-01

258

Mutualism in a community context: the positive feedback between an ant–aphid mutualism and a gall-making midge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mutualisms are widespread and often described in natural history accounts, their ecological influences on other community\\u000a members remain largely unexplored. Many of these influences are likely a result of indirect effects. In this field study,\\u000a we investigated the indirect effects of an ant–aphid mutualism on the abundance, survival rates and parasitism rates of a\\u000a co-occurring herbivore. Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides (Diptera:

Amy M. Savage; Merrill A. Peterson

2007-01-01

259

X-ray topography characterization of the structural response of Ge(Ga) crystals to variation in gravity force vector orientation during crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of crystallization process disturbances connected with the variation of the crystallization front orientation\\u000a relative to the gravity force vector (characteristic for crystal growth under conditions of microgravity onboard space vehicles)\\u000a on the real crystal structure has been investigated by plane-wave X-ray topography. It has been found that these disturbances\\u000a can result in a local disorder in the impurity

I. A. Prokhorov; B. G. Zakharov; V. S. Sidorov; V. I. Strelov

2009-01-01

260

Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism  

SciTech Connect

Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this has been the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of prior interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80percent faster and were up to 30percent more productive (biomass yield per mole substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis but not D. vulgaris. Together, these results show that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution.

Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

2009-12-01

261

Cyclic Strain Resistance, Stress Response, Fatigue Life, and Fracture Behavior of High Strength Low Alloy Steel 300 M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this technical manuscript is a record of the specific role of microstructure and test specimen orientation on cyclic stress response, cyclic strain resistance, and cyclic stress versus strain response, deformation and fracture behavior of alloy steel 300 M. The cyclic strain amplitude-controlled fatigue properties of this ultra-high strength alloy steel revealed a linear trend for the variation of log elastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure, and log plastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure for both longitudinal and transverse orientations. Test specimens of the longitudinal orientation showed only a marginal improvement over the transverse orientation at equivalent values of plastic strain amplitude. Cyclic stress response revealed a combination of initial hardening for the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for a large portion of fatigue life before culminating in rapid softening prior to catastrophic failure by fracture. Fracture characteristics of test specimens of this alloy steel were different at both the macroscopic and fine microscopic levels over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. Both macroscopic and fine microscopic observations revealed fracture to be a combination of both brittle and ductile mechanisms. The underlying mechanisms governing stress response, deformation characteristics, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the competing and mutually interactive influences of test specimen orientation, intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents, cyclic strain amplitude, and response stress.

Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Tammana, Deepthi; Poorgangi, Behrang; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

2014-05-01

262

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

Haire, Timothy C.

2010-01-01

263

Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.  

PubMed

Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described. PMID:22398886

Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

2012-03-01

264

Equitability, mutual information, and the maximal information coefficient  

PubMed Central

How should one quantify the strength of association between two random variables without bias for relationships of a specific form? Despite its conceptual simplicity, this notion of statistical “equitability” has yet to receive a definitive mathematical formalization. Here we argue that equitability is properly formalized by a self-consistency condition closely related to Data Processing Inequality. Mutual information, a fundamental quantity in information theory, is shown to satisfy this equitability criterion. These findings are at odds with the recent work of Reshef et al. [Reshef DN, et al. (2011) Science 334(6062):1518–1524], which proposed an alternative definition of equitability and introduced a new statistic, the “maximal information coefficient” (MIC), said to satisfy equitability in contradistinction to mutual information. These conclusions, however, were supported only with limited simulation evidence, not with mathematical arguments. Upon revisiting these claims, we prove that the mathematical definition of equitability proposed by Reshef et al. cannot be satisfied by any (nontrivial) dependence measure. We also identify artifacts in the reported simulation evidence. When these artifacts are removed, estimates of mutual information are found to be more equitable than estimates of MIC. Mutual information is also observed to have consistently higher statistical power than MIC. We conclude that estimating mutual information provides a natural (and often practical) way to equitably quantify statistical associations in large datasets. PMID:24550517

Kinney, Justin B.; Atwal, Gurinder S.

2014-01-01

265

Equitability, mutual information, and the maximal information coefficient.  

PubMed

How should one quantify the strength of association between two random variables without bias for relationships of a specific form? Despite its conceptual simplicity, this notion of statistical "equitability" has yet to receive a definitive mathematical formalization. Here we argue that equitability is properly formalized by a self-consistency condition closely related to Data Processing Inequality. Mutual information, a fundamental quantity in information theory, is shown to satisfy this equitability criterion. These findings are at odds with the recent work of Reshef et al. [Reshef DN, et al. (2011) Science 334(6062):1518-1524], which proposed an alternative definition of equitability and introduced a new statistic, the "maximal information coefficient" (MIC), said to satisfy equitability in contradistinction to mutual information. These conclusions, however, were supported only with limited simulation evidence, not with mathematical arguments. Upon revisiting these claims, we prove that the mathematical definition of equitability proposed by Reshef et al. cannot be satisfied by any (nontrivial) dependence measure. We also identify artifacts in the reported simulation evidence. When these artifacts are removed, estimates of mutual information are found to be more equitable than estimates of MIC. Mutual information is also observed to have consistently higher statistical power than MIC. We conclude that estimating mutual information provides a natural (and often practical) way to equitably quantify statistical associations in large datasets. PMID:24550517

Kinney, Justin B; Atwal, Gurinder S

2014-03-01

266

Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

2013-01-01

267

Detecting salient contours using orientation energy distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does our visual system detect prominent contours? Our investigation begins with the observation that neurons in the visual cortex have receptive fields similar to oriented Gabor filters. Unlike plain gray-level intensity histograms which greatly vary across images, we found that Gabor orientation-response (or orientation-energy) histograms of natural images have a fairly uniform shape. Based on this observation, we derived

Hyeon-Cheol Lee; Yoonsuck Choe

2003-01-01

268

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

2010-06-01

269

Lessons learned from two peer-led mutual support groups.  

PubMed

This case report and analysis describe the formation of two peer-led mutual support groups conducted within the context of a Veterans Administration Medical Center. Based on our assessment of the success of one of these groups and the failure of the other, we offer several recommendations and suggestions to help promote this modality. More specifically, we hypothesize that such groups are more likely to be successful (1) if participants are transferred en masse from another group, (2) that, at least initially, housing the group in the same context as formal clinician-led groups or overlapping clinician-led and peer-led groups may help smooth the transition from authority-led treatment to a mutual peer support format, and finally, (3) that prior experiences in interpersonal process groups may promote the skills and cohesion to promote successful transition to mutual support. PMID:24004015

Viverito, Kristen M; Cardin, Scott A; Johnson, Leigh Ann; Owen, Richard R

2013-10-01

270

Reconnection dynamics and normal fluid mutual friction in superfluid turbulence  

E-print Network

We investigate the forcing of the normal fluid via mutual friction in finite temperature superfluid turbulence in helium-4, paying particular attention to the role of quantized vortex reconnections. Through the use of the vortex filament model, we produce three experimentally relevant vortex tangles each with different topological properties in steady state conditions. Subsequently we investigate, through statistical analysis, how the mutual friction force upon the normal fluid is affected by the characteristic of each of the vortex tangles. Finally, by monitoring the vortex reconnection events, we show how reconnections produce areas of relatively high curvature and superfluid velocity leading to regions of high normal fluid mutual friction, particularly for the homogeneous and isotropic tangles.

Laurie, Jason

2014-01-01

271

Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.  

PubMed

The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration. PMID:3835200

Sohier, R

272

Dynamics of a mutualism in a multi-species context.  

PubMed

Despite recent findings that mutualistic interactions between two species may be greatly affected by species external to the mutualism, the implications of such multi-species interactions for the population dynamics of the mutualists are virtually unexplored. In this paper, we ask how the mutualism between the shoot-base boring weevil Apion onopordi and the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis is influenced by the dynamics of their shared host plant Cirsium arvense, and vice versa. In particular, we hypothesized that the distribution of the weevil's egg load between healthy and rust-infected thistles may regulate the abundance of the mutualists and their host plant. In contrast to our expectations we found that the dynamics of the mutualists are largely determined by the dynamics of their host. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that the dynamics of a mutualism are driven by a third, non-mutualistic species. PMID:12137583

Bacher, Sven; Friedli, Jürg

2002-07-22

273

Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory  

E-print Network

We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulae for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled, freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

Curtis T. Asplund; Alice Bernamonti

2013-11-17

274

Heading towards a Better World Part 1: Wisdom, Compassion and Personal Responsibility  

E-print Network

1 Heading towards a Better World Part 1: Wisdom, Compassion and Personal Responsibility Richard R compassion, mutual understanding, and responsibility. Few societal issues receive wider public agreement than

Sandoghdar, Vahid

275

Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones : Recruitment and orientation effects of cembrene-A inNasutitermes costalis (Isoptera: Termitidae) and discussion of factors affecting termite response in experimental contexts.  

PubMed

The monocyclic 14-membered ring diterpene, cembrene-A, previously identified as a nasutitermitine trail pheromone, was tested for its effectiveness as a trail pheromone inNasutitermes costalis. Artificial trails prepared from serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A over a concentration range of 10(-1)-10(-6) mg/ml were ineffective in recruiting termites. Serial dilutions of racemic cembrene-A ranging in concentration from 10(-1) to 10(-5) mg/ml produced an orientation effect. Chiral cembrene-A produced recruitment in soldiers at 10(-1) and 10(-3) mg/ml and was less ineffective in recruiting workers. Soldiers always showed a lower and more variable recruitment response to chiral cembrene-A than to sternal gland extracts. The behavioral response to both chiral and racemic cembrene-A was different in quantity and quality from that observed for sternal gland extract. Based on the results of these behavioral tests, cembrene-A appears to be a generalized nasute orientation pheromone which may show recruitment properties at unnaturally high concentrations. PMID:24311243

Hall, P; Traniello, J F

1985-11-01

276

Vestibular compensation and orientation during locomotion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Body, head, and eye movements were studied in three dimensions while walking and turning to determine the role of the vestibular system in directing gaze and maintaining spatial orientation. The body, head, and eyes were represented as three-dimensional coordinate frames, and the movement of these frames was related to a trajectory frame that described the motion of the body on a terrestrial plane. The axis-angle of the body, head, and eye rotation were then compared to the axis-angle of the rotation of the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA). We inferred the role of the vestibular system during locomotion and the contributions of the VCR and VOR by examining the interrelationship between these coordinate frames. Straight walking induced head and eye rotations in a compensatory manner to the linear accelerations, maintaining head pointing and gaze along the direction of forward motion. Turning generated a combination of compensation and orientation responses. The head leads and steers the turn while the eyes compensate to maintain stable horizontal gaze in space. Saccades shift horizontal gaze as the turn is executed. The head pitches, as during straight walking. It also rolls so that the head tends to align with the orientation of the GIA. Head orientation changes anticipate orientation changes of the GIA. Eye orientation follows the changes in GIA orientation so that the net orientation gaze is closer to the orientation of the GIA. The study indicates that the vestibular system utilizes compensatory and orienting mechanisms to stabilize spatial orientation and gaze during walking and turning.

Raphan, T.; Imai, T.; Moore, S. T.; Cohen, B.

2001-01-01

277

Mutual diffusion of inclusions in freely suspended smectic liquid crystal films.  

PubMed

We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent. PMID:25279649

Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A; Maclennan, Joseph E; Clark, Noel A; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R

2014-09-19

278

Mutual Diffusion of Inclusions in Freely Suspended Smectic Liquid Crystal Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent.

Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.

2014-09-01

279

Designing a Decision-Making System for Exceptional Events: the Case of Medical Disaster Mutual Aid  

E-print Network

Service enterprise engineering often involves designing systems that perform routine decision-making, as in business processes. However, exceptional events, which require effective decision-making to coordinate the response, are not routine. This paper presents a systematic, scenario-based methodology for designing a decisionmaking system in which decision-makers collect information about an exceptional event and authorize necessary actions. The approach is based on the operational procedure methodology that has been used for developing avionics systems. The paper discusses an application to the case of medical disaster mutual aid, in which multiple hospitals must coordinate activities to respond to a mass casualty incident.

Jeffrey W. Herrmann; Alpa Kothari; Sana Shaikh

280

Position Descriptions 2010 Orientation Team Leader and Returning Orientation Leader  

E-print Network

and implementation of New Student Week 2010; 11) Consider helping with retention activities during the 2010Position Descriptions 2010 Orientation Team Leader and Returning Orientation Leader Student programs: First-Year Student Orientation, Transfer Student Orientation, Family Orientation, New Student

281

Orientation through chemo reception in fishes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

Kleerekoper, H.

1972-01-01

282

Mutual Information, Synergy and Some Curious Phenomena for Simple Channels  

E-print Network

Mutual Information, Synergy and Some Curious Phenomena for Simple Channels I. Kontoyiannis Div@dam.brown.edu B. Lucena Division of Computer Science UC­Berkeley, Soda Hall Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Email: lucena connection with the information­theoretic notion of ``synergy,'' which has received a lot of attention

Kontoyiannis, Ioannis

283

Mutual Information, Synergy and Some Curious Phenomena for Simple Channels  

E-print Network

Mutual Information, Synergy and Some Curious Phenomena for Simple Channels I. Kontoyiannis Div@dam.brown.edu B. Lucena Division of Computer Science UC-Berkeley, Soda Hall Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Email: lucena with the information-theoretic notion of "synergy," which has received a lot of attention in the neuroscience

Kontoyiannis, Ioannis

284

Resilience of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms to Transient Memory Faults  

E-print Network

Management­mutual exclu- sion D.4.5 [Operating Systems]: Reliability­fault tolerance General Terms digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee is among the most important and well-studied problems in distributed computing. It is used in concurrent

Lynch, Nancy

285

Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad  

SciTech Connect

Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB.

