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1

Mutually Responsive Orientation Between Mothers and Their Young Children: A Context for the Early Development of Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some parent–child dyads establish a mutually responsive orientation (MRO), a relationship that is close, mutually binding, cooperative, and affectively positive. Such relationships have two main characteristics—mutual responsiveness and shared positive affect—and they foster the development of conscience in young children. Children growing up with parents who are responsive to their needs and whose interactions are infused with happy emotions adopt

Grazyna Kochanska

2002-01-01

2

Mutually Responsive Orientation Between Parents and Their Young Children: Toward Methodological Advances in the Science of Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors captured mother-child and father-child relationships when children were 7 and 15 months old by coding 4 explicitly dyadic components of mutually responsive orientation (MRO): coordinated routines, harmonious communication, mutual cooperation, and emotional ambiance. These components were coded in 102 families in naturalistic contexts at home and in the laboratory. Using confirmatory factor analytic methods, the authors demonstrated that

Nazan Aksan; Grazyna Kochanska; Margaret R. Ortmann

2006-01-01

3

Mutually Responsive Orientation Between Mothers and Their Young Children: A Context for the Early Development of Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some parent-child dyads es- tablish a mutually responsive orientation (MRO), a relation- ship that is close, mutually binding, cooperative, and af- fectively positive. Such rela- tionships have two main characteristics—mutual re- sponsiveness and shared posi- tive affect—and they foster the development of conscience in young children. Children grow- ing up with parents who are re- sponsive to their needs and

M. Daly

4

The mutual influence of gaze and head orientation in the analysis of social attention direction.  

PubMed

Three experiments are reported that investigate the hypothesis that head orientation and gaze direction interact in the processing of another individual's direction of social attention. A Stroop-type interference paradigm was adopted, in which gaze and head cues were placed into conflict. In separate blocks of trials, participants were asked to make speeded keypress responses contingent on either the direction of gaze, or the orientation of the head displayed in a digitized photograph of a male face. In Experiments 1 and 2, head and gaze cues showed symmetrical interference effects. Compared with congruent arrangements, incongruent head cues slowed responses to gaze cues, and incongruent gaze cues slowed responses to head cues, suggesting that head and gaze are mutually influential in the analysis of social attention direction. This mutuality was also evident in a cross-modal version of the task (Experiment 3) where participants responded to spoken directional words whilst ignoring the head/gaze images. It is argued that these interference effects arise from the independent influences of gaze and head orientation on decisions concerning social attention direction. PMID:10994231

Langton, S R

2000-08-01

5

On the Mutual Orientation of Pigments in Photosystem I Particles from Green Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mutual orientation of pigments in photosystem I reaction centres from spinach is evaluated by means of polarized photochemistry. The photo-induced linear dichroism of the absorption changes of chlorophyll-a(I) at 710 nm is studied as a function of the...

W. Junge H. Schaffernicht N. Nelson

1981-01-01

6

Population dynamics and mutualism: functional responses of benefits and costs.  

PubMed

We develop an approach for studying population dynamics resulting from mutualism by employing functional responses based on density-dependent benefits and costs. These functional responses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as functions of the density of its partner. Net effects to mutualists are likely a monotonically saturating or unimodal function of the density of their partner. We show that fundamental differences in the growth, limitation, and dynamics of a population can occur when net effects to that population change linearly, unimodally, or in a saturating fashion. We use the mutualism between senita cactus and its pollinating seed-eating moth as an example to show the influence of different benefit and cost functional responses on population dynamics and stability of mutualisms. We investigated two mechanisms that may alter this mutualism's functional responses: distribution of eggs among flowers and fruit abortion. Differences in how benefits and costs vary with density can alter the stability of this mutualism. In particular, fruit abortion may allow for a stable equilibrium where none could otherwise exist. PMID:18707376

Holland, J Nathaniel; Deangelis, Donald L; Bronstein, Judith L

2002-03-01

7

M1-transitions and the mutual orientation of the unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental lifetimes and branching ratios B(M1)/ B(E2) are used to determine reduced M1-transition probabilities between collective-band levels with ?I=1 in102, 104, 106Ag and in the odd-odd isotopes of La, Pr, Pm and Tl. The extracted B(M1) values are compared with calculations in the framework of the quasiclassical approximation and the model “axial rotor+two quasiparticles“. The reduced M1-transition probabilities along with the magnetic moments were found to depend on the mutual orientation of the angular momenta of the unpaired nucleons in the odd-odd nuclei.

Levon, A. I.; de Boer, J.; Pasternak, A. A.; Volkov, D. A.

1992-06-01

8

Risk Taking by Mutual Funds as a Response to Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a potential agency conflict between mutual fund investors and mutual fund companies. Investors would like the fund company to use its judgment to maximize risk-adjusted fund returns, the fund company has an incentive to increase the inflow of investments. The authors estimate the shape of the flow-performance relationship for a sample of growth and growth and income

Judith Chevalier; Glenn Ellison

1997-01-01

9

The mutual influence of gaze and head orientation in the analysis of social attention direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments are reported that investigate the hypothesis that head orientation and gaze direction interact in the processing of another individual's direction of social attention. A Stroop-type interference paradigm was adopted, in which gaze and head cues were placed into conflict. In separate blocks of trials, participants were asked to make speeded keypress responses contingent on either the direction of

Stephen R. H. Langton

2000-01-01

10

Mutual aid agreements: essential legal tools for public health preparedness and response.  

PubMed

Mutual aid is the sharing of supplies, equipment, personnel, and information across political boundaries. States must have agreements in place to ensure mutual aid to facilitate effective responses to public health emergencies and to detect and control potential infectious disease outbreaks. The 2005 hurricanes triggered activation of the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), a mutual aid agreement among the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. Although EMAC facilitated the movement of an unprecedented amount of mutual aid to disaster areas, inadequacies in the response demonstrated a need for improvement. Mutual aid may also be beneficial in circumstances where EMAC is not activated. We discuss the importance of mutual aid, examine obstacles, and identify legal "gaps" that must be filled to strengthen preparedness. PMID:17413085

Stier, Daniel D; Goodman, Richard A

2007-04-05

11

Population Dynamics and Mutualism: Functional Responses of Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an approach for studying population dy- namics resulting from mutualism by employing functionalresponses based on density-dependent benefits and costs. These functional re- sponses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as

J. Nathaniel Holland; Donald L. DeAngelis; Judith L. Bronstein

2002-01-01

12

Managing Mutual Orientation in the Absence of Physical Copresence: Multiparty Voice-Based Chat Room Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the interactional work involved in ratifying mutual participation in online, multiparty, voice-based chat rooms. The purpose of this article is to provide a preliminary sketch of how talk and participation is managed in a spoken communication environment that comprises interactants who are not physically copresent but are…

Jenks, Christopher Joseph; Brandt, Adam

2013-01-01

13

Evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms in response to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change has the potential to desynchronize the phenologies of interdependent species, with potentially catastrophic effects on mutualist populations. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plant–pollinator mutualism under climate change. How the populations evolve, and thus whether the populations and the mutualism persist, depends not only on the rate of climate change but also on the densities and phenologies of other species in the community. Abundant alternative mutualist partners with broad temporal distributions can make a mutualism more robust to climate change, while abundant alternative partners with narrow temporal distributions can make a mutualism less robust. How community composition and the rate of climate change affect the persistence of mutualisms is mediated by two-species Allee thresholds. Understanding these thresholds will help researchers to identify those mutualisms at highest risk owing to climate change.

Gilman, R Tucker; Fabina, Nicholas S; Abbott, Karen C; Rafferty, Nicole E

2012-01-01

14

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

15

The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the…

Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

2009-01-01

16

Orienting responses and GSR conditioning: A dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents 2 experiments which applied an orienting response (OR) analysis to GSR conditioning phenomena of CR acquisition and UCR diminution in 62 female undergraduates. The analysis focused on the stimulus properties of CS and UCS omission. A hypothetical response to UCS omission was suggested to affect CR measurement with short but not long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) thus contributing to the

P. Badia; R. H. Defran

1970-01-01

17

The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the interpersonal mind to function in ways that coordinate trust and commitment across

Sandra L. Murray; John G. Holmes

2009-01-01

18

Mutual orientation of two C60 molecules: an ab initio study.  

