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1

Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

2005-01-01

2

The mutual orientation of two three-axis gyrostabilized platforms for systems with independent error detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual orientation of two three-axis gyrostabilized platforms, measuring the angular position of an object in a system with independent error detection was studied. The components of the six quaternions characterizing the possible orientation of the two three-axis gyrostabilized platforms relative to each other are found.

V. L. Frolov

1978-01-01

3

Antagonists in Mutual Antipathies: A Person-Oriented Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the heterogeneity of mutual antipathy relationships. Separate cluster analyses of peer interactions of early adolescents (mean age 11 years) and adolescents (mean age of 14) yielded 3 "types of individuals" in each age group, namely Prosocial, Antisocial, and Withdrawn. Prevalence analysis of the 6 possible combinations of…

Guroglu, Berna; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

2009-01-01

4

A mutual MRAS identification scheme for position sensorless field orientation control of induction machines  

SciTech Connect

A mutual Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) containing two models is proposed to implement a position sensorless Field Orientation Control (FOC) of an induction machine. For the rotor speed estimation, one model is used as a reference model and another is the adjustable model. Pure integration and stator leakage inductance are removed from the reference model, resulting in robust performance in low and high speed ranges. For the stator resistance identification, the two models switch their roles, that is, the reference model becomes the adjustable model and the adjustable model becomes the reference model. Assuming a brief stable rotor speed interval, the stator resistance can be tracked very well. To further improve the estimation accuracy of rotor speed and stator resistance, a simple on-line rotor time constant identification is included. This mutual MRAS scheme is a cost effective approach for position sensorless variable speed implementation. Computer simulations and experimental results are given to show its effectiveness.

Zhen, L.; Xu, L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-12-31

5

Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy  

PubMed Central

Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

Anderson, Ian PS

2006-01-01

6

Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy.  

PubMed

Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

Anderson, Ian P S

2006-01-01

7

Mutualism fails when climate response differs between interacting species.  

PubMed

Successful species interactions require that both partners share a similar cue. For many species, spring warming acts as a shared signal to synchronize mutualist behaviors. Spring flowering plants and the ants that disperse their seeds respond to warming temperatures so that ants forage when plants drop seeds. However, where warm-adapted ants replace cold-adapted ants, changes in this timing might leave early seeds stranded without a disperser. We investigate plant seed dispersal south and north of a distinct boundary between warm- and cold-adapted ants to determine if changes in the ant species influence local plant dispersal. The warm-adapted ants forage much later than the cold-adapted ants, and so we first assess natural populations of early and late blooming plants. We then transplant these plants south and north of the ant boundary to test whether distinct ant climate requirements disrupt the ant-plant mutualism. Whereas the early blooming plant's inability to synchronize with the warm-adapted ant leaves its populations clumped and patchy and its seedlings clustered around the parents in natural populations, when transplanted into the range of the cold-adapted ant, effective seed dispersal recovers. In contrast, the mutualism persists for the later blooming plant regardless of location because it sets seed later in spring when both warm- and cold-adapted ant species forage, resulting in effective seed dispersal. These results indicate that the climate response of species interactions, not just the species themselves, is integral in understanding ecological responses to a changing climate. Data linking phenological synchrony and dispersal are rare, and these results suggest a viable mechanism by which a species' range is limited more by biotic than abiotic interactions - despite the general assumption that biotic influences are buried within larger climate drivers. These results show that biotic partner can be as fundamental a niche requirement as abiotic resources. PMID:24399754

Warren, Robert J; Bradford, Mark A

2014-02-01

8

Orienting and humor responses: A synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for a hypothesis that a humor response is an instance of a more general orienting response. The two responses both occur to stimulus novelty or incongruity and are identical behaviorally and physiologically, althouth their subjective components may differ. Evidence for the hypothesis is based on a series of paremeters that affect orienting and humor responses identically. Parameters

Lambert Deckers; Debra Hricik

1984-01-01

9

Risk Taking by Mutual Funds as a Response to Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a potential agency conflict between mutual fund investors and mutual fund companies. Investors would like the fund company to use its judgment to maximize risk-adjusted fund returns, the fund company has an incentive to increase the inflow of investments. The authors estimate the shape of the flow-performance relationship for a sample of growth and growth and income

Judith Chevalier; Glenn Ellison

1997-01-01

10

The Efiect of Socially Responsible Investing on Mutual Fund Performance and Fees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reevaluates the efiect of socially responsible (SR) investment principles on mutual fund performance. As in previous studies, we follow the approach of comparing SR funds with conventional funds of similar characteristics. There are three novelties, however, with respect to the extant literature. First, we make a distinction between the two compo- nents of a mutual fund's net performance:

Javier Gil-Bazo; Andre Portela; Pablo Ruiz-Verdu

11

The orienting response in schizophrenia and mania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined skin conductance (SCR) and finger pulse amplitude response (PULSE) in 53 schizophrenic, 30 manic, and 28 control subjects to provide information on orienting response (OR) dysfunction in severe psychiatric disorders. SCR and PULSE to neutral and task-relevant tones were measured in acutely ill inpatients and normal control subjects on two occasions separated by a 3-week interval. There were

David B. Schnur; Scott Smith; Adam Smith; Venecia Marte; Elizabeth Horwitz; Harold A. Sackeim; Sukdeb Mukherjee; Alvin S. Bernstein

1999-01-01

12

Evolution of plant–pollinator mutualisms in response to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change has the potential to desynchronize the phenologies of interdependent species, with potentially catastrophic effects on mutualist populations. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plant–pollinator mutualism under climate change. How the populations evolve, and thus whether the populations and the mutualism persist, depends not only on the rate of climate change but also on the densities and phenologies of other species in the community. Abundant alternative mutualist partners with broad temporal distributions can make a mutualism more robust to climate change, while abundant alternative partners with narrow temporal distributions can make a mutualism less robust. How community composition and the rate of climate change affect the persistence of mutualisms is mediated by two-species Allee thresholds. Understanding these thresholds will help researchers to identify those mutualisms at highest risk owing to climate change. PMID:25568025

Gilman, R Tucker; Fabina, Nicholas S; Abbott, Karen C; Rafferty, Nicole E

2012-01-01

13

The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the…

Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

2009-01-01

14

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

15

Suppression of dynamic instability and comparison of the response time in mutually pumped phase conjugators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and the suppression of dynamic instability have been experimentally studied in mutually pumped phase conjugators when the two input beams are coherent. Experimental results show that the dynamic instability of the phase conjugation outputs arises from the competition among backscattering gratings, reflection gratings, and shared transmission gratings. The effect of the competition on the coupling channel is also presented. A simple method, the slight vibration of the experimental table is proposed. It can eliminate the dynamic instability. The response time is measured and fit for several kinds of discovered mutually pumped phase conjugators. We find that the bird-wing and sickle mutually pumped phase conjugators, which have one internal reflection, have a shorter response time. A possible explanation is suggested.

Zhang, Liangmin; Zhang, Wanlin; Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guangyin; Shao, Zongshu; Chen, Huanchu; Han, Jianru

1998-05-01

16

Mutual inductance Mutual induction  

E-print Network

Mutual inductance Mutual induction ­ current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from self-induction Mutual inductance, M21 of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is 1 212 21 i N M = i N L B = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

17

Modeling V1 neuronal responses to orientation disparity.  

PubMed

The contribution of interocular orientation differences to depth perception, at either the neuronal or the psychophysical level, is unclear. To understand the responses of binocular neurons to orientation disparity, we extended the energy model of Ohzawa et al. (1990) to incorporate binocular differences in receptive-field orientation. The responses of the model to grating stimuli with interocular orientation differences were examined, along with the responses to random dot stereograms (RDS) depicting slanted surfaces. The responses to combinations of stimulus orientations in the two eyes were left-right separable, which means there was no consistent response to the binocular orientation difference. All existing neuronal data concerning orientation disparity can be well described by this type of model (even a version with no disparity selectivity). The disparity sensitive model is nonetheless sensitive to changes in RDS slant, although it requires narrow orientation bandwidth to produce substantial modulation. The disparity-insensitive model shows no selectivity to slant in this stimulus. Several modifications to the model were attempted to improve its selectivity for orientation disparity and/or slant. A model built by summing several disparity-sensitive models showed left-right inseparable responses, responding maximally to a consistent orientation difference. Despite this property, the selectivity for slant in RDS stimuli was no better than the simple disparity-selective model. The range of models evaluated here demonstrate that interocular orientation differences are neither necessary nor sufficient for signaling slant. In contrast, within the framework of the energy model, positional disparity sensitivity appears to be both necessary and sufficient. PMID:12020078

Bridge, H; Cumming, B G; Parker, A J

2001-01-01

18

29 CFR 37.36 - What responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? 37.36 Section 37.36 Labor Office of the Secretary...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? During each presentation to orient new...

2011-07-01

19

29 CFR 37.36 - What responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? 37.36 Section 37.36 Labor Office of the Secretary...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? During each presentation to orient new...

2012-07-01

20

29 CFR 37.36 - What responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? 37.36 Section 37.36 Labor Office of the Secretary...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? During each presentation to orient new...

2014-07-01

21

29 CFR 37.36 - What responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? 37.36 Section 37.36 Labor Office of the Secretary...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? During each presentation to orient new...

2010-07-01

22

29 CFR 37.36 - What responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? 37.36 Section 37.36 Labor Office of the Secretary...responsibilities does a recipient have to communicate information during orientations? During each presentation to orient new...

2013-07-01

23

Elastic response of (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal - The influence of secondary orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Azis, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael

1991-01-01

24

Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

1991-01-01

25

Measurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented  

E-print Network

of the nanowires. The differential terahertz transmission is found to be large when the field is polarized parallelMeasurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented Germanium Nanowires using Optical-Pump Terahertz-Probe Spectroscopy Jared H. Strait,*, Paul A. George, Mark Levendorf, Martin Blood

Afshari, Ehsan

26

The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.  

PubMed Central

The goal of this review is to compare two divergent lines of research on signal-centered behavior: the orienting reflex (OR) and autoshaping. A review of conditioning experiments in animals and humans suggests that the novelty hypothesis of the OR is no longer tenable. Only stimuli that represent biological "relevance" elicit ORs. A stimulus may be relevant a priori (i.e., unconditioned) or as a result of conditioning. Exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts a positive reinforcer causes the animal to orient to it throughout conditioning. Within the CS-US interval, the initial CS-directed orienting response is followed by US-directed tendencies. Experimental evidence is shown that the development and maintenance of the conditioned OR occur in a similar fashion both in response-independent (classical) and response-dependent (instrumental) paradigms. It is proposed that the conditioned OR and the signal-directed autoshaped response are identical. Signals predicting aversive events repel the subject from the source of the CS. It is suggested that the function of the CS is not only to signal the probability of US occurrence, but also to serve as a spatial cue to guide the animal in the environment. PMID:7097153

Buzsáki, G

1982-01-01

27

Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background  

PubMed Central

Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

2012-01-01

28

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

2011-01-01

29

Mutualism variation in the nodulation response to nitrate K. D. HEATH*, A. J. STOCK & J. R. STINCHCOMBE  

E-print Network

% of global crop production (Graham & Vance, 2003). Changing the abundance of a traded resource in mutualism can shift ecological interactions from mutualism to parasitism (Neuhauser & Fargione, 2004) or impose

Heath, Katy

30

Mutual coupling between rectangular microstrip patch antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a comprehensive study of the mutual coupling between two rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The cavity model is employed to give numerical results for both mutual impedance and mutual coupling parameters for the E-plane, H-plane, diagonal, and perpendicular orientations. The effects of substrate thickness, substrate permittivity, and feed positions are discussed.

Huynh, Tan; Lee, Kai-Fong; Chebolu, Siva R.; Lee, R. Q.

1992-01-01

31

Mutual modulation between norepinephrine and nitric oxide in haemocytes during the mollusc immune response  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important immune molecules in innate immunity of invertebrates, and it can be regulated by norepinephrine in ascidian haemocytes. In the present study, the mutual modulation and underlying mechanism between norepinephrine and NO were explored in haemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation, NO production increased to a significant level at 24?h, and norepinephrine concentration rose to remarkable levels at 3?h and 12~48?h. A significant decrease of NO production was observed in the haemocytes concomitantly stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist, while a dramatic increase of NO production was observed in the haemocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist. Meanwhile, the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) decreased significantly in the haemocytes treated by lipopolysaccharide and ?/?-adrenoceptor agonist, while the content of Ca2+ was elevated in those triggered by lipopolysaccharide and ?-adrenoceptor agonist. When the haemocytes was incubated with NO donor, norepinephrine concentration was significantly enhanced during 1~24?h. Collectively, these results suggested that norepinephrine exerted varied effects on NO production at different immune stages via a novel ?/?-adrenoceptor-cAMP/Ca2+ regulatory pattern, and NO might have a feedback effect on the synthesis of norepinephrine in the scallop haemocytes. PMID:25376551

Jiang, Qiufen; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Tiantian; Song, Linsheng

2014-01-01

32

Selective Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses During Live Mutual Gaze Interactions in Human Infants: An fNIRS Study.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in processing multimodal communicative ostensive signals in infants, we measured cerebral hemodynamic responses by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the social interactive play "peek-a-boo", in which both visual (direct gaze) and auditory (infant-directed speech) stimuli were presented. The infants (mean age, around 7 months) sat on their mother's lap, equipped with an NIRS head cap, and looked at a partner's face during "peek-a-boo". An eye-tracking system simultaneously monitored the infants' visual fixation patterns. The results indicate that, when the partner presented a direct gaze, rather than an averted gaze, toward an infant during social play, the infant fixated on the partner's eye region for a longer duration. Furthermore, hemodynamic activity increased more prominently dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to social play with a partner's direct gaze compared to an averted gaze. In contrast, hemodynamic activity increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (R-lPFC) regardless of a partner's eye gaze direction. These results indicate that a partner's direct gaze shifts an infant's attention to the partner's eyes for interactive communication, and specifically activates the mPFC. The differences in hemodynamic responses between the mPFC and R-lPFC suggest functional differentiation within the PFC, and a specific role of the mPFC in the perception of face-to-face communication, especially in mutual gaze, which is essential for social interaction. PMID:25367848

Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

2014-11-01

33

Evaluative Priming of Naming and Semantic Categorization Responses Revisited: A Mutual Facilitation Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluative priming effect (i.e., faster target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) in nonevaluative priming tasks (such as naming or semantic categorization tasks) is considered important for the question of how evaluative connotations are represented in memory. However, the empirical…

Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk

2012-01-01

34

Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

2000-01-01

35

Mutual emergence of noncausal optical response and nonclassicality in an optomechanical system  

E-print Network

We show that single-mode nonclassicality of the output of an optomechanical cavity and the noncausal linear optical response of this cavity emerge at the same critical cavity-mechanical coupling. In other words, single-mode nonclassicality emerges when the barrier (in electromagnetism) avoiding faster-than-light communication is lifted off. The nature of the emergence of noncausal behavior does not depend on the length (boundary conditions) and the type of the cavity. Origin of the noncausal behavior is the temporal/frequency relations between the incident and reflected waves at the outer surface of the cavity. We further discuss the relations with the recent studies; (i) equivalence of the entanglement among identical particles to the nonclassicality of their quasiparticle excitations, (ii) necessity of superfluid behavior of vacuum, and (iii) entanglement-wormhole equivalence.

Tarhan, Devrim; Tasgin, Mehmet Emre

2015-01-01

36

Alkaloid metabolism in thrips-Papaveraceae interaction: recognition and mutual response.  

PubMed

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), the Western Flower Thrips (WFT), is a polyphagous and highly adaptable insect of the order Thysanoptera. It has a broad host range but is rarely found on Papaveraceae, which might be due to deterrent effects of alkaloids present in most species of this family. In order to test the adaptive potential of WFT, we investigated its interaction with two Papaveraceae offered as sole feeding source. We found that WFT are able to live and feed on leaves of Eschscholzia californica and Chelidonium majus. Both plants respond to thrips feeding by the enhanced production of benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Furthermore, cell cultures of E. californica react to water insoluble compounds prepared from adult thrips with enhanced alkaloid production. During feeding, WFT take up benzophenanthridine alkaloids from either plant and from an artificial feeding medium and convert them to their less toxic dihydroderivatives. This was shown in detail with sanguinarine, the most cytotoxic benzophenanthridine. A similar conversion is used in plants to prevent self-intoxication by their own toxins. We conclude that WFT causes a phytoalexin-like response in Papaveraceae, but is able to adapt to such host plants by detoxification of toxic alkaloids. PMID:24331426

Schütz, Ingeborg; Moritz, Gerald B; Roos, Werner

2014-01-15

37

Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and Synchronization Operating Systems: Internals and Design · Data incoherency · Deadlock: processes are "frozen" because of mutual dependency on each other Regions Mutual exclusion using critical regions #12;Mutual exclusion Critical region: part of the program

Mikulas, Szabolcs

38

Orienting responses to various visual stimuli in children with visual processing impairments or infantile nystagmus syndrome.  

PubMed

Quantification of orienting responses can be used to differentiate between children with cerebral visual impairment and infantile nystagmus syndrome. To further improve the sensitivity of this method, we compared orienting responses to a Cartoon stimulus, which contains all sorts of visual information, to stimuli that contain only Contrast, Form coherence, Motion coherence, Color and Motion detection. The stimuli were shown on an eye tracker monitor using a preferential looking paradigm. We found that both groups of children showed general slowing in orienting responses compared to controls. The children with cerebral visual impairment had significantly prolonged responses to Cartoon compared to the children with nystagmus, whereas the children with nystagmus had prolonged responses to Motion detection and larger fixation areas. Previously reported differences in orienting responses to Cartoon were replicated. Application of specific visual information did not alter the sensitivity of the method to distinguish between children with visual processing deficits. PMID:24334347

Pel, J J M; Kooiker, M J G; van der Does, J M E; Boot, F H; de Faber, J T; van der Steen-Kant, S P; van der Steen, J

2014-12-01

39

The responses of front-line employees to market-oriented culture change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theme emerging from research into the determinants, content and consequences of market orientation is that developing a market-oriented culture exerts a profound influence on the organizational culture of a company. Explores and describes the manner and forms of front-line employees’ responses to market-oriented culture change initiatives. The paper begins with a brief overview of existing literature discussing the definition

Lloyd C. Harris; Emmanuel Ogbonna

2000-01-01

40

Object-oriented design: a responsibility-driven approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object-oriented programming languages support encapsulation, thereby improving the ability of software to be reused, refined, tested, maintained, and extended. The full benefit of this support can only be realized if encapsulation is maximized during the design process.We argue that design practices which take a data-driven approach fail to maximize encapsulation because they focus too quickly on the implementation of objects.

Rebecca Wirfs-Brock; Brian Wilkerson

1989-01-01

41

Environmental responsibility and the possibilities of pragmatist-orientated research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human geographers have explored at some length the discourses and subject positions implicated in the recent rise of ‘environmental responsibility’. Assigning it either as an individual disposition enacted in various spaces, a performative ‘othering’ tool, and\\/or a form of ecological governmentality, these debates have said little about the role of research and researchers in encouraging environmental responsibility. Utilising arguments from

Kersty Hobson

2006-01-01

42

Brain responses to facial expressions by adults with different attachment-orientations.  

PubMed

Behavior studies demonstrate that the attachment-orientation difference is a powerful predictor for emotional processing in children and adults, with anxious individuals being hyperactive and avoidant individuals being deactive to emotional stimuli. This study used the event-related potential technique to explore brain responses to facial expressions by adults with anxious, avoidant, or secure attachment-orientation. Differences were found in N1, N2, P2, and N400 components between the groups of participants, suggesting that adults with different attachment-orientations have differences in both earlier, automatic encoding of the structural properties of faces and later, more elaborative retrieval of emotional contents. PMID:18287942

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Tonggui; Zhou, Xiaolin

2008-03-01

43

Futures Tended: Care and Future-Oriented Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of technological hazards, whose existence is only revealed many years after they were initially produced, shows that the question of our responsibilities toward future generations is of urgent importance. However, the nature of technological societies means that they are caught in a condition of structural irresponsibility: the…

Adam, Barbara; Groves, Chris

2011-01-01

44

Liberty Mutual Insurance Lisa Henry, Liberty Mutual Insurance  

E-print Network

Liberty Mutual Insurance Lisa Henry, Liberty Mutual Insurance Behavior Based Interviewing #12;Liberty Mutual Insurance Liberty Mutual Insurance "...helping people live safer, more secure lives by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. #12;Liberty Mutual Insurance Information Technology: More

Liblit, Ben

45

Mutual of Omaha Scholarship  

E-print Network

Mutual of Omaha Actuarial Scholarship for Minority Students Where your future? will you take Z1112 #12;Mutual of Omaha Actuarial Scholarship for Minority Students The Mutual of Omaha Actuarial of the scholarship application can be obtained from Mutual of Omaha by calling (402) 351-3300 or by visiting: www

46

The evolution of mutualism.  

PubMed

Like altruism, mutualism, cooperation between species, evolves only by enhancing all participants' inclusive fitness. Mutualism evolves most readily between members of different kingdoms, which pool complementary abilities for mutual benefit: some of these mutualisms represent major evolutionary innovations. Mutualism cannot persist if cheating annihilates its benefits. In long-term mutualisms, symbioses, at least one party associates with the other nearly all its life. Usually, a larger host harbours smaller symbionts. Cheating is restrained by vertical transmission, as in Buchnera; partner fidelity, as among bull-thorn acacias and protective ants; test-based choice of symbionts, as bobtail squid choose bioluminescent bacteria; or sanctioning nonperforming symbionts, as legumes punish nonperforming nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Mutualisms involving brief exchanges, as among plants and seed-dispersers, however, persist despite abundant cheating. Both symbioses and brief-exchange mutualisms have transformed whole ecosystems. These mutualisms may be steps towards ecosystems which, like Adam Smith's ideal economy, serve their members' common good. PMID:20942825

Leigh, E G

2010-12-01

47

The orienting response as an index of stimulus associability in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of the orienting response (OR) to a light and its associability was studied in three experiments. In Experiment 1, three groups of rats received serial conditioning in which the light served as the first element of a serial compound. For Group Diff the light was followed by a conditioned stimulus (CS) of 10-s duration on some trials and

Jacky A. Swan; John M. Pearce

1988-01-01

48

Blobs versus bars: Psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision  

E-print Network

color vision Mina Gheiratmand $ McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, UK Kathy T. Mullen # $ McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University of psychophysical studies has demonstrated that color vision has orientation-tuned responses and little impairment

Mullen, Kathy T.

49

An Item Response Theory Examination of Two Popular Goal Orientation Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used item response theory to provide a detailed examination of the psychometric properties of scores from two goal orientation instruments popular in the work motivation literature: Button, Mathieu, and Zajac (1996) and VandeWalle (1997). In general, the results of these analyses indicated that all scales except Button et al.'s…

Hafsteinsson, Leifur Geir; Donovan, John J.; Breland, B. Tyson

2007-01-01

50

Sharks modulate their escape behavior in response to predator size, speed and approach orientation.  

PubMed

Escape responses are often critical for surviving predator-prey interactions. Nevertheless, little is known about how predator size, speed and approach orientation impact escape performance, especially in larger prey that are primarily viewed as predators. We used realistic shark models to examine how altering predatory behavior and morphology (size, speed and approach orientation) influences escape behavior and performance in Squalus acanthias, a shark that is preyed upon by apex marine predators. Predator models induced C-start escape responses, and increasing the size and speed of the models triggered a more intense response (increased escape turning rate and acceleration). In addition, increased predator size resulted in greater responsiveness from the sharks. Among the responses, predator approach orientation had the most significant impact on escapes, such that the head-on approach, as compared to the tail-on approach, induced greater reaction distances and increased escape turning rate, speed and acceleration. Thus, the anterior binocular vision in sharks renders them less effective at detecting predators approaching from behind. However, it appears that sharks compensate by performing high-intensity escapes, likely induced by the lateral line system, or by a sudden visual flash of the predator entering their field of view. Our study reveals key aspects of escape behavior in sharks, highlighting the modulation of performance in response to predator approach. PMID:25041843

Seamone, Scott; Blaine, Tristan; Higham, Timothy E

2014-12-01

51

Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

2000-01-01

52

Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23678099

Lutz, Claudia C.; Robinson, Gene E.

2013-01-01

53

Multiple-Response Sequences in Classroom Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines multiple-response sequences (MRSs), occurring in adult Korean TESOL classrooms, to show the responses produced by students in the language classroom are not always confined within the boundaries of a single response, but are likely to be seen as mutually orienting to, and collaborating to produce a comprehensible outcome to the…

Ko, Sungbae

2009-01-01

54

Influence of Sn Grain Size and Orientation on the Thermomechanical Response and Reliability of Pb-free Solder Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and crystal orientation of Sn grains in Pb-free, near eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints were examined. A clear dependence of the thermomechanical fatigue response of these solder joints on Sn grain orientation was observed (Sn has a body centered tetragonal crystal structure). Fabricated joints tend to have three orientations in a cyclic twin relationship, but among the population of

Thomas R. Bieler; Hairong Jiang; Lawrence P. Lehman; Tim Kirkpatrick; Eric J. Cotts; Bala Nandagopal

2008-01-01

55

Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined infants' negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) on children's self-regulation (n = 102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months.…

Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

2012-01-01

56

Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.  

PubMed

A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR. PMID:21640779

Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

2011-08-26

57

Trajectory Orientation: A Technology-Enabled Concept Requiring a Shift in Controller Roles and Responsibilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a decision support tool (DST) for the en-route domain with accurate conflict prediction time horizons of 20 minutes has introduced an interesting problem. A 20 minute time horizon for conflict prediction often results in the predicted conflict occurring one or more sectors downstream from the sector controller who "owns" (i-e., is responsible for the safe separation of aircraft) one or both of the aircraft in the conflict pair. Based on current roles and responsibilities of today's en route controllers, the upstream controller would not resolve this conflict. In most cases, the downstream controller would wait until the conflicting aircraft entered higher sector before resolving the conflict. This results in a delay of several minutes from the time when the conflict was initially predicted. This delay is inefficient from both a controller workload and user's cost of operations perspective. Trajectory orientation, a new concept for facilitating an efficient, conflict-free flight path across several sectors while conforming to metering or miles-in-trail spacing, is proposed as an alternative to today's sector-oriented method. This concept necessitates a fundamental shift in thinking about inter-sector coordination. Instead of operating independently, with the main focus on protecting their internal airspace, controllers would work cooperatively, depending on each other for well-planned, conflict-free flow of aircraft. To support the trajectory orientation concept, a long time horizon (15 to 20 minutes) for conflict prediction and resolution would most likely be a primary requirement. In addition, new tools, such as controller-pilot data link will be identified to determine their necessity and applicability for trajectory orientation. Finally, with significant controller participation from selected Air Route Traffic Control Centers, potential shifts in R-side/D-side roles and responsibilities as well as the creation of a new controller position for multi-sector planning will be examined to determine the most viable solutions.

Leiden, Ken; Green, Steven

2000-01-01

58

A cross-cultural comparison of gifted children's theories of intelligence, goal orientation, and responses to challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to examine gifted children's theories of intelligence, goal orientations, responses to challenge, and the relationships among them. Children's implicit beliefs about their ability (static vs. Malleable) had been found to lead to different goal orientations (performance vs. Learning goals) and affect achievement behavior patterns (maladaptive vs. Adaptive). However, relationships among implicit theories, goals,

Wen-Chuan Hsueh

1997-01-01

59

The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A Dimensional Measure for Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of…

Mosconi, Matthew W.; Reznick, J. Steven; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

2009-01-01

60

[Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].  

PubMed

Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

2013-01-01

61

The relationship between visual orienting responses and clinical characteristics in children attending special education for the visually impaired.  