Schumacher, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States); Westmoreland, Michael D. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023 (United States)

2006-10-15

286

A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.  

PubMed

The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another. PMID:23260470

Peng, Po; Blamires, Sean J; Agnarsson, Ingi; Lin, Hui-Chen; Tso, I-Min

2013-01-21

287

Mutual Information for Lucas-Kanade Tracking (MILK)  

E-print Network

Mutual Information for Lucas-Kanade Tracking (MILK): An Inverse Compositional Formulation Nicholas improvements in the speed have a large effect on application performance as a whole. Lucas and Kanade made one function. Lucas and Kanade mainly considered translations, but they demonstrated that any linear

Bowden, Richard

288

Note on Mutual Information between Two Intervals of Extremal BTZ  

E-print Network

In this note we compute mutual information between two intervals in CFTs dual to extremal BTZ (UV CFT) and near horizon limit of extremal BTZ (IR CFT) using the replica technique in some limiting regimes, which can be compared with holographic description.

Nan Bai; Yi-Hong Gao; Xiao-bao Xu

2013-12-22

289

An optimal algorithm for mutual exclusion in computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is proposed that creates mutual exclu-sion in a computer network whose nodes communicate only by messages and do not share memory. It is assumed that there is an error-free underlying communications network in which transit times may vary and messages may not be delivered in the order sent. Nodes are assumed to operate correctly; the consequences of node

Glenn Ricart; Ashok K. Agrawala

1981-01-01

290

VIRTUAL STRUCTURES FOR MUTUAL REVIEW PROMOTE UNDERSTANDING OF OPPOSED STANDPOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web based training (WBT) is able to reshape human interaction. Peer review processes, such as adhered to by journals and in the context of political processes such as accession to the EU, have aided in safeguarding quality in the academic field since long. University curricula, however, have not yet fully taken into account training for such mutual evaluation activities. One

Gilbert AHAMER

2008-01-01

291

Mutual Engagement in Social Music Making Nick Bryan-Kinns  

E-print Network

music industry bemoan the loss of sense of purpose in contemporary music and the role of the InternetMutual Engagement in Social Music Making Nick Bryan-Kinns Interactional Sound and Music Group, Centre for Digital Music Queen Mary University of London, Mile End, London. E1 4NS. UK Tel: +44 (0) 20

Bryan-Kinns, Nick

292

On the Mutual Coupling of the Finite Microstrip Antenna Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual coupling between radiation frequency (RF) components, antenna elements in a microstrip antenna array or between two microstrip antenna arrays is a potential source of the performance degradation. The degradation includes the impedance mismatching, the increased side-lobe level, the deviation of the radiation pattern from the desired one, and the decrease of gain due to the excitation of the surface

H. Wang; D. G. Fang; Y. P. Xi; C. Z. Luan; B. Wang

2007-01-01

293

Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

2004-01-01

294

RANKING MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE PROJECTS: THE ROLE OF DURATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a new measure of cash-flow timing called “return duration.” Numerically quite close to Macaulay duration, return duration is a straightforward function of a project's net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). When comparing mutually exclusive projects, differences in return duration can explain ranking conflicts between NPV and IRR. The paper also clarifies the conditions

L. Dwayne Barney; Morris G. Danielson

2004-01-01

295

Synchronization and symmetry breaking in mutually coupled fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally study the synchronization and the emergence of leader-follower dynamics in two time-delayed mutually coupled fiber ring lasers. We utilize spatiotemporal representations of time series to establish the roles of leader and follower in the synchronized dynamics.

Elizabeth A. Rogers-Dakin; Jordi García-Ojalvo; David J. Deshazer; Rajarshi Roy

2006-01-01

296

Torus-doubling bifurcations in four mutually coupled Chua's circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled oscillators are complicated high-dimensional dynamical systems. They can exhibit a wide variety of rich dynamics which could lead to novel applications in engineering. In this work we describe a torus-doubling phenomenon observed from four mutually coupled Chua's circuits. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the coupled system is robust, yet the exact behavior is very sensitive to the initial conditions

Guo-Qun Zhong; Chai Wah Wu; Leon O. Chua

1998-01-01

297

Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott  

E-print Network

Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott Universit¨at Potsdam International Con- ference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS) 2014, Reykjavik, Iceland. JMLR: W will in general lead to a biased classifier at test time (Scott et al., 2013), and in particular be asymptotically

Scott, Clayton

298

What determines mutual fund size? August 17, 2009  

E-print Network

support this conclusion and give good agreement with the data. Our study shows that, while mutual funds. Surprisingly, it appears that transaction costs and investor choice play only a minor role in deter- mining by a combination of the distribution of skill 1 Data is taken from the Investment Company Institute's 2007 fact

299

The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

1996-01-01

300

Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

Nickerson, Carol

2008-01-01

301

Friendships: From Cultural Guidelines to Mutually Agreed Upon Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists have predicted that individuals in a relationship initially follow social norms and later follow the mutually-agreed-upon norms which have evolved from the relationship. Since social norms prescribe sex-stereotyped behavior, an androgynous person may initially behave in a sex-typed way. Same-sex pairs (N=26) of undergraduates, matched on…

Walker, Alexis J.

302

Adaptive Band Selection for Hyperspectral Image Fusion Using Mutual Information  

E-print Network

Adaptive Band Selection for Hyperspectral Image Fusion Using Mutual Information Baofeng Guo, Steve propose a new information-based band selection method for hyperspectral image fusion, which uses Gunn, Bob Damper and James Nelson Image, Speech and Intelligent Systems Group School of Electronics

Nelson, James

303

Shared chain mutual information measure for image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion is becoming one of the hottest techniques in image processing. The paper proposes a shared chain mutual information concept to quantitatively and objectively evaluate the performances of difference image fusion techniques. Furthermore, the performances of two widely used image fusion techniques, i.e. wavelet transform based fusion and pyramid transform based fusion operating on a typical hyperspectral image set,

Qiang Wang; Yi Shen

2008-01-01

304

An objective image fusion performance index: Normalized edge mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion performance evaluation indices are studied in this paper, and an objective measure is presented, which is the normalized edge mutual information (NEMI). NEMI is defined in view of information transmission and human vision system, and is used to evaluate the performance of pixel level image fusion algorithms. Several valuable properties of it are shown. The effectiveness of the

Bo Xiao; Liping Yan

2011-01-01

305

Performance Implications of Active Management of Institutional Mutual Funds1  

E-print Network

Performance Implications of Active Management of Institutional Mutual Funds1 Ron Bird decisions made by management and the subsequent performance outcomes. In this paper we use information. However, most managers are appointed on the basis of their past performance which will only translate

Reale, Marco

306

Mutual aid in remote areas: addressing the obstacles.  

PubMed

Mutual aid is a powerful tool for individual and group change and an excellent means of promoting mental and physical health. This article examines the main factors that may hinder the development of self-help groups (SHGs) in rural and remote areas, specifically the Sudbury-Manitoulin region of Northern Ontario. It considers several issues common to rural areas, such as population distribution, geographic isolation, lack and inaccessibility of human and material resources, and local factors such as multiculturalism and multilingualism. One of the strategies considered for overcoming these obstacles is a model for a community mutual-aid organization based on a computerized network of mutual-aid services (central organization with regional units). The originality of the model lies in the recognition of computer technology and telecommunications as promising solutions to the problems of geographic, social and cultural isolation faced by remote and rural communities, solutions that may play a part in fully developing the potential for mutual aid in this type of community. PMID:10294596

Adam, D; Hoehne, D

1989-06-01

307

Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Shalene Jha1  

E-print Network

of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions and are especially integral to global agriculture, since crop species are often dependent on mutualistic interactions hemipterans may appear to benefit from ant presence, the mechanism and degree of mutualistic interaction

308

PERSPECTIVE Mutualisms in a changing world: an evolutionary perspective  

E-print Network

environmental degradation threatens mutualistic interactions. Because mutualisms can bind species to a common mutualistic partnerships; some are involved in hundreds (Bronstein et al. 2004). Mutualists are central evolutionary transitions enabling the diversifi- cation of life itself have hinged on mutualistic interactions

Palmer, Todd M.

309

Scale and macroecological patterns in seed dispersal mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some studies of seed dispersal mutualisms have documented adaptive relationships between fruits and frugivores, others have shown that adaptive patterns are constrained by phylogenetic, historical or climatic effects. Variable results among studies have thwarted attempts to find a paradigm to unite the field and direct research. Two recent studies in Global Ecology and Biogeography exemplify this dichotomy. One paper

K. C. Burns

2004-01-01

310

Are advocacy, mutuality, and evaluation incompatible mentoring functions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exemplary faculty–student mentorships in graduate school are defined by several salient mentor functions and numerous benefits for student protégés. Over time, helpful mentorships are increasingly defined by mutuality, reciprocity and professional collegiality; mentors often become increasingly partisan advocates for their protégés. Few scholars have addressed the potential incompatibility between the mentor’s collegial, advocacy, and evaluative roles. This article addresses the

W. Brad Johnson

2008-01-01

311

Enhancing Web-Based Courses through a Mutual Aid Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students taking a class together belong to a group where members typically develop a sense of connection to each other by engaging in mutual support and assistance through shared experiences and knowledge. Some have argued that the lack of face-to-face interaction precludes such processes and prevents the effective teaching of social work in an…

Wilke, Dina J.; Randolph, Karen A.; Vinton, Linda

2009-01-01

312

Mutuality: a key gap in the move to telecare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telecare is thought to be a solution for the increasing healthcare cost of an aging population. We want to identify possible issues in telecare implementations to inform technology design. By analysing telecare literature using the Locales Framework it was found that there is a gap in telecare technology research in designing awareness or presence (known as the mutuality aspect in

Ahmad Hanif Ahmad Baharin; Ralf Mühlberger; Andrew Loch

2009-01-01

313

Multimodality Image Registration by Maximization of Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the problem of multimodality medical image registration is proposed, using a basic concept from information theory, mutual information (MI), or relative entropy, as a new matching criterion. The method presented in this paper applies MI to measure the statistical dependence or information redundancy between the image intensities of corresponding voxels in both images, which is assumed

Frederik Maes; André Collignon; Dirk Vandermeulen; Guy Marchal; Paul Suetens

1997-01-01

314

FALSE DISCOVERIES: WINNERS AND LOSERS IN MUTUAL FUND PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a multiple hypothesis testing framework to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR) amongst UK equity mutual funds. For all funds, we find a relatively high FDR for the best funds of 67% (at a 10% significance level), which indicates that only around 2% of all funds truly outperform their benchmarks. For the worst funds the FDR (at a

Keith Cuthbertson; Dirk Nitzsche; Niall O'Sullivan

315

Introduction Mutualisms are common in nature, and organisms frequently  

E-print Network

in flowers.10-12 Signaling to seed dispersers is accomplished by the visual and olfactory signals produced: anthocyanins, carotenoids, pollination, seed dispersal, frugivory, mutualism, floral morphology, fruit, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, pollinators and seed dispersers. Yet, the majority of research has focused

Whitney, Kenneth

316

BAYESIAN NETWORKS AND MUTUAL INFORMATION FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF  

E-print Network

BAYESIAN NETWORKS AND MUTUAL INFORMATION FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Sylvain Verron for industrial process diagnosis. This method is based on the use of a bayesian network as a classifier. But diagnosis, bayesian network classfiers 1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, industrial processes are more and more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

1991-01-01

318

Mutual Spectral Clustering: Microarray Experiments Versus Text Corpus  

E-print Network

Mutual Spectral Clustering: Microarray Experiments Versus Text Corpus K. Pelckmans1 , S. Van Vooren of this task is found in that it provides better clusters of genes by fusing both information sources together learning problem of finding meaningful clusters co-occurring in both knowledge-bases. Here, one

319

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

2011-07-01

320

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

2012-07-01

321

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

2010-07-01

322

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

2013-07-01

323

Mutual Fund Competition in the Presence of Dynamic Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes competition between mutual funds in a multiple funds version of the model of Hugonnier and Kaniel [18]. We characterize the set of equilibria for this delegated portfolio management game and show that there exists a unique Pareto optimal equilibrium. The main result of this paper shows that the funds cannot differentiate themselves through portfolio choice in the

Michèle Breton; Julien Hugonnier; Tarek Masmoudi

2008-01-01

324

Mutual fund competition in the presence of dynamic flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes competition between mutual funds in a multiple funds version of the model of Hugonnier and Kaniel (2010). We characterize the set of equilibria for this portfolio management game and show that there exists a unique Pareto optimal equilibrium. The main result of this paper shows that the funds cannot differentiate themselves through portfolio choice in the sense

Michèle Breton; Julien Hugonnier; Tarek Masmoudi

2010-01-01

325

77 FR 73115 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the existing mutual savings associations, all in accordance with the goals of Section 5(a) of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA), 12 U.S.C. 1464. Dated: November 30, 2012. Thomas J. Curry, Comptroller of the Currency. [FR Doc....

2012-12-07

326

75 FR 77048 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interest. The Committee will advise OTS on ways to meet the goals established by section 5(a) of the Home Owners Loan Act (HOLA), 12 U.S.C. 1464. The MSAAC will advise the Acting Director with regard to mutual associations on means to: (1)...

2010-12-10

327

76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Committee will advise the OCC on ways to meet the goals established by section 5(a) of the Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA), 12 USC 1464. The Committee will advise the OCC with regard to mutual associations on means to: (1) Provide for the...