PubMed

The orientational dependence of the interaction between two C(60) molecules is investigated using ab initio calculations. The binding energy, computed within density functional theory in the local density approximation, is substantially smaller than the one derived from the experimental heat of sublimation of fullerite, which calls into question the nature of inter-C(60) bonding. According to our calculations, the experimentally observed orientation with a C(60) presenting a hexagon-hexagon bond to a pentagonal face of the other C(60) is not really favored. Some other configurations are very close in energy and in fact a pentagon facing a pentagon and a hexagon facing a hexagon-hexagon bond are found to be slightly more favorable situations. Our results are compared to previous ones obtained either with previous empirical intermolecular potentials or to existing ab initio studies of crystalline C(60). In addition, the stacking of C(60) in a crystal and in a decahedral (C(60))(7) cluster is discussed. PMID:15836136

Tournus, Florent; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Mélinon, Patrice

2005-03-01

19

Levisohn's Orientations: A Response from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn has made a significant contribution to the scholarship of teaching in his article proposing that the teaching of rabbinic literature is most successfully accomplished when teachers think about…

Lehman, Marjorie

2010-01-01

20

The nanoindentation responses of nickel surfaces with different crystal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to elucidate the anisotropic characteristics in the material responses for crystallographic nickel substrates with (100), (110) and (111) surface orientations during nanoindentation, compensating for the experimental limitation of nanoindentation—particularly for pure nickel substrates of three crystallographic orientations. This study examines several factors under indentation: three-dimensional phases of plastic deformation which correspond to atomic stress

S.-P. Ju; C.-T. Wang; C.-H. Chien; J. C. Huang; S.-R. Jian

2007-01-01

21

Stimulus-response compatibilities between vertically oriented stimuli and horizontally oriented responses: The effects of hand position and posture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility effects between vertically oriented stimuli (above or below fixation) and horizontally\\u000a oriented responses (left or right- switch deftections by a single hand) have been shown to depend both on which hand responds\\u000a (Bauer & Miller, 1982) and on the location at which the response is made (eccentricity on a frontoparallel line; Michaels,\\u000a 1989). In the latter study,

Claire F. Michaels; Susan Schilder

1991-01-01

22

The Skin Conductance Orienting Response, Attention, and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reports a series of investigations of the relationships between the skin conductance orienting response (SCR\\u000a OR) and measures of automatic and controlled information processing during basic information processing tasks that are of\\u000a general interest to psychophysiologists. These have included a variety of orienting tasks and also classical conditioning.\\u000a We have been particularly interested in studying the effect of

Anne M. Schelll; Michael E. Dawson; Erin Hazlett; Diane L. Filion; Keith H. Nuechterlein

23

Schizophrenia Is Associated With Altered Orienting Activity; Depression With Electrodermal (Cholinergic?) Deficit and Normal Orienting Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The import of a recent consensus that a distinctive subgroup of schizophrenics is marked by nonreactivity of the orienting response (OR) to innocuous stimuli has been made ambiguous by reports of similar nonreactivity among depressives. To test this, we studied 50 schizophrenics (14 drug free), 50 depressives (20 drug free), and 50 normal controls. Stimuli were 1000 Hz (60 dB)

Alvin S. Bernstein; James A. Riedel; Flemming Graae; Daniel Seidmann; Howard Steele; John Connolly; Jack Lubowsky

1988-01-01

24

A Predator-Prey Model with a Holling Type I Functional Response Including a Predator Mutual Interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses.

Seo, Gunog; Deangelis, Donald L.

2011-12-01

25

Photo-induced anisotropic photoelectric response in oriented bacteriorhodopsin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photo-induced anisotropic properties of the chromophore protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) are of interest for possible applications in optical image processing and spatial filtering. Here we report experimental results on the photo-induced anisotropic photoelectric response of dried oriented bR films. A polarization dependent photovoltage is measured across an ITO\\/bR\\/ITO photodetector. The anisotropy is introduced by a 632.8 nm linearly polarized pump

J. Xu; P. Bhattacharya; G. Varo

2003-01-01

26

The impact of strategic orientation on corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Using the strategic orientation concept of Miles and Snow, the purpose of this paper is to test if differences in levels of corporate social responsibility (CSR) exist between prospectors, defenders, analyzers, and reactors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The method included a purpose-designed survey sent to CEOs. To explore differences in CSR and strategy types, one-way ANOVA with contrast effect analysis

Jeremy Galbreath

2010-01-01

27

A Service-Oriented Framework Supporting Ubiquitous Disaster Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synergy of ubiquitous computing and service-oriented technologies may lead to efficient, pervasive and dependable solutions in the challenging context of emergency management. Recently, novel paradigms have been proposed, most of them envisioning arbitrary pairs of peer application entities communicating and providing services directly with each other and to users. In order to enforce these paradigms even to systems which include devices with limited processing and storage resources, lightweight middleware components are required. We illustrate how this is provided by JXTA-SOAP, a portable software component supporting peer-to-peer sharing of Web Services, and we show how it can be used to implement disaster response software applications.

Amoretti, Michele; Laghi, Maria Chiara; Conte, Gianni

28

Mutuality in Boys' Friendship Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Second- and sixth-grade boys were paired with a friend or an acquaintance (N=120), and each dyad completed a problem-solving task under cooperative, competitive, or no reward contingencies. Communicative exchange, affective expression, synchrony of task-oriented behavior, and task performance were examined for evidence of purported mutuality in…

Newcomb, Andrew F.; Brady, Judith E.

1982-01-01

29

Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age.Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a

S Bird; M George; J Balmer; R C R Davison

2003-01-01

30

Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21–35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into

S. Bird; M. George; S. Theakston; J. Balmer; R. C. R. Davison

2003-01-01

31

Motivational orientation modulates the neural response to reward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational orientation defines the source of motivation for an individual to perform a particular action and can either originate from internal desires (e.g., interest) or external compensation (e.g., money). To this end, motivational orientation should influence the way positive or negative feedback is processed during learning situations and this might in turn have an impact on the learning process. In

Julia Linke; Peter Kirsch; Andrea V. King; Achim Gass; Michael G. Hennerici; André Bongers; Michèle Wessa

2010-01-01

32

The Relation of Entrepreneurs' Social Responsibility Orientation with the Social and Organizational Performances of the Corporate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is certain relationship among leaders' social responsibility orientation, social performance and organizational performance of the corporate. According to the past research, the corporate social responsibility includes four dimensions-economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. Corporate social performance can be divided into seven factors-employee, consumer, stockholder, compulsory environment protection, voluntary environment protection, community, special groups; organizational performance can

Gang Chao; Changyu Lu; Pin Yuan

2009-01-01

33

MUTUALITY IN BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the issue of mutuality in business relationships. It acknowledges trust and commitment as the core of relationship marketing, and further looks at other constructs in relation to mutuality, namely loyalty, communication, dependence and opportunism. The paper explores how mutuality facilitates these relational constructs in creating benefits and adding value in the context of business relationships. Mutuality is

Nicole Papageorgiou

34

Mutual Funds Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutual Funds Interactive is provided by Brill Editorial Services, Inc. The aim of the site is to provide independent financial advice to investors. The highlight of the site is the expert's corner, where leading mutual fund experts provide market analysis, opinions and recommendations. There are also profiles of mutual funds managers and columns on mutual funds. For new investors, there is Funds 101, which helps explain what a mutual fund is. The site also features discussion groups, a glossary of mutual fund terms and a list of mutual funds.

1998-01-01

35

The evolution of mutualism.  

PubMed

Like altruism, mutualism, cooperation between species, evolves only by enhancing all participants' inclusive fitness. Mutualism evolves most readily between members of different kingdoms, which pool complementary abilities for mutual benefit: some of these mutualisms represent major evolutionary innovations. Mutualism cannot persist if cheating annihilates its benefits. In long-term mutualisms, symbioses, at least one party associates with the other nearly all its life. Usually, a larger host harbours smaller symbionts. Cheating is restrained by vertical transmission, as in Buchnera; partner fidelity, as among bull-thorn acacias and protective ants; test-based choice of symbionts, as bobtail squid choose bioluminescent bacteria; or sanctioning nonperforming symbionts, as legumes punish nonperforming nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Mutualisms involving brief exchanges, as among plants and seed-dispersers, however, persist despite abundant cheating. Both symbioses and brief-exchange mutualisms have transformed whole ecosystems. These mutualisms may be steps towards ecosystems which, like Adam Smith's ideal economy, serve their members' common good. PMID:20942825

Leigh, E G

2010-10-13

36

The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As expected, the results showed that promotion-oriented individuals – who are focused on achieving success – had higher self-efficacy than prevention-oriented individuals – who are

Carmen Carmona; Abraham P. Buunk; Arie Dijkstra; José M. Peiró

2008-01-01

37

Parasites of mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperation invites cheating, and nowhere is this more apparent than when different species cooperate, known as mutualism. In almost all mutualisms studied, specialist parasites have been identified that purloin the benefits that one mutualist provides another. Explaining how parasites are kept from driving mutualisms extinct remains an unsolved problem because existing theories explaining the maintenance of cooperation do not apply

2001-01-01

38

Cutaneous Responses to Topical Methyl Nicotinate in Black, Oriental and Caucasian Subjects,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Assessments were made of cutaneous responses to topically applied methyl-nicotinate (93607) (MN) on black, oriental, and Caucasian subjects to determine if racial differences had any part to play in percutaneous absorption and microcirculatory sensitivity...