PubMed

We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children. PMID:25038127

Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes

2015-05-01

62

Differential orientation effect in the neural response to interacting biological motion of two agents  

PubMed Central

Background A recent behavioral study demonstrated that the meaningful interaction of two agents enhances the detection sensitivity of biological motion (BM), however, it remains unclear when and how the 'interaction' information of two agents is represented in our neural system. To clarify this point, we used magnetoencephalography and introduced a novel experimental technique to extract a neuromagnetic response relating to two-agent BM perception. We then investigated how this response was modulated by the interaction of two agents. In the present experiment, we presented two kinds of visual stimuli (interacting and non-interacting BM) with two orientations (upright and inverted). Results We found a neuromagnetic response in the bilateral occipitotemporal region, on average 300 – 400 ms after the onset of a two-agent BM stimulus. This result showed that interhemispheric differences were apparent for the peak amplitudes. For the left hemisphere, the orientation effect was manifest when the two agents were made to interact, and the interaction effect was manifest when the stimulus was inverted. In the right hemisphere, the main effects of both orientation and interaction were significant, suggesting that the peak amplitude was attenuated when the visual stimulus was inverted or made to interact. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the 'interaction' information of two agents can affect the neural activities in the bilateral occipitotemporal region, on average 300 – 400 ms after the onset of a two-agent BM stimulus, however, the modulation was different between hemispheres: the left hemisphere is more concerned with dynamics, whereas the right hemisphere is more concerned with form information. PMID:19397815

Hirai, Masahiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

2009-01-01

63

Mutual Fund Survivorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a comprehensive study of survivorship issues using the mutual fund data of Carhart (1997). We demonstrate theoretically that when survival depends on multiperiod performance, the survivorship bias in average performance typically increases with the sample length. This is empirically relevant because evidence suggests a multiyear survival rule for U.S. mutual funds. In the data we find the

Mark M. Carhart; Jennifer N. Carpenter; Anthony W. Lynch; David K. Musto

2002-01-01

64

When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

2010-01-01

65

Evolution of mutualism between species  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

1980-01-01

66

An orienting response is not enough: Bivalency not infrequency causes the bivalency effect  

PubMed Central

When switching tasks, occasionally responding to bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two different tasks) slows performance on subsequent univalent stimuli, even when they do not share relevant features with bivalent stimuli. This performance slowing is labelled the bivalency effect. Here, we investigated whether the bivalency effect results from an orienting response to the infrequent stimuli (i.e., the bivalent stimuli). To this end, we compared the impact of responding to infrequent univalent stimuli to the impact of responding to infrequent bivalent stimuli. For the latter, the results showed a performance slowing for all trials following bivalent stimuli. This indicates a long-lasting bivalency effect, replicating previous findings. For infrequent univalent stimuli, however, the results showed a smaller and shorter-lived performance slowing. These results demonstrate that the bivalency effect does not simply reflect an orienting response to infrequent stimuli. Rather it results from the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli, probably by episodic binding with the more demanding context created by them. PMID:24155863

Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

2013-01-01

67

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding James A. Coana  

E-print Network

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding James A. Coana *, Shelley Kasleb data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

68

Solving the Class Responsibility Assignment Problem in Object-Oriented Analysis with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD), class responsibility assignment is not an easy skill to acquire. Though there are many methodologies for assigning responsibilities to classes, they all rely on human judgment and decision making. Our objective is to provide decision-making support to reassign methods and attributes to classes in a class diagram. Our solution is based

Michael Bowman; Lionel C. Briand; Yvan Labiche

2010-01-01

69

Optical Response of Oriented and Highly Anisotropic Subwavelength Metallic Nanostructure Arrays  

SciTech Connect

Here we describe the optical transmission response of novel coatings with subwavelength metallic structures based on a quasi-open ring resonator design fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering. This offers a relatively simple approach to the fabrication of dense arrays of optically responsive subwavelength structures over large areas with an oriented two-dimensional array of parallel Au nanoshells. The cross-section of the individual lines is “L” shaped with an approximately 95 nm width, 75 nm height, and pitch of 140 nm to yield a resonant optical response in the visible/near infrared spectrum. Along the long axis of the shells, the geometry is wire-like and quasi-infinite in length compared to the cross-section. This highly anisotropic structure has a strongly polarization-dependent optical response. The coatings are characterized via optical transmission measurements as a function of wavelength, polarization, and angle are presented along with complementary numerical modeling results predicting the resonance shift with corresponding changes in fabrication parameters.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Danny J.; Mendoza, Albert; Suter, Jonathan D.

2013-05-23

70

Thermoregulatory responses of rats exposed to 9.3-GHz microwaves: a comparison of E and H orientation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exposure orientation relative to electric and magnetic fields (E and H fields) on the thermal, cardiovascular, and respiratory changes in ketamine-anesthetized rats exposed to far-field, continuous-wave, 9.3-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Irradiation (specific absorption rate = 12.5 W/kg in both orientations; power levels of 79 and 59 mW/cm2 in E and H orientations, respectively) was conducted to produce 1 degree C colonic temperature changes (38.5 to 39.5 degrees C). During experimentation, arterial blood pressure and respiratory rate, colonic (Tc) tympanic (Tt) left and right subcutaneous (Tsl & Tsr) (sides toward and away from RFR source), and tail temperatures (Tta) were continuously recorded. The Tsr change during E-orientation exposure was considerably less than the Tc change; the Tt and Tsr (H-orientation) changes approximated the Tc increase; and the Tsl and Tta changes (both orientations) were considerably greater than the Tc increase. The Tt and Tsl increases were virtually equal under the two exposure conditions; however, the Tsr increase was significantly greater during H-orientation irradiation, and the Tta increase was significantly greater during E-orientation exposure. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased significantly during irradiation; however the cardiovascular responses were not affected by exposure orientation. The latter findings at 9.3 GHz contrast with the marked cardiovascular response differences between E- and H-orientation exposure noted during previous studies at 0.7 to 2.45 GHz. PMID:1594657

Frei, M R; Jauchem, J R

1992-01-01

71

Weak mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

Quantum systems with variables in ${\\mathbb Z}(d)$ are considered. The properties of lines in the ${\\mathbb Z}(d)\\times {\\mathbb Z}(d)$ phase space of these systems, are studied. Weak mutually unbiased bases in these systems are defined as bases for which the overlap of any two vectors in two different bases, is equal to $d^{-1/2}$ or alternatively to one of the $d_i^{-1/2},0$ (where $d_i$ is a divisor of $d$ apart from $d,1$). They are designed for the geometry of the ${\\mathbb Z}(d)\\times {\\mathbb Z}(d)$ phase space, in the sense that there is a duality between the weak mutually unbiased bases and the maximal lines through the origin. In the special case of prime $d$, there are no divisors of $d$ apart from $1,d$ and the weak mutually unbiased bases are mutually unbiased bases.

M. Shalaby; A. Vourdas

2012-03-05

72

Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to determine if dispositional achievement goal orientation profiles that are reported in the literature would be observed in a sample of youth athletes, and (b) to examine potential achievement goal orientation profile differences on perceptions of the motivational climate, perceptions of peer relationships, and motivation-related responses. Male soccer players (n = 223) aged 9–12

Alan L. Smith; Isabel Balaguer; Joan L. Duda

2006-01-01

73

On mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

Mutually unbiased bases for quantum degrees of freedom are central to all theoretical investigations and practical exploitations of complementary properties. Much is known about mutually unbiased bases, but there are also a fair number of important questions that have not been answered in full as yet. In particular, one can find maximal sets of ${N+1}$ mutually unbiased bases in Hilbert spaces of prime-power dimension ${N=p^\\m}$, with $p$ prime and $\\m$ a positive integer, and there is a continuum of mutually unbiased bases for a continuous degree of freedom, such as motion along a line. But not a single example of a maximal set is known if the dimension is another composite number ($N=6,10,12,...$). In this review, we present a unified approach in which the basis states are labeled by numbers ${0,1,2,...,N-1}$ that are both elements of a Galois field and ordinary integers. This dual nature permits a compact systematic construction of maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases when they are known to exist but throws no light on the open existence problem in other cases. We show how to use the thus constructed mutually unbiased bases in quantum-informatics applications, including dense coding, teleportation, entanglement swapping, covariant cloning, and state tomography, all of which rely on an explicit set of maximally entangled states (generalizations of the familiar two--q-bit Bell states) that are related to the mutually unbiased bases. There is a link to the mathematics of finite affine planes. We also exploit the one-to-one correspondence between unbiased bases and the complex Hadamard matrices that turn the bases into each other. The ultimate hope, not yet fulfilled, is that open questions about mutually unbiased bases can be related to open questions about Hadamard matrices or affine planes, in particular the ...[rest deleted

Thomas Durt; Berthold-Georg Englert; Ingemar Bengtsson; Karol ?yczkowski

2010-10-20

74

Response of amphibian egg cytoplasm to novel gravity orientation and centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of inversion and centrifugation on the compartmentalization of cytoplasm in Xenopus laevis eggs are investigated experimentally. The rearrangement of yolk-platelet compartments (YPC) characterized by morphology, density, and viscosity differences is studied in fertilized, unfertilized, and unfertilized electrically activated eggs in normal, and inverted positions and with and without centrifugation at 10-183 x g for 5 min. The eggs are fixed and embedded in plastic or paraffin prior to sagittal sectioning (0.5, 4, or 8 microns) and microscopic examination; the results are presented in a diagram and discussed. A density-compartment model combining both animal/vegetal and dorsal/ventral polarities is proposed: YPC determined without gravity orientation during oogenesis respond to both sperm entrance point and gravity after fertilization, and the response involves breaking of the radial symmetry of the egg. It is predicted that Xenopus eggs in a microgravity environment will encounter difficulties in establishing a primary embryonic axis.

Neff, A. W.; Wakahara, M.; Jurand, A.; Malacinski, G. M.

1983-01-01

75

Quantum mutual independence  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of mutual independence -- correlations shared between distant parties which are independent of the environment. This notion is more general than the standard idea of a secret key -- it is a fully quantum and more general form of privacy. The states which possess mutual independence also generalize the so called private states -- those that possess private key. We then show that the problem of distributed compression of quantum information at distant sources can be solved in terms of mutual independence, if free entanglement between the senders and the receiver is available. Namely, we obtain a formula for the sum of rates of qubits needed to transmit a distributed state between Alice and Bob to a decoder Charlie. We also show that mutual independence is bounded from above by the relative entropy modulo a conjecture, saying that if after removal of a single qubit the state becomes product, its initial entanglement is bounded by 1. We suspect that mutual independence is a highly singular quantity, i.e. that it is positive only on a set of measure zero; furthermore, we believe that its presence is seen on the single copy level. This appears to be born out in the classical case.

Michal Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Andreas Winter

2009-11-05

76

Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

2014-01-01

77

Real Mutually Unbiased Bases  

E-print Network

We tabulate bounds on the optimal number of mutually unbiased bases in R^d. For most dimensions d, it can be shown with relatively simple methods that either there are no real orthonormal bases that are mutually unbiased or the optimal number is at most either 2 or 3. We discuss the limitations of these methods when applied to all dimensions, shedding some light on the difficulty of obtaining tight bounds for the remaining dimensions that have the form d=16n^2, where n can be any number. We additionally give a simpler, alternative proof that there can be at most d/2+1 real mutually unbiased bases in dimension d instead of invoking the known results on extremal Euclidean line sets by Cameron and Seidel, Delsarte, and Calderbank et al.

P. Oscar Boykin; Meera Sitharam; Mohamad Tarifi; Pawel Wocjan

2005-09-13

78

Floral scents: their roles in nursery pollination mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms are interspecies interactions in which each participant gains net benefits from interacting with its partner. In\\u000a nursery pollination mutualisms, pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. In these systems, each partner\\u000a depends directly on the other for its reproduction. Therefore, the signal responsible for partner encounter is crucial in\\u000a these horizontally transmitted mutualisms, in which the association between specific

Martine Hossaert-McKey; Catherine Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Magali Proffit

2010-01-01

79

Kinematic Responses to Changes in Walking Orientation and Gravitational Load in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects. PMID:25350743

Mendes, César S.; Rajendren, Soumya V.; Bartos, Imre; Márka, Szabolcs; Mann, Richard S.

2014-01-01

80

Solving the Class Responsibility Assignment Problem in Object-oriented Analysis with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD), class responsibility assignment is not an easy skill to acquire. Though there are many methodologies for assigning responsibilities to classes, they all rely on human judgment and decision making. Our objective is to provide decision-making support to re-assign methods and attributes to classes in a class diagram. Our solution is based

Bowman Michael; Lionel C. Briand; Yvan Labiche

2008-01-01

81

Quantum Mechanics Measurements, Mutually  

E-print Network

Quantum Mechanics Measurements, Mutually Unbiased Bases and Finite Geometry Or why six is the first) #12;Quantum Mechanics for Dummies Finite dimensional quantum states are represented by trace one,1 -icS1,1[ ] #12;Quantum systems evolve and are measured. The evolution of a quantum system using

Gruner, Daniel S.

82

Mutual fund styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual funds are typically grouped by their investment objectives or the ‘style’ of their managers. We propose a new empirical to the determination of manager ‘style’. This approach is simple to apply, yet it captures nonlinear patterns of returns that result from virtually all active portfolio management styles. Our classifications are superior to common industry classifications in predicting cross-sectional future

Stephen J. Brown; William N. Goetzmann

1997-01-01

83

Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: differences between exposure in E and H orientation.  

PubMed

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm2 for E and 45 mW/cm2 for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur. PMID:2388907

Jauchem, J R; Frei, M R; Padilla, J M

1990-09-01

84

Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: Differences between exposure in E and H orientation  

SciTech Connect

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm{sup 2} for E and 45 mW/cm{sup 2} for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5{degrees}C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur.

Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Padilla, J.M. (Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

85

Polarized Raman Anisotropic Response of Collagen in Tendon: Towards 3D Orientation Mapping of Collagen in Tissues  

PubMed Central

In this study, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) was used to characterize the anisotropic response of the amide I band of collagen as a basis for evaluating three-dimensional collagen fibril orientation in tissues. Firstly, the response was investigated theoretically by applying classical Raman theory to collagen-like peptide crystal structures. The theoretical methodology was then tested experimentally, by measuring amide I intensity anisotropy in rat tail as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization. For the theoretical study, several collagen-like triple-helical peptide crystal structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank were rotated “in plane” and “out of plane” to evaluate the role of molecular orientation on the intensity of the amide I band. Collagen-like peptides exhibit a sinusoidal anisotropic response when rotated “in plane” with respect to the polarized incident laser. Maximal intensity was obtained when the polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the molecule and minimal when parallel. In the case of “out of plane” rotation of the molecular structure a decreased anisotropic response was observed, becoming completely isotropic when the structure was perpendicular to the plane of observation. The theoretical Raman response of collagen was compared to that of alpha helical protein fragments. In contrast to collagen, alpha helices have a maximal signal when incident light is parallel to the molecule and minimal when perpendicular. For out-of-plane molecular orientations alpha-helix structures display a decreased average intensity. Results obtained from experiments on rat tail tendon are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the high potential of PRS for experimental evaluation of the three-dimensional orientation of collagen fibers in biological tissues. PMID:23691057

Galvis, Leonardo; Dunlop, John W. C.; Duda, Georg; Fratzl, Peter; Masic, Admir

2013-01-01

86

Spontaneous magnetic orientation in larval Drosophila shares properties with learned magnetic compass responses in adult flies and mice.  

PubMed

We provide evidence for spontaneous quadramodal magnetic orientation in a larval insect. Second instar Berlin, Canton-S and Oregon-R × Canton-S strains of Drosophila melanogaster exhibited quadramodal orientation with clusters of bearings along the four anti-cardinal compass directions (i.e. 45, 135, 225 and 315 deg). In double-blind experiments, Canton-S Drosophila larvae also exhibited quadramodal orientation in the presence of an earth-strength magnetic field, while this response was abolished when the horizontal component of the magnetic field was cancelled, indicating that the quadramodal behavior is dependent on magnetic cues, and that the spontaneous alignment response may reflect properties of the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. In addition, a re-analysis of data from studies of learned magnetic compass orientation by adult Drosophila melanogaster and C57BL/6 mice revealed patterns of response similar to those exhibited by larval flies, suggesting that a common magnetoreception mechanism may underlie these behaviors. Therefore, characterizing the mechanism(s) of magnetoreception in flies may hold the key to understanding the magnetic sense in a wide array of terrestrial organisms. PMID:23239891

Painter, Michael S; Dommer, David H; Altizer, William W; Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B

2013-04-01

87

Mutual funds under fire: reform initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To describe the broad range of reform initiatives that has been undertaken in response to a series of mutual fund scandals that have become apparent starting in 2003. This is the second of a two-part article. The first part, in Volume 7, Number 1, is a chronology of developments related to the fund scandals since 1 January 2003.

Thomas R. Smith Jr

2006-01-01

88

Mutual fund trading and liquidity  

E-print Network

This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

2010-01-01

89

Equality, diversity and corporate responsibility : Sexual orientation and diversity management in the UK private sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the triggers to the development of sexual orientation diversity policy and practice in the UK private sector, based on the perspectives of those “championing” sexual orientation diversity work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on 22 in-depth key informant interviews which can be broken down as follows: diversity specialists (5),

Fiona Colgan

2011-01-01

90

A distributed mutual exclusion algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed algorithm is presented that realizes mutual exclusion among N nodes in a computer network. The algorithm requires at most N message exchanges for one mutual exclusion invocation. Accordingly, the delay to invoke mutual exclusion is smaller than in an algorithm of Ricart and Agrawala, which requires 2*(N - 1) message exchanges per invocation. A drawback of the algorithm

Ichiro Suzuki; Tadao Kasami

1985-01-01

91

MUTUAL DIAMOND Sy D. Friedman  

E-print Network

MUTUAL DIAMOND Sy D. Friedman Department of Mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Zoran-like principle for singular cardinals based on the notion of mutual stationarity due to Magidor and prove that it holds in L. In a joint work with Foreman [1], Magidor used the notion of mutual stationarity to show

92

MUTUAL DIAMOND Sy D. Friedman  

E-print Network

MUTUAL DIAMOND Sy D. Friedman Department of Mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Zoran­like principle for singular cardinals based on the notion of mutual stationarity due to Magidor and prove that it holds in L. In a joint work with Foreman [1], Magidor used the notion of mutual stationarity to show

93

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2013-04-01

94

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2014-04-01

95

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2012-04-01

96

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2011-04-01

97

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood...

2010-04-01

98

Influence of High Orientational Order on the Shape of the Echo Response from a Hahn Pulse Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amplitude modulations in the simulations of the Hahn echo responses from cholestane spin labels in samples characterized by a high degree of orientational order are shown to arise from the use of "soft" pulses. Soft pulses have a limited spectral range and cover only a small portion of the CW-ESR spectra, so that not all the spins are on-resonance. The magnetization vectors of the off-resonance spins only partially tilted away from the laboratory zaxis, the direction of the applied static magnetic field. They thus contribute oscillating components to the magnetization in the xyplane. The contribution from the off-resonance spins to the Hahn echo formation is significant in highly oriented samples, but cancels out in samples exhibiting a small degree of order. Experimental echo responses obtained from CSL molecules embedded in rigid matrices of eggPC bilayers and the liquid crystalline materials ZLI and MBBA confirm the theoretical predictions.

van der Struijf, C.; Nienhuys, H. K.; Harryvan, D.; Kothe, G.; Levine, Y. K.

1998-02-01

99

Orienting Response and Memory for Web Advertisements:Exploring Effects of Pop-Up Window and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of pop-up windows and animation on online users’ orienting response and memory for Web advertisements. All participants (N = 60) in a mixed-design factorial experiment were exposed to four online portal Web sites, each containing a banner ad that was either animated or static and a pop-up ad that was also either animated or static.

Fangfang Diao; S. Shyam Sundar

2004-01-01

100

ORIENTATION 2014 ORIENTATION 2014  

E-print Network

ORIENTATION 2014 #12;ORIENTATION 2014 #12;ORIENTATION 2014 Functions as the University's Banker personal checks up to $125.00/day for a $.50 fee #12;ORIENTATION 2014 Today ­ Orientation students Financial Aid paybacks if already withdrawn #12;ORIENTATION 2014 Expense Amount Tuition $ 3,498.00 Housing 2

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

101

Multi-modal volume registration by maximization of mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new information-theoretic approach is presented for nding the registration of volumetric medical images of diering modalities. Registration is achieved by adjust- ment of the relative position and orientation until the mutual information between the images is maximized. In our derivation of the registration procedure, few as- sumptions are made about the nature of the imaging process. As a result

William M. Wells III; Paul A. Viola; Hideki Atsumi; Shin Nakajima; Ron Kikinis

1996-01-01

102

Cheaters in mutualism networks  

PubMed Central

Mutualism-network studies assume that all interacting species are mutualistic partners and consider that all links are of one kind. However, the influence of different types of links, such as cheating links, on network organization remains unexplored. We studied two flower-visitation networks (Malpighiaceae and Bignoniaceae and their flower visitors), and divide the types of link into cheaters (i.e. robbers and thieves of flower rewards) and effective pollinators. We investigated if there were topological differences among networks with and without cheaters, especially with respect to nestedness and modularity. The Malpighiaceae network was nested, but not modular, and it was dominated by pollinators and had much fewer cheater species than Bignoniaceae network (28% versus 75%). The Bignoniaceae network was mainly a plant–cheater network, being modular because of the presence of pollen robbers and showing no nestedness. In the Malpighiaceae network, removal of cheaters had no major consequences for topology. In contrast, removal of cheaters broke down the modularity of the Bignoniaceae network. As cheaters are ubiquitous in all mutualisms, the results presented here show that they have a strong impact upon network topology. PMID:20089538

Genini, Julieta; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.

2010-01-01

103

Orientation and Direction-of-Motion Response in the Middle Temporal Visual Area (MT) of New World Owl Monkeys as Revealed by Intrinsic-Signal Optical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic-signal optical imaging was used to evaluate relationships of domains of neurons in middle temporal visual area (MT) selective for stimulus orientation and direction-of-motion. Maps of activation were elicited in MT of owl monkeys by gratings drifting back-and-forth, flashed stationary gratings and unidirectionally drifting fields of random dots. Drifting gratings, typically used to reveal orientation preference domains, contain a motion component that may be represented in MT. Consequently, this stimulus could activate groups of cells responsive to the motion of the grating, its orientation or a combination of both. Domains elicited from either moving or static gratings were remarkably similar, indicating that these groups of cells are responding to orientation, although they may also encode information about motion. To assess the relationship between domains defined by drifting oriented gratings and those responsive to direction-of-motion, the response to drifting fields of random dots was measured within domains defined from thresholded maps of activation elicited by the drifting gratings. The optical response elicited by drifting fields of random dots was maximal in a direction orthogonal to the map of orientation preference. Thus, neurons in domains selective for stimulus orientation are also selective for motion orthogonal to the preferred stimulus orientation. PMID:20661299

Kaskan, Peter M.; Dillenburger, Barbara C.; Lu, Haidong D.; Roe, Anna W.; Kaas, Jon H.

2010-01-01

104

Relationship between suspicious coincidence in natural images and contour-salience in oriented filter responses  

E-print Network

in the figure shows a linear fit to the data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 11 L2 vs. sigma of the OED. The L2 values obtained by comparing h(E) and g(E) are compared to the square root of the raw second mo- ment (sigma) of g(E). Each point... in the plot corresponds to one of 31 natural images. The straight line in the figure shows a linear fit to the data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 12 Orientation Energy thresholds selected by humans vs. sigma. The orientation...

Sarma, Subramonia P.

2004-09-30

105

Orbits of mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

We express Alltop's construction of mutually unbiased bases as orbits under the Weyl-Heisenberg group in prime dimensions and find a related construction in dimensions 2 and 4. We reproduce Alltop's mutually unbiased bases using abelian subgroups of the Clifford group in prime dimensions, in direct analogy to the well-known construction of mutually unbiased bases using abelian subgroups of the Weyl-Heisenberg group. Finally, we prove three theorems relating to the distances and linear dependencies among different sets of mutually unbiased bases.

Kate Blanchfield

2014-03-25

106

Constructions of Mutually Unbiased Bases  

E-print Network

Two orthonormal bases B and B' of a d-dimensional complex inner-product space are called mutually unbiased if and only if ||^2=1/d holds for all b in B and b' in B'. The size of any set containing (pairwise) mutually unbiased bases of C^d cannot exceed d+1. If d is a power of a prime, then extremal sets containing d+1 mutually unbiased bases are known to exist. We give a simplified proof of this fact based on the estimation of exponential sums. We discuss conjectures and open problems concerning the maximal number of mutually unbiased bases for arbitrary dimensions.

Andreas Klappenecker; Martin Roetteler

2003-09-15

107

Reflectance properties of silicon moth-eyes in response to variations in angle of incidence, polarisation and azimuth orientation.  

PubMed

We report a study of the optical properties of silicon moth-eye structures using a custom-made fully automated broadband spectroscopic reflectometry system (goniometer). This measurement system is able to measure specular reflectance as a function of wavelength, polar incidence angle and azimuth orientation angle, from normal to near-parallel polar incidence angle. The system uses a linear polarized broadband super-continuum laser light source. It is shown that a moth-eye structure composed of a regular array of protruding silicon rods, with finite sidewall angle reduces reflectance and sensitivity to incident wavelength in comparison to truly cylindrical rods with perpendicular sidewalls. It is also shown that moth-eye structures have omnidirectional reflectance properties in response to azimuth orientation of the sample. The importance of applying the reflectometer setup to study the optical properties of solar cell antireflective structures is highlighted. PMID:24922250

Asadollahbaik, Asa; Boden, Stuart A; Charlton, Martin D B; Payne, David N R; Cox, Simon; Bagnall, Darren M

2014-03-10

108

"With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do students from privileged communities respond to educational efforts encouraging them to become justice-oriented citizens? Observational and interview data collected during a semester-long case study of eleven high school students in a social studies class at an elite private school reveal four markedly different interpretations of their…

Swalwell, Katy

2013-01-01

109

Reflexive Orienting in Response to Eye Gaze and an Arrow in Children with and without Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one…

Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2004-01-01

110

YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

111

Cotton response to crop row offset and orientation to subsurface drip irrigation laterals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent increase in the use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) for cotton production in the Texas High Plains has resulted in questions concerning drip lateral position and orientation relative to crop rows. Field experiments were conducted at Halfway, Texas to evaluate traditional SDI installat...

112

YIELD RESPONSE TO PEANUT ROW ORIENTATION AND SEEDING RATE WHEN IRRIGATED USING SDI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are typically planted in a single or twin row orientation, however, research indicates that peanut planted at equidistance between rows and plants in alternating rows (diamond shape) and using the same planting rate can increase pod yield. A study was conducted to eval...

113

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson ( 2006 ), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys - a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (hand-holding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

Coan, James A; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S; Davidson, Richard J

2013-01-01

114

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys – a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (handholding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

Coan, James A.; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

115

Position Descriptions 2010 Orientation Team Leader and Returning Orientation Leader  

E-print Network

Position Descriptions 2010 Orientation Team Leader and Returning Orientation Leader Student Orientation Programs Portland State University Summary of Responsibilities and Expectations Orientation Team Leader This is a new position for 2010. Orientation Team Leaders will serve as mentors to the Orientation

116

Thermal and physiological responses of rats exposed to 2.45-GHz radiofrequency radiation: a comparison of E and H orientation.  

PubMed

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in both E and H orientations to far-field 2.45-GHz continuous-wave radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at a power density of 60 mW/cm2 (whole-body average specific absorption rate of approximately 14 W/kg). Intermittent exposures were performed in both orientations in the same animal to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C. Tympanic, subcutaneous (sides toward and away from RFR source), and colonic temperature, ECG, arterial blood pressure, and respiratory rate were continuously recorded. The pattern of heat distribution within the animal and the physiological responses were significantly different between E- and H-orientation exposure. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater peripheral and tympanic heating, while irradiation in H orientation resulted in greater core heating. Heart rate and blood pressure increased significantly during irradiation and returned to baseline levels when exposure was discontinued; the increases were significantly greater in E than in H orientation. Respiratory rate increased significantly during irradiation in H, but not in E orientation. The physiological responses could have been influenced by the different levels or rates of subcutaneous and tympanic heating, or the differential between core and peripheral heating during E- and H-orientation irradiation. These results suggest that, when interpreting results of RFR exposure, animal orientation during irradiation must be considered. PMID:2798772

Frei, M R; Jauchem, J R; Padilla, J M; Merritt, J H

1989-01-01

117

Total correlations and mutual information  

E-print Network

In quantum information theory it is generally accepted that quantum mutual information is an information-theoretic measure of total correlations of a bipartite quantum state. We argue that there exist quantum states for which quantum mutual information cannot be considered as a measure of total correlations. Moreover, for these states we propose a different way of quantifying total correlations.