2011-11-17

328

Gradient of mutual information in linear vector Gaussian channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a general linear vector Gaussian channel with arbitrary signaling and pursues two closely related goals: i) closed-form expressions for the gradient of the mutual information with respect to arbitrary parameters of the system, and ii) fundamental connections between information theory and estimation theory. Generalizing the fundamental relationship recently unveiled by Guo, Shamai, and Verd ´ u (1),

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Sergio Verdú

2006-01-01

329

Mutual Inductance Calculation of Movable Planar Coils on Parallel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments of the wireless battery charging platform have prompted requirements to investigate the mutual inductance between a movable planar coil and the fixed planar coil on the charging platform. The wireless battery charging platform must allow the load to be placed anywhere on the charging surface. Therefore, the relative position between the movable energy-receiving coil and the energy-transmitting coils

Y. P. Su; Xun Liu; S. Y. Ron Hui

2009-01-01

330

Building a Mutual Assistance Living Community for Elderly People  

E-print Network

Building a Mutual Assistance Living Community for Elderly People Hong Sun University of Antwerp The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly, which becomes a predominant aspect of our societies to address the needs of elderly people. Ambient Intelligence technologies are widely developed in this domain

331

A lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information is obtained by employing the Peierls–Bogoliubov inequality and the Golden–Thompson inequality. Comparison with the bounds obtained by other researchers indicates that our result is independent of any measurements. It may give some new insights into squashed entanglement and perturbations of Markov chain states.

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Junde

2014-10-01

332

Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the interferers, Doppler spread and convergence are investigated. The tracking mode is introduced to the adaptive array system, and it further improves the BER. The benefit of using faster data rate (wider bandwidth) is discussed. In order to have better performance in a 3D space, the geometries of uniform spherical array (USAs) are presented and different configurations of USAs are discussed. The LMS algorithm based on temporal a priori information is applied to UCAs and USAs to beamform the patterns. Their performances are compared based on simulation results. Based on the analytical and simulation results, it can be concluded that mutual coupling slightly influences the performance of the adaptive array in communication systems. In addition, arrays with curvilinear geometries perform well in AWGN and fading channels.

Huang, Zhiyong

333

Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an alternative global optimizer, called MIMIC, which is unrelated to Genetic Algorithms. Advancement to the current practice demonstrates the use of MIMIC as a global method that explicitly models problem structure with mutual information, providing an alternate method for globally searching multi-modal domains. By leveraging discovered problem inter- dependencies, MIMIC may be appropriate for highly coupled problems or those with large function evaluation cost. This work introduces a useful addition to the MIMIC algorithm that enables its use on continuous input variables. By leveraging automatic decision tree generation methods from Machine Learning and a set of randomly generated test problems, decision trees for which method to apply are also created, quantifying decomposition performance over a large region of the design space.

Otero, Richard Edward

334

Mutual interference is common and mostly intermediate in magnitude  

PubMed Central

Background Interference competition occurs when access to resources is negatively affected by the presence of other individuals. Within a species or population, this is known as mutual interference, and it is often modelled with a scaling exponent, m, on the number of predators. Originally, mutual interference was thought to vary along a continuum from prey dependence (no interference; m = 0) to ratio dependence (m = -1), but a debate in the 1990's and early 2000's focused on whether prey or ratio dependence was the better simplification. Some have argued more recently that mutual interference is likely to be mostly intermediate (that is, between prey and ratio dependence), but this possibility has not been evaluated empirically. Results We gathered estimates of mutual interference from the literature, analyzed additional data, and created the largest compilation of unbiased estimates of mutual interference yet produced. In this data set, both the alternatives of prey dependence and ratio dependence were observed, but only one data set was consistent with prey dependence. There was a tendency toward ratio dependence reflected by a median m of -0.7 and a mean m of -0.8. Conclusions Overall, the data support the hypothesis that interference is mostly intermediate in magnitude. The data also indicate that interference competition is common, at least in the systems studied to date. Significant questions remain regarding how different factors influence interference, and whether interference can be viewed as a characteristic of a particular population or whether it generally shifts from low to high levels as populations increase in density. PMID:21211032

2011-01-01

335

Evolutionary origin of insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism  

PubMed Central

Obligate insect–bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host’s growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin–manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

336

Value-Oriented Coordination Process Modeling Hassan Fatemi, Marten van Sinderen, and Roel Wieringa  

E-print Network

Value-Oriented Coordination Process Modeling Hassan Fatemi, Marten van Sinderen, and Roel Wieringa perspectives, in particular the business value and coordination process perspectives, and for mutually aligning they refer to the same system. In this paper we define consistency between value models and coordination

Wieringa, Roel

337

Theories of Sexual Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

Storms, Michael D.

1980-01-01

338

Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

Higgins, Chris

2012-01-01

339

Unconscious Orientation Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions,

Reza Rajimehr

2004-01-01

340

26 CFR 1.594-1 - Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. 1.594-1...594-1 Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. (a) Scope...and (4) The life insurance department of the bank would, if it...

2011-04-01

341

26 CFR 1.594-1 - Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. 1.594-1...594-1 Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. (a) Scope...and (4) The life insurance department of the bank would, if it...

2010-04-01

342

17 CFR 250.93 - Accounts and records of mutual and subsidiary service companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and records of mutual and subsidiary service companies. Every mutual service company and every company whose organization and conduct of business...accounts, (b) records required by state law, (c) subaccounts or supporting...

2010-04-01

343

PET IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING ANATOMICAL INFORMATION THROUGH MUTUAL INFORMATION BASED PRIORS: A SCALE SPACE APPROACH  

E-print Network

PET IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING ANATOMICAL INFORMATION THROUGH MUTUAL INFORMATION BASED PRIORS prior for incorpo- rating information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction using mutual information based rigid registration. PET data are then simulated from the au

Rangarajan, Anand

344

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2010-04-01

345

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2012-04-01

346

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2011-04-01

347

Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

2013-01-01

348

Discriminators of Moral Orientation: Gender Role or Personality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity), personality traits, age, and level of education were used as discriminators of moral orientation in an examination of their role in the process of moral decision making. Responses of adult participants indicated the justice orientation to be most strongly associated with personality characteristics of judging and intuition; the care orientation was most strongly associated

Rebecca J. Glover

2001-01-01

349

Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

2013-01-01

350

Series expansions for the mutual coupling in microstrip patch arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dominant-mode mutual coupling theory is developed for an array of microstrip patches. One of the key features of the formulation is that only values for isolated self- and mutual impedance are needed in the formulation, making the method suitable for either a cavity model or spectral-domain analysis, or compatible with experimental measurements. The formulation is equivalent with Pozar's (1982) moment-method formulation. A series expansion of the solution is derived, allowing for approximate formulas accurate to any specified order. These formulas do not require matrix inversion. Formulas up to third order require less computation time than the exact solution, for single elements of the impedance, admittance, and scattering matrices. These expansions are computationally efficient for large sparse arrays.

Jackson, David R.; Richards, William F.; Ali-Khan, Ajaz

1989-03-01

351

AdS plane waves, entanglement and mutual information  

E-print Network

$AdS$ plane wave backgrounds are dual to CFT excited states with energy momentum density $T_{++}=Q$. Building on previous work on entanglement entropy in these and nonconformal brane plane wave backgrounds, we first describe a phenomenological scaling picture for entanglement in terms of "entangling partons". We then study aspects of holographic mutual information in these backgrounds for two strip shaped subsystems, aligned parallel or orthogonal to the flux. We focus on the wide ($Ql^d\\gg 1$) and narrow ($Ql^d\\ll 1$) strip regimes. In the wide strip regime, mutual information exhibits growth with the individual strip sizes and a disentangling transition as the separation between the strips increases, whose behaviour is distinct from the ground and thermal states. In the narrow strip case, our calculations have parallels with "entanglement thermodynamics" for these $AdS$ plane wave deformations. We also discuss some numerical analysis.

Debangshu Mukherjee; K. Narayan

2014-05-14

352

Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

2013-10-01

353

Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks  

E-print Network

Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system's structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. Distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different respons...

Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K -I

2014-01-01

354

Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

Fiedor, Pawe?

2014-05-01

355

Support, Mutual Aid and Recovery from Dual Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery from substance abuse and mental health disorders (dual-diagnosis) requires time, hard work and a broad array of coping skills. Empirical evidence has demonstrated the buffering role of social support in stressful situations. This paper investigates the associations among social support (including dual-recovery mutual aid), recovery status and personal well-being in dually-diagnosed individuals (N = 310) using cross-sectional self-report data.

Alexandre B. Laudet; Stephen Magura; Howard S. Vogel; Edward Knight

2000-01-01

356

Feature-Level Fusion for Object Segmentation Using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new feature-level image fusion technique for object segmentation is presented. The proposed technique approaches fusion\\u000a as a feature selection problem, utilizing a selection criterion based on mutual information. Starting with object regions\\u000a roughly detected from one sensor, the proposed technique aims to extract relevant information from another sensor to best\\u000a complete the object segmentation. First, a contour-based feature representation

Vinay Sharma; James W. Davis

2009-01-01

357

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling\\u000a problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of\\u000a these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members of a local society and participation

Per Binde

358

Quantum conditional mutual information and approximate Markov chains  

E-print Network

A state on a tripartite quantum system $A \\otimes B \\otimes C$ forms a Markov chain if it can be reconstructed from its marginal on $A \\otimes B$ by a quantum operation from $B$ to $B \\otimes C$. We show that the quantum conditional mutual information $I(A: C | B)$ of an arbitrary state is an upper bound on its distance to the closest reconstructed state. It thus quantifies how well the Markov chain property is approximated.

Omar Fawzi; Renato Renner

2014-10-02

359

The Role of Referent and Expert Power in Mutual Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the roles of referent power (i.e., influence based on sense of identification) and expert power (i.e., influence based on knowledge and expertise) in Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA), a mutual-help group for persons experiencing a schizophrenia-related illness. The study describes SA participants' experience of referent and expert power with SA members, SA leaders, and with mental health professionals. It

Deborah A. Salem; Thomas M. Reischl; Fiona Gallacher; Katie Weaver Randall

2000-01-01

360

Mutual coupling of on-chip inductors in CMOS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual coupling of spiral inductors is investigated comprehensively in this work. The topics include coupling between two spiral inductors by keeping identical self-inductance with different layout configurations such as separation distances, device location and relative current directions. The experimental results show that the inductor with special layout design exhibits low coupling inductance and capacitance. Results of this study will provide the layout guideline for a designer to implement more than one inductor in RFIC circuits.

Hsu, Heng-Ming; Chang, Jeng-Zen

2008-03-01

361

THE SECOND CYBERNETICS Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, cybernetics was more or less identified as a science of self-regulating and equilibrating systems. Thermostats, physiological regulation of body temperature, automatic steering devices, economic and political processes were studied under a general mathematical model of deviation-counteracting feedback networks. By focusing on the deviation-counteracting aspect of the mutual causal relationships however, the cyberneticians paid less attention to the

MAGOROH MARUYAMA

1963-01-01

362

Parsing a Natural Language Using Mutual Information Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to characterize aconstituent boundary parsing algorithm, using aninformation-theoretic measure called generalizedmutual information, which serves as an alternativeto traditional grammar-based parsing methods.This method is based on the hypothesisthat constituent boundaries can be extracted froma given sentence (or word sequence) by analyzingthe mutual information values of the part-ofspeech n-grams within the sentence. This hypothesisis supported ...

David M. Magerman; Mitchell P. Marcus

1990-01-01

363

Does mutual fund advertising provide necessary investment information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Finance theory proposes that consumers require information about the risk-return trade-off credibility information to relieve principal-agent conflict concerns, and transaction cost information – for investment decisions. This paper aims to investigate whether or not such information is present in advertisements for one investment vehicle – mutual funds. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – All advertisements in Barron's and Money over two years

Bruce A. Huhmann; Nalinaksha Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

364

Mutual coupling between reduced surface wave antennas in an array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced surface wave (RSW) antennas produce only a small amount of surface-wave and lateral-wave radiation since the surface-wave and lateral-wave radiation from the dominant TM011 patch mode is suppressed through proper design (see Jackson, D.R. et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol.41, no.8, 1993). The mutual coupling between a pair of shorted annular ring (SAR) RSW antennas was studied

Richard L Chen; D. R. Jackson; J. F. Williams; S. A. Long

2001-01-01

365

A Pilot Investigation of the Relation of Perceived Mutuality to Eating Disorders in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relational theory predicts that lack of mutuality in important relationships leads to the development of psychological problems, including eating disorders. We sought to explore the association between perceived mutuality in relationships with partners and friends and eating disorders. Participants were 74 women, 35 with an eating disorder diagnosis and 39 non-psychiatric controls. The eating disorder group reported lower perceived mutuality

Jennifer L. Sanftner; Mary Tantillo; Larry Seidlitz

2004-01-01

366

Social Capital in Mutual Funds: The Implications for Agency Problem, Governance, and Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agency problem, governance, and synergy in mutual fund industry have been studied in financia l literature, the implications of social capital for these issues have not been studied. Using 12,809 investments in open-ended mutual funds collected from Taiwan, this study finds that social capital between mutual funds and their inves tors results in agency problems. The reciprocal relationships betwe

Cheng-Min Chuang

2009-01-01

367

Preferences for Stock Characteristics as Revealed by Mutual Fund Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation of the cross-section of mutual fund equity holdings for the years 1991 and 1992 shows that mutual funds have a significant preference towards stocks with high visibility and low transaction costs, and are averse to stocks with low idiosyncratic volatility. These findings are relevant to theories concerning investor recognition, a potential agency problem in mutual funds, tests of

Eric G Falkenstein

1996-01-01

368

Parent-Child Mutuality in Early Childhood: Two Behavioral Genetic Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used quantitative genetic design to examine between- and within-family variations and gene-environment processes in parent-child mutuality among 3-year-old identical and same-sex fraternal twins. Found that greater mutuality was associated with higher socioeconomic status. Moderate sibling similarity in parent-child mutuality was accounted for by…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; O'Connor, Thomas G.