C. J. Gean E. Tur H. I. Maibach R. H. Guy

1987-01-01

39

Mutual information reveals variation in temperature-dependent sex determination in response to environmental fluctuation, lifespan and selection  

PubMed Central

Quantifying the degree to which sex determination depends on the environment can yield insight into the evolution, ecological dynamics, and functional aspects of sex determination. In temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), theory often predicts a complete dependence of sex on temperature, with a switch-like reaction norm. However, empirical data suggest more shallow relationships between sex and temperature. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of an index, mutual information (MI), to reflect the degree of temperature dependence in sex. MI depends on both the shape of a reaction norm and the natural temperature variation, thus providing a measure of TSD that is ecologically dependent. We demonstrate that increased lifespan and decreased environmental fluctuation predict reaction norms with high MI (switch-like). However, mutation and weaker selection on sex-specific performance reduce average MI in a population, suggesting that mutation–selection balance can resolve some of the conflict between theoretical predictions of individual-based optimality and population-based empirical results. The MI index allows clear comparison of TSD across life histories and habitats and reveals functional similarities between reaction norms that may appear different. The model provides testable predictions for TSD across populations, namely that MI should increase with lifespan and decrease with historical environmental fluctuations.

Schwanz, Lisa E; Proulx, Stephen R

2008-01-01

40

Physiological Aspects of Communication via Mutual Gaze.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on various social science projects undertaken to investigate nonverbal communication. Findings indicated that mutual gaze influences physiological arousal, an actor can gaze in such a way that he or she manipulates the other person's physiology, and a subject's response to a mutual gaze is a good predictor of dominance or submission in…

Mazur, Allan; And Others

1980-01-01

41

Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

2011-01-01

42

Orientational Dynamics and Dielectric Response of Nanopore Water  

SciTech Connect

We present numerical calculations, simulation results, and analytical considerations for the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of single-file water in narrow nanopores, described by a recently developed dipole lattice model. We find Debye relaxation over all length scales with relaxation times that strongly depend on pore length. This behavior is analyzed in terms of the dynamics of orientational defects leading to simple quantitative expressions for the static dielectric susceptibility and the relaxation time in the limits of short and long pores. Based on these formulas, we suggest how the predicted macroscopic order of nanopore water can be probed via dielectric spectroscopy and explain how the excitation energy, diffusion constant, and effective interaction of the defects that destroy the order can be extracted from such measurements.

Koefinger, Juergen; Dellago, Christoph [Faculty of Physics and Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

2009-08-21

43

Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P\\/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the

Donald L. DeAngelis; J. Nathaniel Holland

2006-01-01

44

The Effects of Television Videographics and Lecture Familiarity on Adult Cardiac Orienting Responses and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study outlines a psychophysiological model of the role of orienting responses (ORs) in learning from televised lectures. ORs are involuntary responses to environmental stimuli that are novel or that signal the occurrence of something meaningful in the environment. In the present study, ORs were indexed with phasic decelerative heart-rate patterns. The experiment demonstrates that insertion of videographics in talking-head

ESTHER THORSON; ANNIE LANG

1992-01-01

45

OUTSTANDING PAPER FIRST RUNNER-UP AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF BUSINESS STUDENTS' DISCRETIONARY SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ORIENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

As future business leaders, students' values and belief system will influence the types of decisions they make regarding their organization's role in society. This study examined business students' Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation (CSRO) and their attitudes towards the discretionary component of CSR. The majority of business students have a high CSRO and also believe in the discretionary social responsibility component

Christopher Achua; Robert N. Lussier

46

Value orientations and consumer expectations of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how personal and situational factors impact consumer expectations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Consumer expectations are known to motivate marketers to incorporate social considerations into their marketing practices and to communicate about those actions. A study was conducted in order to examine the effect of values and issue involvement on consumer CSR expectations, categorised as economic, legal,

Urša Golob; Marko Lah; Zlatko Jan?i?

2008-01-01

47

Mutual Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ethylene-responsive Element Binding Protein and a Plant Floral Homeotic Gene, APETALA2  

Microsoft Academic Search

†Background and Aims It has previously been shown that Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AtEBP) contributed to resistance to abiotic stresses. Interestingly, it has also been reported that expression of ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes including AtEBP were regulated by the activity of APETALA2 (AP2), a floral homeotic factor. AP2 is known to regulate expression of several floral-specific homeo- tic

TARO OGAWA; HIROFUMI UCHIMIYA; MAKI KAWAI-YAMADA

2007-01-01

48

Collaboration-oriented design of disaster response system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of the utmost importance, we argue, to specifically tailor disaster response systems with users' collaboration in mind. Such an approach, building on top of, and extending the classic single- and multi-user Human-Computer Interaction paradigm is described in this paper. In what follows, we outline our evacuation support system for walking wounded. The proposed system follows a user-centered design

Lucy T. Gunawan

2008-01-01

49

[Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].  

PubMed

Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

2013-01-01

50

Understanding mutualism when there is adaptation to the partner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 A mutualism is a mutually beneficial interaction between individuals of two species. Here we show that the degree of benefit resulting from an interaction depends on whether adaptation within the mutualism is considered. 2 A species' proximate response measures the short-term effect of addition or removal of the partner species, without allowing for any adaptation. We define a

CLAIRE DE MAZANCOURT; MICHEL LOREAU; ULF DIECKMANN

2005-01-01

51

Delayed visual orienting responses in children with developmental and/or intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Background? Assessment of higher visual processing functions mostly requires active cooperation of participants, which is problematic in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). To circumvent this, we applied remote eye tracking to quantify (ab)normal visual orienting responses in children with ID in terms of reaction times to visual stimuli. Methods? We presented visual stimuli (cartoon, coherent form, and coherent motion) to 127 children (2-14 years) with developmental and/or ID (risk group) and simultaneously measured their orienting ocular motor responses. Reaction times to fixation (RTF) in the risk group were compared with RTF values of an age-matched control group. Results? Overall, in 72% of the children in the risk group, RTF values to cartoon were delayed, in 47% to form, and in 38% to motion. The presence of delayed reaction times was highest in the group of children >4 years with ID. Conclusion? Our data show that a majority of children with developmental and/or ID have delayed visual orienting responses. This suggests that this group has increased risk for higher visual processing dysfunctions. Future studies are planned to correlate abnormal orienting responses to type of brain damage and to dissociate the responses from ocular motor disorders. PMID:22974197

Boot, F H; Pel, J J M; Vermaak, M P; van der Steen, J; Evenhuis, H M

2012-09-14

52

Evolution of Mutualism Between Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminolo...

W. M. Post C. C. Travis D. L. DeAngelis

1980-01-01

53

Video Surveillance of Public Places. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response Guides Series No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this guide is to provide an overview of the use of closed circuit television (CCTV) systems as a problem-oriented policing response to a crime problem. This guide explores the benefits and problems associated with CCTV and summarizes the fi...

J. Ratcliffe

2006-01-01

54

Teacher Responses to Bullying in Relation to Moral Orientation and Seriousness of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Little research has focused on factors influencing teachers' decisions about whether and how to intervene in bullying incidents. Such factors have the potential to influence the role of teachers as agents in counteracting bullying. Aims: To examine: (a) whether moral orientation predicts teachers' responses to bullying, (b) the role…

Ellis, Alicia A.; Shute, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

55

Auditory and visual orienting responses in listeners with and without hearing-impairment.  

PubMed

Head movements are intimately involved in sound localization and may provide information that could aid an impaired auditory system. Using an infrared camera system, head position and orientation was measured for 17 normal-hearing and 14 hearing-impaired listeners seated at the center of a ring of loudspeakers. Listeners were asked to orient their heads as quickly as was comfortable toward a sequence of visual targets, or were blindfolded and asked to orient toward a sequence of loudspeakers playing a short sentence. To attempt to elicit natural orienting responses, listeners were not asked to reorient their heads to the 0 degrees loudspeaker between trials. The results demonstrate that hearing-impairment is associated with several changes in orienting responses. Hearing-impaired listeners showed a larger difference in auditory versus visual fixation position and a substantial increase in initial and fixation latency for auditory targets. Peak velocity reached roughly 140 degrees/s in both groups, corresponding to a rate of change of approximately 1 micros of interaural time difference per millisecond of time. Most notably, hearing-impairment was associated with a large change in the complexity of the movement, changing from smooth sigmoidal trajectories to ones characterized by abruptly changing velocities, directional reversals, and frequent fixation angle corrections. PMID:20550266

Brimijoin, W Owen; McShefferty, David; Akeroyd, Michael A

2010-06-01

56

Nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Ficus hirta: obligate pollination mutualism and constraints on range expansion in response to climate change.  

PubMed

This study uses a phylogeographic approach to investigate how interspecific interactions in an obligate pollination mutualism enhance or constrain dispersal and the range distributions of species through time. Fifteen populations of Ficus hirta, a bird-dispersed fig pollinated by a species-specific fig wasp, were sampled from Thailand to the northern limits of the tropical forest in China. These populations were assayed for six nuclear microsatellite loci and two intergenic chloroplast DNA sequences. Analyses of range expansion and genetic clustering indicated a relatively slow rate of range expansion from two or more southern glacial refugia. Low nuclear differentiation, combined with high interpopulation differentiation, and phylogeographic structuring of chloroplast variation indicated that seed dispersal has had a greater constraint than obligate interactions with fig wasps on the rate of post-glacial range expansion. This study is the first to investigate the phylogeographic history of a widely distributed southeast Asian tropical plant whose distribution extends to the northern limits of tropical forest habitat in China. It is also the first study of Ficus utilizing molecular data to evaluate whether species-specific pollination is a limitation or an aid to range expansion in response to climate change. PMID:23127195

Yu, Hui; Nason, John D

2012-11-05

57

The Gravikinetic Response of Paramecium is Based on Orientation-Dependent Mechanotransduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paramecium generates persistent shifts of the membrane potential of a few millivolts depending on its orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The resulting potential-induced modulation of the speed of propulsion is called gravikinesis because it acts to neutralize, fully or in part, sedimentation. Gravisensitivity is maximal at neutral orientation, i.e., in horizontally swimming cells, when the gravitational force per unit membrane area is at minimum. Stimulus-response relationships and energetic considerations show that sensing of the gravity vector by a nonspecialized, single-cell organism ranks among the most sensitive mechanoreceptors known in nature.