Zbigniew Walczak

2012-11-15

118

Efficient and timely mutual authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a protocol for efficient mutual authentication (via a mutually trusted third party) that assures both principal parties of the timeliness of the interaction without the use of clocks or double encipherment. The protocol requires a total of only four messages to be exchanged between the three parties concerned.

David J. Otway; Owen Rees

1987-01-01

119

Orientational Order and Mechanical Response in Strained Polymer Liquids and Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new liquid state theory has been developed to predict the influence of interchain repulsions on strain-induced orientational order and mechanical properties of polymer solutions, melts and networks. Within the assumption of affine deformation, the strain-induced nematic order parameter is predicted to scale as the inverse square root of the degree of polymerization and increase in a supra-linear manner with

Folusho Oyerokun; Kenneth Schweizer

2003-01-01

120

The Evolution of Interspecific Mutualisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interspecific mutualisms are widespread, but how they evolve is not clear. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is the main theoretical tool to study cooperation, but this model ignores ecological differences between partners and assumes that amounts exchanged cannot themselves evolve. A more realistic model incorporating these features shows that strategies that succeed with fixed exchanges (e.g., Tit-for-Tat) cannot explain mutualism when exchanges vary because the amount exchanged evolves to 0. For mutualism to evolve, increased investments in a partner must yield increased returns, and spatial structure in competitive interactions is required. Under these biologically plausible assumptions, mutualism evolves with surprising ease. This suggests that, contrary to the basic premise of past theoretical analyses, overcoming a potential host's initial defenses may be a bigger obstacle for mutualism than the subsequent recurrence and spread of noncooperative mutants.

Doebeli, Michael; Knowlton, Nancy

1998-07-01

121

Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

1986-01-01

122

Orientation-Cue Invariant Population Responses to Contrast-Modulated and Phase-Reversed Contour Stimuli in Macaque V1 and V2  

PubMed Central

Visual scenes can be readily decomposed into a variety of oriented components, the processing of which is vital for object segregation and recognition. In primate V1 and V2, most neurons have small spatio-temporal receptive fields responding selectively to oriented luminance contours (first order), while only a subgroup of neurons signal non-luminance defined contours (second order). So how is the orientation of second-order contours represented at the population level in macaque V1 and V2? Here we compared the population responses in macaque V1 and V2 to two types of second-order contour stimuli generated either by modulation of contrast or phase reversal with those to first-order contour stimuli. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we found that the orientation of second-order contour stimuli was represented invariantly in the orientation columns of both macaque V1 and V2. A physiologically constrained spatio-temporal energy model of V1 and V2 neuronal populations could reproduce all the recorded population responses. These findings suggest that, at the population level, the primate early visual system processes the orientation of second-order contours initially through a linear spatio-temporal filter mechanism. Our results of population responses to different second-order contour stimuli support the idea that the orientation maps in primate V1 and V2 can be described as a spatial-temporal energy map. PMID:25188576

An, Xu; Gong, Hongliang; Yin, Jiapeng; Wang, Xiaochun; Pan, Yanxia; Zhang, Xian; Lu, Yiliang; Yang, Yupeng; Toth, Zoltan; Schiessl, Ingo; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

123

Sex Differences in Orienting to Pictures with and without Humans: Evidence from the Cardiac Evoked Response (ECR) and the Cortical Long Latency Parietal Positivity (LPP)  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the effect of social relevance in affective pictures on two orienting responses, i.e. the evoked cardiac response (ECR), and a long latency cortical evoked potential (LPP) and whether this effect would differ between males and females. Assuming that orienting to affective social information is fundamental to experiencing affective empathy, associations between self-report measures of empathy and the two orienting responses were investigated. Method ECRs were obtained from 34 female and 30 male students, and LPPs from 25 female and 27 male students viewing 414 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Pictures portrayed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Results Both the ECR and LPP showed the largest response to pictures with humans in unpleasant situations. For both measures, the responses to pictures with humans correlated with self-report measures of empathy. While we found a greater male than female responsiveness to the pictures without humans in the ECR, a greater female than male responsiveness was observed in the LPP response to pictures with humans. Conclusion and Significance The sensitivity of these orienting responses to social relevance and their differential contribution to the prediction of individual differences underline the validity of their combined use in clinical studies investigating individuals with social disabilities. PMID:25330003

Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; van der Schaft, Lutske; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tucha, Oliver; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.

2014-01-01

124

Strategic Orientation and Nursing Home Response to Public Reporting of Quality Measures: An Application of the Miles and Snow Typology  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether differences in strategic orientation of nursing homes as identified by the Miles and Snow typology are associated with differences in their response to the publication of quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare website. Data Sources Administrator survey of a national 10 percent random sample (1,502 nursing homes) of all facilities included in the first publication of the Nursing Home Compare report conducted in May–June 2004; 724 responded, yielding a response rate of 48.2 percent. Study Design The dependent variables are dichotomous, indicating whether or not action was taken and the type of action taken. Four indicator variables were created for each of the four strategic types: Defender, Analyzer, Prospector, and Reactor. Other variables were included in the seven logistic regression models to control for factors other than strategic type that could influence nursing home response to public disclosure of their quality of care. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey data were merged with data on quality measures and organizational characteristics from the first report (November 2002). Principal Findings About 43 percent of surveyed administrators self-typed as Defenders, followed by Analyzers (33 percent), and Prospectors (19 percent). The least self-selected strategic type was the Reactor (6.6 percent). In general, results of the regression models indicate differences in response to quality measure publication by strategic type, with Prospectors and Analyzers more likely, and Reactors less likely, to respond than Defenders. Conclusions While almost a third of administrators took no action at all, our results indicate that whether, when, and how nursing homes reacted to publication of federally reported quality measures is associated with strategic orientation. PMID:18370969

Zinn, Jacqueline S; Spector, William D; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

2008-01-01

125

Covert orienting to the locations of targets and distractors: Effects on response channel  

E-print Network

of trafficlights. As youapproach a green traffic light, the next traffic light ahead is red; and you might begin to respond to the second light by removing your foot from the accelerator. This response often occurs without the second stoplight. Further- more, these automatic types of response can also occur in the presence

Kanwisher, Nancy

126

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

127

Response of liquid scintillator assemblies as a function of angular orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid scintillator detector assemblies contain an inert nitrogen expansion volume to allow for expansion of the liquid with changing temperature. Measurements and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the dependence of pulse height distribution shapes as a function of detector angle for two liquid scintillators assemblies filled with 97% organic-liquid cocktail and a 3% expansion volume. A 12.7-cm diameter by 12.7-cm long and a 7.6-cm diameter by 9.1-cm long EJ-309 liquid scintillator assemblies are investigated using a 137Cs gamma-ray source. Aside from the differences in dimensions, the detector assemblies also differed in the design of the active detector volume: there is no light guide in the 12.7-cm-diameter detector assembly, whereas the 7.6-cm-diameter detector contains a BK7 light guide between the scintillation liquid and optical coupling to the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 12.7-cm-diameter detector show a decrease in the position of the Compton edge ranges from 4% to 40% at detector orientations where the expansion volume exists between scintillating medium and the photomultiplier tube. Results for the 7.6-cm-diameter detector show that the position of the Compton edge is relatively unaffected at all detector orientations due to the presence of light guide.

Naeem, S. F.; Scarpelli, M.; Miller, E.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.

2014-06-01

128

Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality  

PubMed Central

Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and palliative care related to end-of-life circumstances. Specifically, the complementarity of grief and palliative care, as well as a controvertible view thereof, will be considered. PMID:25278758

Moon, Paul J

2013-01-01

129

Uncertainty Relation for Mutual Information  

E-print Network

We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

James Schneeloch; Curtis J. Broadbent; John C. Howell

2014-12-17

130

Landauer current and mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum evolution of the mutual information of a quantum dot connected to left and right leads initially maintained at chemical potentials ?L and ?R, respectively, within the noninteracting resonant-level model. The full nonequilirbium mixed state density matrix of the whole system is written down exactly, and the mutual information of the dot with respect to the leads is computed. A strong and direct correlation is found between the Landauer current and the mutual information at all times, the steady-state values in particular displaying a quadratic relationship at high temperatures. Strikingly, it is found that one can obtain a maximal mutual information by simply applying a sufficiently large "source-drain" voltage VSD even at high temperatures.

Sharma, Auditya; Rabani, Eran

2015-02-01

131

The Mutually Unbiased Bases Revisited  

E-print Network

The study of Mutually Unbiased Bases continues to be developed vigorously, and presents several challenges in the Quantum Information Theory. Two orthonormal bases in $\\mathbb C^d, B {and} B'$ are said mutually unbiased if $\\forall b\\in B, b'\\in B'$ the scalar product $b\\cdot b'$ has modulus $d^{-1/2}$. In particular this property has been introduced in order to allow an optimization of the measurement-driven quantum evolution process of any state $\\psi \\in \\mathbb C^d$ when measured in the mutually unbiased bases $B\\_{j} {of} \\mathbb C^d$. At present it is an open problem to find the maximal umber of mutually Unbiased Bases when $d$ is not a power of a prime number. \

M. Combescure

2006-05-10

132

Disorienting Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn's article provides educators with a comprehensive review of possible modes of studying and teaching rabbinic literature. His method of extensive consultation and dialogue with teachers of…

Gillis, Michael

2010-01-01

133

An investigation of the influences of noise on EEG power bands and visual cognitive responses for human-oriented product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various different human-oriented approaches are required in industrial activities. Noise is one of the most widespread sources\\u000a of environmental stress. So, it is important to consider noise when we design human-oriented products. This study investigates\\u000a the responses of EEG and eye movement data in order to evaluate the direct effects of low, middle, and high frequency noise\\u000a on the two

Wonhak Cho; Sung-Ho Hwang; Hyeonki Choi

2011-01-01

134

The Price of Socially Responsible Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the consequences of socially responsible (SR) investment for both mutual funds and mutual fund investors. To do so, we address two main questions: 1) What efiect does the SR constraint have on a mutual fund's flnancial performance and fees?; and 2) What price do mutual fund investors pay|or what premium do they receive|from investing in SR mutual funds?

Javier Gil-Bazo; Andre Portela; Pablo Ruiz-Verdu

135

Integrating Addiction Treatment and Mutual Aid Recovery Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most widely used source of help for alcohol problems is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and much formal treatment has adapted\\u000a AA’s methods and concepts. Usually many people seek help from AA at the recommendation of a treatment professional. Even treatment\\u000a programs that historically have not been 12-step-oriented, such as Therapeutic Communities, may recommend AA or mutual help\\u000a alternatives post-treatment. Because

Lee Ann Kaskutas; Meenakshi Subbaraman

136

Entanglement in mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

One of the essential features of quantum mechanics is that most pairs of observables cannot be measured simultaneously. This phenomenon is most strongly manifested when observables are related to mutually unbiased bases. In this paper, we shed some light on the connection between mutually unbiased bases and another essential feature of quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement. It is shown that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases of a bipartite system contains a fixed amount of entanglement, independently of the choice of the set. This has implications for entanglement distribution among the states of a complete set. In prime-squared dimensions we present an explicit experiment-friendly construction of a complete set with a particularly simple entanglement distribution. Finally, we describe basic properties of mutually unbiased bases composed only of product states. The constructions are illustrated with explicit examples in low dimensions. We believe that properties of entanglement in mutually unbiased bases might be one of the ingredients to be taken into account to settle the question of the existence of complete sets. We also expect that they will be relevant to applications of bases in the experimental realization of quantum protocols in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces.

M. Wiesniak; T. Paterek; A. Zeilinger

2011-05-27

137

Jealousy in response to online and offline infidelity: the role of sex and sexual orientation.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to examine the emotional content and intensity of jealousy in response to different types of infidelity (both online and offline unfaithful partner behaviors) among Dutch heterosexuals (n = 191) and homosexuals (n = 121). Based on previous research (Dijkstra, Barelds & Groothof, 2010), participants were presented with ten jealousy-evoking situations following which the intensity of two different emotional aspects of jealousy was assessed (betrayal/anger and threat). Results showed that scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else or falling in love with someone else primarily evoked betrayal/anger-related jealousy, whereas scenarios describing an emotional connection between a partner and someone else primarily evoked threat-related jealousy. In addition, women experienced more jealousy than men in response to scenarios in which a partner engaged in potentially extra-dyadic online (but not offline) behaviors. Finally, compared to same-sex heterosexuals, homosexuals, both male and female, responded with less intense jealousy to scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else. Implications for the treatment of (internet) infidelity are discussed. PMID:23682617

Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

2013-08-01

138

Mechanical Response of Stitched T300 Mat/Urethane 420 IMR Composite Laminates: Property/Orientation Dependence and Damage Evolution  

SciTech Connect

This report presents experimental and analytical results of investigations on the mechanical response of stitched T300 mat/urethane 420 IMR composite laminates with three different lay-up configurations. Tensile tests and short-term creep and recovery tests were conducted on the laminate coupons at various orientations. The X-ray photographic technique was adopted to detect the internal damage due to external loading history. The tensile data of laminates with antisymmetric and symmetric lay-ups indicated that lay- up sequences of cross-ply laminates do not have much influence on their tensile properties. However, misalignments within the stitch-bonded plies disturb the symmetry of intended quasi-isotropic laminates and thereby cause the mechanical properties to exhibit a certain amount of angular dependence. Classic lamination theory was found to be able to provide a very good prediction of tensile properties for the stitched laminates within linear range. Creep and recovery response of laminate coupons is greatly dependent on loading angles and load levels. The internal damage of laminate coupons is also directly related to loading angles and load levels as well as loading history.

Deng, S.; Weitsman, Y.J.

2000-03-01

139

Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.  

PubMed Central

Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2003-01-01

140

Insect mutualisms buffer warming effects on multiple trophic levels.  

PubMed

Insect mutualisms can have disproportionately large impacts on local arthropod and plant communities and their responses to climatic change. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of insect mutualisms affects host plant and herbivore responses to warming. Using open-top warming chambers at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, we manipulated temperature and presence of ants and Chaitophorus populicola aphids on Populus tremuloides host plants and monitored ant attendance and persistence of C. populicola, predator abundance, plant stress, and abundance of Myzus persicae, a pest aphid that colonized plants during the experiment. We found that, regardless of warming, C. populicola persistence was higher when tended by ants, and some ant species increased aphid persistence more than others. Warming had negligible direct but strong indirect effects on plant stress. Plant stress decreased with warming only when both ants and C. populicola aphids were present and engaged in mutualism. Plant stress was increased by warming-induced reductions in predator abundance and increases in M. persicae aphid abundance. Altogether, these findings suggest that insect mutualisms could buffer the effects of warming on specialist herbivores and plants, but when mutualisms are not intact, the direct effects of warming on predators and generalist herbivores yield strong indirect effects of warming on plants. PMID:24649640

Marquis, Michael; Del Toro, Israel; Pelini, Shannon L

2014-01-01

141

Mutual Respect and Civic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories of civic education frequently appeal to an ideal of mutual respect in the context of ethical, ethical and religious disagreement. This paper critically examines two recently popular criticisms of this ideal. The first, coming from a postmodern direction, charges that the ideal is hypocritical in its effort to be maximally…

Bird, Colin

2010-01-01

142

Decomposition of mutual fund underperformance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article follows a three-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach proposed by Fried et al. (2002) to decompose mutual fund underperformance, in order to obtain pure managerial performance. In the first stage, DEA is used to compute each fund's performance. In the second stage, a stochastic frontier regression decomposes fund underperformance into characteristics (including fund and management attributes), managerial inefficiency,

Jin-Li Hu; Tzu-Pu Chang

2008-01-01

143

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

144

Median fin function during the escape response of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). I: Fin-ray orientation and movement.  

PubMed

The fast-start escape response is critically important to avoid predation, and axial movements driving it have been studied intensively. Large median dorsal and anal fins located near the tail have been hypothesized to increase acceleration away from the threat, yet the contribution of flexible median fins remains undescribed. To investigate the role of median fins, C-start escape responses of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were recorded by three high-speed, high-resolution cameras at 500 frames s(-1) and the 3-D kinematics of individual dorsal and anal fin rays were analyzed. Movement and orientation of the fin rays relative to the body axis were calculated throughout the duration of the C-start. We found that: (1) timing and magnitude of angular displacement varied among fin rays based on position within the fin and (2) kinematic patterns support the prediction that fin rays are actively resisting hydrodynamic forces and transmitting momentum into the water. We suggest that regions within the fins have different roles. Anterior regions of the fins are rapidly elevated to increase the volume of water that the fish may interact with and transmit force into, thus generating greater total momentum. The movement pattern of all the fin rays creates traveling waves that move posteriorly along the length of the fin, moving water as they do so. Flexible posterior regions ultimately act to accelerate this water towards the tail, potentially interacting with vortices generated by the caudal fin during the C-start. Despite their simple appearance, median fins are highly complex and versatile control surfaces that modulate locomotor performance. PMID:22837461

Chadwell, Brad A; Standen, Emily M; Lauder, George V; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

2012-08-15

145

How Are Derivatives Used? Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate investment managers' use of derivatives by comparing return distributions for equity mutual funds that use and do not use derivatives. In contrast to public perception, derivative users have risk exposure and return performance that are similar to nonusers. We also analyze changes in fund risk in response to prior fund performance. Changes in risk are substantially less severe

Jennifer Lynch Koski; Jeffrey Pontiff

1999-01-01

146

Plant—carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and carnivorous arthropods can interact mutualistically. A recent discovery is that such mutualisms can be mediated by volatile compounds — produced by plants in response to herbivore damage — that attract carnivores. However, after emission of these attractants, the plant has no control over their use. Thus, exploitation of the information may occur, to the detriment of the plant,

Junji Takabayashi; Marcel Dicke

1996-01-01

147

Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.  

PubMed

Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

2015-02-01

148

The viscoelastic reflection/transmission problem for general orientation of propagation and attenuation  

E-print Network

The viscoelastic reflection/transmission problem for general orientation of propagation interface between two homogeneous isotropic viscoelastic halfspaces. A general orientation are mutually cou­ pled at structural interfaces due to viscoelasticity. In general, the R/T coefficients

Cerveny, Vlastislav

149

Senate Orientation Activities Review Board Orientation Week Policy Manual  

E-print Network

Senate Orientation Activities Review Board Orientation Week Policy Manual Approving Body: Queen's University Senate Sponsor(s) Responsible for the Policy Manual: Voting members of the Senate Orientation;SOARB Orientation Week Policies and Procedures Manual Page 2 of 41 Last Edited: April 21, 2014 Contents

Abolmaesumi, Purang

150

Chapter 06 Employee Orientation 6.01 Classified Employee Orientation  

E-print Network

Chapter 06 Employee Orientation 6.01 Classified Employee Orientation Policy The employing unit supervisor and/or designee has the responsibility for orienting new employees to duties, job performance under the civil service system. · Procedure The employing unit may choose to have group orientations

Sheridan, Jennifer

151

A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Leslie Lamport  

E-print Network

A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Leslie Lamport November 14, 1985 revised October 31, 1986 #12. #12; Author's Abstract A new solution to the mutual exclusion problem is presented that or write, it is necessary to implement mutual exclusion using only these operations. Solutions

Lamport ,Leslie

152

Plant invasions – the role of mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal- mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are

DAVID M. RICHARDSON; NICKY ALLSOPP; CARLA M. D'ANTONIO; SUZANNE J. MILTON; MARCEL REJMÁNEK

2000-01-01

153

Mutually algebraic structures and expansions by predicates  

E-print Network

Mutually algebraic structures and expansions by predicates Michael C. Laskowski Department of Mathematics University of Maryland March 9, 2011 Abstract We introduce the notions of a mutually algebraic structures and theories and prove many equivalents. A theory T is mutually algebraic if and only

Laskowski, Chris

154

Mutual Exclusion Scheduling Brenda S. Baker  

E-print Network

Mutual Exclusion Scheduling Brenda S. Baker Edward G. Coffman, Jr. AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mutual exclusion scheduling is the problem of scheduling unit­time tasks non­preemptively on m processors by a mutual exclusion graph G in which each vertex represents a task requiring one unit of running time

Coffman Jr., E. G.

155

A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Leslie Lamport  

E-print Network

A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Leslie Lamport November 14, 1985 revised October 31, 1986 #12. All rights reserved. #12;Author's Abstract A new solution to the mutual exclusion problem is presented read or write, it is necessary to implement mutual exclusion using only these operations. Solutions

Rajamani, Sriram K.

156

Mutually algebraic structures and expansions by predicates  

E-print Network

Mutually algebraic structures and expansions by predicates Michael C. Laskowski Department of Mathematics University of Maryland March 9, 2011 Abstract We introduce the notion of a mutually algebraic structure and prove many equivalents. A structure M is mutually algebraic if and only if it has a weakly

Laskowski, Chris

157

Mutual Exclusion Revisited Boleslaw K. Szymanski  

E-print Network

Mutual Exclusion Revisited Boleslaw K. Szymanski Computer Science Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180 Abstract A family of four mutual exclusion algorithms is pre- sented. Its members vary from a simple three-bit linear wait mutual exclusion to the four-bit first-come first- served

Varela, Carlos

158

Conditional mutual information and self-commutator  

E-print Network

A simpler approach to the characterization of vanishing conditional mutual information is presented. Some remarks are given as well. More specifically, relating the conditional mutual information to a commutator is a very promising approach towards the approximate version of SSA. That is, it is conjectured that small conditional mutual information implies small perturbation of quantum Markov chain.

Lin Zhang

2013-01-22

159

Mutual information challenges entropy bounds  

E-print Network

We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.

H. Casini

2007-03-14

160

Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200MHz radiofrequency radiation: Differences between exposure in E and H orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W\\/kg in both orientations (20 mW\\/cm² for E and 45 mW\\/cm² for H). Exposure was conducted

J. R. Jauchem; M. R. Frei; J. M. Padilla

1990-01-01

161

On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer ( ?-2 ?) with the CuK? radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments.

Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Zadam, M.

2008-01-01

162

Supplemental choline does not attenuate the effects of neonatal ethanol administration on habituation of the heart rate orienting response in rats.  

PubMed

Several studies using rodent subjects have now shown that extra dietary choline may prevent or even reverse the deleterious effects of pre- and early post-natal ethanol administration. Choline supplementation has been shown to attenuate many, although not all, of ethanol's effects on brain development and behavior. Our laboratory has consistently reported impaired habituation of the heart rate orienting response to a novel olfactory stimulus in animals exposed to ethanol on postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Here we examine whether supplemental choline given both during and after ethanol administration could alleviate these ethanol-induced deficits. Subjects were given 5g/kg/day ethanol or sham intubations on PD 4-9. Half of the subjects in each group were given a single daily s.c. injection of choline chloride on PD 4-20, while the other half were injected daily with saline. Pups were tested for heart rate orienting and response habituation in a single test session on PD 23. Results replicated the ethanol-induced impairment in response habituation. However, choline supplementation had no effect on orienting or habituation in either neonatal treatment group. These findings indicate that habituation deficits induced by ethanol are not alleviated by extra dietary choline using these parameters. Choline holds great promise as a treatment for some fetal alcohol effects, but is not an effective treatment for all ethanol-related deficits. PMID:24907459

Hunt, Pamela S; Jacobson, Sarah E; Kim, Sarah

2014-01-01

163

Induction logging device with a pair of mutually perpendicular bucking coils  

DOEpatents

An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

Koelle, Alfred R. (Los Alamos, NM); Landt, Jeremy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

164

Of Tournaments and Temptations: An Analysis of Managerial Incentives in the Mutual Fund Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test the hypothesis that, when their compensation is linked to relative performance, managers of investment portfolios likely to end up as 'losers' will manipulate fund risk differently than those managing portfolios likely to be 'winners.' An empirical investigation of the performance of 334 growth-oriented mutual funds during 1976 to 1991 demonstrates that mid-year losers tend to increase fund

Keith C Brown; W. V. Harlow; Laura T Starks

1996-01-01

165

Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.  

PubMed

The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

2014-11-18

166

Mutual Information as a Tool for the  

E-print Network

Mutual Information as a Tool for the Design, Analysis, and Testing of Modern Communication Systems-6109 mvalenti@wvu.edu #12;6/8/2007 Mutual Information for Modern Comm. Systems 2/51 0.5 1 1.5 2 10 -7 10 -6 10 with Shannon capacity: ­ Unconstrained: 0 dB. ­ With BPSK: 0.2 dB. #12;6/8/2007 Mutual Information for Modern

Valenti, Matthew C.

167

Mutually Unbiased Bases for Continuous Variables  

E-print Network

The concept of mutually unbiased bases is studied for N pairs of continuous variables. To find mutually unbiased bases reduces, for specific states related to the Heisenberg-Weyl group, to a problem of symplectic geometry. Given a single pair of continuous variables, three mutually unbiased bases are identified while five such bases are exhibited for two pairs of continuous variables. For N = 2, the golden ratio occurs in the definition of these mutually unbiased bases suggesting the relevance of number theory not only in the finite-dimensional setting.

Stefan Weigert; Michael Wilkinson

2008-11-09

168

Constructing Mutually Unbiased Bases in Dimension Six  

E-print Network

The density matrix of a qudit may be reconstructed with optimal efficiency if the expectation values of a specific set of observables are known. In dimension six, the required observables only exist if it is possible to identify six mutually unbiased complex 6x6 Hadamard matrices. Prescribing a first Hadamard matrix, we construct all others mutually unbiased to it, using algebraic computations performed by a computer program. We repeat this calculation many times, sampling all known complex Hadamard matrices, and we never find more than two that are mutually unbiased. This result adds considerable support to the conjecture that no seven mutually unbiased bases exist in dimension six.

Stephen Brierley; Stefan Weigert

2011-02-07

169

Mutual Adaptation and Mutual Accomplishment: Images of Change in a Field Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of mutual adaptation and mutual accomplishment are used in an analysis of implementation of a delinquency prevention research and development program. Success from the perspective of both the developer and the participant is described. (DF)

Bird, Tom

1984-01-01

170

Comparing the use of bayesian networks and neural networks in response time modeling for service-oriented systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new paradigm of service-oriented computing facilitates easy construction of dynamic, complex distributed systems. Recent research has shown that machine learning methods can be a promising way to autonomously and accurately derive models to assist autonomic management software or humans in understanding system behaviors and making informed decisions. However, the efficacy of different machine learning techniques in describing various system

Rui Zhang; Alan J. Bivens

2007-01-01

171

A wind-oriented sticky trap for evaluating the behavioural response of diabrotica speciosa (germar) to bitter cucurbit extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbitacins attract many species of Luperini leaf beetles, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Males and females feed avidly on these compounds, but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. A wind oriented baited sticky trap was...

172

Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense Ang Cui and Salvatore J. Stolfo on perpetual mutation and diversity, driven by symbiotic defensive mutualism can fundamentally change the `cat malware. 5.1 Introduction We propose a host-based defense mechanism that we call Symbiotic Embedded

Yang, Junfeng

173

A distributed K-mutual exclusion algorithm  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new token-based K-mutual exclusion algorithm for distributed systems. The proposed algorithm uses K tokens to achieve K-mutual exclusion. The system of N nodes is organized as a logical forest, with the node possessing...

Bulgannawar, Shailaja Gurupad

1994-01-01

174

Affine Constellations Without Mutually Unbiased Counterparts  

E-print Network

It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations, mostly in dimension six. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

Stefan Weigert; Thomas Durt

2010-07-22

175

An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological theory holds that competition and predation are the most important biotic forces affecting the composition of communities. Here, we expand this framework by demonstrating that mutualism can fundamentally alter community and food web structure. In large, replicated field plots, we manipulated the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum). The presence of the

Jennifer A. Rudgers; Keith Clay

2008-01-01

176

Hierarchical Classifier Design Using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonparametric algorithm is presented for the hierarchical partitioning of the feature space. The algorithm is based on the concept of average mutual information, and is suitable for multifeature multicategory pattern recognition problems. The algorithm generates an efficient partitioning tree for specified probability of error by maximizing the amount of average mutual information gain at each partitioning step. A confidence

I. K. Sethi; G. P. R. Sarvarayudu

1982-01-01

177

Entanglement detection using mutually unbiased measurements  

E-print Network

We study the entanglement detection by using mutually unbiased measurements and provide a quantum separability criterion that can be experimentally implemented for arbitrary $d$-dimensional bipartite systems. We show that this criterion is more effective than the criterion based on mutually unbiased bases. For isotropic states our criterion becomes both necessary and sufficient.