2000-01-01

369

Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

2006-01-01

370

Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.  

PubMed Central

The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

1992-01-01

371

Multiclass Microarray Gene Expression Analysis Based on Mutual Dependency Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a novel feature selection technique based on mutual dependency modelling between genes is proposed for multiclass microarray gene expression classification. Several studies on analysis of gene expression data has shown that the genes (whether or not they belong to the same gene group) get co-expressed via a variety of pathways. Further, a gene may participate in multiple pathways that may or may not be co-active for all samples. It is therefore biologically meaningful to simultaneously divide genes into functional groups and samples into co-active categories. This can be done by modeling gene profiles for multiclass microarray gene data sets based on mutual dependency models, which model complex gene interactions. Most of the current works in multiclass microarray gene expression studies are based on statistical models with little or no consideration of gene interactions. This has led to lack of robustness and overly optimistic estimates of accuracy and noise reduction. In this paper, we propose multivariate analysis techniques which model the mutual dependency between the features and take into account complex interactions for extracting a subset of genes. The two techniques, the cross modal factor analysis (CFA) and canonical correlation analysis(CCA) show a significant reduction in dimensionality and class-prediction error, and improvement in classification accuracy for multiclass microarray gene expression datasets.

Chetty, Girija; Chetty, Madhu

372

Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction  

E-print Network

We study time evolutions of superfluid neutron stars, focussing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the hydrodynamical spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearise the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two fluid components corotate and are in beta-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time evolutions of the linearised dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, i.e. without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti and Andersson (2010). In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state, and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

A. Passamonti; N. Andersson

2010-04-26

373

Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information  

PubMed Central

We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

374

Variation between self- and mutual assessment in animal contests.  

PubMed

Limited resources lead animals into conflicts of interest, which are resolved when an individual withdraws from a direct contest. Current theory suggests that the decision to withdraw can be based on a threshold derived from an individual's own state (self-assessment) or on a comparison between their own state and their opponent's (mutual assessment). The observed variation between these assessment strategies in nature does not conform to theory. Thus, we require theoretical developments that explain the functional significance of different assessment strategies. We consider a hawk-dove game with two discrete classes that differ in fighting ability, in which the players strategically decide on their investment toward mutual assessment. Analysis of the model indicates that there are simultaneous trade-offs relating to assessment strategies. First, weak individuals in a population must decide on whether to acquire information about their opponents at the cost of providing opponents with information about themselves. Secondly, all individuals must decide between investing in mutual assessment and being persistent in contests. Our analysis suggests that the potential for individuals to make errors during contests and differences in the consequences of sharing information within a population may serve as fundamental concepts for explaining variation in assessment strategy. PMID:24464195

Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Heap, Stephen M

2014-02-01

375

The relationships between market orientation and alternative strategic orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - One of the strongest convictions in marketing is that market orientation contributes to firms' performance substantially more than alternative strategic orientations such as innovation and entrepreneurial orientations. Still, some studies show that alternative orientations can also substantially affect the performance of firms, and furthermore, that firms that combine market orientation with alternative orientations are likely to perform even

Amir Grinstein

376

Mutualism in a community context: the positive feedback between an ant-aphid mutualism and a gall-making midge.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms are widespread and often described in natural history accounts, their ecological influences on other community members remain largely unexplored. Many of these influences are likely a result of indirect effects. In this field study, we investigated the indirect effects of an ant-aphid mutualism on the abundance, survival rates and parasitism rates of a co-occurring herbivore. Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induces rosette galls on the developing shoots of Salix exigua trees, and populations can reach outbreak densities (up to 1,000 galls/stem) in central Washington State (USA). Ant-tended aphids feed on these same stems and often feed on gall tissue. In this study we used a combination of manipulative experiments and observational surveys to test the hypothesis that the abundances of aphids, ants, and galls have positive and reciprocal effects on one another, in a manner that would create a positive feedback loop in population growth. In addition, we examined whether the combined presence of ants and aphids reduces parasitism rates for the gallers. In support of the positive feedback loop hypothesis, aphids enjoyed higher population growth rates in the presence of ants and galls, the presence of ants and aphids resulted in increased abundance of galls, and the abundances of ants, aphids and galls were all positively correlated with one another. However, the mechanism underlying the positive effect of ants and aphids on galler density remains unknown, as the mutualism did not affect parasitism rates. More broadly, this study demonstrates that mutualisms can have significant and complex indirect effects on community and population ecology. PMID:17106723

Savage, Amy M; Peterson, Merrill A

2007-03-01

377

A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism  

PubMed Central

Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2008-01-01

378

A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism.  

PubMed

Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2008-08-22

379

A mutually beneficial relationship between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes mitigates doxorubicin-induced toxicity.  

PubMed

Use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its toxicity in multiple organs. However, the relationship between different organs in response to DOX-induced injury is not well understood. We found that partial hepatectomy correlated with increased DOX-induced heart injury in vivo while supernatant prepared from DOX-treated hepatocytes mitigated DOX-induced cytotoxicity of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Meanwhile, the supernatant of DOX-treated cardiomyocytes mitigated DOX-induced cytotoxicity of hepatocytes. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects found that interleukin 6 (IL-6) was significantly up-regulated in DOX-treated tissues and cells, and supernatant from IL-6 treated cells had a similar effect to that from DOX-treated cells. Although the concentration of secreted IL-6 in supernatant from DOX-treated cells did not significantly differ, blockade of IL-6 signaling, by overexpressing SOCS3, suppressed expression of the downstream molecules trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), impaired the mutually beneficial relationship between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, our study shows that a mutually beneficial relationship exists between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes during the acute injury induced by DOX. Moreover, it demonstrates that this phenomenon may be indirectly caused by increased IL-6 expression and the activation of the downstream molecular mediators TFF3 and HGF in hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes, respectively. PMID:24742701

Zhang, Weiguang; Yu, Jianhua; Dong, Qin; Zhao, Handong; Li, Fenglan; Li, Hui

2014-06-16

380

Divergence in an obligate mutualism is not explained by divergent climatic factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adaptation to divergent environments creates and maintains biological diversity, but we know little about the importance of different agents of ecological divergence. Coevolution in obligate mutualisms has been hypothesized to drive divergence, but this contention has rarely been tested against alternative ecological explanations. Here, we use a well-established example of coevolution in an obligate pollination mutualism, Yucca brevifolia and its two pollinating yucca moths, to test the hypothesis that divergence in this system is the result of mutualists adapting to different abiotic environments as opposed to coevolution between mutualists. ??? We used a combination of principal component analyses and ecological niche modeling to determine whether varieties of Y. brevifolia associated with different pollinators specialize on different environments. ??? Yucca brevifolia occupies a diverse range of climates. When the two varieties can disperse to similar environments, they occupy similar habitats. ??? This suggests that the two varieties have not specialized on distinct habitats. In turn, this suggests that nonclimatic factors, such as the biotic interaction between Y. brevifolia and its pollinators, are responsible for evolutionary divergence in this system. ?? New Phytologist (2009).

Godsoe, W.; Strand, E.; Smith, C. I.; Yoder, J. B.; Esque, T. C.; Pellmyr, O.

2009-01-01

381

Identification of human-to-human transmissibility factors in PB2 proteins of influenza A by large-scale mutual information analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The identification of mutations that confer unique properties to a pathogen, such as host range, is of fundamental importance in the fight against disease. This paper describes a novel method for identifying amino acid sites that distinguish specific sets of protein sequences, by comparative analysis of matched alignments. The use of mutual information to identify distinctive residues responsible for

Olivo Miotto; A. T. Heiny; Tin Wee Tan; J. Thomas August; Vladimir Brusic

2008-01-01

382

Robust double-spectral transparency of double mutually staggered plasmonic arrays sandwiched by two continuous metal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically investigate the optical properties of a late-model plasmonic nanostructure consisting of double mutually staggered silver (Ag) nanoparticle arrays sandwiched by two continuous Ag films. Double robust plasmonic resonances with transmission both more than 86% are achieved via the cooperative effects of plasmon gap modes and optical cavity modes. The transparency response can be efficiently modified by varying the diameter of nanoparticles, the distance between the plasmonic arrays and the metal films, the dielectric environment, the thickness of the double film and the gap distance between the double mutually staggered plasmonic Ag nanoparticle arrays. The structure proposed here may provide potential applications in highly integrated optoelectronic devices, such as transparent conductors, plasmonic filters and sensors.

Hu, Ying; Liu, Gui-qiang; Liu, Zheng-qi; Chen, Yuan-hao; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Cai, Zheng-jie; Liu, Xiao-shan

2014-06-01

383

Orientational nematodynamics of a hybrid-oriented capillary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relaxation of the director field hat n , the velocity field v, the shear stress tensor component ? rz , and the temperature T has been investigated in the framework of the classical Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory of liquid crystals by numerically solving the system of nonlinear hydrodynamic equations, which describe the reorientation of the director field hat n with due regard for the velocity field induced by a temperature gradient ? T arising in a hybrid-oriented liquid-crystal capillary. The reorientation of the director field and the relaxation of the temperature field in the capillary have been studied for a number of hydrodynamic regimes that arise in hybrid-oriented capillary filled with the nematic liquid crystal 4- n'-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl in response to the temperature gradient ? T.

Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

2010-07-01

384

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

385

ORIENTATION: University's Conduct Expectations  

E-print Network

protected activity Race Religion Sex, including pregnancy and sexual harassment Sexual orientation Gossip Uncivil Behavior Harassment Verbal Threats Conduct & Civility: A Respectful Work Environment TYPES OF HARASSMENT: HOSTILE

Alpay, S. Pamir

386

Situational and trait interactions among goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory focus theory has been used to describe and explain a wide range of consumer responses. This goal orientation has\\u000a been examined both as a chronic difference and a situational variable. Yet, it is unclear how a situational manipulation interacts\\u000a with the individual’s chronic goal orientation. The present research investigates the potential for interactions and suggests\\u000a that typical outcomes of

Kelly L. Haws; William O. Bearden; Utpal M. Dholakia

2012-01-01

387

A First Look at the Accuracy of the CRSP Mutual Fund Database and a Comparison of the CRSP and Morningstar Mutual Fund Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines problems in the CRSP Survivor Bias Free U.S. Mutual Fund Database CRSP, 1998! and compares returns contained in it to those in Morningstar.The CRSP database has an omission bias that has the same effects as survivorship bias. Although all mutual funds are listed in CRSP, return data is missing for many and the characteristics of these funds

Edwin J. ELTON; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. BLAKE

2001-01-01

388

A First Look at the Accuracy of the CRSP Mutual Fund Database and a Comparison of the CRSP and Morningstar Mutual Fund Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines problems in the CRSP Survivor Bias Free U.S. Mutual Fund Database ~CRSP, 1998! and compares returns contained in it to those in Morning- star. The CRSP database has an omission bias that has the same effects as survi- vorship bias. Although all mutual funds are listed in CRSP, return data is missing for many and the characteristics

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

2003-01-01

389

Interocular yoking in human saccades examined by mutual information analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Saccadic eye movements align the two eyes precisely to foveate a target. Trial-by-trial variance of eye movement is always observed within an identical experimental condition. This has often been treated as experimental error without addressing its significance. The present study examined statistical linkages between the two eyes’ movements, namely interocular yoking, for the variance of eye position and velocity. Methods Horizontal saccadic movements were recorded from twelve right-eye-dominant subjects while they decided on saccade direction in Go-Only sessions and on both saccade execution and direction in Go/NoGo sessions. We used infrared corneal reflection to record simultaneously and independently the movement of each eye. Quantitative measures of yoking were provided by mutual information analysis of eye position or velocity, which is sensitive to both linear and non-linear relationships between the eyes’ movements. Our mutual information analysis relied on the variance of the eyes movements in each experimental condition. The range of movements for each eye varies for different conditions so yoking was further studied by comparing GO-Only vs. Go/NoGo sessions, leftward vs. rightward saccades. Results Mutual information analysis showed that velocity yoking preceded positional yoking. Cognitive load increased trial variances of velocity with no increase in velocity yoking, suggesting that cognitive load may alter neural processes in areas to which oculomotor control is not tightly linked. The comparison between experimental conditions showed that interocular linkage in velocity variance of the right eye lagged that of the left eye during saccades. Conclusions We conclude quantitative measure of interocular yoking based on trial-to-trial variance within a condition, as well as variance between conditions, provides a powerful tool for studying the binocular movement mechanism. PMID:20522260

2010-01-01

390

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-01-01

391

New CometsORIENTATION 2011 ORIENTATION  

E-print Network

, Masters in Leadership and Development, Commuter Scott Jones Sophomore, Mechanical Engineering, Residential, Commuter #12;Introduction to Academics ORIENTATION Dr. Sheila Piñeres Dean, Undergraduate Education and Brain Sciences Jim Marquart Economic, Political and Policy Sciences Mark Spong Engineering and Computer

O'Toole, Alice J.

392

Maximization of mutual information for offline Thai handwriting recognition.  

PubMed

This paper aims to improve the performance of an HMM-based offline Thai handwriting recognition system through discriminative training and the use of fine-tuned feature extraction methods. The discriminative training is implemented by maximizing the mutual information between the data and their classes. The feature extraction is based on our proposed block-based PCA and composite images, shown to be better at discriminating Thai confusable characters. We demonstrate significant improvements in recognition accuracies compared to the classifiers that are not discriminatively optimized. PMID:16886869

Nopsuwanchai, Roongroj; Biem, Alain; Clocksin, William F

2006-08-01

393

Detecting classical phase transitions with Renyi mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By developing a method to represent the Renyi entropies via a replica trick on classical statistical mechanical systems, we introduce a procedure to calculate the Renyi mutual information (RMI) in any Monte Carlo simulation. Through simulations on several classical models, we demonstrate that the RMI can detect finite-temperature critical points, and even identify their universality class, without knowledge of an order parameter or other thermodynamic estimators. Remarkably, in addition to critical points mediated by symmetry breaking, the RMI is able to detect topological vortex-unbinding transitions, as we explicitly demonstrate on simulations of the XY model.