Gebauer, Manuel; Watzke, Daniela; Machemer, Hans

58

The political (and physiological) divide: Political orientation, performance monitoring, and the anterior cingulate response.  

PubMed

Our goal was to test a model of sociopolitical attitudes that posits a relationship between individual differences in liberal versus conservative political orientation and differential levels of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsivity. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants who varied along a unidimensional liberal-conservative continuum engaged in a standard Go/NoGo task. We also measured component attitudes of political orientation in the form of traditionalism (degree of openness to social change) and egalitarianism (a preference for social equality). Generally, participants who reported a more liberal political orientation made fewer errors and produced larger ACC-generated ERPs (the error-related negativity, or ERN and the NoGo N2). This ACC activation, especially as indicated by a larger NoGo N2, was most strongly associated with greater preference for social equality. Performance accuracy, however, was most strongly associated with greater openness to social change. These data are consistent with a social neuroscience view that sociopolitical attitudes are related to aspects of neurophysiological responsivity. They also indicate that a bidimensional model of political orientation can enhance our interpretation of the nature of these associations. PMID:24028311

Weissflog, Meghan; Choma, Becky L; Dywan, Jane; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

2013-09-01

59

26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual...831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual...1962. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or...

2013-04-01

60

The Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation on the Consumer's Perception of Advertisers' Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines whether consumers' corporate social responsibility orientation (CSRO) can affect the perceptions of the sponsor's intention in advocating social causes as altruistic or self-serving in the context of values advocacy advertising. A quasi-experimental design with two ad stimuli sponsored by Miller Brewing Company and McDonald's was conducted. The study suggests that those who have high levels of expectations

Yoon-Joo Lee; Eric Haley; Aimee Y. Mark

2012-01-01

61

Spice-Oriented Algorithm for Peak Search and Stability Assessment for Frequency Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose a Spice-oriented algorithm for peak search and stability assessment for the frequency response. We obtain the frequency response by using the sine-cosine circuit, Fourier transformation circuit and solution tracing-curve circuit, which have been developed in our previous studies. We combine the idea using a differentiator and a nonlinear limiter with them in order to search the exact peaks and propose a stability assessment algorithm based on the Floquet theory. In our algorithm, we can simulate almost all tasks with Spice.

Kataoka, Hiroshige; Yamagami, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Ushida, Akio

62

Human Maxilla Bone Response to 30? Oriented Impacts and Comparison With Frontal Bone Impacts  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to compare the responses of human maxilla and frontal bones under 30°-oriented impacts. Maxilla and frontal bones of the same subject were impacted by a guided horizontal steel cylinder. Linear acceleration time histories and force time histories were plotted and corridors were proposed for maxilla bone response. Sensitivity of head dynamics in regard to impact energy level and localization showed the protection of the intracranial contents by the facial bones crushing. Injury risk curves were established for impact on frontal bone, showing a 50% risk injury for impact energy of 265 J or impact force of 7500 N.

Karine, BRUYERE; Francois, BERMOND; Robert, BOUQUET; Yves, CAIRE; Michelle, RAMET; Eric, VOIGLIO

2000-01-01

63

Underestimation of mutual interference of predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual method of estimating the mutual interference constant, m, assumes a linear (type I) functional response of predators. In the cases where the response is not linear, the application of the method introduces a bias in the estimation of the searching efficiencies. It is shown that, as a consequence, the value of m is underestimated. A new method is

R. Arditi; H. R. Akçakaya

1990-01-01

64

Empirical Evaluation of Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluated various distributed mutual exclusion algorithms on the IBM SP2 machine and the Intel iPSC\\/860 system. The empirical results are compared in terms of such criteria as the number of message exchanges and the response time. Our results indicate that the Star algorithm (2) achieves the shortest response time in most cases among all the algorithms

Shiwa S. Fu; Nian-feng Tzeng; Zhiyuan Li

1997-01-01

65

Mutual fund styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual funds are typically grouped by their investment objectives or the ‘style’ of their managers. We propose a new empirical to the determination of manager ‘style’. This approach is simple to apply, yet it captures nonlinear patterns of returns that result from virtually all active portfolio management styles. Our classifications are superior to common industry classifications in predicting cross-sectional future

Stephen J. Brown; William N. Goetzmann

1997-01-01

66

A Framework of Task-Oriented Decision Support System in Disaster Emergency Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the analysis of organizing of rescuing process of Wenchuan Earthquake in China, the paper developed a task-oriented management model to deal with the disaster emergency response. The management mechanism of task generating in emergency response has been established. Four kinds of task generation mechanism have been studied and three decision-making patterns have been suggested. The routings to produce task system were discussed, which could dispose the essential task into sub-task and form the task system through the processes of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A framework of decision support system in emergency response has been proposed, which based on the Hall for Workshop of Mate-synthetic Engineering. It could help the operation team to transfer the predetermined plan to execution plan in emergency response and to assign and dynamic supervise the task system.

Tian, Jun; Zou, Qin; Cheng, Shaochuan; Wang, Kanliang

67

Multiple-Response Sequences in Classroom Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines multiple-response sequences (MRSs), occurring in adult Korean TESOL classrooms, to show the responses produced by students in the language classroom are not always confined within the boundaries of a single response, but are likely to be seen as mutually orienting to, and collaborating to produce a comprehensible outcome to…

Ko, Sungbae

2009-01-01

68

When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

2010-01-01

69

Multivariate Mutual Information for Registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An extension of the mutual information metric to a three-variate cost function for driving the registration of a volume to\\u000a pair of co-registered volumes is presented. While mutual information has typically been applied to pairs of variables, it\\u000a is possible to compute multi-variate mutual information. The implementation of multi-variate mutual information is described.\\u000a This metric is demonstrated using the problem

Jennifer L. Boes; Charles R. Meyer

1999-01-01

70

Floral scents: their roles in nursery pollination mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms are interspecies interactions in which each participant gains net benefits from interacting with its partner. In\\u000a nursery pollination mutualisms, pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. In these systems, each partner\\u000a depends directly on the other for its reproduction. Therefore, the signal responsible for partner encounter is crucial in\\u000a these horizontally transmitted mutualisms, in which the association between specific

Martine Hossaert-McKey; Catherine Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Magali Proffit

2010-01-01

71

Attention orienting and the time course of perceptual decisions: response time distributions with masked and unmasked displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mask-dependent cuing effects, like those previously found in yes–no detection, were found in a task in which observers judged the orientations of orthogonally-oriented Gabor patches presented at cued or uncued locations. Attentional cues enhanced sensitivity for masked, but not unmasked, stimuli. Responses were faster to cued than to uncued stimuli, irrespective of masking. The distributions of response times and accuracy

Philip L. Smith; Roger Ratcliff; Bradley J. Wolfgang

2004-01-01

72

A study of the cellular response to orientated fibronectin material in healing extensor rat tendon.  

PubMed

3D orientated fibronectin (Fn) mats have been used as biocompatible and biodegradeable scaffolds to provide orientated cues using contact guidance for cell migration/adhesion and deposition of extracellular matrix. We have implanted Fn scaffolds in an established rat tendon(partial tenotomy) injury model to test its efficacy and monitor the early cellular and inflammatory response. Tendons were harvested at 0, 6 h, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days for H&E, immunohistochemistry and TEM. Total cell counts within the window increased progressively with time with no significant differences between the Fn scaffolds and controls. CD45 (pan leukocyte) positive cell numbers peaked at 6 h and when expressed as a percentage of total cell counts as determined by H&E staining constituted 20% of the total cell number at 6 h but decreased to 5% of total number by 72 h. There were no significant differences in the inflammatory response between the control and implanted groups. Few CD44 (mesenchymal stem cell) positive cells identified had a surface location. A novel cell with long exaggerated cytoplasmic processes was identified by TEM. Our results show that the Fn scaffold did not degrade or elicit any untoward inflammatory response at the time points tested and has potential use in guiding the repair process. PMID:15348356

Zavahir, F; McGrouther, D A; Misra, A; Smith, K; Brown, R A; Mudera, V

73

Couple-Oriented Education and Support Intervention for Osteoarthritis: Effects on Spouses' Support and Responses to Patient Pain  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a couple-oriented education and support intervention for osteoarthritis was more efficacious than a similar patient-oriented intervention in terms of enhancing spouses’ support of patients and their positive and negative responses to patient pain. Repeated-measures analyses of covariance with the completers sample (N = 103 dyads) showed that at the postintervention assessment, patients in the couple-oriented intervention reported a greater decrease in their spouses’ punishing responses (e.g., anger, irritation) than did patients in the patient-oriented intervention. In addition, a trend effect was observed in regard to the advantage of couple-oriented intervention for increasing spouses’ attempts to distract patients from their pain. At the 6-month follow-up, patients in the couple-oriented intervention reported greater increased spouse support than those in the patient-oriented intervention. Findings illustrate the value of examining change in specific types of marital interactions targeted in a couples intervention, and the need to strengthen the impact of future couple-oriented interventions.

Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Keefe, Francis J.; Rudy, Thomas E.; Starz, Terence W.

2009-01-01

74

An orienting response is not enough: Bivalency not infrequency causes the bivalency effect  

PubMed Central

When switching tasks, occasionally responding to bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two different tasks) slows performance on subsequent univalent stimuli, even when they do not share relevant features with bivalent stimuli. This performance slowing is labelled the bivalency effect. Here, we investigated whether the bivalency effect results from an orienting response to the infrequent stimuli (i.e., the bivalent stimuli). To this end, we compared the impact of responding to infrequent univalent stimuli to the impact of responding to infrequent bivalent stimuli. For the latter, the results showed a performance slowing for all trials following bivalent stimuli. This indicates a long-lasting bivalency effect, replicating previous findings. For infrequent univalent stimuli, however, the results showed a smaller and shorter-lived performance slowing. These results demonstrate that the bivalency effect does not simply reflect an orienting response to infrequent stimuli. Rather it results from the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli, probably by episodic binding with the more demanding context created by them.

Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

2013-01-01

75

Cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum: chemoreceptor orientation and specificity.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypercarbia (elevated water P(CO2)) in the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum are stimulated by externally oriented receptors that are sensitive to water CO(2) tension as opposed to water pH. Cardiorespiratory responses to acute hypercarbia were evaluated in both the absence and presence of internal hypercarbia (elevated blood P(CO2)), achieved by treating fish with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. Exposure to acute hypercarbia (15 min at each level, final water CO(2) tensions of 7.2, 15.5 and 26.3 mmHg) elicited significant increases in ventilation frequency (at 26.3 mmHg, a 42% increase over the normocarbic value) and amplitude (128%), together with a fall in heart rate (35%) and an increase in cardiac stroke volume (62%). Rapid washout of CO(2) from the water reversed these effects, and the timing of the changes in cardiorespiratory variables corresponded more closely to the fall in water P(CO2) (Pw(CO2)) than to that in blood P(CO2) (Pa(CO2)). Similar responses to acute hypercarbia (15 min, final Pw(CO2) of 13.6 mmHg) were observed in acetazolamide-treated (30 mg kg(-1)) tambaqui. Acetazolamide treatment itself, however, increased Pa(CO2) (from 4.81+/-0.58 to 13.83+/-0.91 mmHg, mean +/-S.E.M.; N=8) in the absence of significant change in ventilation, heart rate or cardiac stroke volume. The lack of response to changes in blood P(CO2) and/or pH were confirmed by comparing responses to the bolus injection of hypercarbic saline (5% or 10% CO(2); 2 ml kg(-1)) into the caudal vein with those to the injection of CO(2)-enriched water (1%, 3%, 5% or 10% CO(2); 50 ml kg(-1)) into the buccal cavity. Whereas injections of hypercarbic saline were ineffective in eliciting cardiorespiratory responses, changes in ventilation and cardiovascular parameters accompanied injection of CO(2)-laden water into the mouth. Similar injections of CO(2)-free water acidified to the corresponding pH of the hypercarbic water (pH 6.3, 5.6, 5.3 or 4.9, respectively) generally did not stimulate cardiorespiratory responses. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that in tambaqui, externally oriented chemoreceptors that are predominantly activated by increases in water P(CO2), rather than by accompanying decreases in water pH, are linked to the initiation of cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia. PMID:15767310

Gilmour, K M; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T; Reid, S G; Perry, S F

2005-03-01

76

An externally oriented style of thinking as a moderator of responses to affective films in women.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in alexithymia would moderate coupling in physiological and subjective-experiential responses to two affective films, which were shown to induce a common negative (sad) feeling, but to provoke different hyper- or hypo-arousal physiological responses (e.g., heart rate acceleration or deceleration) associated with antipathic or empathic context, respectively (Davydov et al., 2011). Only women were studied as persons showing more reactivity to sad films than men. Reactivity was evaluated for facial behavior, physiological arousal, and subjective experience. Some other affective and cognitive disposition factors (e.g., depression and defensiveness) were considered for evaluating their probable mediation of the alexithymia's effects. While subjective experience was not affected by alexithymia, high scorers on the externally-oriented thinking factor showed reduced physiological reactivity in both film conditions. These effects were mediated through different disposition factors: either low affectivity (low depressed mood), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hyper-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate acceleration), or impression management (other-deception), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hypo-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate deceleration). PMID:23266659

Davydov, Dmitry M; Luminet, Olivier; Zech, Emmanuelle

2012-12-22

77

Reduction of the response to sex pheromone in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) following successive pheromonal exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of prior pheromonal experience upon the pheromone- mediated upwind flight response was examined in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta(Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Adult male G. molestawere subjected to a parallel series of staggered and repeated pheromonal exposures in a sustained-flight wind tunnel. Levels of response to pheromone in male G. molestasignificantly decreased in a (a) rectilinear function with

Aurelio J. Figueredo; Thomas C. Baker

1992-01-01

78

Whose Fault Is it Anyway? Political Orientation, Attributions of Responsibility, and Support for the War in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political orientation has been shown to be a strong predictor of attitudes toward war. Specifically, political conservatism\\u000a has been associated with increased support for war and with decreased attribution of responsibility for war to one’s own government.\\u000a The present research aims to test whether the relationship between political orientation and support for the war in Iraq is\\u000a mediated by attributions

Malte Friese; Shira Fishman; Ruth Beatson; Kelly Sauerwein; Blanka Rip

2009-01-01

79

Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to determine if dispositional achievement goal orientation profiles that are reported in the literature would be observed in a sample of youth athletes, and (b) to examine potential achievement goal orientation profile differences on perceptions of the motivational climate, perceptions of peer relationships, and motivation-related responses. Male soccer players (n = 223) aged 9–12

Alan L. Smith; Isabel Balaguer; Joan L. Duda

2006-01-01

80

Elongation and Random Orientation of Bovine Endothelial Cells in Response to Hydrostatic Pressure: Comparison with Response to Shear Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological responses of cultured bovine endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to hydrostatic pressure were investigated. ECs were exposed to physiological blood pressure under a hydrostatic head of culture medium for 24 hours. Pressured ECs exhibited marked elongation and orientation with the random direction, together with development of centrally located, thick stress fibers. Pressured ECs also exhibited multilayered structure unlike under control conditions. The area and the shape index value significantly decreased after exposure to hydrostatic pressure, which were in good agreement with the results from conventional flow-imposed experiments. In contrast, a tortuosity index, which was newly introduced to represent cell shape tortuosity, significantly increased for pressured ECs, while sheared ECs had no difference in turtuosity index from control. In addition, pressured ECs aligned with no predominant direction, while sheared ECs aligned in the flow direction. These results indicate that ECs can respond very specifically to the type of imposed mechanical stimuli such as hydrostatic pressure and fluid shear stress.

Sugaya, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki

81

Neural mechanisms underlying the orienting response to subject's own name: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Neural processes underlying the orienting response (OR) to subject's own name (SON) were investigated using the oddball paradigm. Subjects were presented with SON, subject's parent's name, and unfamiliar persons' names while they played a video game and ignored the auditory stimuli. A P3a-like frontal positivity (P440, 440?ms) indexing OR was elicited by SON only when it was the rare stimulus and its amplitude decreased with the repeated presentation of SON. Preceding the P440, SON consistently elicited an early frontal negativity (SON negativity, 170-270?ms), including when SON was the high-probability stimulus, and unlike the P440, this negativity did not habituate. These results conform to the hypothesis that early preattentive processing of speech sounds distinguishes SON from other names irrespective of short-term stimulus context, and that this culminates in an OR only when SON is evaluated as being contextually meaningful. PMID:22416997

Tateuchi, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu

2012-03-14

82

Mutual information in Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the mutual information of two Hawking particles emitted consecutively by an evaporating black hole. Following Page, we find that the mutual information is of order e-S where S is the entropy of the black hole. We speculate on implications for black hole unitarity, in particular on a possible failure of locality at large distances.

Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel

2013-10-01

83

Mutual coupling between microstrip antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of mutual coupling between microstrip antennas is presented. The cavity method is used, and from the equivalence theorem application the problem is reduced to interaction of two magnetic loops. The mutual impedance is then calculated from the reaction theorem. Theoretical results and measurements are in good agreement

Penard, E.; Daniel, J.-P.