Bin Chen; Teng Ma; Shao-Ming Fei

2014-07-01

178

Mutual coupling compensation in small array antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique to compensate for mutual coupling in a small array is developed and experimentally verified. Mathematically, the compensation consists of a matrix multiplication performed on the received-signal vector. This, in effect, restores the signals as received by the isolated elements in the absence of mutual coupling. This technique is most practical for digital beamforming antennas where the matrix operation

Hans Steyskal; J. S. Herd

1990-01-01

179

Empirical awakening: the new science on mutual help and implications for cost containment under health care reform.  

PubMed

Over the past 75 years, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has grown from 2 members to over 2 million members. AA and similar organizations (e.g., Narcotics Anonymous [NA]) are among the most commonly sought sources of help for substance-related problems in the United States. It is only relatively recently, however, that the scientific community has conducted rigorous studies on the clinical utility and health care cost-offset potential of mutual-help groups and developed and tested professional treatments to facilitate their use. As a result of this research, AA as an organization has experienced an "empirical awakening," evolving from its peripheral status as a "nuisance variable" and perceived obstacle to progress to playing a more central role in a scientifically informed recovery oriented system of care. Also, professionally delivered interventions designed to facilitate the use of AA and NA ("Twelve-Step Facilitation" [TSF]) are now "empirically supported treatments" as defined by US federal agencies and the American Psychological Association. Under the auspices of health care reform, a rational societal response to the prodigious health and social burden posed by alcohol and other drug misuse should encompass the implementation of empirically based strategies (e.g., TSF) in order to maximize the use of ubiquitous mutual-help recovery resources. PMID:22489579

Kelly, John F; Yeterian, Julie D

2012-01-01

180

Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters  

PubMed Central

For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

2012-01-01

181

A Quick Guide to ORIENTATION  

E-print Network

A Quick Guide to ORIENTATION Welcome! As a new international student, you need to attend orientation activities Ordering your OSHC Student rights and responsibilities Visa conditions including work://www.flinders.edu.au/international-students/fab 2. ISSU Orientation Session This informative session will cover: Personal safety and security

182

The correspondence between mutually unbiased bases and mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares  

E-print Network

We study the connection between mutually unbiased bases and mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares, a wider class of squares which does not contain only the Latin squares. We show that there are four types of complete sets of mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares for the dimension $d=8$. We introduce the concept of physical striation and show that this is equivalent to the extraordinary supersquare. The general algorithm for obtaining the mutually unbiased bases and the physical striations is constructed and it is shown that the complete set of mutually unbiased physical striations is equivalent to the complete set of mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares. We apply the algorithm to two examples: one for two-qubit systems ($d=4$) and one for three-qubit systems ($d=8$), by using the Type II complete sets of mutually orthogonal extraordinary supersquares of order 8.

Iulia Ghiu; Cristian Ghiu

2014-04-23

183

Lateral Inhibition between Orientation Detectors in the Human Visual System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment has shown that two lines of different orientation interact with each other so that they seem to be displaced from one another in orientation. This could be explained in terms of mutual inhibition between neighbouring columns in the visual cortex.

Colin Blakemore; Roger H. S. Carpenter; MARK A. GEORGESON

1970-01-01

184

7 CFR 400.28 - Mutual consent criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual consent criteria. 400.28 Section 400.28 ...General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation § 400.28 Mutual consent criteria. (a) An insured may...

2010-01-01

185

7 CFR 400.28 - Mutual consent criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutual consent criteria. 400.28 Section 400.28 ...General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation § 400.28 Mutual consent criteria. (a) An insured may...

2011-01-01

186

7 CFR 400.28 - Mutual consent criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual consent criteria. 400.28 Section 400.28 ...General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation § 400.28 Mutual consent criteria. (a) An insured may...

2014-01-01

187

7 CFR 400.28 - Mutual consent criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual consent criteria. 400.28 Section 400.28 ...General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation § 400.28 Mutual consent criteria. (a) An insured may...

2012-01-01

188

7 CFR 400.28 - Mutual consent criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual consent criteria. 400.28 Section 400.28 ...General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation § 400.28 Mutual consent criteria. (a) An insured may...

2013-01-01

189

Exploring Mutual Engagement in Creative Collaborations .Nick Bryan-Kinns  

E-print Network

1 Exploring Mutual Engagement in Creative Collaborations .Nick Bryan-Kinns .IMC Group .Department activity. In this paper we explore what constitutes mutually engaging interaction between people instruction, has on mutual engagement between remote participants. Surprisingly the results indicate

Bryan-Kinns, Nick

190

Breakdown and delayed cospeciation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism  

E-print Network

Breakdown and delayed cospeciation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism Vincent Merckx1 The ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal association between the vast majority of plants and the fungal phylum Glomeromycota is a dominant nutritional mutualism worldwide. In the mycorrhizal mutualism, plants exchange

Bruns, Tom

191

Focus Mutual Information for medical image alignment in  

E-print Network

Focus Mutual Information for medical image alignment in dentistry, orthodontics and craniofacial . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3.2 Mutual information image alignment . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.3 Information theory applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3 Focus Mutual Information alignment 27 3.1 Introduction

Einmahl, Uwe

192

Mutually Nonblocking Supervisory Control of Discrete Event Systems  

E-print Network

1 Mutually Nonblocking Supervisory Control of Discrete Event Systems M. Fabian Department to each individual specification. We call this the problem of mutually nonblocking supervision, which. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a mutually nonblocking

Kumar, Ratnesh

193

The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) onboard ROSETTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ROSETTA mission will reach the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and enable, for the first time, the in situ survey of a comet activity during along orbit. On board the ROSETTA orbiter, the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) is one of the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) that aims at monitoring the cometary plasma environment. MIP is a quadrupolar probe that measures the frequency response of the coupling impedance between two emitting and two receiving dipoles. The electron density and temperature are derived from the resonance peak and the interference pattern of the mutual impedance spectrum. We will describe this instrument and discuss the preliminary results obtained during the third ROSETTA Earth flyby to show its expected capabilities. The RPC switch ON for the post-hibernation recommissioning is planned at the end of March. The health status of the instrument will be discussed.

Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Béghin, Christian; Décréau, Pierrette; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Mazelle, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Schmidt, Walter; Winterhalter, Daniel; Aouad, Youcef; Lagoutte, Dominique; Vallières, Xavier

2014-05-01

194

The preset grating effect for mutually pumped phase conjugator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the four-wave mixing mechanism and light fanning effect, a mutually pumped phase conjugator(MPPC) model is proposed to analyze the variation of MPPC output response with time for different scattering seed value. It shows that preset grating can enhance the fan light intensity when it satisfies Bragg condition and also can shorten MPPC response time. In experiment the bird-wings MPPC is done with or without the preset grating and the variation of MPPC reflectivity with time is obtained in two cases, and simulation conclusion is in agreement with the experimental result. These results have importance for applications of MPPC on optical heterodyne detection.

Ma, Lin; Kang, Zhihua; Zhang, Ninghua; Liu, Jifang; Shi, Shunxiang

2014-11-01

195

Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms  

PubMed Central

Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions.

Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

2014-01-01

196

Classifying all mutually unbiased bases in Rel  

E-print Network

Finding all the mutually unbiased bases in various dimensions is a problem of fundamental interest in quantum information theory and pure mathematics. The general problem formulated in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is open. In the categorical approach to quantum mechanics one can find examples of categories which behave ``like'' the category of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces in various ways but are subtly different. One such category is the category of sets and relations, $\\mathbf{Rel}$. One can formulate the concept of mutually unbiased bases here as well. In this note we classify all the mutually unbiased bases in this category by relating it to a standard question in combinatorics.

Julia Evans; Ross Duncan; Alex Lang; Prakash Panangaden

2009-09-25

197

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2012-04-01

198

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2013-04-01

199

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2010-04-01

200

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. 1.831-1 Section...

2011-04-01

201

A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

2010-01-01

202

Semantic Conditioning and Generalization of the Galvanic Skin Response-Orienting Reflex with Overt and Covert Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses an innocuous tone as the imperative stimulus, or unconditioned stimulus, as in a forewarned reaction time situation but with no overt response required. Evidence of conditioning and generalization to words is obtained. (Editor/RK)

Maltzman, Irving; And Others

1977-01-01

203

Policy on dignity and mutual respect  

E-print Network

1 Policy on dignity and mutual respect The University's Policy against bullying, harassment ............................................................................................................................7 3.5 Of any person (student or staff member) who is accused of harassment, bullying, bullying or victimisation

Haase, Markus

204

Mutual Dependence for Secret Key Agreement  

E-print Network

A mutual dependence expression is established for the secret key agreement problem when all users are active. In certain source networks, the expression can be interpreted as certain notions of connectivity and network ...

Chan, Chung

205

Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

Medve, Richard J.

1978-01-01

206

Effect of foil orientation on damage accumulation during irradiation in magnesium and annealing response of dislocation loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of foil orientation on damage accumulation behavior in commercial purity magnesium is investigated by in situ electron and ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscope has been used to study the dislocation loops formed by the agglomeration of point defects during irradiation. It has been observed that the ratio of prism plane to basal plane defects increases as the foil orientation is changed from basal to the prism foil. The ratio of vacancy to interstitial defects also increases in prism foils as compared to the basal foils. This point defect accumulation behavior is reversed when magnesium is irradiated with 1 MeV Kr2+ ions and the formation of basal plane dislocation loops were only observed in prism foils and did not take place in the basal foils. Analysis showed that all the basal plane dislocation loops have Burgers vector of the type 16<2 0/2bar 3> and are interstitial in nature whereas prism plane dislocation loops have Burgers vector of the type 13<1 1/2bar 0> and are of mixed interstitial/vacancy in character. In situ annealing experiments at different temperatures performed on electron irradiated magnesium foils suggest that those dislocation loops that become thermodynamically unstable anneal out in a matter of few seconds whereas other stable dislocation loops continue to shrink by absorbing surrounding vacancy clusters. The activation energy for the shrinkage of the interstitial dislocation loops has been derived and the results show that the shrinkage of interstitial dislocation loops takes place by the mechanism of vacancy assisted self diffusion.

Khan, A. K.; Yao, Z.; Daymond, M. R.; Holt, R. A.

2012-04-01

207

The Landscape of Host Transcriptional Response Programs Commonly Perturbed by Bacterial Pathogens: Towards Host-Oriented Broad-Spectrum Drug Targets  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of drug-resistant pathogen strains and new infectious agents pose major challenges to public health. A promising approach to combat these problems is to target the host’s genes or proteins, especially to discover targets that are effective against multiple pathogens, i.e., host-oriented broad-spectrum (HOBS) drug targets. An important first step in the discovery of such drug targets is the identification of host responses that are commonly perturbed by multiple pathogens. Results In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and the drug Simvastatin for hematopoietic pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Conclusions Using a combination of automated analysis of host-response gene expression data and manual study of the literature, we have been able to suggest host-oriented treatments for specific bacterial infections. The analyses and suggestions made in this study may be utilized to generate concrete hypothesis on which gene sets to probe further in the quest for HOBS drug targets for bacterial infections. All our results are available at the following supplementary website: http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/ murali/supplements/2013-kidane-plos-one PMID:23516507

Kidane, Yared H.; Lawrence, Christopher; Murali, T. M.

2013-01-01

208

Immunization of Mice by BCG Formulated HCV Core Protein Elicited Higher Th1-Oriented Responses Compared to Pluronic-F127 Copolymer  

PubMed Central

Background A supreme vaccine for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should elicit strong Th1-oriented cellular responses. In the absence of a Th1-specific adjuvant, immunizations by protein antigens generally induce Th2-type and weak cellular responses. Objectives To evaluate the adjuvant effect of BCG in comparison with nonionic copolymer-Pluronic F127 (F127) as a classic adjuvant in the formulation of HCV core protein (HCVcp) as a candidate vaccine for induction of Th1 immune responses. Materials and Methods Expression of N-terminally His-Tagged HCVcp (1-122) by pIVEX2.4a-core vector harboring the corresponding gene under the control of arabinose-inducible (araBAD) promoter was achieved in BL21-AI strain of E.coli and purified through application of nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography. Mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) in base of the tail with 100 ?l of immunogen (F127+HCVcp or BCG+HCVcp; 5 ?gHCVcp/mouse/dose) or control formulations (PBS, BCG, F127) at weeks 0, 3, 6. Total and subtypes of IgG, as well as cellular immune responses (Proliferation, In vivo CTL and IFN-?/IL-4 ELISpot assays against a strong and dominant H2-d restricted, CD8+-epitopic peptide, core 39-48; RRGPRLGVRA of HCVcp) were compared in each group of immunized animals. Results Expression and purification of core protein around the expected size (21 kDa) was confirmed by Western blotting. The HCVcp + BCG vaccinated mice showed significantly higher lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? production but lower levels of cell lysis (45% versus 62% in CTL assay) than the HCVcp+F127 immunized animals. “Besides, total anti-core IgG and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in HCVcp + F127 immunized mice as compared to HCVcp + BCG vaccinated animals, indicating relatively higher efficacy of F127 for the stimulation of humoral and Th2-oriented immune responses”. Conclusions Results showed that HCVcp + BCG induced a moderate CTL and mixed Th1/Th2 immune responses with higher levels of cell proliferation and IFN-? secretion, indicating that BCG may have a better outcome when formulated in HCVcp-based subunit vaccines. PMID:24348641

Yazdanian, Maryam; Memarnejadian, Arash; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Motevali, Fatemeh; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Khanahmad, Hossein; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Roohvand, Farzin

2013-01-01

209

Distributions and Mutual Funds Jeffrey D. Oldham  

E-print Network

purchasing, for example, 0.03 shares of Intel, 0.05 shares of Exxon, $3.00 of a 30-year U.S. Treasury bond, and 2.34 shares of Stockmaster. Most mutual funds frequently buy and sell stocks and bonds so, even, and 2.34 shares of Stockmaster. When the mutual fund company sells some securities for a higher price

Pratt, Vaughan

210

A Mutual Information Based Face Recognition Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A mutual information based method for face recognition has been proposed. By comparing the mutual information of images locally,\\u000a this method becomes robust to illumination variation. The method’s performance has been evaluated using AT&T database with\\u000a different number of samples in the training set, as well as different resolutions for intensity distribution estimation. The\\u000a accuracy rate is dependent on the

Iman Makaremi; Majid Ahamdi

2009-01-01

211

Holographic Mutual Information at small separations  

E-print Network

The holographic mutual information for the small separation of two circles and two strips in 2+1 dimensional space-time is considered based on the known exact minimal surfaces spanning the boundaries on AdS4. The results suggest a universality for the leading term in the short-distance expansion of holographic mutual information. A conjecture for a similar result for d > 2 is also presented, as well as comments about the analogous expansion in conformal field theory.

Agon, Cesar A

2015-01-01

212

Holographic Mutual Information at small separations  

E-print Network

The holographic mutual information for the small separation of two circles and two strips in 2+1 dimensional space-time is considered based on the known exact minimal surfaces spanning the boundaries on AdS4. The results suggest a universality for the leading term in the short-distance expansion of holographic mutual information. A conjecture for a similar result for d > 2 is also presented, as well as comments about the analogous expansion in conformal field theory.

Cesar A. Agon; Howard J. Schnitzer

2015-02-10

213

Subgroup 4 R2R3-MYBs in conifer trees: gene family expansion and contribution to the isoprenoid- and flavonoid-oriented responses.  

PubMed

Transcription factors play a fundamental role in plants by orchestrating temporal and spatial gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Several R2R3-MYB genes of the Arabidopsis subgroup 4 (Sg4) share a C-terminal EAR motif signature recently linked to stress response in angiosperm plants. It is reported here that nearly all Sg4 MYB genes in the conifer trees Picea glauca (white spruce) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) form a monophyletic clade (Sg4C) that expanded following the split of gymnosperm and angiosperm lineages. Deeper sequencing in P. glauca identified 10 distinct Sg4C sequences, indicating over-representation of Sg4 sequences compared with angiosperms such as Arabidopsis, Oryza, Vitis, and Populus. The Sg4C MYBs share the EAR motif core. Many of them had stress-responsive transcript profiles after wounding, jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, or exposure to cold in P. glauca and P. taeda, with MYB14 transcripts accumulating most strongly and rapidly. Functional characterization was initiated by expressing the P. taeda MYB14 (PtMYB14) gene in transgenic P. glauca plantlets with a tissue-preferential promoter (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) and a ubiquitous gene promoter (ubiquitin). Histological, metabolite, and transcript (microarray and targeted quantitative real-time PCR) analyses of PtMYB14 transgenics, coupled with mechanical wounding and JA application experiments on wild-type plantlets, allowed identification of PtMYB14 as a putative regulator of an isoprenoid-oriented response that leads to the accumulation of sesquiterpene in conifers. Data further suggested that PtMYB14 may contribute to a broad defence response implicating flavonoids. This study also addresses the potential involvement of closely related Sg4C sequences in stress responses and plant evolution. PMID:20732878

Bedon, Frank; Bomal, Claude; Caron, Sébastien; Levasseur, Caroline; Boyle, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

2010-09-01

214

Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

1977-01-01

215

Information reproducibility in a stimulated photon-echo response at different orientations of external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the locking effect of photon-echo responses in a three-level system and the information reproducibility upon coding the information in the temporal shape of the object laser pulse. We have shown that these effects differ from their analogs in the two-level system.

Garnaeva, G. I.; Nefediev, L. A.; Khakimzyanova, E. I.; Nefedieva, K. L.

2014-08-01

216

The Transit-Oriented Global Centers for Competitiveness and Livability: State Strategies and Market Responses in Asia  

E-print Network

and market responses on the basis of competitive advantages and lifestylelifestyles in 500 meters of MTR station. Job and Labor Marketmarket signals indicating that Singapore’s entrepreneurial state interventions would result in unintended consequences such as spatial recentralization, land fragmentation, lifestyle

Murakami, Jin

2010-01-01

217

All Mutually Unbiased Product Bases in Dimension Six  

E-print Network

All mutually unbiased bases in dimension six consisting of product states only are constructed. Several continuous families of pairs and two triples of mutually unbiased product bases are found to exist but no quadruple. The exhaustive classification leads to a proof that a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases, if it exists, cannot contain a triple of mutually unbiased product bases.

Daniel McNulty; Stefan Weigert

2012-03-24

218

Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks  

E-print Network

Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks Ramanuja Vedantham Zhenyun Zhuang Prof Sensor Actor #12;4 The Problem: Mutual Exclusion Three actors act While actually two actors are sufficient in this case #12;5 The Problem: Mutual Exclusion Mutual Exclusion: Identify a minimal set

Sivakumar, Raghupathy

219

Mutual stationarity in the core model Ralf Schindler  

E-print Network

Mutual stationarity in the core model Ralf Schindler Institut fË?ur Formale Logik, UniversitË?at Wien and Magidor in [3] study mutual stationarity in GË?odel's constructible universe L. We shall extend model. The present paper links mutual stationarity with core model theory. The concept of mutual

Fuchs, Gunter

220

Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated?  

E-print Network

Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated? S. A. WEST-legume mutualism. Introduction The widespread occurrence of mutualisms (mutually beneficial relationships between appropriate for mutualisms (distinct species which compete for different resources and intermediate levels

West, Stuart

221

Men and Women Holding Hands Revisited: Effects of Mutual Engagement and Hand Dominance on Attributions of Cross-Sex Handholding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In line with the social meaning orientation to nonverbal behavior, the current study conceptualized handholding as a multidimensional nonverbal cue with the potential to signal relational meaning to outside observers. Results support the hypotheses that individuals attribute varied levels of intimacy to a cross-sex couple based on the mutual engagement of handholding type and the distance between elbows. In addition,

Graham D. Bodie; William A. Villaume

2008-01-01

222

Electro-optical response of homeotropic-oriented nematic having DeltaE>0 in an inhomogeneous electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) deformation near the pore in a metal-dielectric-NLC-ITO structure under the action of positive polarity of voltage is studied. Experiments indicate that deformation of NLC is observed over any size ores. Character time of relaxation depends on the size or pre and takes more than ten minutes for large (> 20 micrometers ) pores and less than a second for small (< 10 micrometers ) ones respectively. It is shown, that the electrically driven transferring of lecithin can be responsible for a long period of time relaxation.

Gritsenko, Ivanovich M.; Kucheev, Sergey I.

1998-09-01

223

Mutual information rate and bounds for it.  

PubMed

The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

2012-01-01

224

Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It  

PubMed Central

The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, José C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

2012-01-01

225

Age and emotional experience during mutual reminiscing.  

PubMed

In the present article, the authors examined age differences in the emotional experiences involved in talking about past events. In Study 1, 129 adults in an experience-sampling study reported whether they were engaged in mutual reminiscing and their concurrent experience of positive and negative emotion. Their experiences of positive and negative emotion during mutual reminiscing were compared with emotional experience during other social activities. Age was associated with increasing positive emotion during mutual reminiscing. In Study 2 (n = 132), the authors examined emotions during reminiscing for specific positive and negative events. In this case, age was associated with improved emotional experiences but only during reminiscing about positive experiences. Findings are discussed in terms of socioemotional selectivity theory and the literature on reminiscence and life review. PMID:14518806

Pasupathi, Monisha; Carstensen, Laura L

2003-09-01

226

The Effect of Mutualism on Community Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called Lotka-Volterra model, which is thought to be appropriate for the dynamics of mutualistic relationship, tells us that mutualism does not play positive roles for the stability of ecosystem. When the mutualistic interactions between species are stronger than a certain threshold, population sizes of species unlimitedly increases. In the present paper, in order to prevent the divergence, we apply a lattice model, and introduce extended Lotka-Volterra equations. The latter is the mean-field theory of the former. These models contain the property of competition due to space limitation. In both models population is usually stable, when the intensity of mutualism are strong. In the lattice model, spatial distribution of species naturally evolves into a specific pattern of either mutualism or competition, depending on environmental conditions.

Tainaka, K.; Yoshida, N.; Terazawa, N.; Nakagiri, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshimura, J.

2003-04-01

227

Mutual information rate and bounds for it  

E-print Network

The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two data sets (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

M. S. Baptista; R. M. Rubinger; E. R. V. Junior; J. C. Sartorelli; U. Parlitz; C. Grebogi

2012-05-17

228

Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations. PMID:25234707

Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Jung, C; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

2015-02-01

229

Entanglement detection via mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

We investigate correlations among complementary observables. In particular, we show how to take advantage of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) for the efficient detection of entanglement in arbitrarily high-dimensional, multipartite and continuous variable quantum systems. The introduced entanglement criteria are relatively easy to implement experimentally since they require only a few local measurement settings. In addition, we establish a link between the separability problem and the maximum number of mutually unbiased bases -- opening a new avenue in this long-standing open problem.

Christoph Spengler; Marcus Huber; Stephen Brierley; Theodor Adaktylos; Beatrix C. Hiesmayr

2012-08-07

230

Response-oriented measuring inequalities in Tehran: second round of UrbanHealth Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2), concepts and framework  

PubMed Central

Background Current evidence consistently confirm inequalities in health status among socioeconomic none, gender,ethnicity, geographical area and other social determinants of health (SDH), which adversely influence health ofthe population. SDH refer to a wide range of factors not limited to social component, but also involve economic, cultural,educational, political or environmental problems. Measuring inequalities, improving daily living conditions, andtackling inequitable distribution of resources are highly recommended by international SDH commissioners in recentyears to ‘close the gaps within a generation’. To measure inequalities in socio-economic determinants and core healthindicators in Tehran, the second round of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2)was conducted in November 2011, within the main framework of WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe Centre). Method For ‘assessment’ part of the project, 65 indicators in six policy domains namely ‘physical and infrastructure’,‘human and social’, ‘economic’, ‘governance’, ‘health and nutrition’, and also ‘cultural’ domain were targetedeither through a population based survey or using routine system. Survey was conducted in a multistage random sampling,disaggregated to 22 districts and 368 neighborhoods of Tehran, where data of almost 35000 households(118000 individuals) were collected. For ‘response’ part of the project, widespread community based development(CBD) projects were organized in all 368 neighborhoods, which are being undertaken throughout 2013. Conclusion Following the first round of Urban HEART project in 2008, the second round was conducted to trackchanges over time, to institutionalize inequality assessment within the local government, to build up community participationin ‘assessment’ and ‘response’ parts of the project, and to implement appropriate and evidence-based actionsto reduce health inequalities within all neighborhoods of Tehran. PMID:24926187

Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Cherghian, Bahman; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Golmakani, Mehdi; Haeri-Mehrizi, Ali-Asghar; Hesari, Hossein; Kalantari, Naser; Kamali, Mohammad; Kordi, Ramin; Malek-Afzali, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Motevallian, Abbas; Noorbala, Ahmad; Raghfar, Hossein; Razzaghi, Emran

2013-01-01

231

A Philological Orientation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." As someone who is experimenting not only with how to teach rabbinic texts but with which texts to select in virtually every course the author teaches for American undergraduate as well as graduate…

Fonrobert, Charlotte Elisheva

2010-01-01

232

An invasive plantfungal mutualism reduces arthropod diversity  

E-print Network

­ including mycorrhizal fungi, endophytic fungi and bacteria ­ that can promote fitness through enhanced the mutualism between a dominant plant (Lolium arundinaceum) and symbiotic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium nearly 20%, shifted arthropod species composition relative to endophyte-free plots and suppressed

Rudgers, Jennifer

233

Survivorship Bias and Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual fund attrition can create problems for a researcher because funds that disappear tend to do so due to poor performance. In this article we estimate the size of the bias by tracking all funds that existed at the end of 1976. When a fund merges we calculate the return, taking into account the merger terms. This allows a precise

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

1996-01-01

234

Cognitive Dissonance and Mutual Fund Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence from questionnaire studies of mutual fundinvestors about recollections of past fund performance. We findthat investor memories exhibit a positive bias, consistent withcurrent psychological models. We find that the degree of bias isconditional upon previous investor choice, a phenomenon relatedto the well known theory of cognitive dissonance.

William N. Goetzmann; Nadav Peles

1995-01-01

235

Aggregate mutual fund flows and security returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I find that aggregate security returns are highly correlated with concurrent unexpected cash flows into mutual funds, but unrelated to concurrent expected flows. An unexpected inflow equal to 1% of total stock fund assets ($4.75 billion) corresponds to a 5.7% increase in the stock price index. Further, fund flows are correlated with the returns of the securities

Vincent A. Warther

1995-01-01

236

On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample free of survivor bias, the author demonstrates that common factors in stock returns and investment expenses almost completely explain persistence in equity mutual funds' mean and risk-adjusted returns. Darryll Hendricks, Jayendu Patel, and Richard Zeckhauser's (1993) 'hot hands' result is mostly driven by the one-year momentum effect of Narasimham Jegadeesh and Sheridan Titman (1993), but individual funds

Mark M Carhart

1997-01-01

237

Costly Search and Mutual Fund Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the flows of funds into and out of equity mutual funds. Consumers base their fund purchase decisions on prior performance information, but do so asymmetrically, investing disproportionately more in funds that performed very well the prior period. Search costs seem to be an important determinant of fund flows. High performance appears to be most salient for funds

Erik R. Sirri; Peter Tufano

1998-01-01

238

The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1992-01-01

239

Are pharmacology and constructivist psychotherapy mutually exclusive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argument is made that pharmacological therapy and constructivist psychotherapy have no common ground and are mutually exclusive. Therapeutic examples are then offered of how drug and talk therapies interact, in a effort to see whether there is a common ground after all. Some of the incompatabilities can be minimized by changing the amount of control the patient has over

Ernest Keen

1998-01-01

240

Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

Sanders, Shirley

241

Why constrain your mutual fund manager?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the form, adoption rates, and economic rationale for various mutual fund investment restrictions. A sample of U.S. domestic equity funds from 1994 to 2000 reveals systematic patterns in investment constraints, consistent with an optimal contracting equilibrium in the fund industry. Restrictions are more common when (i) boards contain a higher proportion of inside directors, (ii) the portfolio manager

Andres Almazan; Keith C. Brown; Murray Carlson; David A. Chapman

2004-01-01

242

Hadamard Matrices from Mutually Unbiased Bases  

E-print Network

An analytical method for getting new complex Hadamard matrices by using mutually unbiased bases and a nonlinear doubling formula is provided. The method is illustrated with the n=4 case that leads to a rich family of eight-dimensional Hadamard matrices that depend on five arbitrary parameters whose modulus is equal to unity.