Iaconis, Jason; Inglis, Stephen; Kallin, Ann B.; Melko, Roger G.

2013-05-01

394

Estimation and classification by sigmoids based on mutual information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An estimate of the probability density function of a random vector is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the input and the output of a feedforward network of sigmoidal units with respect to the input weights. Classification problems can be solved by selecting the class associated with the maximal estimated density. Newton's s method, applied to an estimated density, yields a recursive maximum likelihood estimator, consisting of a single internal layer of sigmoids, for a random variable or a random sequence. Applications to the diamond classification and to the prediction of a sun-spot process are demonstrated.

Baram, Yoram

1994-01-01

395

Asymmetric Mutualism in Two- and Three-Dimensional Range Expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic drift at the frontiers of two-dimensional range expansions of microorganisms can frustrate local cooperation between different genetic variants, demixing the population into distinct sectors. In a biological context, mutualistic or antagonistic interactions will typically be asymmetric between variants. By taking into account both the asymmetry and the interaction strength, we show that the much weaker demixing in three dimensions allows for a mutualistic phase over a much wider range of asymmetric cooperative benefits, with mutualism prevailing for any positive, symmetric benefit. We also demonstrate that expansions with undulating fronts roughen dramatically at the boundaries of the mutualistic phase, with severe consequences for the population genetics along the transition lines.

Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Nelson, David R.

2014-04-01

396

Mutual pharmacokinetic interactions between steady-state bosentan and sildenafil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the mutual pharmacokinetic interactions in healthy volunteers between\\u000a sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, and bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, both approved for treating\\u000a pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with three treatment arms (sildenafil plus placebo, bosentan\\u000a plus placebo and sildenafil plus bosentan) was conducted in 55

Gary Burgess; Hans Hoogkamer; Lorraine Collings; Jasper Dingemanse

2008-01-01

397

Mutual verification of two new quantum simulation approaches for nanomagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new quantum simulation methods, which we developed recently based on the Metropolis and self-consistent algorithms defined as QMC and SCA approaches respectively, were employed to investigate the magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetic nanoparticle with strong surface anisotropy. All simulations were started from a random magnetic configuration and carried out from a temperature well above the phase transition stepwise down to very low temperatures as other researchers have been doing in classical Monte Carlo (CMC) simulations. It turns out that the magnetic structures, magnetizations, total (free) energy, magnetic entropy and specific heat calculated by means of the two approaches are well consistent with each other, thereby verifying their correctness mutually.

Liu, Z.-S.; Sechovský, V.; Diviš, M.

2014-08-01

398

Bifurcations of mutually coupled equations in random graphs  

E-print Network

We study the behavior of solutions of mutually coupled equations in heterogeneous random graphs. Heterogeneity means that some equations receive many inputs whereas most of the equations are given only with a few connections. Starting from a situation where the isolated equations are unstable, we prove that a heterogeneous interaction structure leads to the appearance of stable subspaces of solutions. Moreover, we show that, for certain classes of heterogeneous networks, increasing the strength of interaction leads to a cascade of bifurcations in which the dimension of the stable subspace of solutions increases. We explicitly determine the bifurcation scenario in terms of the graph structure.

Eduardo Garibaldi; Tiago Pereira

2014-09-19

399

Curricular Orientations. Chapter Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is to review the major curricular orientations which can be found in special education settings for students with mental disabilities. Program orientations differ along two primary dimensions: the amount of time students spend in special settings or with special education personnel, and the extent to which the…

Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.

400

Orientation to @ Boise State  

E-print Network

. The orientation includes sections which discuss the characteristics of distance education, an overview of eCampus A- 3 Faculty Orientation to eCampus Table of Contents What is Distance Education at Boise State University? .............. A-5 NWCCU Standards Applicable to Distance Education................. A-7 e

Barrash, Warren

401

Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the skills and…

McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

402

Orientation Schedule of events  

E-print Network

modules Theatre R, Newman Building 19.00 Movie Screening The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel UCD Global Lounge Abroad students Theatre 1 Roebuck Castle 18.00 Orientation BBQ Food and refreshments served. 5 per person of Business orientation for Erasmus and Non-EU exchange students Q005, Quinn School 16.00 Movie Screening Once

403

Derivation of nonlinear inductive coefficients from mutual inductance measurements of superconducting thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mutual inductance setup consisting of coils on opposite sides of a superconducting film is a well-known means to determine the penetration depth ?. Recently, it was shown that the same apparatus may be used to measure a nonlinear dependence of the form ?2(J)=?02[1+(J/J0)2], where J is the current density and J0 characterizes the scale of nonlinear response. In this letter we calculate the nonlinear coupling between coils produced by this dependence. The calculation was done for a simplified geometry that retains the essential physics of the actual setup used in experiments, and allows quantitative evaluation of J0 within a fudge factor close to unity.

Claassen, J. H.

2004-02-01

404

Efficient measurements, purification, and bounds on the mutual information  

E-print Network

When a measurement is made on a quantum system in which classical information is encoded, the measurement reduces the observers average Shannon entropy for the encoding ensemble. This reduction, being the {\\em mutual information}, is always non-negative. For efficient measurements the state is also purified; that is, on average, the observers von Neumann entropy for the state of the system is also reduced by a non-negative amount. Here we point out that by re-writing a bound derived by Hall [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 55}, 100 (1997)], which is dual to the Holevo bound, one finds that for efficient measurements, the mutual information is bounded by the reduction in the von Neumann entropy. We also show that this result, which provides a physical interpretation for Hall's bound, may be derived directly from the Schumacher-Westmoreland-Wootters theorem [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 76}, 3452 (1996)]. We discuss these bounds, and their relationship to another bound, valid for efficient measurements on pure state ensembles, which involves the subentropy.

Kurt Jacobs

2003-06-05

405

Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing  

PubMed Central

The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

2014-01-01

406

Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.  

PubMed

Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism. PMID:24223521

Pringle, Elizabeth G; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M

2013-11-01

407

Mutual learning and reverse innovation--where next?  

PubMed

There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal's ongoing thematic series, "Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries" illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly "global innovation flow", although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

Crisp, Nigel

2014-01-01

408

Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.

2012-01-01

409

Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

2006-10-01

410

Inflammation and colorectal cancer, when microbiota-host mutualism breaks  

PubMed Central

Structural changes in the gut microbial community have been shown to accompany the progressive development of colorectal cancer. In this review we discuss recent hypotheses on the mechanisms involved in the bacteria-mediated carcinogenesis, as well as the triggering factors favoring the shift of the gut microbiota from a mutualistic to a pro-carcinogenic configuration. The possible role of inflammation, bacterial toxins and toxic microbiota metabolites in colorectal cancer onset is specifically discussed. On the other hand, the strategic role of inflammation as the keystone factor in driving microbiota to become carcinogenic is suggested. As a common outcome of different environmental and endogenous triggers, such as diet, aging, pathogen infection or genetic predisposition, inflammation can compromise the microbiota-host mutualism, forcing the increase of pathobionts at the expense of health-promoting groups, and allowing the microbiota to acquire an overall pro-inflammatory configuration. Consolidating inflammation in the gut, and favoring the bloom of toxigenic bacterial drivers, these changes in the gut microbial ecosystem have been suggested as pivotal in promoting carcinogenesis. In this context, it will become of primary importance to implement dietary or probiotics-based interventions aimed at preserving the microbiota-host mutualism along aging, counteracting deviations that favor a pro-carcinogenic microbiota asset. PMID:24574765

Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Carbonero, Franck; Rampelli, Simone; Fiorentini, Carla; Brigidi, Patrizia

2014-01-01

411

Main Belt Binary Asteroidal Systems With Circular Mutual Orbits  

E-print Network

In 2003, we initiated a long-term adaptive optics campaign to study the orbit of various main-belt asteroidal systems. Here we present a consistent solution for the mutual orbits of four binary systems: 22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 107 Camilla and 762 Pulcova. With the exception of 45 Eugenia, we did not detect any additional satellites around these systems although we have the capability of detecting a loosely-bound fragment (located at 1/4 x RHill) that is ~40 times smaller in diameter than the primary. The common characteristic of these mutual orbits is that they are roughly circular. Three of these binary systems belong to a C-"group" taxonomic class. Our estimates of their bulk densities are consistently lower (~1 g/cm3) than their associated meteorite analogs, suggesting an interior porosity of 30-50% (taking CI-CO meteorites as analogs). 22 Kalliope, a W-type asteroid, has a significantly higher bulk density of ~3 g/cm3, derived based on IRAS radiometric size measurement. We compare the characteristics of these orbits in the light of tidal-effect evolution.

F. Marchis; P. Descamps; M. Baek; A. W. Harris; M. Kaasalainen; J. Berthier; D. Hestroffer; F. Vachier

2008-04-09

412

Mutual learning and reverse innovation-where next?  

PubMed Central

There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal’s ongoing thematic series, “Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries” illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly “global innovation flow”, although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

2014-01-01

413

When the beat goes off: Mutually interacting complex systems  

E-print Network

While musical performances are determined by many factors such as the musical genre and interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction of two humans when playing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals (IBIs) of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other persons IBIs on time scales up to several minutes. A general stochastic model for Mutually Interacting Complex Systems (MICS) is introduced which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. In addition, The MICS model may be applicable to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series and collective behavior of animal flocks. The interdisciplinary study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the inter-brain level and leads directly to applications in audio engineering.

Holger Hennig

2013-11-15

414

Local hidden variable theoretic measure of quantumness of mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement, a manifestation of quantumness of correlations between the observables of the subsystems of a composite system, and the quantumness of their mutual information are widely studied characteristics of a system of spin-1/2 particles. The concept of quantumness of correlations between the observables of a system is based on incommensurability of the correlations with the predictions of some local hidden variable (LHV) theory. However, the concept of quantumness of mutual information does not invoke the LHV theory explicitly. In this paper, the concept of quantumness of mutual information for a system of two spin-1/2 particles, named A and B, in the state described by the density matrix \\hat{\\rho }^{AB} is formulated by invoking explicitly the LHV theory. To that end, the classical mutual information I(a, b) of the spins is assumed to correspond to the joint probability p(\\epsilon ^A_a;\\epsilon ^B_b) (\\epsilon ^A_a, \\epsilon ^B_b=+/- 1) for the spin A to have the component \\epsilon ^A_a/2 in the direction a and the spin B to have the component \\epsilon ^B_b/2 in the direction b, constructed by invoking the LHV theory. The quantumness of mutual information is then defined as Q_LHV =I_Q(\\hat{\\rho }^AB)-I_LHV where I_Q(\\hat{\\rho }^AB) is the quantum theoretic information content in the state \\hat{\\rho }^AB and the LHV theoretic classical information ILHV is defined in terms of I(a, b) by choosing the directions a, b as follows. The choice of the directions a, b is made by finding the Bloch vectors \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^A\\rangle and \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^B\\rangle of the spins A and B where \\hat{\\bf S}^A (\\hat{\\bf S}^B) is the spin vector of spin A (spin B) and \\langle \\hat{P}\\rangle =Tr(\\hat{P}\\hat{\\rho }^{AB}). The directions a and b are taken to be along the Bloch vector of A and B respectively if those Bloch vectors are non-zero. In that case ILHV = I(a, b) and QLHV turns out to be identical with the measurement induced disturbance. If \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^A\\rangle =\\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^B\\rangle =0, then ILHV is defined to be the maximum of I(a, b) over a and b. The said optimization in this case can be performed analytically exactly and QLHV is then found to be the same as the symmetric discord. If \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^A\\rangle =0, \\langle \\hat{\\bf S}^B\\rangle \

Puri, R. R.

2014-03-01

415

A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with mutually coupled windings.  

PubMed

A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with mutually coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step response was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 ? and 67.7 ?, respectively. A frequency response test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse response time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast response time. PMID:24689623

Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie

2014-03-01

416

Mutual information between thermo-field doubles and disconnected holographic boundaries  

E-print Network

We use mutual information as a measure of the entanglement between 'physical' and thermo-field double degrees of freedom in field theories at finite temperature. We compute this "thermo-mutual information" in simple toy models: a quantum mechanics two-site spin chain, a two dimensional massless fermion, and a two dimensional holographic system. In holographic systems, the thermo-mutual information is related to minimal surfaces connecting the two disconnected boundaries of an eternal black hole. We derive a number of salient features of this thermo-mutual information, including that it is UV finite, positive definite and bounded from above by the standard mutual information for the thermal ensemble. We relate the construction of the reduced density matrices used to define the thermo-mutual information to the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, ensuring that all our objects are well defined in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature.

Ian A. Morrison; Matthew M. Roberts

2012-11-13

417

Natural selective attention: Orienting and emotion  

PubMed Central

The foundations of orienting and attention are hypothesized to stem from activation of defensive and appetitive motivational systems that evolved to protect and sustain the life of the individual. Motivational activation initiates a cascade of perceptual and motor processes that facilitate the selection of appropriate behavior. Among these are detection of significance, indexed by a late centro-parietal positivity in the event-related potential, enhanced perceptual processing, indexed by a initial cardiac deceleration, and preparation for action, indexed by electrodermal changes. Data exploring the role of stimulus novelty and significance in orienting are presented that indicate different components of the orienting response habituate at different rates. Taken together, it is suggested that orienting is mediated by activation of fundamental motivational systems that have evolved to support survival. PMID:18778317

BRADLEY, MARGARET M.