1982-07-01

84

The Evolution of Interspecific Mutualisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interspecific mutualisms are widespread, but how they evolve is not clear. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is the main theoretical tool to study cooperation, but this model ignores ecological differences between partners and assumes that amounts exchanged cannot themselves evolve. A more realistic model incorporating these features shows that strategies that succeed with fixed exchanges (e.g., Tit-for-Tat) cannot explain mutualism when exchanges vary because the amount exchanged evolves to 0. For mutualism to evolve, increased investments in a partner must yield increased returns, and spatial structure in competitive interactions is required. Under these biologically plausible assumptions, mutualism evolves with surprising ease. This suggests that, contrary to the basic premise of past theoretical analyses, overcoming a potential host's initial defenses may be a bigger obstacle for mutualism than the subsequent recurrence and spread of noncooperative mutants.

Doebeli, Michael; Knowlton, Nancy

1998-07-01

85

Whose Orientations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." While the "menu" Levisohn describes in his groundbreaking work on orientations to the teaching of rabbinic texts will almost certainly be refined over time, even as it stands this article should be of…

Gutoff, Joshua

2010-01-01

86

Orientation and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream-dwelling Dineutus discolor Aubé and ponddwelling Dineutus and Gyrinus orient themselves, in the laboratory, wholly in response to light on either the dorsal or the ventral eyes; they even dive towards submarine light; and in darkness they show no gregariousness. No orientation to still as against running water was evidenced; nor was it shown to complex patterns. However, there appears

C. R. Brown; M. H. Hatch

1929-01-01

87

Detecting mutual awareness events.  

PubMed

It is quite common that multiple human observers attend to a single static interest point. This is known as a mutual awareness event (MAWE). A preferred way to monitor these situations is with a camera that captures the human observers while using existing face detection and head pose estimation algorithms. The current work studies the underlying geometric constraints of MAWEs and reformulates them in terms of image measurements. The constraints are then used in a method that 1) detects whether such an interest point does exist, 2) determines where it is located, 3) identifies who was attending to it, and 4) reports where and when each observer was while attending to it. The method is also applied on another interesting event when a single moving human observer fixates on a single static interest point. The method can deal with the general case of an uncalibrated camera in a general environment. This is in contrast to other work on similar problems that inherently assumes a known environment or a calibrated camera. The method was tested on about 75 images from various scenes and robustly detects MAWEs and estimates their related attributes. Most of the images were found by searching the Internet. PMID:22331857

Cohen, Meir; Shimshoni, Ilan; Rivlin, Ehud; Adam, Amit

2012-12-01

88

Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: Differences between exposure in E and H orientation  

SciTech Connect

Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm{sup 2} for E and 45 mW/cm{sup 2} for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5{degrees}C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur.

Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Padilla, J.M. (Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

89

Gender and Sexual Orientation Differences in Sexual Response to Sexual Activities Versus Gender of Actors in Sexual Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors investigated the hypothesis that women's sexual orientation and sexual responses in the laboratory correlate less highly than do men's because women respond primarily to the sexual activities performed by actors, whereas men respond primarily to the gender of the actors. The participants were 20 homosexual women, 27 heterosexual women, 17 homosexual men, and 27 heterosexual

Meredith L. Chivers; Michael C. Seto; Ray Blanchard

2007-01-01

90

The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational…

Edens, Kellah M.

2008-01-01

91

Resistant versus Acquiescent Responses to Ingroup Inferiority as a Function of Social Dominance Orientation in the USA and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social identity theory typically emphasizes how low status group members resist and challenge imputations of inferiority (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), whereas system justification theory emphasizes the tendency to accept and justify status hierarchies (Jost & Banaji, 1994). On the theoretical assumption that responses to ingroup inferiority would vary according to individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth,

Jennifer R. Overbeck; John T. Jost; Cristina O. Mosso; Agnieszka Flizik

2004-01-01

92

Measurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented Germanium Nanowires using Optical-Pump Terahertz-Probe Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the terahertz response of oriented germanium nanowires using ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy. We present results on the time, frequency, and polarization dependence of the terahertz response. Our results indicate intraband energy relaxation times of photoexcited carriers in the 1.5-2.0 ps range, carrier density dependent interband electron-hole recombination times in the 75-125 ps range, and carrier momentum scattering

Jared H. Strait; Paul A. George; Mark Levendorf; Martin Blood-Forsythe; Farhan Rana; Jiwoong Park

2009-01-01

93

[Responses of rabbit's visual cortex neurons to changes in intensity and orientation of visual stimuli].  

PubMed

Changes in the number of spikes in the early phasic discharge (50-90 ms from stimuli replacement) of neurons in the rabbit's primary visual cortex were studied under conditions of an instant change in a flashing-line pattern. We used three type of stimulation: lines with different orientations (0-90 degrees) but constant intensity; lines with constant orientation but different intensities; complex stimuli with different intensities and different orientations of lines. Factor analysis made it possible to reconstruct two-dimensional sensory spaces of orientations in 13 of 43 analyzed neurons (30%). In 5 of 30 analyzed neurons (16.6%), both two-dimensional spaces of orientations and two-dimensional spaces of intensities were revealed. Achromatic spaces were reconstructed during changes in the lines of varying intensities but constant orientation. In experiments with complex stimuli, the intensity of lines with orientations varying from 0 to 38.58 degree was 5 cd/m2. The intensity of lines with orientations varying from 51.44 to 90 degrees was 15 cd/m2. In the sensorial space, stimuli with different intensities were located on the plane formed by the first and second significant factors in opposite quadrants, whereas within each quadrant, the stimuli were arranged closely to their orientation from minimum to maximum. We suggest that this type of sensory space reflects the interaction between intensity and orientation attributes of visual stimuli with the factor of intensity prevailing over the factor of orientation. Only 7 (12%) neurons with such complex spaces were found. PMID:20352682

Polianski?, V B; Alymkulov, D E; Evtikhin, D V; Sokolov, E N; Chernyshev, B V

94

Developing a Short Form of Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test: An Item Response Theory Approach  

PubMed Central

The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton’s words, “as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived.” The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test-retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct validity as shown through neuroanatomical localization studies (Tranel, Vianna, Manzel, Damasio, & Grabowski, 2009). Despite its popularity and strong psychometric properties, the full-length version of the test (30 items) has been criticized as being unnecessarily long (Straus, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006). There have been many attempts at developing short forms; however, these forms have been limited in their ability to estimate scores accurately. Taking advantage of a large sample of JLO performances from 524 neurological patients with focal brain lesions, we used techniques from Item Response Theory (IRT) to estimate each item’s difficulty and power to discriminate among various levels of ability. A random item IRT model was used to estimate the influence of item stimulus properties as predictors of item difficulty. These results were used to optimize the selection of items for a shorter method of administration which maintained comparability with the full form using significantly fewer items. This effectiveness of this method was replicated in a second sample of 82 healthy elderly participants. The findings should help broaden the clinical utility of the JLO and enhance its diagnostic applications.

Calamia, Matthew; Markon, Kristian; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

2011-01-01

95

Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson ( 2006 ), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys - a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (hand-holding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

Coan, James A; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S; Davidson, Richard J

2013-04-02

96

Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children's Responses to Peer Aggression  

PubMed Central

Little is known about individual differences in how children respond to peer aggression. This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically development goals (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach goals (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance goals (minimizing negative judgments). Children (M age = 7.97, SD = .34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grade. Validity of the social goal orientation construct was established through correlations with situation-specific goals and social adjustment. Development goals predicted adaptive responses (more effortful engagement, problem solving, advice seeking; fewer involuntary responses); demonstration goals predicted maladaptive responses (less effortful engagement, problem solving; more disengagement, retaliation). This study contributes to theoretical understanding of the process of peer aggression and interventions to promote optimal social health.

Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

2011-01-01

97

Mutual Mentoring Makes Better Mentors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will describe how our peer-to-peer mentoring has enabled us to become better mentors for our undergraduate students, for recent graduates beginning their careers and for colleagues at local and neighboring institutions.

Blaha, Cindy; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda; Whitten, Barbara

2011-03-01

98

The Mutually Unbiased Bases Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Mutually Unbiased Bases continues to be developed vigorously, and presents several challenges in the Quantum Information Theory. Two orthonormal bases in $\\\\mathbb C^d, B {and} B'$ are said mutually unbiased if $\\\\forall b\\\\in B, b'\\\\in B'$ the scalar product $b\\\\cdot b'$ has modulus $d^{-1\\/2}$. In particular this property has been introduced in order to allow an optimization

Monique Combescure; Batiment Paul Dirac

2006-01-01

99

Normalized Mutual Information Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filter method of feature selection based on mu- tual information, called normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), is presented. NMIFS is an enhancement over Battiti's MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR methods. The average normalized mutual information is proposed as a measure of re- dundancy among features. NMIFS outperformed MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR on several artificial and benchmark data sets without

Pablo A. Estévez; Michel Tesmer; Claudio A. Perez; Jacek M. Zurada

2009-01-01

100

Development of the PRO-SDLS: A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-directedness in learning among college students based on an operationalization of the personal responsibility orientation (PRO) model of self-direction in learning. The resultant 25-item Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-Direction in Learning Scale…

Stockdale, Susan L.; Brockett, Ralph G.