Petre Dita

2010-03-19

243

Uncertainty relations based on mutually unbiased measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive uncertainty relation inequalities according to the mutually unbiased measurements. Based on the calculation of the index of coincidence of probability distribution given by d+1 MUMs on any density operator ? in Cd , both state-dependent and state-independent forms of lower entropic bounds are given. Furthermore, we formulate uncertainty relations for MUMs in terms of Rényi and Tsallis entropies.

Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming

2015-02-01

244

Mutually unbiased bases and generalized Bell states  

E-print Network

We employ a straightforward relation between mutually unbiased and Bell bases to extend the latter in terms of a direct construction for the former. We analyze in detail the properties of these new generalized Bell states, showing that they constitute an appropriate tool for testing entanglement in bipartite multiqudit systems.

A. B. Klimov; D. Sych; L. L. Sanchez-Soto; G. Leuchs

2009-02-11

245

Temporal Planning with Mutual Exclusion Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many planning domains require a richer no­ tion of time in which actions can overlap and have different durations. The key to fast per­ formance in classical planners (e.g., Graphplan, IPP, and Blackbox) has been the use of a dis­ junctive representation with powerful mutual exclusion reasoning. This paper presents TGP, a new algorithm for temporal planning. TGP operates by

David E. Smith; Daniel S. Weld

1999-01-01

246

Analyzing Orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

247

Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication  

PubMed Central

During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

2012-01-01

248

Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects. PMID:22381679

Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

249

Prisoners or Volunteers: Developing Mutual Respect in the Elementary Science Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate how teacher educators might help preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course understand the need for mutual respect rather than coercion between pupil and teacher in an elementary classroom. An evaluation instrument was developed that consisted of a pre and post open-ended response to a…

Huber, Richard A.; And Others

250

Introduction Mutualisms are common in nature, and organisms frequently  

E-print Network

mutualism at a time.1-3 For instance, plants can form mutualisms with mycorrhizal fungi, endophytic fungi, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, pollinators and seed dispersers. Yet, the majority of research has focused

Whitney, Kenneth

251

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES  

E-print Network

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

252

Maximally Entangled States via Mutual Unbiased collective Bases  

E-print Network

Relative and center of mass cordinates are used to generalize mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and define mutually unbiased bases (MUCB). Maximal entangled states are given as product staes in the collective varibles

M. Revzen

2009-10-17

253

BENCH TO BEDSIDE COMPETITION MUTUAL CONFIDENTIAL DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

BENCH TO BEDSIDE COMPETITION MUTUAL CONFIDENTIAL DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT THIS MUTUAL CONFIDENTIAL"), may disclose Confidential Information (as defined below) belonging to the Disclosing Party; C. This Agreement shall govern the rights and obligations of each Participant with respect to Confidential

Capecchi, Mario R.

254

How not to Rényi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information  

E-print Network

We study the relation between the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information and the quantum $\\alpha$-R\\'enyi divergences. We show how not to Renyi generalize the Quantum Conditional Mutual Information by considering the totally antisymmetric state.

Paul Erker

2014-04-14

255

Plant invasions--the role of mutualisms.  

PubMed

Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal-mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are well served by generalist pollinators (insects and birds), and pollinator limitation does not appear to be a major barrier for the spread of introduced plants (special conditions relating to Ficus and orchids are described). Seeds of many of the most notorious plant invaders are dispersed by animals, mainly birds and mammals. Our review supports the view that tightly coevolved, plant-vertebrate seed dispersal systems are extremely rare. Vertebrate-dispersed plants are generally not limited reproductively by the lack of dispersers. Most mycorrhizal plants form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which, because of their low specificity, do not seem to play a major role in facilitating or hindering plant invasions (except possibly on remote islands such as the Galapagos which are poor in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi). The lack of symbionts has, however, been a major barrier for many ectomycorrhizal plants, notably for Pinus spp. in parts of the southern hemisphere. The roles of nitrogen-fixing associations between legumes and rhizobia and between actinorhizal plants and Frankia spp. in promoting or hindering invasions have been virtually ignored in the invasions literature. Symbionts required to induce nitrogen fixation in many plants are extremely widespread, but intentional introductions of symbionts have altered the invasibility of many, if not most, systems. Some of the world's worst invasive alien species only invaded after the introduction of symbionts. Mutualisms in the new environment sometimes re-unite the same species that form partnerships in the native range of the plant. Very often, however, different species are involved, emphasizing the diffuse nature of many (most) mutualisms. Mutualisms in new habitats usually duplicate functions or strategies that exist in the natural range of the plant. Occasionally, mutualisms forge totally novel combinations, with profound implications for the behaviour of the introduced plant in the new environment (examples are seed dispersal mutualisms involving wind-dispersed pines and cockatoos in Australia; and mycorrhizal associations involving plant roots and fungi). Many ecosystems are becoming more susceptible to invasion by introduced plants because: (a) they contain an increasing array of potential mutualistic partners (e.g. generalist frugivores and pollinators, mycorrhizal fungi with wide host ranges, rhizobia strains with infectivity across genera); and (b) conditions conductive for the establishment of various alien/alien synergisms are becoming more abundant. Incorporating perspectives on mutualisms in screening protocols will improve (but not perfect) our ability to predict whether a given plant species could invade a particular habitat. PMID:10740893

Richardson, D M; Allsopp, N; D'Antonio, C M; Milton, S J; Rejmánek, M

2000-02-01

256

Orientation and orientability 1. Orientation on a vector space  

E-print Network

Orientation and orientability 1. Orientation on a vector space Throughout this section let V proposition, the following definition is natural: Definition 1.2 (Bases with the same orientation). Let B and B be bases of V . We say that B has the same orientation as B, and write B B, if det TB ,B > 0. We

Kapovich, Ilya

257

ccsd00001371, Mutually Unbiased Bases and Finite Projective Planes  

E-print Network

ccsd­00001371, version 2 ­ 1 Jul 2004 Mutually Unbiased Bases and Finite Projective Planes Metod + 1 mutually unbiased bases in a d- dimensional Hilbert space if d di#11;ers from a power of prime-called mutually unbiased bases [see, e.g., 1{7], especially in the context of quantum state determination

258

Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott  

E-print Network

Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott Universit¨at Potsdam this a mutual contamination model. In such problems, it is often of interest to recover these base distributions mutual contamination models, meaning that observed data are drawn from mixtures of the underlying prob

Scott, Clayton

259

Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1993-01-01

260

Mutual information maximizing linear precoding for parallel layer MIMO detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper mutual information maximizing linear precoding for MIMO transmission using finite signal alphabets and a parallel layer MIMO detection scheme is derived. The derivation exploits that the mutual information of the parallel detection scheme can be expressed in terms of the mutual information associated with optimal maximum likelihood de- tection. Results show that the large performance gap between

Eckhard Ohlmer; Udo Wachsmann; Gerhard Fettweis

2011-01-01

261

Fully Elastic MultiModality Image Registration Using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that mutual information based registration over vanishingly small neighborhoods is equivalent to a particular form of gradient matching. Using the expression for the mutual information in terms of image gradients, we develop a voxel-wise registration algorithm that maximizes the sum of local mutual information between two images around all voxels. The similarity criterion does not require estimation of

Bilge Karaçali

2004-01-01

262

Lightcurve Signatures of Multiple Object Systems in Mutual Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lightcurves of objects in mutual orbits will display occultation and\\/or eclipse events, collectively referred to as 'mutual events', under favorable geometric circumstances. Given that the unresolved image of a multiple object system is simply the sum of the scattered light from each individual object, these mutual events will appear as attenuations in the total detected light when one object

Eileen V. Ryan; William H. Ryan

2006-01-01

263

A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission  

E-print Network

A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission Minh Quoc Nguyen of optimizing the efficiency of a wireless power transmission system in terms of mutual inductance. A circuit model was developed in PSpice to simulate the effect of mutual inductance by inductive coupling on power

Chiao, Jung-Chih

264

Mutual State Capability-Based Role Assignment Model (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Mutual State Capability-Based Role Assignment Model (Extended Abstract) Somchaya Liemhetcharat 15213, USA veloso@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT We formally present the Mutual State Capability-Based Role not only on its own individual skills, but also on its teammates and their mutual state. The MuSCRA model

Veloso, Manuela M.

265

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

266

Mutual Engagement in Social Music Making Nick Bryan-Kinns  

E-print Network

Mutual Engagement in Social Music Making Nick Bryan-Kinns Interactional Sound and Music Group 7882 7845; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7882 7064 nick.bryan-kinns@eecs.qmul.ac.uk Abstract. Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together. In this paper we suggest that mutual engagement is key

Bryan-Kinns, Nick

267

Outage Mutual Information of Space-Time MIMO Channels  

E-print Network

Outage Mutual Information of Space-Time MIMO Channels Zhengdao Wang Georgios B. Giannakis Dept@ece.umn.edu Abstract We present analytical expressions for the probability density function (PDF) of the random mutual of the mutual information PDF is also provided, based on which we establish normality of the PDF, when both M

Wang, Zhengdao

268

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions  

E-print Network

56b The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions L. Lamport 1 Digital Equipment The theory developed in Part I is used to state the mutual exclusion problem and several additional fairness.1 The Mutual Exclusion Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 The One­Bit Solution

Lamport ,Leslie

269

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport  

E-print Network

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport Digital Equipment Corporation 14 September 1990 A common assumption underlying mutual exclusion algorithms in shared memory systems is that: b. A memory reference to an individual word is mutually exclusive. So reads question 28 and its

Rajamani, Sriram K.

270

Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks Introduction  

E-print Network

Mutual Exclusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks Introduction Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN read and write tasks leads to new challenges in WSANs One such challenge: Mutual Exclusion Requirement Mutual Exclusion: Provides access to critical shared resource Safety: Only one process is using

Sivakumar, Raghupathy

271

Mutual information of words and pictures Kobus Barnard  

E-print Network

Mutual information of words and pictures Kobus Barnard Department of Computer Science University@cs.uec.ac.jp Abstract-- We quantify the mutual information between words and images or their components in the context mutual information between im- ages and associated text. For example, given an image, we are not overly

Yanai, Keiji

272

Mutual information minimization: application to Blind Source Separation  

E-print Network

1 Mutual information minimization: application to Blind Source Separation Massoud Babaie-Zadeh½ and Christian Jutten¾ Abstract In this paper, the problem of Blind Source Separation (BSS) through mutual information minimization is addressed. For mutual information minimization, multi-variate score functions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions  

E-print Network

56b The Mutual Exclusion Problem Part II: Statement and Solutions L. Lamport1 Digital Equipment developed in Part I is used to state the mutual exclusion problem and several additional fairness.1 The Mutual Exclusion Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 The One-Bit Solution

Lamport ,Leslie

274

Mutual Aid: an Indirect Evolution Analysis Alejandro CAPARRS  

E-print Network

1 Mutual Aid: an Indirect Evolution Analysis Alejandro CAPARRÓS Spanish Council for Scientific the concept of "mutual aid" developed by Kropotkin, which implies cooperation as a strategic choice. We study with Kant's morality. Key words: mutual aid, non-cooperative game theory, indirect evolution, Kropotkin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

NOTE / NOTE An indirect mutualism: ants deter seed predators  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE An indirect mutualism: ants deter seed predators from ovipositing in yucca fruit Jennifer C. Perry, Edward B. Mondor, and John F. Addicott Abstract: An indirect mutualism arises when on yuccas. Thus, we suggest that an indirect mutualism can occur between wood ants and yuccas when non

Mondor, Ed

276

Mutual Inactivation of Notch Receptors and Ligands Facilitates Developmental Patterning  

E-print Network

Mutual Inactivation of Notch Receptors and Ligands Facilitates Developmental Patterning David and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual

Sprinzak, David

277

Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion  

E-print Network

Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion Melanie J. I. Müllera,b,c,1 mutualism and genetic drift, we grew cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the exchanged nutrients, we tuned strength and symmetry of the mutualistic interaction. Strong mutualism sup

Murray, Andrew W.

278

Mutual Information Aspects of Scale Space Arjan Kuijper  

E-print Network

Mutual Information Aspects of Scale Space Images Arjan Kuijper Abstract In image registration mutual information is a well-performing measure based on principles of uncertainty. Similarly, in image in a parametrized mutual information measure using local information of the image. For single modality matching

Utrecht, Universiteit

279

Beyond Mutual Information: a simple and robust alternative  

E-print Network

Beyond Mutual Information: a simple and robust alternative Eldad Haber 1 and Jan Modersitzki 2 1 and/or modalities. Starting in 1995, mutual information has shown to be a very successful distance measure for multi­modal image registration. However, as it is well­known, mutual information also has

Modersitzki, Jan

280

Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

2013-04-01

281

Predicting nonlinear effects in superconducting microwave transmission lines from mutual inductance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the use of a new experimental technique based on mutual inductance measurements to quantitatively predict nonlinear effects in microwave devices fabricated from high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials. The mutual inductance measurements yield the current dependence of the penetration depth icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/>(J) in unpatterned HTS thin films. This information is used to calculate third-harmonic generation in coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and compares very well with actual measurements of CPW transmission lines of variable dimensions fabricated from YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> thin film samples. The mutual inductance measurements should prove extremely valuable as a screening technique for microwave applications of HTS materials that require very low nonlinear response.

Booth, J. C.; Vale, L. R.; Ono, R. H.; Claassen, J. H.

1999-11-01

282

Sequential Detection With Mutual Information Stopping Cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper formulates and solves a sequential detection problem that involves the mutual information (stochastic observability) of a Gaussian process observed in noise with missing measurements. The main result is that the optimal decision is characterized by a monotone policy on the partially ordered set of positive definite covariance matrices. This monotone structure implies that numerically efficient algorithms can be designed to estimate and implement monotone parametrized decision policies.The sequential detection problem is motivated by applications in radar scheduling where the aim is to maintain the mutual information of all targets within a specified bound. We illustrate the problem formulation and performance of monotone parametrized policies via numerical examples in fly-by and persistent-surveillance applications involving a GMTI (Ground Moving Target Indicator) radar.

Krishnamurthy, Vikram; Bitmead, Robert R.; Gevers, Michel; Miehling, Erik

2012-02-01

283

Entanglement detection via mutually unbiased bases  

E-print Network

We investigate correlations among complementary observables. In particular, we show how to take advantage of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) for the detection of entanglement in arbitrarily high-dimensional quantum systems. It is shown that their properties can be exploited to construct entanglement criteria which are experimentally implementable with few local measurement settings. The introduced concepts are not restricted to bipartite finite-dimensional systems, but are also applicable to continuous variables and multipartite systems. This is demonstrated by two examples -- the two-mode squeezed state and the Aharonov state. In addition, and more importantly from a theoretical point of view, we find a link between the separability problem and the maximum number of mutually unbiased bases.

Spengler, Christoph; Brierley, Stephen; Adaktylos, Theodor; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C

2012-01-01

284

Hardware device binding and mutual authentication  

DOEpatents

Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

2014-03-04

285

Mutual information on the fuzzy sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically calculate entanglement entropy and mutual information for a massive free scalar field on commutative (ordinary) and noncommutative (fuzzy) spheres. We regularize the theory on the commutative geometry by discretizing the polar coordinate, whereas the theory on the noncommutative geometry naturally posseses a finite and adjustable number of degrees of freedom. Our results show that the UV-divergent part of the entanglement entropy on a fuzzy sphere does not follow an area law, while the entanglement entropy on a commutative sphere does. Nonetheless, we find that mutual information (which is UV-finite) is the same in both theories. This suggests that nonlocality at short distances does not affect quantum correlations over large distances in a free field theory.

Sabella-Garnier, Philippe

2015-02-01

286

Mutual information on the fuzzy sphere  

E-print Network

We numerically calculate entanglement entropy and mutual information for a massive free scalar field on commutative (ordinary) and noncommutative (fuzzy) spheres. We regularize the theory on the commutative geometry by discretizing the polar coordinate, whereas the theory on the noncommutative geometry naturally posseses a finite and adjustable number of degrees of freedom. Our results show that the UV-divergent part of the entanglement entropy on a fuzzy sphere does not follow an area law, while the entanglement entropy on a commutative sphere does. Nonetheless, we find that mutual information (which is UV-finite) is the same in both theories. This suggests that nonlocality at short distances does not affect quantum correlations over large distances in a free field theory.

Philippe Sabella-Garnier

2014-10-06

287

Differential effectiveness of novel and old legume-rhizobia mutualisms: implications for invasion by exotic legumes.  

PubMed

The degree of specialization in the legume-rhizobium mutualism and the variation in the response to different potential symbionts are crucial factors for understanding the process of invasion by exotic legumes and the consequences for the native resident plants and bacteria. The enhanced novel mutualism hypothesis predicts that exotic invasive legumes would take advantage of native rhizobia present in the invaded soils. However, recent studies have shown that exotic legumes might become invasive by using exotic introduced microsymbionts, and that they could be a source of exotic bacteria for native legumes. To unravel the role of novel and old symbioses in the progress of invasion, nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness were analyzed for exotic invasive plants and native co-occurring legumes in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Although most of the studied species nodulated with bacteria from distant origins these novel mutualisms were less effective in terms of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth than the interactions of plants and bacteria from the same origin. The relative effect of exotic bradyrhizobia was strongly positive for exotic invasive legumes and detrimental for native shrubs. We conclude that (1) the studied invasive legumes do not rely on novel mutualisms but rather need the co-introduction of compatible symbionts, and (2) since exotic rhizobia colonize native legumes in invaded areas, the lack of effectiveness of these novel symbiosis demonstrated here suggests that invasion can disrupt native belowground mutualisms and reduce native legumes fitness. PMID:22419481

Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Fajardo, Susana; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

2012-09-01

288

Mutual information via thermodynamics: three different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different approaches for deriving mutual information via thermodynamics are presented, where the temperature-dependent energy is given by (a) \\\\beta \\\\mathcal {E} =-\\\\ln [P(X,Y)] , (b) \\\\beta \\\\mathcal {E}=-\\\\ln [P(Y|X)] or (c) \\\\beta \\\\mathcal {E}=-\\\\ln [P(X|Y)] . All approaches require the extension of the traditional physical framework and the modification of the second law of thermodynamics. A realization of a

Yitzhak Peleg; Hadar Efraim; Ori Shental; Ido Kanter

2010-01-01

289

G-C Mutually Tangent Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Three circles, each having radius 2, are mutually tangent as pictured below: What is the total area of the circles together with the shaded region?...

290

Bacterial Protection of Beetle-Fungus Mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-microbe symbioses play a critical role in the evolution of biological diversity and complexity. In a notably intricate system, southern pine beetles use symbiotic fungi to help overcome host-tree defenses and to provide nutrition for their larvae. We show that this beetle-fungal mutualism is chemically mediated by a bacterially produced polyunsaturated peroxide. The molecule's selective toxicity toward the beetle's fungal

Jarrod J. Scott; Dong-Chan Oh; M. Cetin Yuceer; Kier D. Klepzig; Jon Clardy; Cameron R. Currie

2008-01-01

291

Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.  

PubMed

A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. PMID:24428169

Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

2014-04-01

292

Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.  

PubMed

The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

2013-02-01

293

Mutual Friction in Superfluid Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We discuss vortex-mediated mutual friction in the two-fluid model for superfluid neutron star cores. Our discussion is based on the general formalism developed by Carter and collaborators, which makes due distinction between transport velocity and momentum for each fluid. This is essential for an implementation of the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the flow of one fluid imparts momentum in the other and vice versa. The mutual friction follows by balancing the Magnus force that acts on the quantised neutron vortices with a resistive force due to the scattering of electrons off of the magnetic field with which each vortex core is endowed. We derive the form of the macroscopic mutual friction force which is relevant for a model based on smooth-averaging over a collection of vortices. We discuss the coefficients that enter the expression for this force, and the timescale on which the two interpenetrating fluids in a neutron star core are coupled. This discussion confirms that our new formulation accords well with previous work in this area.

N. Andersson; T. Sidery; G. L. Comer

2005-10-03

294

Development of anthropomorphic multi-D.O.F. master-slave arm for mutual telexistence.  

PubMed

We developed a robotic arm for a master-slave system to support "mutual telexistence," which realizes remote dexterous manipulation tasks and close physical communication with other people using gestures. In this paper, we describe the specifications of the experimental setup of the master-slave arm to demonstrate the feasibility of the mutual telexistence concept. We developed the master arm of a telexistence robot for interpersonal communication. The last degree of the 7-degree-of-freedom slave arm is resolved by placing a small orientation sensor on the operators arm. This master arm is made light and impedance control is applied in order to grant the operator as much freedom of movement as possible. For this development stage, we compared three control methods and confirmed that the impedance control method is the most appropriate to this system. PMID:16270856

Tadakuma, Riichiro; Asahara, Yoshiaki; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Naoki; Tachi, Susumu

2005-01-01

295

Industrial Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

296

Cosmetic Surgeries and Non-Orientable Surfaces Kazuhiro ICHIHARA  

E-print Network

169 Cosmetic Surgeries and Non-Orientable Surfaces Kazuhiro ICHIHARA Accepted November 14, 2012 Proceedings of the Institute of Natural Sciences, Nihon University No.48 2013 pp.169 174 1 COSMETIC SURGERIES/3- and -10/3-Dehn surgeries on the 2-bridge knot 927 are not cosmetic, i.e., they give mutually non

Ichihara, Kazuhiro

297

New Student Orientation Student Orientation Leader  

E-print Network

New Student Orientation Student Orientation Leader Thank you for your interest in becoming a Student Orientation Leader, or SOL. We believe that orientation plays an important role in the development to the success of each orientation program. Please review the following mandatory trainings and requirements

Rhoads, James

298

New Student Orientation Executive Student Orientation Leader  

E-print Network

New Student Orientation Executive Student Orientation Leader Thank you for your interest in becoming an Executive Student Orientation Leader, or E-SOL. We believe that orientation plays an important as an E-SOL will be vital to the success of each orientation program. Please review the following

Rhoads, James

299

Accurate matching method of multimodal image based on phase congruency and local mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal image matching is difficult because of the contrast and intensity difference of the images. For solving this problem, a new matching method based on the phase congruency, histograms of oriented gradients and local normalized mutual information was proposed. The proposed method first extract feature points and edge map based on monogenic signal and phase congruency method which is insensitivity to variations in illumination and contrast. Then, the Monogenic Phase Congruency Edge Descriptor based on edge orientation histogram was generated by gathering the edge information of orientations from edge map around the feature point. For increasing the matched point-pair number, the Multi Candidate Point Matching Method by selecting multi better candidate matching points for each feature point was presented. Finally, the location accuracy was refined using local normalized mutual information method. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method could achieve higher performance in heterogonous image matching, the average matching correct rate up to 88%, is about 3 times of SURF matching method.

Zhao, Chunyang; Zhao, Huaici; Zhao, Gang

2014-11-01

300

A mutually assured destruction mechanism attenuates light signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

After light-induced nuclear translocation, phytochrome photoreceptors interact with and induce rapid phosphorylation and degradation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), to regulate gene expression. Concomitantly, this interaction triggers feedback reduction of phytochrome B (phyB) levels. Light-induced phosphorylation of PIF3 is necessary for the degradation of both proteins. We report that this PIF3 phosphorylation induces, and is necessary for, recruitment of LRB [Light-Response Bric-a-Brack/Tramtrack/Broad (BTB)] E3 ubiquitin ligases to the PIF3-phyB complex. The recruited LRBs promote concurrent polyubiqutination and degradation of both PIF3 and phyB in vivo. These data reveal a linked signal-transmission and attenuation mechanism involving mutually assured destruction of the receptor and its immediate signaling partner. PMID:24904166

Ni, Weimin; Xu, Shou-Ling; Tepperman, James M; Stanley, David J; Maltby, Dave A; Gross, John D; Burlingame, Alma L; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Quail, Peter H

2014-06-01

301

Automatic registration of multispectral images through maximization of mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a method to get fine registration of high resolution multispectral images. The algorithm supposes that a coarse registration, based on ancillary information, has been already performed. It is known, in fact, that residual distortions remain, due to the combined effects of Earth rotation and curvature, view geometry, sensor operation, variations in platform velocity, atmospheric and terrain effects. The algorithm grounds its main idea on the information-theoretic approach to register volumetric medical images of different modalities. Registration is achieved by adjustment of the relative position and orientation until the mutual information between the images is maximized. The idea is that the join information is maximized when the two images are at their best registration. This approach works directly with image data but in principle it can be applied in any transformed domain. While the original algorithm has been thought to make registration in a limited search space (i.e. translation and orientation), in the remote sensing framework the class of transformations is extended allowing scaling, shearing or a general polynomial model. The maximization of the target function is performed using both the stochastic gradient descent algorithm and the simulated annealing, since the former is known to occasionally deadlock in local maxima. We have applied the algorithm on a SPOT-5 couple of images, achieving the registration of chips of size 256x256 pixels at time. Accuracy has been obtained comparing the results with the outcomes of a commercial software that adopts a sort of Normalized Cross-Correlation method. On 143 chips taken throughout the image, the final translation accuracy resulted well below 1 pixel and the rotation accuracy about 0.015deg.

Guccione, Pietro; Mascolo, Luigi; Cifarelli, Giuseppe; Abbattista, Cristoforo; Tragni, Mario

2014-10-01

302

Thermal and physiological responses of rats exposed to 2.45GHz radiofrequency radiation: A comparison of E and H orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in both E and H orientations to far-field 2.45-GHz continuous-wave radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at a power density of 60 mW\\/cm2 (whole-body average specific absorption rate of ~ 14 W\\/kg). Intermittent exposures were performed in both orientations in the same animal to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5° C. Tympanic, subcutaneous (sides toward

M. R. Frei; J. R. Jauchem; J. M. Padilla; J. H. Merritt

1989-01-01

303

Mutual information via thermodynamics: three different approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different approaches for deriving mutual information via thermodynamics are presented, where the temperature-dependent energy is given by (a) \\beta \\mathcal {E} =-\\ln [P(X,Y)] , (b) \\beta \\mathcal {E}=-\\ln [P(Y|X)] or (c) \\beta \\mathcal {E}=-\\ln [P(X|Y)] . All approaches require the extension of the traditional physical framework and the modification of the second law of thermodynamics. A realization of a physical system with an effective temperature-dependent Hamiltonian is discussed and followed by a suggestion of a physical information-heat engine.

Peleg, Yitzhak; Efraim, Hadar; Shental, Ori; Kanter, Ido

2010-01-01

304

Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables  

SciTech Connect

Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

Sheppeard, M. D. [Oxford University Computing Laboratory, Wolfson Building, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

305

Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.  

PubMed

Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

2015-03-01

306

Mutually injection locked lasers for enhanced frequency response  

DOEpatents

Semiconductor light-emitting devices; methods of forming semi-conductor light emitting devices, and methods of operating semi-conductor light emitting devices are provided. A semiconductor light-emitting device includes a first laser section monolithically integrated with a second laser section on a common substrate. Each laser section has a phase section, a gain section and at least one distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure. The first laser section and the second laser section are optically coupled to permit optical feedback therebetween. Each phase section is configured to independently tune a respective one of the first laser section and second laser section relative to each other.

Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A; Chow, Weng W

2014-04-01

307

“It was Hard to Come to Mutual Understanding …”—The Multidimensionality of Social Learning Processes Concerned with Sustainable Natural Resource Use in India, Africa and Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable natural resource use requires that multiple actors reassess their situation in a systemic perspective. This can be conceptualised as a social learning process between actors from rural communities and the experts from outside organisations. A specifically designed workshop oriented towards a systemic view of natural resource use and the enhancement of mutual learning between local and external actors, provided

Stephan Rist; Mani Chiddambaranathan; Cesar Escobar; Urs Wiesmann

2006-01-01

308

Generalized mutual informations of quantum critical chains  

E-print Network

We study the R\\'enyi mutual information $\\tilde{I}_n$ of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The R\\'enyi mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the R\\'enyi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete $Z(Q)$ symmetries (Q-state Potts model with $Q=2,3,4$ and $Z(Q)$ parafermionic models with $Q=5,6,7,8$ and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the $U(1)$ continuous symmetries(Klein-Gordon field theory, XXZ and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wavefunctions in two special basis. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter $n$ that defines $\\tilde{I}_n$. For a system, with total size $L$ and subsystem sizes $\\ell$ and $L-\\ell$, the$\\tilde{I}_n$ has a logarithmic leading behavior given by $\\frac{\\til...

Alcaraz, F C

2015-01-01

309

Managers, Investors, and Crises: Mutual Fund Strategies in Emerging Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

July 2000This study of an important class of investors-U.S. mutual funds-finds that mutual funds do engage in momentum trading (buying winners and selling losers). They also engage in contagion trading strategies (selling assets from one country when asset prices fall in another).Kaminsky, Lyons, and Schmukler address the trading strategies of mutual funds in emerging markets. The data set they develop

Sergio Schmukler; Richard K. Lyons

1999-01-01

310

Detecting companions to extrasolar planets using mutual events  

E-print Network

We investigate a new approach to the detection of companions to extrasolar planets beyond the transit method. We discuss the possibility of the existence of binary planets. We develop a method based on the imaging of a planet-companion as an unresolved system (but resolved from its parent star). It makes use of planet-companion mutual phenomena, namely mutual transits and mutual shadows. We show that companions can be detected and their radius measured down to lunar sizes.

J. Cabrera; J. Schneider

2007-03-23

311

Synchronization of Mutually Versus Unidirectionally Coupled Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers  

E-print Network

Synchronization dynamics of mutually coupled chaotic semiconductor lasers are investigated experimentally and compared to identical synchronization of unidirectionally coupled lasers. Mutual coupling shows high quality synchronization in a broad range of self-feedback and coupling strengths. It is found to be tolerant to significant parameter mismatch which for unidirectional coupling would result in loss of synchronization. The advantages of mutual coupling are emphasized in light of its potential use in chaos communications.

Noam Gross; Wolfgang Kinzel; Ido Kanter; Michael Rosenbluh; Lev Khaykovich

2006-04-26

312

Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes About Treating Patients With Alcohol Addiction After Attending a Required Mutual Support Group  

PubMed Central

Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction. Design. Third-year (P3) pharmacy students enrolled in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory course were required to watch an introductory video about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and then attend 2 “open meetings” during the semester. Students submitted a written reflection as proof of attendance. Assessment. Pharmacy students who agreed to participate in the study completed the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) during the course orientation and again at the end of the semester. Mutual support group attendance significantly affected the students’ attitudes within the domains of role adequacy, task specific self-esteem, and work satisfaction. Significant changes were not observed within the domains of motivation and role legitimacy. Conclusion. Mutual support group attendance exposed pharmacy students to the negative effects of alcohol abuse and increased their self-confidence to provide care to patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:24672072

2014-01-01

313

Two-view Orientation Independent Orientation  

E-print Network

Two-view Orientation #12;Independent Orientation · 3D-measurement in images · at least 2 images (projection rays) required · for both images orientation must be known · Minimal case: two images · basis for multiview case · important for stereo measurement · separate orientation · each image treated independently

Giger, Christine

314

Cyclic Strain Resistance, Stress Response, Fatigue Life, and Fracture Behavior of High Strength Low Alloy Steel 300 M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this technical manuscript is a record of the specific role of microstructure and test specimen orientation on cyclic stress response, cyclic strain resistance, and cyclic stress versus strain response, deformation and fracture behavior of alloy steel 300 M. The cyclic strain amplitude-controlled fatigue properties of this ultra-high strength alloy steel revealed a linear trend for the variation of log elastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure, and log plastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure for both longitudinal and transverse orientations. Test specimens of the longitudinal orientation showed only a marginal improvement over the transverse orientation at equivalent values of plastic strain amplitude. Cyclic stress response revealed a combination of initial hardening for the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for a large portion of fatigue life before culminating in rapid softening prior to catastrophic failure by fracture. Fracture characteristics of test specimens of this alloy steel were different at both the macroscopic and fine microscopic levels over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. Both macroscopic and fine microscopic observations revealed fracture to be a combination of both brittle and ductile mechanisms. The underlying mechanisms governing stress response, deformation characteristics, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the competing and mutually interactive influences of test specimen orientation, intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents, cyclic strain amplitude, and response stress.

Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Tammana, Deepthi; Poorgangi, Behrang; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

2014-05-01

315

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

316

LOCAL ATTRACTION AND FEEDING RESPONSE OF MELON FLIES AND ORIENTAL FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO VARIOUS PROTEIN BAITS WITH AND WITHOUT SPINOSAD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

317

Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

318

Bacterial protection of beetle-fungus mutualism.  

PubMed

Host-microbe symbioses play a critical role in the evolution of biological diversity and complexity. In a notably intricate system, southern pine beetles use symbiotic fungi to help overcome host-tree defenses and to provide nutrition for their larvae. We show that this beetle-fungal mutualism is chemically mediated by a bacterially produced polyunsaturated peroxide. The molecule's selective toxicity toward the beetle's fungal antagonist, combined with the prevalence and localization of its bacterial source, indicates an insect-microbe association that is both mutualistic and coevolved. This unexpected finding in a well-studied system indicates that mutualistic associations between insects and antibiotic-producing bacteria are more common than currently recognized and that identifying their small-molecule mediators can provide a powerful search strategy for therapeutically useful antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18832638

Scott, Jarrod J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Yuceer, M Cetin; Klepzig, Kier D; Clardy, Jon; Currie, Cameron R

2008-10-01

319

Learning biological network using mutual information and conditional independence  

PubMed Central

Background Biological networks offer us a new way to investigate the interactions among different components and address the biological system as a whole. In this paper, a reverse-phase protein microarray (RPPM) is used for the quantitative measurement of proteomic responses. Results To discover the signaling pathway responsive to RPPM, a new structure learning algorithm of Bayesian networks is developed based on mutual Information, conditional independence, and graph immorality. Trusted biology networks are thus predicted by the new approach. As an application example, we investigate signaling networks of ataxia telangiectasis mutation (ATM). The study was carried out at different time points under different dosages for cell lines with and without gene transfection. To validate the performance ofthe proposed algorithm, comparison experiments were also implemented using three well-known networks. From the experiment results, our approach produces more reliable networks with a relatively small number of wrong connection especially in mid-size networks. By using the proposed method, we predicted different networks for ATM under different doses of radiation treatment, and those networks were compared with results from eight different protein protein interaction (PPI) databases. Conclusions By using a new protein microarray technology in combination with a new computational framework, we demonstrate an application of the methodology to the study of biological networks of ATM cell lines under low dose ionization radiation. PMID:20438656

2010-01-01

320

Mutual transportation of cooperative mobile robots using forklift mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept of mutual transportation by cooperative multiple mobile robots is proposed in this paper, which enables robots to process complicated or heavy-duty tasks, and overcome the large obstruction in an environment. A method of mutual transportation utilizing forklift mechanisms is introduced with discussion on the lifting process and moving process. Cooperative mobile robots including a holonomic omni-directional platform and

Hajime ASAMA; M. Sato; N. Goto; H. Kaetsu; A. Matsumoto; I. Endo

1996-01-01

321

Mutual information, bit error rate and security in Wójcik's scheme  

E-print Network

In this paper the correct calculations of the mutual information of the whole transmission, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) are presented. Mistakes of the general conclusions relative to the mutual information, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and the security in W\\'{o}jcik's paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90}, 157901(2003)] have been pointed out.

Zhanjun Zhang

2004-02-21

322

Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

1989-01-01

323

Returns from Investing in Equity Mutual Funds 1971 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies suggest that equity mutual fund managers achieve superior returns and that considerable persistence in performance exists. This study utilizes a unique data set including returns from all equity mutual funds existing each year. These data enables the author to more precisely examine performance and the extent of survivorship bias. In the aggregate, funds have underperformed benchmark portfolios

Burton G Malkiel

1995-01-01

324

Cooperation in Academic Negotiations: A Guide to Mutual Gains Bargaining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide to mutual gains bargaining (MGB) is presented for faculty union leaders and college administrators, as well as school systems. MGB is based on applied behavioral sciences concepts and the use of bargaining teams and emphasizes problem-solving and improving communications and campus relationships. Two different uses of the mutual gains…

Birnbaum, Robert; And Others

325

Feature Extraction by Non-Parametric Mutual Information Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for learning discriminative feature transforms using as criterion the mutual information between class labels and transformed features. Instead of a commonly used mutual information measure based on Kullback-Leibler divergence, we use a quadratic divergence measure, which allows us to make an efficient non-parametric implementation and requires no prior assumptions about class densities. In addition to linear

Kari Torkkola

2003-01-01

326

Mutual Rényi information for two disjoint compound systems  

E-print Network

The leading term for the mutual R\\'enyi information is studied for two widely separated identical compound systems for free scalar fields in $(d+1)$ Euclidean space. The compound system consists of two identical spheres in contact, with a result consistent with a universal form for the leading term for the mutual R\\'enyi information.

Howard J. Schnitzer

2014-11-03

327

The good, the bad or the expensive? Which mutual fund managers join hedge funds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has the mutual fund industry lost its best managers to hedge funds? We examine the career moves from mutual funds to hedge funds. We find that a mutual fund manager with superior past performance is more likely to start managing an in-house hedge fund while continuing to serve as a mutual fund manager. However, a mutual fund manager with poor

Prachi Deuskar; Joshua M. Pollet; Z. Jay Wang; Lu Zheng

328

EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

2008-11-01

329

Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2003-05-01

330

Genetic drift opposes mutualism during spatial population expansion  

E-print Network

Mutualistic interactions benefit both partners, promoting coexistence and genetic diversity. Spatial structure can promote cooperation, but spatial expansions may also make it hard for mutualistic partners to stay together, since genetic drift at the expansion front creates regions of low genetic and species diversity. To explore the antagonism between mutualism and genetic drift, we grew cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae on agar surfaces as a model for mutualists undergoing spatial expansions. By supplying varying amounts of the exchanged nutrients, we tuned strength and symmetry of the mutualistic interaction. Strong mutualism suppresses genetic demixing during spatial expansions and thereby maintains diversity, but weak or asymmetric mutualism is overwhelmed by genetic drift even when mutualism is still beneficial, slowing growth and reducing diversity. Theoretical modeling using experimentally measured parameters predicts the size of demixed regions and how strong mutualism must be ...

Muller, Melanie JI; Nelson, David R; Murray, Andrew W

2014-01-01

331

The modified Poynting theorem and the concept of mutual energy  

E-print Network

The Poynting theorem is generalized to the modified Poynting theorem. In the modified Poynting theorem the electromagnetic field is superimposition of different electromagnetic fields including the field of retarded potential and advanced potential. The media epsilon (permittivity) and mu (permeability) can also be different in the different fields. The concept of mutual energy is introduced which is the difference between the total energy and self-energy. Using the modified Poynting theorem with the concept of the mutual energy the modified mutual energy theorem is derived. Applying time-offset transform and time integral to the modified mutual energy theorem, the time-correlation modified mutual energy theorem is obtained. Assume there are only two fields which are retarded potential, and there is only one media, the modified time-correlation energy theorem becomes the time-correlation energy theorem, which is also referred as the time-correlation reciprocity theorem. Assume there are two electromagnetic fi...

Zhao, Shuang-ren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Xingang; Yang, Xintie

2015-01-01

332

Manual response preparation and saccade programming are linked to attention shifts: ERP evidence for covert attentional orienting and spatially specific modulations of visual processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premotor theory of attention claims that attentional shifts are triggered during response programming, regardless of which response modality is involved. To investigate this claim, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants covertly prepared a left or right response, as indicated by a precue presented at the beginning of each trial. Cues signalled a left or right eye movement

Martin Eimer; José Van Velzen; Elena Gherri

2006-01-01

333

A new general formulation for the entire-domain analysis of an array of arbitrarily oriented circular loop antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formulation for the entire-domain analysis of arbitrarily oriented coupled circular loops has been presented for the first time. The Eulerian angles are used to unambiguously define the orientation of each loop with respect to another. The formulation gives a solution of the Fourier coefficients of the current on each loop after taking mutual coupling into account. The current

Sivanand Krishnan; Le-Wei Li; Mook Seng Leong; Pang Shyan Kooi

2004-01-01

334

Response of human mesenchymal stem cells to patterned and randomly oriented poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-fibrous scaffolds surface-modified with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) ligand.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to obtain a better insight of how nano-fibrous scaffolds can affect human mesenchymal stem cells responses. Therefore, in this study, using electrospinning technique, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nano-fibers with two different patterns were prepared. In the first structure, PVA nano-fibers were oriented randomly and in the second structure, nano-fibers were electrospun in such a way that a special pattern was obtained. In order to enhance their stability, scaffolds were cross-linked using glutaraldehyde vapor. RGD immobilization was used to improve cell adhesion properties of the scaffolds. SEM micrographs demonstrated that the cell adhesion was effectively enhanced after RGD immobilization and higher cell densities were observed on RGD-modified scaffolds. Randomly oriented nano-fibers showed better cell adhesion compared to patterned structure. Patterned structure also revealed slightly lower cell viability compared to random nano-fibers. Finally, it was assumed that randomly oriented nano-fibers provide a more favorable surface for cells. PMID:23963718

Zamani, Yasaman; Rabiee, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin; Tahriri, Mohammadreza

2013-11-01

335

MUTUAL NON-DISCLOSURE AND CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT This Mutual Non-Disclosure and Confidentiality Agreement (the "Agreement"), effective as of  

E-print Network

MUTUAL NON-DISCLOSURE AND CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT This Mutual Non-Disclosure and Confidentiality information (the "Confidential Information") that the disclosing party deems confidential and/or proprietary"). The parties agree that Confidential Information should be kept confidential and be used only for the Stated

Heller, Barbara

336

From Ethical Responsibility to Corporate Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility is a concept on the rise, but also a heavily criticized one. Basically, it suffers from a crucial weakness: it has no generally accepted, common framework. Consequently, it remains an amalgam of descriptive, instrumental and normative proposals, based on mutually incompatible ethical, sociological and economic theories. This article starts from the concept of responsibility as a moral

Antonio Argandoña

337

Ram Orientation Summer 2014  

E-print Network

Ram Orientation Guide Summer 2014 #12;Page 2 Table of Contents Welcome.................................................................page 19 Honors Advising at Ram Orientation to welcome you to the University Honors Program (UHP) community and the summer Ram Orientation experience

338

12 CFR 543.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. 543.9 Section 543...SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION...543.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1)...

2010-01-01

339

Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds),  

E-print Network

Simulated Mutually Catalytic Amphiphiles 1 J.Chela-Flores and F.Raulin (eds), Exobiology: Matter Publishers, The Netherlands, 1998. MUTUALLY CATALYTIC AMPHIPHILES: SIMULATED CHEMICAL EVOLUTION in which the mutually catalytic molecules are spontaneously aggregating amphiphiles. When such amphiphiles

Segrè, Daniel

340

24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

2013-04-01

341

24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

2011-04-01

342

24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

2012-04-01

343

24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

2014-04-01

344

24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

2010-04-01

345

LETTER Precision of host sanctions in the fig treefig wasp mutualism: consequences for uncooperative symbionts  

E-print Network

LETTER Precision of host sanctions in the fig tree­fig wasp mutualism: consequences cheating and thus stabilise mutualisms over evolutionary timescales. Sanctions have been demonstrated empirically in several mutualisms. However, if multiple individual symbionts interact with each host

Miller, Thomas E.

346

Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters Anna K. Simonsen1  

E-print Network

Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters Anna K. Simonsen1 and John R Key words: cheater, context-dependent, exploiter, herbivory, legume, mutualism, rhizobia, symbiotic in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between

Stinchcombe, John

347

Inapplicability of an auxiliary-system approach to chaotic oscillators with mutual-type coupling and complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auxiliary system approach being de facto the standard for the study of generalized synchronization in the unidirectionally coupled chaotic oscillators is also widely used to examine the mutually coupled systems and networks of nonlinear elements with the complex topology of links between nodes. In this Brief Report we illustrate by two simple counterexamples that the auxiliary-system approach gives incorrect results for the mutually coupled oscillators and therefore to study the generalized synchronization this approach may be used only for the drive-response configuration of nonlinear oscillators and networks.

Moskalenko, Olga I.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

2013-06-01

348

Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits  

E-print Network

Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system's state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward for equal-sized subsystems, however their minimisation displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides: a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with respect to individual marginal entropies, and the presence of a "see-saw effect" for these entropies forces a finer analysis to determine the optimal tableau.

Sania Jevtic; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

2012-05-31

349

Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants  

PubMed Central

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

2010-01-01

350

Mutual diffusion dynamics as matter transfer mechanism in inorganic nanoparticles dispersed photopolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual diffusion dynamics as matter transfer mechanism is proposed to describe the nanoparticles distribution and the grating formation in inorganic nanoparticles dispersed photopolymer. The chemical potentials as driving forces of diffusions are characterized to deduce the theoretical model, and the corresponding dynamics processes are described by the mutual diffusion model with nonlocal response. By introducing the Stokes-Einstein relation, nanoparticles redistribution and grating formation are discussed under various conditions, including nanoparticles size, nanoparticles concentration, viscosity of polymer matrix, chain length of polymer, etc. The theoretical results indicate the best nanoparticles dispersion takes place at low viscosity of polymer resin, low recording intensity, and small nanoparticle size. In experiment, the temporal evolutions of diffraction efficiency are measured in SiO2 nanoparticle dispersed PQ-PMMA photopolymers. Experimental results with various nanoparticle concentrations and recording conditions finally provide several evidences for the predictions of the theoretical model.

Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Wang, Weibo; Geng, Yaohui; Yang, Li

2014-11-01

351

Analysis of orientation bias in cat retina  

PubMed Central

1. Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to a drifting sinusoidal grating stimulus were measured as a function of the grating orientation and spatial frequency. 2. The response at fixed frequency and contrast varied with orientation in the manner of a cosine function. A new measure was introduced to quantify this orientation bias in the response domain on an absolute scale of 0-100%. Under experimental conditions designed to maximize the effect, the mean bias for 250 cells was 16% and the range was 0-46%. In 70% of cells there was significant bias. 3. Orientation bias varied with spatial frequency and was maximal near the high-frequency limit. The majority of biassed cells preferred the same orientation at high and low frequencies but in some cells a reversal occurred: the orientation which gave maximum response at high frequencies gave minimum response at low frequencies. The greatest variation of cut-off frequency with orientation was ? octave. 4. Orientation bias was due to neural, not optical, factors. Nevertheless, the phenomenon could often be imitated by deliberately introduced optical astigmatism of up to 4 dioptres for brisk-sustained units and over 10 dioptres for brisk-transient units. 5. The grating orientation preferred by cells varied systematically with position in the visual field. The central tendency was for the grating which yielded maximum response to lie parallel to the line joining the cell to the area centralis. This generalization failed for units within 2° of the centre of the area centralis. 6. Analysis of orientation bias indicates a functional asymmetry of receptive fields such that the centre mechanism, and sometimes also the surround mechanism, is elongated along the line joining cell to area centralis. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:7143249

Levick, W. R.; Thibos, L. N.

1982-01-01

352

Mutual synchronization between structure and central pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows an evaluating method of synchronization between a structure and Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), which are embedded in a controller designed for an active mass damper. A neural oscillator composing the CPGs has nonlinear and entrainment properties. Therefore, the proposed controller has possibility to exhibit the characteristic of robustness, when the structural parameters, i.e. stiffness or damping, are changed by earthquakes and the like. Our earlier studies have proposed the new controller and ascertained the efficacy of vibration suppression. However, there has been no study to evaluate the controller's above-mentioned properties. For tuning into practical application, the reliability and robustness along with the controller's vibration mitigation performance must be analyzed. In this paper, phase reduction theory is tried to appraise the synchronization between a structure and the CPGs. In this case, the synchronization between the target structure and a single neural oscillator constituting the CPGs is required to be investigated. Therefore, the single neural oscillator's the harmonization characteristic with sinusoidal input is firstly examined, and the synchronization region is expressed using phase response curves. In addition, the mutual synchronization between the structure and the single neural oscillator is studied under sinusoidal input using the result of the harmonization characteristic.

Hongu, Junichi; Iba, Daisuke

2012-04-01

353

Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i.e., mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator, in power-of-two dimensions to the problem of finding a symmetric matrix over {F}_2 with an irreducible characteristic polynomial that has a given Fibonacci index. For dimensions of the form 2^{2^k}, we present a solution that shows an analogy to an open conjecture of Wiedemann in finite field theory. Finally, we discuss the equivalence of mutually unbiased bases.

Seyfarth, Ulrich; Ranade, Kedar S.

2012-06-01

354

Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture  

E-print Network

We relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i. e., mutually unbiased bases generated by a single unitary operator, in power-of-two dimensions to the problem of finding a symmetric matrix over F_2 with an irreducible characteristic polynomial that has a given Fibonacci index. For dimensions of the form 2^(2^k) we present a solution that shows an analogy to an open conjecture of Wiedemann in finite field theory. Finally, we discuss the equivalence of mutually unbiased bases.

Ulrich Seyfarth; Kedar S. Ranade

2012-03-27

355

Mutual and coherent informations for infinite-dimensional quantum channels  

E-print Network

The work is devoted to study of quantum mutual information and coherent information -- the two important characteristics of quantum communication channel. Appropriate definitions of these quantities in the infinite-dimensional case are given and their properties are studied in detail. Basic identities relating quantum mutual information and coherent information of a pair of complementary channels are proved. An unexpected continuity property of quantum mutual information and coherent information following from the above identities is observed. An upper bound for the coherent information is obtained.

A. S. Holevo; M. E. Shirokov

2010-12-05

356

Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution  

E-print Network

We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularised relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution.

Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Aram W. Harrow; Jonathan Oppenheim; Sergii Strelchuk

2014-11-30

357

Mutually Unbiased Bases and Semi-definite Programming  

E-print Network

A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Grobner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

Stephen Brierley; Stefan Weigert

2010-06-01

358

Part-whole information assists in topological × topological but not in orientation × orientation conjunction searches.  

PubMed

Visual search is a routine task used in everyday life and is an important field of research in cognitive psychology. In laboratory settings, it has been shown that search for a target defined by a unique conjunction of two colours is more efficient if one colour surrounds the other (a part-whole search) compared to when no such hierarchical structural relationship exists (a part-part search; Wolfe et al. in Perception & Psychophysics, 55, 537, 1994). A similar result has been shown to hold for size × size conjunction searches (Bilsky & Wolfe in Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 749, 1995). We show that this result also holds for topology × topology conjunction searches (where the stimuli are either hollow or filled), but not for orientation × orientation conjunction searches. We use the simultaneous-sequential paradigm to investigate a possible reason for the inefficiency of part-whole orientation search compared with the efficiency of part-whole searches of other features. We argue that two different attribute values from the same dimension can be processed independently, without interfering with each other for colour, size, and topology, but not for orientation. Because it is obviously more efficient to process a conjunction stimulus when both components of the conjunction can be processed without mutual interference, it follows that colour × colour, size × size, and topological × topology part-whole conjunction searches are likely to be more efficient than orientation × orientation part-whole conjunction searches. PMID:25613419

Chen, Weijia; Blunden, Anthea G; Howe, Piers D L

2015-04-01

359

Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

Higgins, Chris

2012-01-01

360

MULTIPLE CROSSWISE ORIENTATED NERA-PANELS AGAINST SHAPED CHARGE WARHEADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of non-explosive reactive armour, NERA, as add-on armour against shaped charge warheads, has been performed with focus on the effect of introducing more than one consecutive panel and the in- fluence of the mutual orientation of the panels. As a NERA-panel af- fects the jet mainly in the plane of obliquity, using cross-wise orien- tated panels, where the disturbance

Ewa Lidén; Andreas Helte; Anders Tjernberg

361

Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

Foxlin, Eric M.

2008-01-01

362

Nonlinear pattern analysis of ventricular premature beats by mutual information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequency of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) has been related to the risk of mortality. However, little is known about the temporal pattern of occurrence of VPBs and its relationship to autonomic activity. Hence, we applied a general correlation measure, mutual information, to quantify how VPBs are generated over time. We also used mutual information to determine the correlation between VPB production and heart rate in order to evaluate effects of autonomic activity on VPB production. We examined twenty subjects with more than 3000 VPBs/day and simulated random time series of VPB occurrence. We found that mutual information values could be used to characterize quantitatively the temporal patterns of VPB generation. Our data suggest that VPB production is not random and VPBs generated with a higher value of mutual information may be more greatly affected by autonomic activity.

Osaka, M.; Saitoh, H.; Yokoshima, T.; Kishida, H.; Hayakawa, H.; Cohen, R. J.

1997-01-01

363

1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP 1906: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP - 1906: ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PATERSON, N.J. (4x5 NEGATIVE) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

364

Gaining (mutual) information about quark/gluon discrimination  

E-print Network

Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon ...

Thaler, Jesse

365

Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information  

E-print Network

Integrating minutiae based fingerprint matching with local mutual information Jiang Li, Sergey based fingerprint matching algorithms are wildly used in fingerprint identification and verification the matching rate. The overall minutiae distribution pattern between two fingerprints is represented

Corso, Jason J.

366

Studies of exon scrambling and mutually exclusive alternative splicing  

E-print Network

The goals of this thesis work were to study two special alternative splicing events: exon scrambling at the RNA splicing level and mutually exclusive alternative splicing (MEAS) by computational and experimental methods. ...

Kong, Rong, 1979-

2005-01-01

367

Predictive Mutual Cuts in Graphs: Learning in Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

Predictive Mutual Cuts in Graphs: Learning in Bioinformatics K. Pelckmans, J.A.K. Suykens, and B a case-study in bioinformatics. Learning tasks in bioinformatics are often characterized by considerable

368

On Uncertainty Relations and Entanglement Detection with Mutually Unbiased Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate some properties of a set of several mutually unbiased measurements. These properties are used for deriving entropic uncertainty relations. Applications of mutually unbiased measurements in entanglement detection are also revisited. First, we estimate from above the sum of the indices of coincidence for several mutually unbiased measurements. Further, we derive entropic uncertainty relations in terms of the Rényi and Tsallis entropies. Both the state-dependent and state-independent formulations are obtained. Using the two sets of local mutually unbiased measurements, a method of entanglement detection in bipartite finite-dimensional systems may be realized. A certain trade-off between a sensitivity of the scheme and its experimental complexity is discussed.

Rastegin, Alexey E.

2015-03-01

369

Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan for facial expression recognition by boosting Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based classifiers. Low-cost LBP a classifier of improved classification per- formance. 1 Introduction Automatic facial expression recognition

Gong, Shaogang

370

76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...directors of mutual savings associations to be considered for selection as MSAAC members. DATES: Nominations must be received on...as federal savings associations (including federal savings banks); and (2) issue charters therefore, giving primary...

2011-11-17

371

On uncertainty relations and entanglement detection with mutually unbiased measurements  

E-print Network

We formulate some properties of a set of several mutually unbiased measurements. These properties are used for deriving entropic uncertainty relations. Applications of mutually unbiased measurements in entanglement detection are also revisited. First, we estimate from above the sum of the indices of coincidence for several mutually unbiased measurements. Further, we derive entropic uncertainty relations in terms of the R\\'{e}nyi and Tsallis entropies. Both the state-dependent and state-independent formulations are obtained. Using the two sets of local mutually unbiased measurements, a method of entanglement detection in bipartite finite-dimensional systems may be realized. A certain trade-off between a sensitivity of the scheme and its experimental complexity is discussed.

Alexey E. Rastegin

2014-07-28

372

Mutuality for Football Clubs? Lessons from the Financial Sector.   

E-print Network

The mutualisation of two English third division football clubs in 2001 and the creation of a number of supporters' trusts has offered hope to supporters of many larger clubs who see mutual status as protection from the vagaries of shareholder...