2013-01-01

418

Complex degree of mutual anisotropy in diagnostics of biological tissues physiological changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the degree of consistency of parameters of the optically uniaxial birefringent protein nets of blood plasma a new parameter - complex degree of mutual anisotropy is suggested. The technique of polarization measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of blood plasma is developed. It is shown that statistic approach to the analysis of complex degree of mutual anisotropy distributions of blood plasma is effective in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute inflammation - acute and gangrenous appendicitis.

Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Karachevtcev, A. O.; Zabolotna, N. I.

2011-05-01

419

Complex degree of mutual anisotropy in diagnostics of biological tissues physiological changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the degree of consistency of parameters of the optically uniaxial birefringent protein nets of blood plasma a new parameter - complex degree of mutual anisotropy is suggested. The technique of polarization measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of blood plasma is developed. It is shown that statistic approach to the analysis of complex degree of mutual anisotropy distributions of blood plasma is effective in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute inflammation - acute and gangrenous appendicitis.

Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Karachevtcev, A. O.; Zabolotna, N. I.

2011-09-01

420

Career Oriented Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews career-oriented programs from a local view of the students and their role in society and then from a national view of the potential of the community college system and its role in society. (SB)

Quittenton, R. C.

1970-01-01

421

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

422

Steiner Forest Orientation Problems  

E-print Network

We consider connectivity problems with orientation constraints. Given a directed graph $D$ and a collection of ordered node pairs $P$ let $P[D]={(u,v) \\in P: D contains a uv-paths}$. In the Steiner Forest Orientation problem we are given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$ with edge-costs and a set $P \\subseteq V \\times V$ of ordered node pairs. The goal is to find a minimum-cost subgraph $H$ of $G$ and an orientation $D$ of $H$ such that $P[D]=P$. We give a 4-approximation algorithm for this problem. In the Maximum Pairs Orientation problem we are given a graph $G$ and a multi-collection of ordered node pairs $P$ on $V$. The goal is to find an orientation $D$ of $G$ such that $|P[D]|$ is maximum. Generalizing the result of Arkin and Hassin for $|P|=2$, we will show that for a mixed graph $G$ (that may have both directed an undirected edges), one can decide in $n^{O(|P|)}$ time whether $G$ has an orientation $D$ with $P[D]=P$ (for undirected graphs this problem admits a polynomial time algorithm for any $P$, but it...

Cygan, Marek; Nutov, Zeev

2011-01-01

423

Recursive computation of mutual potential between two polyhedra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recursive computation of mutual potential, force, and torque between two polyhedra is studied. Based on formulations by Werner and Scheeres (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 91:337-349, 2005) and Fahnestock and Scheeres (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 96:317-339, 2006) who applied the Legendre polynomial expansion to gravity interactions and expressed each order term by a shape-dependent part and a shape-independent part, this paper generalizes the computation of each order term, giving recursive relations of the shape-dependent part. To consider the potential, force, and torque, we introduce three tensors. This method is applicable to any multi-body systems. Finally, we implement this recursive computation to simulate the dynamics of a two rigid-body system that consists of two equal-sized parallelepipeds.

Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J.

2013-11-01

424

Quadratic discrete Fourier transform and mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

The present chapter [submitted for publication in "Fourier Transforms, Theory and Applications", G. Nikolic (Ed.), InTech (Open Access Publisher), Vienna, 2011] is concerned with the introduction and study of a quadratic discrete Fourier transform. This Fourier transform can be considered as a two-parameter extension, with a quadratic term, of the usual discrete Fourier transform. In the case where the two parameters are taken to be equal to zero, the quadratic discrete Fourier transform is nothing but the usual discrete Fourier transform. The quantum quadratic discrete Fourier transform plays an important role in the field of quantum information. In particular, such a transformation in prime dimension can be used for obtaining a complete set of mutually unbiased bases.

Maurice Robert Kibler

2010-10-28

425

Lactobacilli-Host mutualism: "learning on the fly".  

PubMed

Metazoans establish with microorganisms complex interactions for their mutual benefits. Drosophila, which has already proven useful host model to study several aspects of innate immunity and host-bacteria pathogenic associations has become a powerful model to dissect the mechanisms behind mutualistic host-microbe interactions. Drosophila microbiota is composed of simple and aerotolerant bacterial communities mostly composed of Lactobacillaceae and Acetobactereaceae. Drosophila mono- or poly-associated with lactobacilli strains constitutes a powerful model to dissect the complex interplay between lactobacilli and host biologic traits. Thanks to the genetic tractability of both Drosophila and lactobacilli this association model offers a great opportunity to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we review our current knowledge about how the Drosophila model is helping our understanding of how lactobacilli shapes host biology. PMID:25186369

Matos, Renata C; Leulier, François

2014-08-29

426

Protein recognition and selection through conformational and mutually induced fit  

PubMed Central

Protein–protein interactions drive most every biological process, but in many instances the domains mediating recognition are disordered. How specificity in binding is attained in the absence of defined structure contrasts with well-established experimental and theoretical work describing ligand binding to protein. The signaling protein calmodulin presents a unique opportunity to investigate mechanisms for target recognition given that it interacts with several hundred different targets. By advancing coarse-grained computer simulations and experimental techniques, mechanistic insights were gained in defining the pathways leading to recognition and in how target selectivity can be achieved at the molecular level. A model requiring mutually induced conformational changes in both calmodulin and target proteins was necessary and broadly informs how proteins can achieve both high affinity and high specificity. PMID:24297894

Wang, Qian; Zhang, Pengzhi; Hoffman, Laurel; Tripathi, Swarnendu; Homouz, Dirar; Liu, Yin; Waxham, M. Neal; Cheung, Margaret S.

2013-01-01

427

Ant-plant mutualisms should be viewed as symbiotic communities  

PubMed Central

Ant-plants provide food and nesting space (domatia) for ants that protect them against herbivores. These mutualisms are often very specific and are usually considered as bipartite, or tripartite when ants use hemipterans as trophobionts. However, fungi growing inside domatia have been recorded by a few authors. Here we report on their occurrence on additional ant-plants from Africa, Asia and South America. We demonstrated the symbiotic nature of the relationship between the plant, the ant and the fungus in the model plant Leonardoxa africana africana and its mutualistic ant Petalomyrmex phylax. Moreover, data suggest the ant-fungus relationship is mutualistic. Here we discuss the most probable role of the fungus and the potential implications on the understanding of nutritional ecology of ant-plant symbioses. The fungus is also associated with the presence of nematodes and bacteria. Many ant-plant symbioses previously considered to be bipartite will soon likely prove to be multipartite symbiotic communities. PMID:19816123

Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge; Selosse, Marc-Andre

2009-01-01

428

Efficient algorithm to compute mutually connected components in interconnected networks  

E-print Network

Mutually connected components (MCCs) play an important role as a measure of resilience in the study of interconnected networks. Despite their importance, an efficient algorithm to obtain physical properties of all MCCs during the removals of links is not available. Here, using a well-known fully-dynamic graph algorithm, we propose an efficient algorithm to accomplish this. We show that the time complexity of this algorithm is approximately $\\mathcal{O}(N^{1.2})$, which is more efficient than the brute-force algorithm with complexity $\\mathcal{O}(N^{2})$. We anticipate this algorithm to allow simulations with complex dynamic rules to research a size regime that was not permitted before.

Hwang, S; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, B

2014-01-01

429

Efficient Estimation of Mutual Information for Strongly Dependent Variables  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that a popular class of nonparametric mutual information (MI) estimators based on k-nearest-neighbor graphs requires number of samples that scales exponentially with the true MI. Consequently, accurate estimation of MI between two strongly dependent variables is possible only for prohibitively large sample size. This important yet overlooked shortcoming of the existing estimators is due to their implicit reliance on local uniformity of the underlying joint distribution. We introduce a new estimator that is robust to local non-uniformity, works well with limited data, and is able to capture relationship strengths over many orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed estimator on both synthetic and real-world data.

Gao, Shuyang; Galstyan, Aram

2014-01-01

430

Mutuality and solidarity: assessing risks and sharing losses.  

PubMed Central

Mutuality is the principle of private, commercial insurance; individuals enter the pool for sharing losses, and pay according to the best estimate of the risk they bring with them. Solidarity is the sharing of losses with payment according to some other scheme; this is the principle of state social insurance; essential features of solidarity are comprehensiveness and compulsion. Private insurance is subject to the uberrima fides principle, or utmost good faith; each side declares all it knows about the risk. The Disability Discrimination Act requires insurers to justify disability discrimination on the basis of relevant information, acturial, statistical or medical, on which it is reasonable to rely. It could be very damaging to private insurance to abandon uberrima fides. However, although some genetic information is clearly useful to underwriters, other information may be so general as to be of little use. The way in which mortality rates are assessed is also explained. PMID:9304668

Wilkie, D

1997-01-01

431

Lactobacilli-Host mutualism: "learning on the fly"  

PubMed Central

Metazoans establish with microorganisms complex interactions for their mutual benefits. Drosophila, which has already proven useful host model to study several aspects of innate immunity and host-bacteria pathogenic associations has become a powerful model to dissect the mechanisms behind mutualistic host-microbe interactions. Drosophila microbiota is composed of simple and aerotolerant bacterial communities mostly composed of Lactobacillaceae and Acetobactereaceae. Drosophila mono- or poly-associated with lactobacilli strains constitutes a powerful model to dissect the complex interplay between lactobacilli and host biologic traits. Thanks to the genetic tractability of both Drosophila and lactobacilli this association model offers a great opportunity to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we review our current knowledge about how the Drosophila model is helping our understanding of how lactobacilli shapes host biology. PMID:25186369

2014-01-01

432

MIDER: network inference with mutual information distance and entropy reduction.  

PubMed

The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide range of problems without requiring tuning. PMID:24806471

Villaverde, Alejandro F; Ross, John; Morán, Federico; Banga, Julio R

2014-01-01

433

A novel plant-fungal mutualism associated with fire.  

PubMed

Bromus tectorum, or cheatgrass, is native to Eurasia and widely invasive in western North America. By late spring, this annual plant has dispersed its seed and died; its aboveground biomass then becomes fine fuel that burns as frequently as once every 3-5 y in its invaded range. Cheatgrass has proven to be better adapted to fire there than many competing plants, but the contribution of its fungal symbionts to this adaptation had not previously been studied. In sampling cheatgrass endophytes, many fire-associated fungi were found, including Morchella in three western states (New Mexico, Idaho, and Washington). In greenhouse experiments, a New Mexico isolate of Morchella increased both the biomass and fecundity of its local cheatgrass population, thus simultaneously increasing both the probability of fire and survival of that event, via more fuel and a greater, belowground seed bank, respectively. Re-isolation efforts proved that Morchella could infect cheatgrass roots in a non-mycorrhizal manner and then grow up into aboveground tissues. The same Morchella isolate also increased survival of seed exposed to heat typical of that which develops in the seed bank during a cheatgrass fire. Phylogenetic analysis of Eurasian and North American Morchella revealed that this fire-associated mutualism was evolutionarily novel, in that cheatgrass isolates belonged to two phylogenetically distinct species, or phylotypes, designated Mel-6 and Mel-12 whose evolutionary origin appears to be within western North America. Mutualisms with fire-associated fungi may be contributing to the cheatgrass invasion of western North America. PMID:22208608

Baynes, Melissa; Newcombe, George; Dixon, Linley; Castlebury, Lisa; O'Donnell, Kerry

2012-01-01

434

The bonobo-dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal mutualism.  

PubMed

A positive interaction is any interaction between individuals of the same or different species (mutualism) that provides a benefit to both partners such as increased fitness. Here we focus on seed dispersal mutualism between an animal (bonobo, Pan paniscus) and a plant (velvet tamarind trees, Dialium spp.). In the LuiKotale rainforest southwest of Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, seven species of the genus Dialium account for 29.3% of all trees. Dialium is thus the dominant genus in this forest. Dialium fruits make up a large proportion of the diet of a habituated bonobo community in this forest. During the 6 months of the fruiting season, more than half of the bonobos' feeding time is devoted to Dialium fruits. Furthermore, Dialium fruits contribute a considerable proportion of sugar and protein to bonobos' dietary intake, being among the richest fruits for these nutrients. Bonobos in turn ingest fruits with seeds that are disseminated in their feces (endozoochory) at considerable distances (average: 1.25 km after 24 hr of average transit time). Endozoochory through the gut causes loss of the cuticle protection and tegumentary dormancy, as well as an increase in size by water uptake. Thus, after gut passage, seeds are better able to germinate. We consider other primate species as a potential seed disperser and conclude that Dialium germination is dependent on passage through bonobo guts. This plant-animal interaction highlights positive effects between two major organisms of the Congo basin rainforest, and establishes the role of the bonobo as an efficient disperser of Dialium seeds. Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23307414

Beaune, David; Bretagnolle, François; Bollache, Loïc; Hohmann, Gottfried; Surbeck, Martin; Bourson, Chloé; Fruth, Barbara

2013-04-01

435

Invasional meltdown: invader-invader mutualism facilitates a secondary invasion.  