2011-01-01

101

Thermal and mechanical response of [0001]-oriented GaN nanowires during tensile loading and unloading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the thermal and mechanical responses of GaN nanowires with the [0001] orientation and hexagonal cross sections to tensile loading and unloading. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires at each deformed state is calculated using the Green-Kubo approach with quantum correction. The thermal conductivity is found to be dependent on the strain induced by tensile loading and unloading. Phase transformations are observed in both the loading and unloading processes. Specifically, the initially wurtzite-structured (WZ) nanowires transform into a tetragonal structure (TS) under tensile loading and revert to the WZ structure in the unloading process. In this reverse transformation from TS to WZ, transitional states are observed. In the intermediate states, the nanowires consist of both TS regions and WZ regions. For particular sizes, the nanowires are divided into two WZ domains by an inversion domain boundary (IDB). The thermal conductivity in the intermediate states is approximately 30% lower than those in the WZ structure because of the lower phonon group velocity in the intermediate states. Significant effects of size and crystal structure on mechanical and thermal behaviors are also observed. Specifically, as the diameter increases from 2.26 to 4.85 nm, the thermal conductivity increases by 30%, 10%, and 50%, respectively, for the WZ, WZ-TS, and WZ-IDB structured wires. However, change in conductivity is negligible for TS-structured wires as the diameter changes. The different trends in thermal conductivity appear to result from changes in the group velocity which is related to the stiffness of the wires and surface scattering of phonons.

Jung, Kwangsub; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

2012-10-01

102

Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages. PMID:17370812

Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

2007-02-01

103

Different responses in two strains of chickens ( Gallus gallus ) in a magnetic orientation test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrated that layer strain domestic chicks bred for egg production can orient using directional cues\\u000a from the magnetic field; here we report that chicks from a broiler strain bred for meat production do not use magnetic cues\\u000a for orientation. We imprinted both strains of chicken on a red ball and subsequently trained them in a featureless testing\\u000a arena.

Rafael Freire; Ursula Munro; Lesley J. Rogers; Sven Sagasser; Roswitha Wiltschko; Wolfgang Wiltschko

2008-01-01

104

Cross and Iso oriented surrounds modulate the contrast response function: The effect of surround contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detectability and appearance of visual targets can be modulated by surround stimuli. In this study we asked how cross- and iso-oriented surrounds modulate contrast detection and discrimination in foveal vision. We systematically measured the Threshold-versus-Contrast (TvC) functions over a wide range of pedestal and surround contrasts. Our results show that cross-oriented surrounds lower the contrast threshold over the entire

Dennis M. Levi

2003-01-01

105

Mutuality, Mountains, and Molehills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on social maladjustment exclusion in serious emotional disturbance criteria in Public Law 94-142, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Responds to articles by Skiba and Grizzle in reaction to Slenovich's book, "PL 94-142 as Applied to DSM III Diagnoses" and Slenovich's response to articles. Assesses debate between Skiba and…

Zirkel, Perry A.

1992-01-01

106

Loss of function of COBRA, a determinant of oriented cell expansion, invokes cellular defence responses in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant that results in complete loss-of-function of the COBRA gene has been identified. The COBRA gene encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that modulates cellulose deposition and oriented cell expansion in roots. The loss-of-function mutant allele (named 'cob-5') exhibits abnormal cell growth through- out the entire plant body and accumulates massive amounts of stress response chemicals

Jae-Heung Ko; Jeong Hoe Kim; Sastry S. Jayanty; Gregg A. Howe; Kyung-Hwan Han

2006-01-01

107

Oriented responses of the triatomine bugs Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans to vertebrate odours on a servosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oriented responses of both R. prolixus and T. infestans adults were recorded on a servosphere to mouse-odour, one of its components (CO2), and to rabbit urine-odour. The volatiles were delivered in an air-stream under controlled conditions which excluded other sensory modalities. In stimulus-free air the triatomines walked preferentially downwind in straight bouts interrupted by stops or periods at relatively low

J. Taneja; P. M. Guerin

1995-01-01

108

Antennal and Behavioral Responses of Virgin and Mated Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Females to Their Sex Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of female oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were studied using the synthetic major component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate, and partial three-component blend, (Z)-8-dodecenyl-acetate: (E)-8-dodecenyl-acetate:(Z)-8-dodecenol (in a 93:6:1 ratio), of the sex pheromone. EAGs elicited by both the single and three-component pheromone were signiÞcantly greater compared with hexane solvent controls. In 1-liter plastic chambers with

L. L. Stelinski; A. L. Il’ichev; L. J. Gut

2006-01-01

109

Orienting Response and Memory for Web Advertisements:Exploring Effects of Pop-Up Window and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of pop-up windows and animation on online users’ orienting response and memory for Web advertisements. All participants (N = 60) in a mixed-design factorial experiment were exposed to four online portal Web sites, each containing a banner ad that was either animated or static and a pop-up ad that was also either animated or static.

Fangfang Diao; S. Shyam Sundar

2004-01-01

110

Coordination between extrinsic extracellular matrix cues and intrinsic responses to orient the centrosome in polarizing cerebellar granule neurons  

PubMed Central

Successful axon targeting during development is critically dependent on directionality of axon extension, and requires coordination between the extrinsic cues that provide spatial information to the axon and the intrinsic responses that regulate structural specification of the axon during neuronal polarization. How these responses are coordinated is unclear, but are known to involve aligning the centrosome with the base of the emerging axon. We have used a novel in vitro micropatterning assay that spatially segregates the extrinsic cues used by polarizing cerebellar granule cells to orient axon extension, and used it to investigate the signaling mechanisms responsible for coordinating centrosome positioning with intrinsic responses. The results show that when laminin and/or vitronectin are used as spatially restricted cues in association with substrate-associated sonic hedgehog they are sufficient to induce cell cycle arrest; that laminin and vitronectin then induce integrin-mediated signaling that upregulates PI3 kinase and PKC function to produce PIP3 that is associated with the centrosome; that this PIP3 can interact with PKC-phosphorylated Growth-associated protein GAP-43 and that PKC phosphorylated GAP-43 in turn is required for positioning Par6, Cdc42 and IQGAP1, all intrinsic response components, in proximity to the centrosome, such that, in the absence of GAP-43, they are mislocalized and microtubules are not oriented appropriately. We conclude from these results that GAP-43 plays an important role in coordinating extrinsic signaling and intrinsic responses in polarizing cerebellar granule neurons.

Gupta, Shailesh Kumar; Meiri, Karina; Mahfooz, Kashif; Bharti, Upasna; Mani, Shyamala

2010-01-01

111

Attentional modulation of fMRI responses in human V1 is consistent with distinct spatial maps for chromatically-defined orientation and contrast  

PubMed Central

Attending to different stimulus features such as contrast or orientation can change the pattern of neural responses in human V1 measured with fMRI. We show that these pattern changes are much more distinct for colored stimuli than for achromatic stimuli. This is evidence for a classic model of V1 functional architecture in which chromatic contrast and orientation are coded in spatially distinct neural domains, while achromatic contrast and orientation are not.

Song, Joo-Hyun; Rowland, Jess; McPeek, Robert M; Wade, Alex R

2012-01-01

112

Reflexive orienting in response to eye gaze and an arrow in children with and without autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one of two experiments. Both experiments involved the localization of a target that appeared

Atsushi Senju; Yoshikuni Tojo; Hitoshi Dairoku; Toshikazu Hasegawa

2004-01-01

113

YIELD RESPONSE TO PEANUT ROW ORIENTATION AND SEEDING RATE WHEN IRRIGATED USING SDI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are typically planted in a single or twin row orientation, however, research indicates that peanut planted at equidistance between rows and plants in alternating rows (diamond shape) and using the same planting rate can increase pod yield. A study was conducted to eval...

114

Neuroticism and Social Comparison Orientation as Moderators of Affective Responses to Social Comparison at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism (N) and to social com- parison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and identification were higher, and negative affect was lower, in the upward than in the downward comparison

Bram P. Buunk; Karen Van der Zee; Nico W. VanYperen

2001-01-01

115

Displaying Orientation in the Classroom: Students' Multimodal Responses to Teacher Instructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the displays of orientation that students use to participate in the classroom. It is argued that students use their direction of gaze, body posture, gesture and other modes of communication to realize such displays and respond to what goes on when they are not nominated speakers. The focus of the paper is on the silent but…

Bezemer, Jeff

2008-01-01

116

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental

W. D. Silva; V. Arthur; T. Mastrangelo

2010-01-01

117

Examining the effects of shopping orientation and corporate social responsibility on store loyalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

With previous literature that supports the importance of CSR in consumer behavior, this study is aimed to examine its role on store loyalty. In addition, shopping orientations has also been investigated as the antecedent of CSR and also store loyalty. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire based on quota sampling of the population. Using structural equation modeling, the study developed