Adams, Andrew T; Armitage, Seth

2002-01-01

373

Paul Tomich Orientation Continued  

E-print Network

Paul Tomich Notes 11/7 Orientation Continued Here we will be looking to find a correlation between orientation and vector spaces. Let V be a vector space of dim n. Let { , , , ..., } = be a basis. Another orientation. In general, given a linear map A : V W, V and W are vector spaces, We say A is orientation

Sutherland, Scott

374

Orientation to @ Boise State  

E-print Network

Orientation to eCampus @ Boise State University eCampus Center Division of Extended Studies Boise State University January 2012 Faculty Orientation to eCampus A- 1 About eCampus Before Class Class Facilitation Development Faculty Orientation to eCampus Boise State's eCampus provides one-on-one orientation

Barrash, Warren

375

How to measure mutual fund performance: economic versus statistical relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn the present paper a comprehensive assessment of existing mutual fund performance models is presented. Using a survivor-bias free database of all US mutual funds, we explore the added value of introducing extra variables such as size, book-to-market, momentum and a bond index. In addition to that we evaluate the use of introducing time-variation in betas and alpha. The search

Rogér Otten; Dennis Bams

2004-01-01

376

Mutual Grooming in Human Dyadic Relationships: An Ethological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its widespread practice among primates writ large, social scientists have given mutual grooming among humans little\\u000a attention. This research provides an important first step in describing mutual grooming among humans. A scale was developed\\u000a to measure self-reported giving and receiving of grooming. In Study 1, 184 female and 94 male participants first indicated\\u000a their closest emotional relationship (for example,

Holly Nelson; Glenn Geher

2007-01-01

377

Mutual Influences in Parent and Adolescent Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a cross-lagged effect model with 3 waves of panel data, this study examined mutual influences in parent and adolescent psychological distress reported independently by respondents in each of 4 parent–child dyads: mothers–sons, mothers–daughters, fathers–sons, and fathers–daughters. Results showed that parent and adolescent distress were reciprocally related across time, even after earlier emotional status was statistically controlled. These mutual influences

Xiaojia Ge; Rand D. Conger; Frederick O. Lorenz; Michael. Shanahan; Glen H. Elder

1995-01-01

378

Distributions and Mutual Funds \\Lambda Jeffrey D. Oldham  

E-print Network

purchasing, for example, 0.03 shares of Intel, 0.05 shares of Exxon, $3.00 of a 30­year U.S. Treasury bond. 1 #12; Most mutual funds frequently buy and sell stocks and bonds so, even though you may still own of Dow Jones, and 2.34 shares of Stockmaster. When the mutual fund company sells some secu­ rities

Pratt, Vaughan

379

Maximally entangled states via mutual unbiased collective bases  

SciTech Connect

Relative and center-of-mass coordinates are used to generalize mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and define mutually unbiased collective bases (MUCB). Maximally entangled states are given as product states in the collective variables. These states are analyzed in terms of the Wigner representative function of the states and shown to display a discontinuous attribute of the entanglement. Finite Hilbert space dimensionality collective coordinates are introduced and provide a framework for the analysis.

Revzen, M. [Department of Physics, Technion--Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2010-01-15

380

Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A moment method solution to the problem of input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antenna elements is presented. The formulation uses the grounded dielectric slab Green's function to account rigorously for the presence of the substrate and surface waves. Both entire basis (EB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) expansion modes are used, and their relative advantages are noted. Calculations of input impedance and mutual coupling are compared with measured data and other calculations.

Pozar, D. M.

1982-01-01

381

Direction finding in the presence of mutual coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eigenstructure-based method for direction finding in the presence of sensor mutual coupling, gain, and phase uncertainties is presented. The method provides estimates of the directions-of-arrival (DOA) of all the radiating sources as well as calibration of the gain and phase of each sensor and the mutual coupling in the receiving array. The proposed algorithm is able to calibrate the

Benjamin Friedlander; Anthony J. Weiss

1991-01-01

382

Effect of mutual coupling on the performance of adaptive arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mutual coupling between array elements on the performance of adaptive arrays is examined. The study includes both steady state and transient performance. An expression for the steady state output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of adaptive arrays, taking into account the mutual coupling between the array elements, is derived. The expression is used to assess the steady state performance

I. J. Gupta; A. A. Ksienski

1983-01-01

383

Evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in New Caledonian Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

About half a dozen obligate pollination mutualisms between plants and their seed-consuming pollinators are currently recognized, including fig-fig wasp, yucca-yucca moth, and the recently discovered Glochidion tree-Epicephala moth mutualisms. A common principle among these interactions is that the pollinators consume only a limited amount of the seed crop within a developing fruit (or fig in the case of fig-fig wasp mutualism), thereby ensuring a net benefit to plant reproduction. A novel obligate, seed-parasitic pollination mutualism between two species of New Caledonian Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae), a close relative of Glochidion, and Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) is an exception to this principle. The highly specialized flowers of Phyllanthus are actively and exclusively pollinated by species-specific Epicephala moths, whose larvae consume all six ovules of the developing fruit. Some flowers pollinated by the moths remain untouched, and thus a fraction of the fruits is left intact. Additional evidence for a similar association of Epicephala moths in other Phyllanthus species suggests that this interaction is a coevolved, species-specific pollination mutualism. Implications for the evolutionary stability of the system, as well as differences in mode of interaction with respect to the Glochidion-Epicephala mutualism, are discussed. PMID:21653396

Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

2004-03-01

384

Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism  

SciTech Connect

Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this has been the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of prior interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80percent faster and were up to 30percent more productive (biomass yield per mole substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis but not D. vulgaris. Together, these results show that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution.

Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

2009-12-01

385

Spitzer Observations of Mutual Events in the Binary System (617) Patroclus-Menoetius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Spitzer observations of the binary Trojan system (617) Patroclus-Menoetius during two mutual events, when respectively one component shadowed and occulted the other. Observing the thermal response to mutual shadowing with spectral ( 8--33 µm) and temporal resolution allowed us to determine the system's thermal inertia in a uniquely direct way. Furthermore, our analysis provided an accurate determination of the system's size which is methodologically independent of the estimate by Berthier et al. (this session). Our results allow a more reliable estimate of the system's bulk density (the total mass was determined from the system's mutual orbit; Marchis et al., 2006; Berthier et al., this session). This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This material is partly based upon work supported by the national Aeronautics and Space Administration issue through the Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs number NNG05GF09G.

Mueller, Michael; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Berthier, J.; Hestroffer, D.; Harris, A.; Descamps, P.; Vachier, F.; Mottola, S.

2007-10-01

386

Entanglement patterns in mutually unbiased basis sets  

SciTech Connect

A few simply stated rules govern the entanglement patterns that can occur in mutually unbiased basis sets (MUBs) and constrain the combinations of such patterns that can coexist in full complements of MUBs. We consider Hilbert spaces of prime power dimensions (D=p{sup N}), as realized by systems of N prime-state particles, where full complements of D+1 MUBs are known to exist, and we assume only that MUBs are eigenbases of generalized Pauli operators, without using any particular construction. The general rules include the following: (1) In any MUB, a given particle appears either in a pure state or totally entangled and (2) in any full MUB complement, each particle is pure in (p+1) bases (not necessarily the same ones) and totally entangled in the remaining (p{sup N}-p). It follows that the maximum number of product bases is p+1 and, when this number is realized, all remaining (p{sup N}-p) bases in the complement are characterized by the total entanglement of every particle. This ''standard distribution'' is inescapable for two-particle systems (of any p), where only product and generalized Bell bases are admissible MUB types. This and the following results generalize previous results for qubits [Phys. Rev. A 65. 032320 (2002); Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)] and qutrits [Phys. Rev. A 70, 012302 (2004)], drawing particularly upon [Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)]. With three particles there are three MUB types, and these may be combined in (p+2) different ways to form full complements. With N=4, there are 6 MUB types for p=2, but new MUB types become possible with larger p, and these are essential to realizing full complements. With this example, we argue that new MUB types that show new entanglement patterns should enter with every step in N and, also, when N is a prime plus 1, at a critical p value, p=N-1. Such MUBs should play critical roles in filling complements.

Lawrence, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States) and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2011-08-15

387

Effects of orientation on the diffusive properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries during pressure solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unresolved issue in the study of pressure solution in rock materials is the dependence of grain boundary structure and\\u000a diffusive properties on the mutual orientation of neighbouring grain lattices. We report electrical measurements yielding\\u000a the diffusivity of differently oriented halite–glass and halite–halite contacts loaded in the presence of brine. The halite–glass\\u000a contact experiments show pressure solution of the halite

R. van Noort; C. J. Spiers; C. J. Peach

2007-01-01

388

Control of the orientational order and nonlinear optical response of the "push-pull" chromophore RuPZn via specific incorporation into densely packed monolayer ensembles of an amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptide: second harmonic generation at high chromophore densities.  

PubMed

The macroscopic nonlinear optical response of the "push-pull" chromophore RuPZn incorporated into a single monolayer of the amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptide (AP0) covalently attached to a solid substrate at high in-plane density has been measured. The second-order susceptibility, chi(zzz), was found to be in the range of approximately 15 x 10(-9) esu, consistent with a coherent sum of the nonlinear contributions from the individual chromophores (beta) as previously measured in isotropic solution through hyper-Rayleigh scattering as well as estimated from theoretical calculations. The microscopic hyperpolarizability of the RuPZn chromophore is preserved upon incorporation into the peptide monolayer, suggesting that the chromophore-chromophore interactions in the densely packed ensemble do not substantially affect the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability. The polarization angle dependence of the second harmonic signal reveals that the chromophore is vectorially oriented in the two-dimensional ensemble. Analysis of the order parameter together with information obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction help in determining the chromophore orientation within the AP0-RuPZn monolayer. Taking into account an average pitch angle of approximately 20 degrees characterizing the coiled-coil structure of the peptide bundle, the width of the bundle's tilt angle distribution should be sigma < or = 20 degrees, resulting in a mean value of the tilt angle 23 degrees < or = theta(0) < or = 37 degrees. PMID:20578696

Gonella, Grazia; Dai, Hai-Lung; Fry, H Christopher; Therien, Michael J; Krishnan, Venkata; Tronin, Andrey; Blasie, J Kent

2010-07-21

389

Determining the Size and Shape of Dwarf Planet Haumea from a Mutual Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of Haumea is closely intertwined with several unanswered questions relating to the formation and evolution of the outer solar system. Understanding Haumea and its satellites gives us unique insights on the physics of KBO collisions, tides, surfaces, and interiors. Yet, the most important physical properties of this dwarf planet, its density and shape, remain only weakly constrained by degenerate light curve inversions. The existence of mutual events between Haumea and its inner satellite, Namaka, provide a rare opportunity to measure Haumea's size, shape, density, albedo, and spin orientation with HST photometry. These observations also constrain the size of Namaka, the orbits of both satellites, and, through resolved photometry, the totally unexpected rapid rotation of the outer satellite, Hi'iaka. After extensive attempts at ground-based observations, it is clear that only HST photometry is capable of securely observing and characterizing a Haumea-Namaka mutual event. The proposed observations will observe the ~5-hour transit and shadowing of Haumea by Namaka on June 28, 2010 with high signal-to-noise using straightforward photometric observations with WFC3.

Ragozzine, Darin

2010-09-01

390

Assessing ecological specialization of an ant-seed dispersal mutualism through a wide geographic range.  

PubMed

Specialization in species interactions is of central importance for understanding the ecological structure and evolution of plant-animal mutualisms. Most plant-animal mutualisms are facultative and strongly asymmetric. In particular, myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) has been regarded as a very generalized interaction. Although some recent studies have suggested that only a few ant species are really important for dispersal, no rigorous measurement of the specialization in ant-seed dispersal mutualisms has been performed. Here, we use individual plants as basic units for replication to investigate the generalization-specialization of the herb Helleborus foetidus on its ant dispersers over a considerable part of its geographical range. We define generalization in terms of diversity components (species richness and evenness) of the ant visitor that realizes dispersal by removing diaspores. We obtain truly comparable values of ant visitor diversity, distinguishing among different functional groups of visitors and identifying incidental visitors and real ant dispersers. Using null model approaches, we test the null hypothesis that ant-mediated dispersal is a generalized mutualism. At least two premises should be confirmed to validate the hypothesis: (1) diaspores are dispersed by multiple ant-visitor species, and (2) diaspore dispersal is significantly equitable. Though up to 37 ant species visited diaspores across 10 populations, only two large formicines, Camponotus cruentatus and Formica lugubris, were responsible for the vast majority of visits resulting in dispersal in most populations and years, which strongly suggests that ant seed dispersal in H. foetidus is ecologically specialized. Interestingly, specialization degree was unrelated to dispersal success across populations. Our study offers new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of myrmecochory. We propose the existence of an alternative scenario to extensive generalization. In this new scenario, generalization is replaced by ecological specialization, which is determined by the intrinsic traits of the plant species rather than by the ecological context in which the interaction takes place. PMID:19967857

Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, Pedro J

2009-11-01

391

Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner’s Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has dominated studies of non-kin cooperation. Alternative models have received relatively little attention. The simplest alternative is mutualism, in which mutual cooperation always pays best. The behaviour of three pairs of blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata, was tested in precisely controlled iterated mutualism and Prisoner's Dilemma games. Although the jays readily cooperated in the mutualism game,

KEVIN C. CLEMENTS; DAVID W. STEPHENS

1995-01-01

392

Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 527535 Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner's  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 527­535 Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner relatively little attention. The simplest alternative is mutualism, in which mutual cooperation always pays controlled iterated mutualism and Prisoner's Dilemma games. Although the jays readily cooperated

Stephens, David W.

393

Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's Ulrich Seyfarth and Kedar S. Ranade  

E-print Network

Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture Ulrich Seyfarth) Cyclic mutually unbiased bases, Fibonacci polynomials and Wiedemann's conjecture Ulrich Seyfarth1,a relate the construction of a complete set of cyclic mutually unbiased bases, i.e., mutually unbiased

394

Unusual Rectifying Response of Nanojunctions Using Randomly Oriented Nanorods (RON) of ZnO Irradiated with 80-MeV Oxygen Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work highlights the improved Schottky behavior of Ag/ZnO nanojunctions which make use of unirradiated and 80-MeV oxygen ion (O6+) irradiated randomly oriented ZnO nanorods. While leakage current is apparently low, the rectifying nature of the nanojunctions was clearly evident from room-temperature current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. In case of use of irradiated nanorods, the Schottky barrier height ( ? B) of the Ag/ZnO nanojunctions was found to be enhanced from 0.78 eV to 0.95 eV along with decrease of the ideality factor ( ?) from 17.7 to 6.9. This is ascribed to reorganization and modification of the native defect states via creation and annihilation events as revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The fluence-dependent variation of ? B and ? was assigned to competition among donor and acceptor types of defects. The current transport mechanism of the Schottky contacts was found to be dominated by trap-assisted recombination tunneling and space charge-limited conduction in the mobility and ballistic regime.

Bayan, Sayan; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

2012-07-01

395

2010 Orientation Leader Position Description Portland State University  

E-print Network

2010 Orientation Leader Position Description Portland State University Summary of Responsibilities and Duties As a representative of Portland State University, Orientation Leaders (OLs) will work with diverse. This position reports to: Johnathan Luster Coordinator, New Student Programs (503) 725-5555 orientation

396

Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

2013-01-01

397

2011 Orientation Leader Position Description Portland State University  

E-print Network

2011 Orientation Leader Position Description Portland State University Summary of Responsibilities and Duties As a representative of Portland State University, Orientation Leaders (OLs) will work with diverse. This position reports to: Johnathan Luster Coordinator, New Student Programs (503) 725-5555 orientation

398

An Orientation & Leadership Training Handbook for International Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides guidance for implementing orientation activities for international students at Middlesex County College (MCC), in New Jersey. An introduction describes the development of MCC's orientation plan, indicating that, in response to problems faced by international students, the college developed an overnight orientation and…

Hansen, M. Eileen

399

Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo

2001-10-01

400

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

Haire, Timothy C.

2010-01-01

401

The Effect of Temperature and Moisture Content on the Flexural Response of Kevlar\\/Epoxy Laminates: Part I. [0\\/90] Filament Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of moisture and temperature on the flexural response of [0\\/90] Kevlar 49 fabric-reinforced epoxy laminates. Two high temperature (190°C) cure commercially available epoxies, Narmco 5208 and Ferro CE-9000, were used as matrix materials. Results indicate that the mechanical properties of Kevlar 49\\/epoxy laminates are temperature dependent over the range -55°C to 150°C. The addition of

Ronald E. Allred

1981-01-01

402

Microbial Factor-Mediated Development in a Host-Bacterial Mutualism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Magazine scholarly article explores the function of bacterial signal molecule Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) in the mutualistic symbiosis between the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the squid Euprymna scolopes. TCT is the factor responsible for the extensive tissue damage characteristic of whooping cough and gonorrhea infections in humans, however this article demonstrates that it triggers tissue development in the squid host. These findings show that host interpretation of such bacterial signal molecules is context-dependent. Such differences in interpretation can lead to either inflammation and disease or to the establishment of a mutually beneficial animal-microbe association.

403

Mutual Diffusion of Inclusions in Freely Suspended Smectic Liquid Crystal Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent.

Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.

2014-09-01

404

Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

2013-01-01

405

Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential chemoprevention through nuclear factor kappa B and p53 mutual antagonism  

PubMed Central

Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- ?B) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is largely considered as a critical determinant in the initiation and progression of various forms of cancer. Mechanistically, NF- ?B favors this process by inducing various genes responsible for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion while at the same time antagonizing growth regulators including tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown by various independent investigations that a down regulation of NF- ?B activity directly, or indirectly through the activation of the p53 pathway reduces tumor growth substantially. Therefore, there is a huge effort driven by many laboratories to understand the NF- ?B signaling pathways to intervene the function of this crucial player in inflammation and tumorigenesis in order to find an effective inhibitor directly, or through the p53 tumor suppressor. We discuss here on the role of NF- ?B in chronic inflammation and cancer, highlighting mutual antagonism between NF- ?B and p53 pathways in the process. We also discuss prospective pharmacological modulators of these two pathways, including those that were already tested to affect this mutual antagonism. PMID:25152696

2014-01-01

406

Lateral orientation (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

407

The Calculation of Mutual Coupling Between Two Antennas and its Application to the Reduction of Mutual Coupling Effects in a Pseudo-Random Phased Array  

E-print Network

1 The Calculation of Mutual Coupling Between Two Antennas and its Application to the Reduction of Mutual Coupling Effects in a Pseudo-Random Phased Array Aaron Kerkhoff (ARL:UT) 8/23/2007 Introduction of mutual coupling between antenna elements in the pseudo-random array layout in order to improve

Ellingson, Steven W.

408

Activity Book TA Orientation  

E-print Network

Activity Book TA Orientation School of Physics and Astronomy University of Minnesota Fall 2007 #12, academic honesty, diversity, & gender issues #12;#12;TA Orientation 2007 Activity #1 TA Duties: _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ #12;TA Orientation 2007 Activity #1 TA Duties and Rationale for the UMn Model for Introductory Courses

Minnesota, University of

409

Activity Book TA Orientation  

E-print Network

Activity Book TA Orientation School of Physics and Astronomy University of Minnesota Fall 2006 #12, academic honesty, diversity, & gender issues #12;#12;TA Orientation 2006 Activity #1 TA Duties: _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ #12;TA Orientation 2006 Activity #1 TA Duties and Rationale for the UMn Model for Introductory Courses

Minnesota, University of

410

Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulas for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

Asplund, Curtis T.; Bernamonti, Alice

2014-03-01

411

Evaluation of mutual information estimators on nonlinear dynamic systems  

E-print Network

Mutual information is a nonlinear measure used in time series analysis in order to measure the linear and non-linear correlations at any lag $\\tau$. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used mutual information estimators, i.e. estimators based on histograms (with fixed or adaptive bin size), $k$-nearest neighbors and kernels. We assess the accuracy of the estimators by Monte-Carlo simulations on time series from nonlinear dynamical systems of varying complexity. As the true mutual information is generally unknown, we investigate the existence and rate of consistency of the estimators (convergence to a stable value with the increase of time series length), and the degree of deviation among the estimators. The results show that the $k$-nearest neighbor estimator is the most stable and less affected by the method-specific parameter.

A. Papana; D. Kugiumtzis

2008-09-12

412

Mutual information and capacity of a linear digital channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyse a simple model of a digital communications channel. This model proves to be closely related to an iterated function system (IFS) related to the well-known Bernoulli convolution. We derive it from a randomly forced first-order ordinary differential equation. This allows the parameter of the Bernoulli convolution—the contraction rate, lgr—to be related to the rate at which symbols are input to the channel. It is shown that for a channel with equiprobable binary inputs the mutual information between input and output distributions is the stationary measure of the complement of the overlap region of the IFS. We show that the mutual information is Hölder continuous with respect to lgr and decreases hyper-exponentially as lgr rarr 1. We also study the case of non-equiprobable binary inputs and show that the maximum of the mutual information—the channel capacity—does not always correspond to equiprobable inputs.

Broomhead, D. S.; Sidorov, Nikita

2004-11-01

413

Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory  

E-print Network

We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulae for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled, freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

Curtis T. Asplund; Alice Bernamonti

2013-12-15

414

Accelerated evolution as a consequence of transitions to?mutualism  

PubMed Central

Differential rates of nucleotide substitutions among taxa are a common observation in molecular phylogenetic studies, yet links between rates of DNA evolution and traits or behaviors of organisms have proved elusive. Likelihood ratio testing is used here for the first time to evaluate specific hypotheses that account for the induction of shifts in rates of DNA evolution. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of mutualist (lichen-forming fungi and fungi associated with liverworts) and nonmutualist fungi revealed four independent transitions to mutualism. We demonstrate a highly significant association between mutualism and increased rates of nucleotide substitutions in nuclear ribosomal DNA, and we demonstrate that a transition to mutualism preceded the rate acceleration of nuclear ribosomal DNA in these lineages. Our results suggest that the increased rate of evolution after the adoption of a mutualist lifestyle is generalized across the genome of these mutualist fungi. PMID:11038586

Lutzoni, François; Pagel, Mark

1997-01-01

415

Dynamics of a mutualism in a multi-species context.  

PubMed

Despite recent findings that mutualistic interactions between two species may be greatly affected by species external to the mutualism, the implications of such multi-species interactions for the population dynamics of the mutualists are virtually unexplored. In this paper, we ask how the mutualism between the shoot-base boring weevil Apion onopordi and the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis is influenced by the dynamics of their shared host plant Cirsium arvense, and vice versa. In particular, we hypothesized that the distribution of the weevil's egg load between healthy and rust-infected thistles may regulate the abundance of the mutualists and their host plant. In contrast to our expectations we found that the dynamics of the mutualists are largely determined by the dynamics of their host. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that the dynamics of a mutualism are driven by a third, non-mutualistic species. PMID:12137583

Bacher, Sven; Friedli, Jürg

2002-07-22

416

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

2010-06-01

417

Mutual information and electron correlation in momentum space  

E-print Network

Mutual information and information entropies in momentum space are proposed as measures of the non-local aspects of information. Singlet and triplet state members of the helium isoelectronic series are employed to examine Coulomb and Fermi correlation, and their manifestations, in both the position and momentum space mutual information measures. The triplet state measures exemplify that the magnitude of the spatial correlations relative to the momentum correlations, depends on, and may be controlled by the strength of the electronic correlation. Examination of one and two-electron Shannon entropies in the triplet state series yields a crossover point, which is characterized by a localized momentum density. The mutual information density in momentum space illustrates that this localization is accompanied by strong correlation at small values of $p$.

Robin P. Sagar; Nicolais L. Guevara

2006-02-03

418

Life-history differences among coral reef sponges promote mutualism or exploitation of mutualism by influencing partner fidelity feedback.  

PubMed

Mutualism can be favored over exploitation of mutualism when interests of potential heterospecific partners are aligned so that individual organisms are beneficial to each others' continued growth, survival, and reproduction, that is, when exploitation of a particular partner individual is costly. A coral reef sponge system is particularly amenable to field experiments probing how costs of exploitation can be influenced by life-history characteristics. Pairwise associations among three of the sponge species are mutually beneficial. A fourth species, Desmapsamma anchorata, exploits these mutualisms. Desmapsamma also differs from the other species by growing faster, fragmenting more readily, and suffering higher mortality rates. Evaluating costs and benefits of association in the context of the complex life histories of these asexually fragmenting sponges shows costs of exploitation to be high for the mutualistic species but very low for this essentially weedy species. Although it benefits from association more than the mutualist species, by relying on their superior tensile strength and extensibility to reduce damage by physical disturbance, exploitation is favored because each individual host is of only ephemeral use. These sponges illustrate how life-history differences can influence the duration of association between individuals and, thus, the role of partner fidelity in promoting mutualism. PMID:18419569

Wulff, Janie L

2008-05-01

419

The contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being.  

PubMed

This article explores the contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being. Self-help/mutual aid groups are self-organising groups where people come together to address a shared a health or social issue through mutual support. They are associated with a range of health and social benefits, but remain poorly understood. This article draws on data from stage one of ESTEEM, a project which runs from 2010 to 2013. Stage one ran from 2010 to 2011 and involved participatory, qualitative research carried out in two UK sites. Twenty-one groups were purposively selected to include a range of focal issues, longevity, structures and ethnic backgrounds. Researchers carried out 21 interviews with group coordinators and twenty group discussions with members to explore the groups' purpose, nature and development. Preliminary analysis of the data suggested that mental well-being was a common theme across the groups. Subsequently the data were re-analysed to explore the groups' contribution to mental well-being using a checklist of protective factors for mental well-being as a coding framework. The findings showed that groups made a strong contribution to members' mental well-being by enhancing a sense of control, increasing resilience and facilitating participation. Group members were uplifted by exchanging emotional and practical support; they gained self-esteem, knowledge and confidence, thereby increasing their control over their situation. For some groups, socio-economic factors limited their scope and threatened their future. The article provides an evidence-base which illustrates how self-help/mutual aid groups can enhance mental well-being. If supported within a strategy for social justice, these groups enable people with varied concerns to develop a tailored response to their specific needs. The authors suggest that policy-makers engage with local people, investing in support proportionate to the needs of different populations, enabling them to develop their own self-help/mutual aid groups to enhance their sense of mental well-being. PMID:23445336

Seebohm, Patience; Chaudhary, Sarah; Boyce, Melanie; Elkan, Ruth; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

2013-07-01

420

Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I?(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.

Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

2015-02-01

421

Local Hidden Variable Theoretic Measure of Quantumness of Mutual Information  

E-print Network

Entanglement, a manifestation of quantumness of correlations between the observables of the subsystems of a composite system, and the quantumness of their mutual information are widely studied characteristics of a system of spin-1/2 particles. The concept of quantumness of correlations between the observables of a system is based on incommensurability of the correlations with the predictions of some local hidden variable (LHV) theory. However, the concept of quantumness of mutual information does not invoke the LHV theory explicitly. In this paper, by invoking explicitly the local hidden variable theory, a measure of quantumness of mutual information, $Q_{LHV}$, for a system of two spin-1/2 particles is proposed. It is based on finding the difference between the quantum and classical mutual informations in which the classical mutual information corresponds to the joint probability of the eigenvalues of the spins each along a specified direction. The proposed measure circumvents the need of optimization when the Bloch vector of each spin is non-zero; the optimization is needed but can be performed analytically exactly when the Bloch vector of each spin vanishes and is simplified when the Bloch vector of only one of the spins is zero. In essence, the proposed measure is identical with the measurement induced disturbance when the Bloch vector of each of the spins is non-zero. However, whereas the measurement induced disturbance is non-unique when the Bloch vector of one or both the spins is zero, the proposed measure even then determines the quantumness of mutual information unambiguously. The $Q_{LHV}$ is identical with the symmetric discord if the Bloch vector of each spin vanishes. It is same as the quantum discord if the Bloch vector of only one spin is zero and if the state in question possesses certain additional properties.

R. R. Puri

2014-09-30

422

Practical implementation of mutually unbiased bases using quantum circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of measurements necessary to perform the quantum state reconstruction of a system of qubits grows exponentially with the number of constituents, creating a major obstacle for the design of scalable tomographic schemes. We work out a simple and efficient method based on cyclic generation of mutually unbiased bases. The basic generator requires only Hadamard and controlled-phase gates, which are available in most practical realizations of these systems. We show how complete sets of mutually unbiased bases with different entanglement structures can be realized for three and four qubits. We also analyze the quantum circuits implementing the various entanglement classes.