PubMed

In multiply invaded ecosystems, introduced species should interact with each other as well as with native species. Invader-invader interactions may affect the success of further invaders by altering attributes of recipient communities and propagule pressure. The invasional meltdown hypothesis (IMH) posits that positive interactions among invaders initiate positive population-level feedback that intensifies impacts and promotes secondary invasions. IMH remains controversial: few studies show feedback between invaders that amplifies their effects, and none yet demonstrate facilitation of entry and spread of secondary invaders. Our results show that supercolonies of an alien ant, promoted by mutualism with introduced honeydew-secreting scale insects, permitted invasion by an exotic land snail on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Modeling of land snail spread over 750 sites across 135 km2 over seven years showed that the probability of land snail invasion was facilitated 253-fold in ant supercolonies but impeded in intact forest where predaceous native land crabs remained abundant. Land snail occurrence at neighboring sites, a measure of propagule pressure, also promoted land snail spread. Site comparisons and experiments revealed that ant supercolonies, by killing land crabs but not land snails, disrupted biotic resistance and provided enemy-free space. Predation pressure on land snails was lower (28.6%), survival 115 times longer, and abundance 20-fold greater in supercolonies than in intact forest. Whole-ecosystem suppression of supercolonies reversed the probability of land snail invasion by allowing recolonization of land crabs; land snails were much less likely (0.79%) to invade sites where supercolonies were suppressed than where they remained intact. Our results provide strong empirical evidence for IMH by demonstrating that mutualism between invaders reconfigures key interactions in the recipient community. This facilitates entry of secondary invaders and elevates propagule pressure, propagating their spread at the whole-ecosystem level. We show that identification and management of key facilitative interactions in invaded ecosystems can be used to reverse impacts and restore resistance to further invasions. PMID:21939072

Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Abbott, Kirsti L; Jeffery, Mick; Retallick, Kent; Mac Nally, Ralph

2011-09-01

436

MIDER: Network Inference with Mutual Information Distance and Entropy Reduction  

PubMed Central

The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information–theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide range of problems without requiring tuning. PMID:24806471

Villaverde, Alejandro F.; Ross, John; Moran, Federico; Banga, Julio R.

2014-01-01

437

Reconsolidation and Extinction Are Dissociable and Mutually Exclusive Processes: Behavioral and Molecular Evidence  

PubMed Central

Memory persistence is critically influenced by retrieval. In rats, a single presentation of a conditioned fear stimulus induces memory reconsolidation and fear memory persistence, while repeated fear cue presentations result in loss of fear through extinction. These two opposite behavioral outcomes are operationally linked by the number of cue presentations at memory retrieval. However, the behavioral properties and mechanistic determinants of the transition have not yet been explored; in particular, whether reconsolidation and extinction processes coexist or are mutually exclusive, depending on the exposure to non-reinforced retrieval events. We characterized both behaviorally and molecularly the transition from reconsolidation to extinction of conditioned fear and showed that an increase in calcineurin (CaN) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) supports the shift from fear maintenance to fear inhibition. Gradually increasing the extent of retrieval induces a gradual decrease in freezing responses to the conditioned stimulus and a gradual increase in amygdala CaN level. This newly synthesized CaN is required for the extinction, but not the reconsolidation, of conditioned fear. During the transition from reconsolidation to extinction, we have revealed an insensitive state of the fear memory where NMDA-type glutamate receptor agonist and antagonist drugs are unable either to modulate CaN levels in the BLA or alter the reconsolidation or extinction processes. Together, our data indicate both that reconsolidation and extinction are mutually exclusive processes and also reveal the presence of a transitional, or “limbo,” state of the original memory between these two alternative outcomes of fear memory retrieval, when neither process is engaged. PMID:24523532

Milton, Amy L.; Goozee, Zara Y.; Theobald, David E.; Everitt, Barry J.

2014-01-01

438

Mutual Events in the Uranian satellite system in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equinox time on the giant planets When the Sun crosses the equatorial plane of a giant planet, it is the equinox time occurring every half orbit of the planet, i.e. every 6 years for Jupiter, 14 years for Saturn, 42 years for Uranus and 82 years for Neptune. Except Neptune, each planet have several major satellites orbiting in the equatorial plane, then, during the equinox time, the satellites will eclipse each other mutually. Since the Earth follows the Sun, during the equinox time, a terrestrial observer will see each satellite occulting each other during the same period. These events may be observed with photometric receivers since the light from the satellites will decrease during the events. The light curve will provide information on the geometric configuration of the the satellites at the time of the event with an accuracy of a few kilometers, not depending on the distance of the satellite system. Then, we are able to get an astrometric observation with an accuracy several times better than using direct imaging for positions. Equinox on Uranus in 2007 In 2007, it was equinox time on Uranus. The Sun crossed the equatorial plane of Uranus on December 6, 2007. Since the opposition Uranus-Sun was at the end of August 2007, observations were performed from May to December 2007. Since the declination of Uranus was between -5 and -6 degrees, observations were better to make in the southern hemisphere. However, some difficulties had to be solved: the faintness of the satellites (magnitude between 14 and 16), the brightness of the planet (magnitude 5) making difficult the photometric observation of the satellites. The used of K' filter associated to a large telescope allows to increase the number of observable events. Dynamics of the Uranian satellites One of the goals of the observations was to evaluate the accuracy of the current dynamical models of the motion of the satellites. This knowledge is important for several reasons: most of time the Uranian system is observed "pole-on" and the relative inclinations of the orbits of the satellites are very difficult to know. More, this knowledge should allow us to determine the precession of Uranus which is not yet known. Another reason to improve the dynamics of the Uranian satellites is to quantify the dissipation of energy inside the satellites because of the tides: only very accurate astrometric observations may allow to reach such a result. We used two models for our purpose: the one from Laskar and Jacobson (GUST86) based upon observations made using observations made from 1911 to 1986 [1] and the one from Arlot, Lainey and Thuillot (LA06) [2] based upon a different sets of observations made from 1950 to 2006. Astrometric observations Since the mutual events are observable only every 42 years (in fact, 2007 was the first time where mutual events were observed on the Uranian system), many other astrometric observations were performed, mainly with photographic plates, CCD targets or using a meridian transit circle. These observations and their accuracy will be compared with mutual events. Note that these observations introduce some biases in the data (date of the opposition, absolute position of the planet), different than those of mutual events (equinox time). Observations of mutual events in 2007 Due to the difficulty of the observations, very few observations were made: about 15 events were observed using telescopes with apertures from 40 cm to 8 meters... The observing sites which reported observations were Marseille and Pic du Midi (France), Canarian Islands (Spain), La Silla and Paranal (Chile), Itajuba (Brazil), Tubitak (Turkey), Hanle (India) and Siding Spring (Australia). A preliminary analysis Some light curves were reduced and a comparison has been made with the theoretical calculations of the events. A preliminary analysis shows that LA06 has smaller residuals in the longitudes of the satellites than GUST86 but the residuals are equivalent in latitude. This confirms the problem due to the "pole-on" observation of this system and shows the

Arlot, J. E.

2008-09-01

439

Optimal estimator model for human spatial orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is being developed to predict pilot dynamic spatial orientation in response to multisensory stimuli. Motion stimuli are first processed by dynamic models of the visual, vestibular, tactile, and proprioceptive sensors. Central nervous system function is then modeled as a steady-state Kalman filter which blends information from the various sensors to form an estimate of spatial orientation. Where necessary, this linear central estimator has been augmented with nonlinear elements to reflect more accurately some highly nonlinear human response characteristics. Computer implementation of the model has shown agreement with several important qualitative characteristics of human spatial orientation, and it is felt that with further modification and additional experimental data the model can be improved and extended. Possible means are described for extending the model to better represent the active pilot with varying skill and work load levels.

Borah, J.; Young, L. R.; Curry, R. E.

1979-01-01

440

The Mutual Shaping of Online and Offline Social Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study examines the interplay between online and offline social relationships by focusing on an understudied social group: older Chinese Internet users. Method: Thirty-three semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted with members of a senior-oriented Chinese Internet community in 2004. Analysis: Interview data were…

Xie, Bo

2008-01-01

441

Does VDAC insert into membranes in random orientation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) inserts into planar lipid bilayers in a random orientation. This is in contrast to the well-documented oriented insertion of various channel-forming proteins. Because of the potential importance of this issue, we have examined the orientation of VDAC inserted in membranes. The time constants of the VDAC-current relaxation in response to applied

Edson J. Marques; Carlos M. Carneiro; André S Silva; Oleg V Krasilnikov

2004-01-01

442

Orienting of spatial attention in Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the functioning of spatial attention in Huntington's Disease (HD), 14 HD patients and 14 age-matched controls performed a cued response time (RT) task with peripheral cues. In Experiment 1, cues were not informative about the future target location, thus eliciting a purely exogenous orienting of attention. At short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), controls showed an initial facilitation for cued

Maryline Couette; Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi; Pierre Brugieres; Eric Sieroff; Paolo Bartolomeo

2008-01-01

443

Enabling seamless market-orientated supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satisfying true customer demand is the primary function of present day enterprises. Furthermore, this activity must be done effectively, efficiently and with appropriate responsiveness. The ultimate design and operational goal in this scenario is thus the seamless market-orientated supply chain described in detail in the paper. The research is based around 13 real-world supply chains that represent a wide range

Paul Childerhouse; Denis R. Towill

2006-01-01

444

A laboratory for teaching object oriented thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to introduce both novice and experienced procedural programmers to the anthropomorphic perspective necessary for object-oriented design. We introduce CRC cards, which characterize objects by class name, responsibilities, and collaborators, as a way of giving learners a direct experience of objects. We have found this approach successful in teaching novice programmers the concepts of objects, and in introducing

Kent Beck; Ward Cunningham

1989-01-01

445

Evidence for adjustable bandwidth orientation channels  

PubMed Central

The standard model of early vision claims that orientation and spatial frequency are encoded with multiple, quasi-independent channels that have fixed spatial frequency and orientation bandwidths. The standard model was developed using detection and discrimination data collected from experiments that used deterministic patterns such as Gabor patches and gratings used as stimuli. However, detection data from experiments using noise as a stimulus suggests that the visual system may use adjustable-bandwidth, rather than fixed-bandwidth, channels. In our previous work, we used classification images as a key piece of evidence against the hypothesis that pattern detection is based on the responses of channels with an adjustable spatial frequency bandwidth. Here we tested the hypothesis that channels with adjustable orientation bandwidths are used to detect two-dimensional, filtered noise targets that varied in orientation bandwidth and were presented in white noise. Consistent with our previous work that examined spatial frequency bandwidth, we found that detection thresholds were consistent with the hypothesis that observers sum information across a broad range of orientations nearly optimally: absolute efficiency for stimulus detection was 20–30% and approximately constant across a wide range of orientation bandwidths. Unlike what we found with spatial frequency bandwidth, the results of our classification image experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that the orientation bandwidth of internal filters were adjustable. Thus, for orientation summation, both detection thresholds and classification images support the adjustable channels hypothesis. Classification images also revealed hallmarks of inhibition or suppression from uninformative spatial frequencies and/or orientations. This work highlights the limitations of the standard model of summation for orientation. The standard model of orientation summation and tuning was chiefly developed with narrow-band stimuli that were not presented in noise, stimuli that are arguably less naturalistic than the variable bandwidth stimuli presented in noise used in our experiments. Finally, the disagreement between the results from our experiments on spatial frequency summation with the data presented in this paper suggests that orientation may be encoded more flexibly than spatial frequency channels. PMID:24971069

Taylor, Christopher P.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.

2014-01-01

446

Self-Presentations of Small Group Leaders: Effects of Role Requirements and Leadership Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to examine the self-presentations of task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders in response to situational pressures to adopt a task-oriented or interpersonal leadership style. Leaders of ad hoc groups were led to believe that either a task-oriented or relationship-oriented approach would be most effective in facilitating their group's performance, and the leaders' self-presentations to other group members were

Mark R. Leary; Rebecca B. Robertson; Byron D. Barnes; Rowland S. Miller

1986-01-01

447

Mutual Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities responsible for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the mutual information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the mutual information of RMCAB. As expected, it was found that the stations with average concentrations close to the network mean tend to have larger mutual information, whereas stations with atypical values share less information. The degree of dispersion around the mean of the RMCAB measurements does not exhibit a strong correlation with the tendencies observed for the mutual information. In general, the stations around the geographical center of Bogota or close to areas of large emissions, i.e. industrial areas, share the most information, while the stations located on the city outskirts are particularly singular. This degree of correlation as well as its underlying variables provides an approach to identifying the distribution of the pollutants over the city, which in turn gives insight into the spatial influence on monitoring networks. Moreover, it has the potential to contribute to the reconfiguration of existing networks in order to both improve their influence and optimize operational costs. Finally, the results of this method shall be compared with those obtained by diagnostic atmospheric dispersion models in order to improve our understanding of the pollution phenomena and to reduce uncertainties. This is an ongoing research topic.

Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

2012-12-01

448

Ecological causes and consequences of bird orientation.  

PubMed

An advanced orientation capability offers possibilities for birds to optimize movement patterns in a wide variety of ecological situations. The adaptive significance of various patterns of angular dispersion and of orientation responses to topography and sociality are elucidated. The orientation capacity is characterized by flexibility, exemplified by reorientation, promoting safety and restoration of fat reserves during migration. There are also limitations to the orientation process, leading to costs of migration through mis- or disorientation, and to constraints on the evolution of routes and timing of migratory flights. Young migrants may acquire an erroneous compass sense, and misorient several thousands of kilometers off their normal course. Widespread and dense fog of long duration causes disorientation and mortality among land birds migrating over the sea. Orientational constraints in the evolution of migration routes may be most easily disclosed at high geographic and magnetic latitudes. Here the birds are faced with special difficulties in using their celestial as well as their magnetic compasses. The sun compass could be used for great circle orientation, but observed spring flight trajectories of high-arctic waders and geese seem to conform with rhumbline routes. PMID:1838516

Alerstam, T

1991-01-01

449

Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

Bennett, Thomas E. (31 Portola Ct., Danville, CA 94506); Nelson, Drew V. (840 Cabot Ct., San Carlos, CA 94070)

2002-01-01

450

The Older Person's Handbook. Ideas, Projects and Resources for Neighborhood Action. A Mutual Aid Project Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mutual Aid Project (MAP) has developed a community organizing and planning approach which has focused its attention on the continuing role of older people within their neighborhoods. This approach has sought to strengthen not only the day-to-day arrangements for mutual aid and support, but also those actions which will assist groups in…

Cala, Michael; And Others

451

Simulation of the full two rigid body problem using polyhedral mutual potential and potential derivatives approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein we investigate the coupled orbital and rotational dynamics of two rigid bodies modelled as polyhedra, under the influence of their mutual gravitational potential. The bodies may possess any arbitrary shape and mass distribution. A method of calculating the mutual potential’s derivatives with respect to relative position and attitude is derived. Relative equations of motion for the two body system

Eugene G. Fahnestock; Daniel J. Scheeres

2006-01-01

452

B Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling and Internalization Are Mutually Exclusive Events  

E-print Network

B Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling and Internalization Are Mutually Exclusive Events Ping Hou1, Massenburg D, et al. (2006) B cell antigen receptor signaling and internalization are mutually exclusive of polyvalent antigens by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) initiates a complex web of signaling events

Dinner, Aaron

453

Rotor position sensing in switched reluctance motor drives by measuring mutually induced voltages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method of indirect rotor position sensing for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. The principle is based on measuring the mutually induced voltage in an inactive phase which is either adjacent or opposite to the energized phase of an SRM. The mutual voltage in the “off” phase, induced due to the current in the active phase,

Iqbal Husain; Mehrdad Ehsani

1994-01-01

454

66 FR 9002 - Disclosure of Mutual Fund After-Tax Returns  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Parts 230, 239, 270, and 274 Disclosure of Mutual Fund After-Tax Returns...No. S7-09-00] RIN 3235-AH77 Disclosure of Mutual Fund After-Tax Returns AGENCY...Investment Company Act of 1940 to improve disclosure to investors of the effect of...

2001-02-05

455

Journal of Theoretical Biology 226 (2004) 421428 Evolution of mutualism through spatial effects  

E-print Network

higher animals' or human's cognitive processes. Here, in order to clarify the effect of spatial structureJournal of Theoretical Biology 226 (2004) 421­428 Evolution of mutualism through spatial effects; accepted 26 September 2003 Abstract Mutualism among species is ubiquitous in natural ecosystems but its

Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

456

Strangers and Orphans: Knowledge and Mutuality in Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulo Freire consistently upheld humanization and mutuality as educational ideals. This article argues that conceptualizations of knowledge and how knowledge is sought and produced play a role in fostering humanization and mutuality in educational contexts. Drawing on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this article focuses on the…

Gomez, Claudia Rozas

2013-01-01

457

ISLAMIC EQUITY MUTUAL FUND PERFORMANCE IN MALAYSIA: RISK AND RETURN ANALYSIS Nik Maheran Nik Muhammad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual funds in Malaysia have experienced a considerable growth over the last decade in terms of the number of funds offered and the volume of capital managed by unit trust management companies. A higher growth can be expected due to a strong participation in Islamic equity funds among Muslim private investors and institutions because Islamic mutual funds have high 'correlations'

Masliza Mokhtar

458

Momentum Investment Strategies, Portfolio Performance, and Herding: A Study of Mutual Fund Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the extent to which mutual funds purchase stocks based on their past returns as well as their tendency to exhibit 'herding' behavior (i.e., buying and selling the same stocks at the same time). The authors find that 77 percent of the mutual funds were 'momentum investors,' buying stocks that were past winners; however, most did not systematically

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman; Russ Wermers

1995-01-01

459

The Role of Mutual Funds and Non Banking Financial Companies in Corporate Governance in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advances the argument that institutional investors, particularly mutual funds can play a vital role in enhancing corporate governance in emerging economies. Accordingly, regulatory framework need to be structured in a manner that would encourage the growth of the mutual fund industry and enable it to play a proactive role in corporate governance. The paper reviews and evaluates the

Moeen Cheema; Sikander A. Shah

2006-01-01

460

Conceptualising Hy-Bivalent Subjectivities to Facilitate an Examination of Australian Government Mutual Obligations Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates how the work of feminist theorists Valerie Walkerdine, Helen Lucey and June Melody, Beverly Skeggs, and Nancy Fraser were used together to examine the lived effects of Australian government Mutual Obligations policies. As "active" welfare policies, Mutual Obligations construct particular relations between themselves and…

Edwards, Jan

2006-01-01

461

Origin, Dynamics and Stability of the Mutually Inclined Orbits of the upsilo Andromedae Planetary System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planetary system of upsilo Andromedae is the first to display evidence for mutually inclined orbits around a main sequence star (McArthur et al. 2010). Moreover, the planets upsilo And c and d have orbital elements that oscillate with large amplitudes and lie very close to the limits of stability. The substantial mutual inclination, as well as its other orbital

Rory Barnes; R. Greenberg; T. R. Quinn; B. McArthur; A. Antonsen; G. F. Benedict

2011-01-01

462

Mutualism, Parasitism, and Evolutionary Adaptation Richard A. Watson 1 Torsten Reil 2 Jordan B. Pollack 1  

E-print Network

adaptation. Previous work has illustrated how the formation of mutualist groups can guide genetic variation, formerly mutualistic, was critical in enabling the independence of the first. We offer a biological example, is often taken to mean mutually exclusive competition. Accordingly, mutually beneficial relationships

Pollack, Jordan B.

463

The use of mutual information and joint entropy for anatomical priors in emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the use of mutual information and joint entropy to define anatomical priors for maximum-a- posteriori (MAP) reconstruction in emission tomography. Other groups have used mutual information for this purpose, and reported promising results. Simple simulation studies with the \\

Johan Nuyts

2007-01-01

464

Mutual Vulnerability: A Key Principle in a Humanising Pedagogy in Post-Conflict Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that education in post-conflict and traumatised societies should be partly underpinned by the principle of "mutual vulnerability" as central to a humanising pedagogy. We explain the conceptual links between "reconciliation pedagogies", "mutual vulnerability" and "humanising pedagogies" and associate them with the broader…

Zinn, Denise; Proteus, Kimberley; Keet, Andre

2009-01-01

465

26 CFR 1.501(c)(14)-1 - Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unions and mutual insurance funds. 1.501(c)(14)-1 Section 1.501(c)(14)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(c)(14)-1 Credit unions and mutual insurance...

2010-04-01

466

26 CFR 1.594-1 - Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business.  

... true Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. 1.594-1 Section...594-1 Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. (a) Scope of application...stock represented by shares which conducts a life insurance business, if: (1) The...

2014-04-01

467

On the Emergence of Private Insurance in Presence of Mutual Agreements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the existence of mutual firms on the behavior of an insurance company and more precisely to study in which situations a private insurance firm may replace mutual agreements. Our approach differs from the existing literature as we integrate the investment choices of the company and the fact that, because

Renaud Bourlès

2009-01-01

468

Laboratory Studies of Dissociative Recombination and Mutual Neutralisation and Their Relevance to Interstellar Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laboratory techniques, which have been applied to the determination of positive-ion/electron dissociation recombination coefficients, qe, and positive-ion/negative-ion mutual neutralization coefficients, qi, are briefly discussed. The authors discuss the recent suggestion that significant concentrations of negatively-charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may exist in dense interstellar clouds and could undergo mutual neutralization reactions with ambient positive ions.

Adams, N. G.; Smith, D.

469

Measuring Mutual Help Willingness and Criteria among Hong Kong People: Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual help has been often found to be beneficial for people's well-being in clinical settings. Research in the general population, however, is relatively limited, partly due to the lack of applicable measurement tools. The present study attempted to develop two scales to measure mutual help willingness and criteria and test their psychometric…

Ye, Shengquan; Leung, Terry Tse Fong; Mok, Bong Ho

2011-01-01

470

Two-frequency mutual coherence function of electromagnetic waves in random  

E-print Network

Two-frequency mutual coherence function of electromagnetic waves in random media: a path-position mutual coherence function of an electromagnetic pulse propagating through turbulent atmosphere of arbitrary strength. The approach presented in this paper was examined in the cases of plane-wave, spherical

Morozov, Alexandre V.

471

Mutual alignment comparison facilitates abstraction and transfer of a complex scientific concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy – a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood – has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the abstraction and transfer of a

Judy M. Orton; Florencia K. Anggoro; Benjamin D. Jee

2011-01-01

472

Mutual Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the…

Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.

2012-01-01

473

A novel registration method that incorporates template matching and mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image registration is kernel algorithm of many system applications such as three-dimensional reconstruction in computer vision area. This paper proposes a registration method that combines mutual information and template matching, firstly carries out template matching with similarity criteria based on mutual information, then gets candidates of sub-images, according to spatial relationship between a image and template and spatial relationship between

Shanming Lin; Xiaoyan Zhu; Ping Yan; Jianhua zhou

2009-01-01

474

KNOWLEDGE WORKER PRODUCTIVITY A Journey from Islands of Knowledge to Mutual Understanding in  

E-print Network

KNOWLEDGE WORKER PRODUCTIVITY A Journey from Islands of Knowledge to Mutual Understanding in Global, use of collaboration technologies, and engagement to improve knowledge worker productivity during MORE "A Journey from Islands of Knowledge to Mutual Under- standing in Global Business Meetings," media

Das, Rhiju

475

Mutually unbiased projectors and duality between lines and bases in finite quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

Quantum systems with variables in the ring Z(d) are considered, and the concepts of weak mutually unbiased bases and mutually unbiased projectors are discussed. The lines through the origin in the Z(d)×Z(d) phase space, are classified into maximal lines (sets of d points), and sublines (sets of d{sub i} points where d{sub i}|d). The sublines are intersections of maximal lines. It is shown that there exists a duality between the properties of lines (resp., sublines), and the properties of weak mutually unbiased bases (resp., mutually unbiased projectors). -- Highlights: •Lines in discrete phase space. •Bases in finite quantum systems. •Duality between bases and lines. •Weak mutually unbiased bases.

Shalaby, M.; Vourdas, A., E-mail: a.vourdas@bradford.ac.uk

2013-10-15

476

Paramagnetic propellant orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep space or low earth orbital propellant tanks require a fluid orientation system prior to engine firing or transfer. Some propellants such as cryogenic hydrogen, oxygen, and air are paramagnetic and respond to electromagnetic fields. A simple magnetic scheme is described for propellant orientation and a video tape presentation is provided that demonstrates some effects of magnetic fields on liquid air and oxygen in a low gravity simulator using the Leidenfrost phenomenon. When these Leidenfrost drops intersect the field lines, their flight paths are altered, some directly into the poles, some to the edges, and others move out of the field.

Hendricks, R. C.

1991-01-01

477

Topography and pigeon orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of homing experiments with pigeons to determine the influence of topographical features on the orientation behavior of the birds are discussed. The releases and following were conducted by ground experiments in which the birds are tracked by visual observation at points of topographical interest and the helicopter method by which the birds are tracked throughout the entire flight. The ground experiments showed a strong influence of topographical features on initial orientation. The helicopter experiments showed that the ground experiments do not provide adequate information on the manner in which homing occurs.

Wagner, G.

1972-01-01

478

Preventing overexploitation in a mutualism: partner regulation in the crayfish-branchiobdellid symbiosis.  

PubMed

For a symbiosis to be a mutualism, benefits received must exceed costs incurred for both partners. Partners can prevent costly overexploitation through behaviors that moderate interactions with the other symbiont. In a symbiosis between crayfish and branchiobdellidan annelids, the worms can increase crayfish survival and growth by removing fouling material from the gills. However, overexploitation by the worms is possible and results in damage to host gills. We used behavioral observations to assess the degree to which two species of crayfish (Cambarus chasmodactylus and Orconectes cristavarius) use grooming to moderate their interaction with branchiobdellids. We found that grooming could effectively reduce worm numbers, and the proportion of total grooming directed at worms differed between crayfish species and as a function of worm number. O. cristavarius increased grooming in response to the addition of a single worm, while C. chasmodactylus only increased grooming in response to ten worms. These differences in the number of worms that trigger grooming behavior reflect differences between crayfish species in field settings. We also assessed whether antibacterial compounds in circulating crayfish hemolymph could limit bacterial gill fouling. O. cristavarius hemolymph inhibited some test bacteria more effectively than C. chasmodactylus did. Differences in the antibacterial properties of crayfish hemolymph may therefore help explain differences in both worm-directed grooming and worm loads in the field. We conclude that crayfish can use grooming to reduce worm numbers, which could lower the potential for gill damage, and that the level of grooming varies between crayfish species. PMID:24072440

Farrell, Kaitlin J; Creed, Robert P; Brown, Bryan L

2014-02-01

479

Effectiveness of Dual Focus Mutual Aid for Co-occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders: A Review and Synthesis of the "Double Trouble" in Recovery Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Over five million adults in the U.S. have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (“self-help”) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City in 1998 and following them up for two years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample’s characteristics were: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder; 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several “common” therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation, social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy, reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach. PMID:19016171

Magura, Stephen

2010-01-01

480

Reviewing stress orientations in Andersonian faulting and stereo projection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a PowerPoint presentation to be used with a personal response system. It begins with a review stereonets and progresses to predicting the type of fault, and the orientation of potential faults and slickenlines given the orientation of stresses. The use of clickers with these slides resulted in very positive feedback from students.

Bosbyshell, Howell

481

Orientation and Craft Skill Training. Personnel Handbook, Series P-23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook consists of detailed guides for instructors of new Post Office employees. A brief introduction explains use of the materials, and an orientation handbook for new employees deals with job responsibilities and employee rights and benefits. The orientation teacher's manual consists of detailed instructional guidelines for training…

Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.