Seyfarth, U.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.; Leuchs, G.

2015-03-01

423

Practical implementation of mutually unbiased bases using quantum circuits  

E-print Network

The number of measurements necessary to perform the quantum state reconstruction of a system of qubits grows exponentially with the number of constituents, creating a major obstacle for the design of scalable tomographic schemes. We work out a simple and efficient method based on cyclic generation of mutually unbiased bases. The basic generator requires only Hadamard and controlled-phase gates, which are available in most practical realizations of these systems. We show how complete sets of mutually unbiased bases with different entanglement structures can be realized for three and four qubits. We also analyze the quantum circuits implementing the various entanglement classes.

U. Seyfarth; L. L. Sanchez-Soto; G. Leuchs

2014-12-14

424

Mutual attraction of laser beams in plasmas: braided light  

PubMed

Using a variational method, we show that an effective attractive force exists between two Gaussian laser beams in a plasma because of a mutual coupling from relativistic mass corrections. The effective force can be generalized to other nonlinearities. This force can cause two laser beams to spiral around each other with a rotation period that is proportional to the Rayleigh length. These orbits are stable if the ratio of the orbit diameter to the laser spot size d(0)/W(0)mutual attraction. PMID:10970478

Ren; Hemker; Fonseca; Duda; Mori

2000-09-01

425

Sequential fixed-point ICA based on mutual information minimization.  

PubMed

A new gradient technique is introduced for linear independent component analysis (ICA) based on the Edgeworth expansion of mutual information, for which the algorithm operates sequentially using fixed-point iterations. In order to address the adverse effect of outliers, a robust version of the Edgeworth expansion is adopted, in terms of robust cumulants, and robust derivatives of the Hermite polynomials are used. Also, a new constrained version of ICA is introduced, based on goal programming of mutual information objectives, which is applied to the extraction of the antepartum fetal electrocardiogram from multielectrode cutaneous recordings on the mother's thorax and abdomen. PMID:18085987

Van Hulle, Marc M

2008-05-01

426

Synchronization in a Mutualism Ecosystem Induced by Noise Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the cause of the synchronization of population evolution is an important issue for ecological improvement. Here we present a Lotka Volterra-type model driven by two correlated environmental noises and show, via theoretical analysis and direct simulation, that noise correlation can induce a synchronization of the mutualists. The time series of mutual species exhibit a chaotic-like fluctuation, which is independent of the noise correlation, however, the chaotic fluctuation of mutual species ratio decreases with the noise correlation. A quantitative parameter defined for characterizing chaotic fluctuation provides a good approach to measure when the complete synchronization happens.

Zhong, Wei-Rong; Shao, Yuan-Zhi; Bie, Meng-Jie; He, Zhen-Hui

2008-09-01

427

Mutualism–parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models  

PubMed Central

Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSEs) that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures – melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the “mutualism-parasitism-continuum” paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi – environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization. PMID:25628615

Mandyam, Keerthi G.; Jumpponen, Ari

2015-01-01

428

Oriented Molecule Interactions with Atoms and Surfaces.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual orientation of reagents is second only to the energy requirement for a chemical reaction to take place. Since the introduction of the hexapole field focusing and orientation of symmetric-top molecules in 1965, considerable insight has been gained on the role of orientation in reactive scattering dynamics. The degree of laboratory orientation has been measured for (CH_3) _3CBr and has been found to follow the sequence (CH_3)_3CBr > (CH_3) _3CI > CH_3 I for previous measurements. Oriented molecule beams of thirteen different molecules have been scattered by a graphite(0001) surface. The results show a large diversity in the sign and magnitude of the steric effect (i.e., "heads" vs. "tails"). It appears from the bulk of data that the origin of the steric effect is the anisotropic molecule-graphite interaction potential, which is governed by the charge density distribution of the molecule. The steric effects have been quantitatively measured for seven of the molecules and have been analyzed in terms of a two component model which yields estimates for the anisotropy of the trapping probability. An effusive oven of Sr was used in a crossed beam reaction of Sr + CH_3I. In order to detect weak product signal, a sensitive detection technique utilizing single photon ionization of the reaction product was developed. By changing the relative velocity of the reactants, the excitation function (reactive cross section vs. collision energy) was measured. The experimental results were simulated by a modified angle dependent line -of-centers model, which gives the reaction potential energy surface. Excitation functions of other alkyl halides reactions, Sr + RX (R = H, CH_3, C_2H _5,C_3H_7, C_4H_9; X = Br, I), were also explored.

Mackay, R. Scott

429

Obligate pollination mutualism in Breynia (Phyllanthaceae): further documentation of pollination mutualism involving Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae).  

PubMed

This paper reports obligate seed-parasitic pollination mutualisms in Breynia vitis-idea and B. fruticosa (Phyllanthaceae). The genus Breynia is closely related to Glochidion and Gomphidium (a subgenus of Phyllanthus), in which pollination by species-specific, seed-parasitic Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) have been previously reported. At night, female Epicephala moths carrying numerous pollen grains on their proboscises visited female flowers of B. vitis-idea, actively pollinated flowers, and each subsequently laid an egg. Examination of field-collected flowers indicated that pollinated flowers of B. vitis-idea and B. fruticosa almost invariably had Epicephala eggs, suggesting that these moths are the primary pollinators of the two species. Single Epicephala larvae consumed a fraction of seeds within developing fruit in B. vitis-idea and all seeds in B. fruticosa. However, some of the fruits were left untouched, and many of these had indication of moth oviposition, suggesting that egg/larval mortality of Epicephala moths is an important factor assuring seed set in these plants. The overall similarity of the specialized floral structure among Breynia species may indicate that this pollination system is fairly widespread within the genus. PMID:21652364

Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

2004-09-01

430

Changes in trunk orientation do not induce asymmetries in covert orienting.  

PubMed

We explored the effect of trunk orientation on responses to visual targets in five experiments, following work suggesting a disengage deficit in covert orienting related to changes in the trunk orientation of healthy participants. In two experiments, participants responded to the color of a target appearing in the left or right visual field following a peripheral visual cue that was informative about target location. In three additional experiments, participants responded to the location (left/right) of a target using a spatially compatible motor response. In none of the experiments did trunk orientation interact with spatial-cuing effects, suggesting that orienting behavior is not affected by the rotation of the body relative to the head. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23666630

Westwood, David A; Jones, Stephanie A H; Cowper-Smith, Christopher D; Klein, Raymond M

2013-08-01

431

The relationships between market orientation and alternative strategic orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - One of the strongest convictions in marketing is that market orientation contributes to firms' performance substantially more than alternative strategic orientations such as innovation and entrepreneurial orientations. Still, some studies show that alternative orientations can also substantially affect the performance of firms, and furthermore, that firms that combine market orientation with alternative orientations are likely to perform even

Amir Grinstein

432

Orientation 2011 Report 1 Report on 2011 Orientation Activities  

E-print Network

Orientation 2011 Report 1 Report on 2011 Orientation Activities #12;Orientation 2011 Report 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Purpose of the Orientation Program Page 3 Orientation Program Components Page 3 University Welcome Page 3 International Orientation Page 4 First-Year Book Club

Viglas, Anastasios

433

Orientation columns in the mouse superior colliculus.  

PubMed

More than twenty types of retinal ganglion cells conduct visual information from the eye to the rest of the brain. Each retinal ganglion cell type tessellates the retina in a regular mosaic, so that every point in visual space is processed for visual primitives such as contrast and motion. This information flows to two principal brain centres: the visual cortex and the superior colliculus. The superior colliculus plays an evolutionarily conserved role in visual behaviours, but its functional architecture is poorly understood. Here we report on population recordings of visual responses from neurons in the mouse superior colliculus. Many neurons respond preferentially to lines of a certain orientation or movement axis. We show that cells with similar orientation preferences form large patches that span the vertical thickness of the retinorecipient layers. This organization is strikingly different from the randomly interspersed orientation preferences in the mouse's visual cortex; instead, it resembles the orientation columns observed in the visual cortices of large mammals. Notably, adjacent superior colliculus orientation columns have only limited receptive field overlap. This is in contrast to the organization of visual cortex, where each point in the visual field activates neurons with all preferred orientations. Instead, the superior colliculus favours specific contour orientations within ?30° regions of the visual field, a finding with implications for behavioural responses mediated by this brain centre. PMID:25517100

Feinberg, Evan H; Meister, Markus

2015-03-12

434

Three Ways to Look at Mutually Unbiased Bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a review of the problem of Mutually Unbiased Bases in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, real and complex. Also a geometric measure of "mubness" is introduced, and applied to some explicit calculations in six dimensions (partly done by Björck and by Grassl). Although this does not yet solve any problem, some appealing structures emerge.

Bengtsson, Ingemar

2007-02-01

435

Mutuality and Solidarity: Assessing Risks and Sharing Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutuality is the principle of private, commerical insurance; individuals enter the pool for sharing losses, and pay according to the best estimate of the risk they bring with them. Solidarity is the sharing of losses with payment according to some other scheme; this is the principle of state social insurance; essential features of solidarity are comprehensiveness and compulsion. Private insurance

David Wilkie

1997-01-01

436

Contact Prediction using Mutual Information and Neural Nets George Shackelford  

E-print Network

a probability of contact between the positions. One of the neural net inputs is a novel statistic for detecting, CASP7, SAM T06, neural net, significance of mutual information in contin- gency tables, gamma is becoming an increasingly important problem. The current best methods involve constructing 3D models based

Karplus, Kevin

437

An improved mutual authentication scheme for smart card secure messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encryption of the card\\/card reader communications link is an important issue of smart card security, and a fundamental problem of all cryptological procedures is the secure distribution of the secret key. To overcome the problem of session key generation and distribution, two improved mutual symmetric authentication schemes are proposed. The schemes include session key exchange for secure messaging. Security analyses

Lanjun Dang; Weidong Kou; Yuxia Xiao

2004-01-01

438

The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

1996-01-01

439

Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

Nickerson, Carol

2008-01-01

440

Image morphing based on mutual information and optimal mass transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time domain image interpolation, or image morphing, refers to a class of techniques for generating a series of smoothly changing intermediate images between two given related images. In this note, we present a novel approach based on the theory of optimal mass transport, using mutual informa- tion (MI) as the similarity measurement. The potential ap- plications also include image registration,

Lei Zhu; Yan Yang; Allen Tannenbaum; Steven Haker

2004-01-01

441

MINI REVIEW Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong  

E-print Network

MINI REVIEW Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group of agreement when there is disagreement. Here, we are concerned with issues of semantic confusion that have of Hamilton's pioneering papers. To a large extent, semantic confusion should not be a problem in this field

West, Stuart

442

Mutual information area laws for thermal free fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a rigorous and asymptotically exact expression of the mutual information of translationally invariant free fermionic lattice systems in a Gibbs state. In order to arrive at this result, we introduce a novel framework for computing determinants of Töplitz operators with smooth symbols, and for treating Töplitz matrices with system size dependent entries. The asymptotically exact mutual information for a partition of the 1D lattice satisfies an area law, with a prefactor which we compute explicitly. As examples, we discuss the fermionic XX model in one dimension and free fermionic models on the torus in higher dimensions in detail. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the temperature dependence of the mutual information, scaling like the logarithm of the inverse temperature, hence confirming an expression suggested by conformal field theory. We also comment on the applicability of the formalism to treat open systems driven by quantum noise. In the appendix, we derive useful bounds to the mutual information in terms of purities. Finally, we provide a detailed error analysis for finite system sizes. This analysis is valuable in its own right for the abstract theory of Töplitz determinants.

Bernigau, H.; Kastoryano, M. J.; Eisert, J.

2015-02-01

443

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

2010-07-01

444

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

445

Species independence of mutual information in coding and noncoding DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore if there exist universal statistical patterns that are different in coding and noncoding DNA and can be found in all living organisms, regardless of their phylogenetic origin. We find that (i) the mutual information function I has a significantly different functional form in coding and noncoding DNA. We further find that (ii) the probability distributions of the average

Ivo Grosse; Hanspeter Herzel; Sergey V. Buldyrev; H. Eugene Stanley

2000-01-01

446

Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms  

E-print Network

Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms Anna Traveset1 and David M, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain 2 Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany & Zoology, University Biological invasions threaten global biodiversity by altering the structure and functioning of ecosystems [1

Traveset, Anna

447

Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

Liu, Chao-Lin

2005-01-01

448

The analysis on mutual credit guarantee principal-agent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the allocation of guarantee rate savings as incentive mechanism and introducing the influence coefficient of the other SME's relative guarantee rate savings, the principal-agent relationship of mutual credit guarantee institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was investigated in this paper. It was proved that the larger relativity of guarantee rate savings among the guaranteed SMEs could bring

Xiaoling Cui; Yunfeng Wang; Yanlei Zhuang

2010-01-01

449

Distillation protocols: Output entanglement and local mutual information  

E-print Network

A complementary behavior between local mutual information and average output entanglement is derived for arbitrary bipartite ensembles. This leads to bounds on the yield of entanglement in distillation protocols that involve disinguishing. This bound is saturated in the hashing protocol for distillation, for Bell-diagonal states.

Michal Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

2004-12-08

450

Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples  

E-print Network

Mutual gaze in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal and semantic dementia couples Virginia E. Sturm's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD) are neurodegenerative diseases differences between the three types of dementia in the social realm that help to illuminate the nature

Levenson, Robert W.

451

Reduction of Mutual Coupling Between Closely-Packed Antenna Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple ground plane structure that can reduce mutual coupling between closely-packed antenna elements is proposed and studied. The structure consists of a slitted pattern, without via's, etched onto a single ground plane and it is therefore low cost and straightforward to fabricate. It is found that isolations of more than -20 dB can be achieved between two parallel individual

Chi-Yuk Chiu; Chi-Ho Cheng; Ross D. Murch; Corbett R. Rowell

2007-01-01

452

Interlinked mutual inhibitory positive feedbacks induce robust cellular memory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual inhibitory positive feedback (MIPF), or double-negative feedback, is a key regulatory motif of cellular memory with the capability of maintaining switched states for transient stimuli. Such MIPFs are found in various biological systems where they are interlinked in many cases despite a single MIPF can still realize such a memory effect. An intriguing question then arises about the advantage

Tae-Hwan Kim; Sung Hoon Jung; Kwang-Hyun Cho

2007-01-01

453

Quantum mutual entropy for Jaynes-Cummings model  

E-print Network

The dynamics of an atom on the Jaynes-Cummings model has been studied by an atomic inversion, von Neumann entropy and so on. In this letter, we will treat the Jaynes-Cummings model as a problem in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and apply quantum mutual entropy to study the irreversible dynamics of a state for the atom on this model.

Shigeru Furuichi; Masanori Ohya; Hiroki Suyari

1998-04-15

454

Australian mutual fund performance appraisal using data envelopment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines previous research on measuring the performance of investment funds, suggesting that data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques can overcome some of the problems of the capital asset pricing model and give pointers for improvement. Uses DEA to assess the relative performance of 257 Australian mutual funds 1995-1999 and logistic regression to investigate the characteristics which affect it. Describes the methodology

Don U. A. Galagedera; Param Silvapulle

2002-01-01

455

Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species [1], in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.[1] S. Pigolotti et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.4973

Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

2013-03-01

456

International Mutual Recognition: Progress and Prospects. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the mobility of service providers, including professionals, via mutual recognition (of regulatory systems) agreements (MRAs) has become a significant issue worldwide. Despite increasing interest in MRAs, it may be argued that MRAs are but one of a larger range of major developments that have fueled current interest in occupational…

Hager, Paul

457

Mutually refining DPCM system with applications in frame erasure channels  

E-print Network

description is obtained. The performance of the MR-DPCM system is analyzed theoretically, and verified by simulation using Gauss-Markov sources. A sub-optimum MR-DPCM scheme is also analyzed, and conditions necessary for mutual refinement are derived. The MR...

Sutharsan, Thirunathan

1996-01-01

458

Mutual benefits of collaborations between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians  

E-print Network

Mutual benefits of collaborations between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians D. Sharp collaboration between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians can be of great benefit to all parties develops between an instrument maker, a musician and an acoustician, the trust that builds up can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

460

Explaining the Disambiguation Effect: Don't Exclude Mutual Exclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When they see a familiar object and an unfamiliar one, and are asked to select the referent of a novel label, children usually choose the unfamiliar object. We asked whether this "disambiguation effect" reflects an expectation that each object has just one label (mutual exclusivity), or an expectation about the intent of the speaker who uses a…

Jaswal, Vikram K.

2010-01-01

461

Cooperative Surveillance of Multiple Targets using Mutual Information  

E-print Network

application areas ­ such as sport events, surveillance, and pa- tient monitoring ­ camera control can be seenCooperative Surveillance of Multiple Targets using Mutual Information Eric Sommerlade and Ian Reid,ian}@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract This work presents a method to control multiple, but diverse pan-tilt-zoom cameras which

Oxford, University of

462

Business Connections and Informed Trading of Mutual Fund Managers  

E-print Network

1 Business Connections and Informed Trading of Mutual Fund Managers Yue Tang1 This version: March that fund managers may have access to inside information through the business connections they made while managers collect important information through their business connections that affects their investment

Lin, Xiaodong

463

Mutual Information for Lucas-Kanade Tracking (MILK)  

E-print Network

Mutual Information for Lucas-Kanade Tracking (MILK): An Inverse Compositional Formulation Nicholas improvements in the speed have a large effect on application performance as a whole. Lucas and Kanade made one function. Lucas and Kanade mainly considered translations, but they demonstrated that any linear

Bowden, Richard

464

A lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information  

E-print Network

In this paper, a lower bound of quantum conditional mutual information is obtained by employing the Peierls-Bogoliubov inequality and Golden Thompson inequality. Comparison with the bounds obtained by other researchers indicates that our result is independent of any measurements. It may give some new insights over squashed entanglement and perturbations of Markov chain states.

Lin Zhang; Junde Wu

2014-09-29

465

An optimal algorithm for mutual exclusion in computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is proposed that creates mutual exclu-sion in a computer network whose nodes communicate only by messages and do not share memory. It is assumed that there is an error-free underlying communications network in which transit times may vary and messages may not be delivered in the order sent. Nodes are assumed to operate correctly; the consequences of node

Glenn Ricart; Ashok K. Agrawala

1981-01-01

466

Optimization of mutual information for multiresolution image registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method for the intermodal reg- istration of images using a criterion known as mutual informa- tion. Our main contribution is an optimizer that we specifically de- signed for this criterion. We show that this new optimizer is well adapted to a multiresolution approach because it typically con- verges in fewer criterion evaluations than other optimizers. We

Philippe Thévenaz; Michael Unser

2000-01-01

467

Mutual feedback between star formation and nuclear activity  

E-print Network

In this invited contribution I review the justifications for the attempts, currently very popular, to include in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation prescriptions to describe the mutual link between the star formation and nuclear activity in galaxies, which has been for surprisingly long time neglected.

Gian Luigi Granato

2006-10-30

468

Efficient solution to the distributed mutual exclusion problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient fault-tolerant solution to the distributed mutual exclusion problem. Our protocol requires logn messages in the best case and is resilient to both site and communication failures, even when such failures lead to network partitioning. Furthermore, the protocol exhibits a property of graceful degradation, i.e., it requires more message only as the number of failures increase in

Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi

1989-01-01

469

Sustained oscillations generated by mutually inhibiting neurons with adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic oscillatory activities exist in almost every living thing and most of them are produced by rhythmic activities of the corresponding neural systems (locomotion, respiration, heart beat, etc.). This paper mathematically discusses sustained oscillations generated by mutual inhibition of the neurons which are represented by a continuous-variable model with a kind of fatigue or adaptation effect. If the neural network

Kiyotoshi Matsuoka

1985-01-01

470

Capacity and mutual information of wideband multipath fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the capacity and mutual information of a broadband fading channel consisting of a finite number of time-varying paths. We show that the capacity of the channel in the wideband limit is the same as that of a wideband Gaussian channel with the same average received power. However, the input signals needed to achieve the capacity must be “peaky”

Ì. Emre Telatar; David N. C. Tse

2000-01-01

471

MTCMOS hierarchical sizing based on mutual exclusive discharge patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-threshold CMOS is a popular circuit style that will provide high performance and low power operation. Optimally sizing the gating sleep transistor to provide adequate performance is difficult because the overall delay characteristics are strongly dependent on the discharge patterns of internal gates. This paper proposes a methodology for sizing the sleep transistor for a large module based on mutual

James Kao; Siva Narendra; Anantha Chandrakasan

1998-01-01

472

Multimodality Image Registration by Maximization of Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the problem of multimodality medical image registration is proposed, using a basic concept from information theory, mutual information (MI), or relative entropy, as a new matching criterion. The method presented in this paper applies MI to measure the statistical dependence or information redundancy between the image intensities of corresponding voxels in both images, which is assumed

Frederik Maes; André Collignon; Dirk Vandermeulen; Guy Marchal; Paul Suetens

1997-01-01

473

Mutual information area laws for thermal free fermions  

E-print Network

We provide a rigorous and asymptotically exact expression of the mutual information of translationally invariant free fermionic lattice systems in a Gibbs state. In order to arrive at this result, we introduce a novel frameworkfor computing determinants of Toeplitz operators with smooth symbols, and for treating Toeplitz matrices with system size dependent entries. The asymptotically exact mutual information for a partition of the one-dimensional lattice satisfies an area law, with a prefactor which we compute explicitly. As examples, we discuss the fermionic XX model in one dimension and free fermionic models on the torus in higher dimensions in detail. Special emphasis is put onto the discussion of the temperature dependence of the mutual information, scaling like the logarithm of the inverse temperature, hence confirming an expression suggested by conformal field theory. We also comment on the applicability of the formalism to treat open systems driven by quantum noise. In the appendix, we derive useful bounds to the mutual information in terms of purities. Finally, we provide a detailed error analysis for finite system sizes. This analysis is valuable in its own right for the abstract theory of Toeplitz determinants.

H. Bernigau; M. J. Kastoryano; J. Eisert

2015-02-10

474

A tree-based algorithm for distributed mutual exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for distributed mutual exclusion in a computer network of N nodes that communicate by messages rather than shared memory. The algorithm uses a spanning tree of the computer network, and the number of messages exchanged per critical section depends on the topology of this tree. However, typically the number of messages exchanged is O(log N) under

Kerry Raymond

1989-01-01

475

Multimodality Image Registration By Maximization of Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual information of image intensities has been pro- posed as a new matching criterion for automated multi- modality image registration. In this paper, we give exper- imental evidence of the power and the generality of the mu- tual information criterion by showing results for various applications involving CT, MR and PET images. Our re- sults illustrate the large applicability of

Frederik Maes; Andre Collignon; Dirk Vandermeulen; Guy Marchal; Paul Suetens

1997-01-01

476

Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad  

E-print Network

Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB.

Benjamin Schumacher; Michael D. Westmoreland

2006-04-27

477

A N algorithm for mutual exclusion in decentralized systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented that uses only c?N messages to create mutual exclusion in a computernetwork, where N is the number of nodes and c a constant between 3 and 5. The algorithm issymmetric and allows fully parallel operation.

Mamoru Maekawa

1985-01-01

478

A delicate balance: maintaining mutualism to prevent disease.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbial ecosystem is complex, and few of the principles that contribute to homeostasis in health are well understood. Pham et al. (2014) show that a network including the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor protects against infection with the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis through promotion of host-microbiota mutualism. PMID:25299326

Van Tyne, Daria; Gilmore, Michael S

2014-10-01

479

Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the interferers, Doppler spread and convergence are investigated. The tracking mode is introduced to the adaptive array system, and it further improves the BER. The benefit of using faster data rate (wider bandwidth) is discussed. In order to have better performance in a 3D space, the geometries of uniform spherical array (USAs) are presented and different configurations of USAs are discussed. The LMS algorithm based on temporal a priori information is applied to UCAs and USAs to beamform the patterns. Their performances are compared based on simulation results. Based on the analytical and simulation results, it can be concluded that mutual coupling slightly influences the performance of the adaptive array in communication systems. In addition, arrays with curvilinear geometries perform well in AWGN and fading channels.

Huang, Zhiyong

480

Evolutionary origin of insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism  

PubMed Central

Obligate insect–bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host’s growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin–manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

481

Mutual interference is common and mostly intermediate in magnitude  

PubMed Central

Background Interference competition occurs when access to resources is negatively affected by the presence of other individuals. Within a species or population, this is known as mutual interference, and it is often modelled with a scaling exponent, m, on the number of predators. Originally, mutual interference was thought to vary along a continuum from prey dependence (no interference; m = 0) to ratio dependence (m = -1), but a debate in the 1990's and early 2000's focused on whether prey or ratio dependence was the better simplification. Some have argued more recently that mutual interference is likely to be mostly intermediate (that is, between prey and ratio dependence), but this possibility has not been evaluated empirically. Results We gathered estimates of mutual interference from the literature, analyzed additional data, and created the largest compilation of unbiased estimates of mutual interference yet produced. In this data set, both the alternatives of prey dependence and ratio dependence were observed, but only one data set was consistent with prey dependence. There was a tendency toward ratio dependence reflected by a median m of -0.7 and a mean m of -0.8. Conclusions Overall, the data support the hypothesis that interference is mostly intermediate in magnitude. The data also indicate that interference competition is common, at least in the systems studied to date. Significant questions remain regarding how different factors influence interference, and whether interference can be viewed as a characteristic of a particular population or whether it generally shifts from low to high levels as populations increase in density. PMID:21211032

2011-01-01

482

Evolutionary origin of insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism.  

PubMed

Obligate insect-bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host's growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin-manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-07-15

483

Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes  

PubMed Central

Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

2015-01-01

484

Mutualism breakdown by amplification of Wolbachia genes.  

PubMed

Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

2015-02-01

485

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

486

Gyroscopic orientation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering methods for the design and analysis of gyroscopic orientation systems used in aviation and rocketry are presented. The following commonly used functional-kinematic schemes of orientation systems are examined: a gyroscopic system with two three-degrees-of-freedom gyroscopes in a gimbal suspension, a triaxial stabilizer, and systems without a gimbal. Particular attention is given to the physical meaning of the processes taking place in orientation systems.

Rakhteenko, Evgenii R.

487

Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism  

PubMed Central

Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, however, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this is the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of previous interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80% faster and were up to 30% more productive (biomass yield per mole of substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but it resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved mutualist and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of the individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis, but not of D. vulgaris. Together, these results demonstrate that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution. PMID:20133857

Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

2010-01-01

488

Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

2013-01-01

489

Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You

490

PET IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING ANATOMICAL INFORMATION THROUGH MUTUAL INFORMATION BASED PRIORS: A SCALE SPACE APPROACH  

E-print Network

PET IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING ANATOMICAL INFORMATION THROUGH MUTUAL INFORMATION BASED PRIORS prior for incorpo- rating information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction using mutual information based rigid registration. PET data are then simulated from the au

Rangarajan, Anand

491

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2010-04-01

492

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2011-04-01

493

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2012-04-01

494

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2014-04-01

495

26 CFR 1.822-5 - Mutual insurance company taxable income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mutual insurance company taxable income. 1.822-5... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or...

2013-04-01

496

78 FR 77175 - Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act Release No. 30832; 812-14101] Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund...without shareholder approval. APPLICANTS: Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC (``CCA'' or...and Mutual Fund Series Trust (formerly Catalyst Funds) (the ``Trust'')....

2013-12-20

497

78 FR 4145 - Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...published in the Federal Register proposed recommendations regarding money market mutual funds (``MMFs'') pursuant to Section...

2013-01-18

498

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications... § 101.51 Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...where neither competitive bidding nor the random selection...represented. (6) Upon evaluation of the applications,...

2011-10-01

499

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications... § 101.51 Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...where neither competitive bidding nor the random selection...represented. (6) Upon evaluation of the applications,...

2013-10-01

500

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications... § 101.51 Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...where neither competitive bidding nor the random selection...represented. (6) Upon evaluation of the applications,...

2012-10-01