Jamaliah Mohd. Yusof; Sofiah Abd. Rahman; Rosidah Musa

2011-01-01

118

Measurements of the carrier dynamics and terahertz response of oriented germanium nanowires using optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We have measured the terahertz response of oriented Germanium nanowires using ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy. We present results on the time, frequency, and polarization dependence of the terahertz response. Our results indicate intraband energy relaxation times of photoexcited carriers in the 1.5-2.0 ps range, carrier density dependent interband electron-hole recombination times in the 75-125 ps range, and carrier momentum scattering rates in the 60-90 fs range. Additionally, the terahertz response of the nanowires is strongly polarization dependent despite the subwavelength dimensions of the nanowires. The differential terahertz transmission is found to be large when the field is polarized parallel to the nanowires and very small when the field is polarized perpendicular to the nanowires. This polarization dependence of the terahertz response can be explained in terms of the induced depolarization fields and the resulting magnitudes of the surface plasmon frequencies. PMID:19594164

Strait, Jared H; George, Paul A; Levendorf, Mark; Blood-Forsythe, Martin; Rana, Farhan; Park, Jiwoong

2009-08-01

119

Measurements of the Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Response of Oriented Germanium Nanowires using Optical-Pump Terahertz-Probe Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the terahertz response of oriented germanium nanowires using ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy. We present results on the time, frequency, and polarization dependence of the terahertz response. Our results indicate intraband energy relaxation times of photoexcited carriers in the 1.5-2.0 ps range, carrier density dependent interband electron-hole recombination times in the 75-125 ps range, and carrier momentum scattering rates in the 60-90 fs range. Additionally, the terahertz response of the nanowires is strongly polarization dependent despite the subwavelength dimensions of the nanowires. The differential terahertz transmission is found to be large when the field is polarized parallel to the nanowires and very small when the field is polarized perpendicular to the nanowires. This polarization dependence of the terahertz response can be explained in terms of the induced depolarization fields and the resulting magnitudes of the surface plasmon frequencies.

Strait, Jared H.; George, Paul A.; Levendorf, Mark; Blood-Forsythe, Martin; Rana, Farhan; Park, Jiwoong

2009-08-01

120

Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions. PMID:15889719

Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

2005-04-01

121

26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual...831-1 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual...policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or...

2013-04-01

122

Orientation and Direction-of-Motion Response in the Middle Temporal Visual Area (MT) of New World Owl Monkeys as Revealed by Intrinsic-Signal Optical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic-signal optical imaging was used to evaluate relationships of domains of neurons in middle temporal visual area (MT) selective for stimulus orientation and direction-of-motion. Maps of activation were elicited in MT of owl monkeys by gratings drifting back-and-forth, flashed stationary gratings and unidirectionally drifting fields of random dots. Drifting gratings, typically used to reveal orientation preference domains, contain a motion component that may be represented in MT. Consequently, this stimulus could activate groups of cells responsive to the motion of the grating, its orientation or a combination of both. Domains elicited from either moving or static gratings were remarkably similar, indicating that these groups of cells are responding to orientation, although they may also encode information about motion. To assess the relationship between domains defined by drifting oriented gratings and those responsive to direction-of-motion, the response to drifting fields of random dots was measured within domains defined from thresholded maps of activation elicited by the drifting gratings. The optical response elicited by drifting fields of random dots was maximal in a direction orthogonal to the map of orientation preference. Thus, neurons in domains selective for stimulus orientation are also selective for motion orthogonal to the preferred stimulus orientation.

Kaskan, Peter M.; Dillenburger, Barbara C.; Lu, Haidong D.; Roe, Anna W.; Kaas, Jon H.

2010-01-01

123

Mutual Altruism and Misery Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper studies a neglected effect of mutual altruism, consistent with psychological findings. In the model, two individuals care for each other’s happiness. Under certain conditions, they may end up in a misery trap where each is unhappy because the other is. The misery trap coexists with another outcome, however, in which each individual enjoys the other’s happiness. The

Yann Bramoullé

124

Analyzing mutual shading among buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for evaluating solar rights and shading requirements in an urban environment is presented. The method is embedded in a CAD tool developed and adapted for this purpose. With this tool one can analyze the mutual shading between buildings and other objects like trees. The purpose of this CAD tool is to allow the designer to plan efficiently the

Edna Shaviv; Abraham Yezioro

1997-01-01

125

Mutual Group Hypnosis and Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of mutual group hypnosis as an environment in which to carry out a problem solving program designed to help smokers become nonsmokers. Hypnosis provides a relaxed milieu, heightens imagery and intensifies concentration. Specific techniques used include (1) brainstorming about reasons for wanting to be a nonsmoker; (2) time progression and imagery to consider the possibility

Shirley Sanders

1977-01-01

126

Negotiation as Mutual Belief Revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a logical framework for negotiation based on belief revision theory. We consider that a negotiation pro- cess is a course or multiple courses of mutual belief revision. A set of AGM-style postulates are proposed to capture the rationality of competitive and cooperative behaviors of nego- tiation. We first show that the AGM revision and its iterated extension

Dongmo Zhang; Norman Y. Foo; Thomas Andreas Meyer; Rex Kwok

2004-01-01

127

Unobserved Actions of Mutual Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive disclosure requirements, mutual fund investors do not observe all actions of fund managers. We estimate the impact of unobserved actions on fund returns using the return gap—the difference between the reported fund return and the return on a portfolio that invests in the previously disclosed fund holdings. We document that unobserved actions of some funds persistently create value,

Marcin Kacperczyk; Clemens Sialm; Lu Zheng

2008-01-01

128

Noise in Mutually Synchronized Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise output of two mutually synchronized oscillators has been calculated. It is shown how the two oscillators contribute to the noise. The AM noise of the combined output signal turned out to be considerably increased compared to the AM noise of the free-running oscillators. The FM noise can be improved by proper choice of parameters. To check the theory

W. O. Schlosser

1968-01-01

129

Male Oriental Fruit Moth Response to a Combined Pheromone-Based Attracticide Formulation Targeting Both Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a Þeld trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited

Maya L. Evenden; John R. McClaughlin

2005-01-01

130

Response characteristics of the cells of cortical area 21a of the cat with special reference to orientation specificity.  

PubMed Central

1. Extracellular recording using tungsten-in-glass microelectrodes was conducted on 115 neurons in area 21a of fifteen anaesthetized cats. Quantitative analysis using computer-controlled display and collecting routines were used to investigate the excitatory and inhibitory regions of the receptive field and to see if interaction, within and between these regions, contributed to the response properties of the cells. 2. The responses of the cells in the sample appeared to arise from a single, homogeneous class. All cells had single discharge regions which responded with composite ON/OFF firing to a stationary flashing bar. The same region also responded to moving light and dark bars and edges. There was little evidence of inhibition as measured by the suppression of spontaneous or induced firing. Most cells had relatively small receptive fields (primary width: mean = 2.1 +/- 0.9 deg (S.D.); n = 108), all were binocular and were located within 15.0 deg of the visual axes. 3. All cells responded well to slowly moving stimuli but generally failed to respond to stimuli moving faster than 10.0 deg s-1. All responses were bi-directional and, although many showed evidence of length summation, there was no sign of linear summation. 4. Despite the absence of significant sideband inhibition many cells were acutely tuned for orientation (half-width at half-height: mean = 15.6 +/- 5.3 deg; n = 48). To investigate this property further, cells were analysed to assess the effect of changing the length of a moving bar stimulus on the acuteness of the orientation tuning curve. Short bars, of similar length to the width of the receptive field, had orientation tuning curves of equivalent sharpness to those obtained with longer bars. 5. The equivalence of orientation tuning for long and short bars stands in contrast to the results obtained for both simple (S) and complex (C) cells of the striate cortex where tuning for the longer bar is sharper than that for the shorter. The result from area 21a cells is consistent with the absence of sideband inhibition and can be related to an input from the striate cortex that passes through a threshold barrier. 6. The orientation tuning of cells of area 21a can be explained if it is assumed that they receive their major input from C or complex cells of the striate cortex in which firing must reach a threshold frequency to activate the recipient cell. Images Fig. 1

Wimborne, B M; Henry, G H

1992-01-01

131

Analysis of the mutual attraction in the association of the fish Cryptocentrus cryptocentrus (Gobiidae) and the shrimp Alpheus djiboutensis (Alpheidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual attraction between the fish Cryptocentrus cryptocentrus and the shrimp Alpheus djiboutensis has been investigated experimentally. The fish is attracted to its partner visually, the shrimp is attracted chemically. The mutual attraction is reinforced by the strong negative phototactic reaction of both partners, orienting them towards the burrow.

I. Karplus; M. Tsurnamal; R. Szlep

1972-01-01

132

A response to reform: Teachers' attitudes and practice of inquiry-oriented instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of the current reform effort in Connecticut is to influence the way science is taught to improve student achievement. To meet this goal, the State aligned curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices with the most recent versions of the Core Science Curriculum Framework, CAPT Handbook for Science, and the Connecticut Aptitude Performance Test (CAPT). The lack of widespread and sustainable implementation of instructional reforms, such as implementing inquiry-oriented standards-based curriculum, is an issue that has evolved out of reform efforts similar to the one in Connecticut. A possible explanation for this problem might be traced back to teacher attitudes towards the proposed instructional changes. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the attitudes of six high school earth science teachers toward reform in one Connecticut suburban school district and the impact these attitudes may have had on the implementation of inquiry-oriented instructional reforms. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess teacher attitudes toward the reform and the expected impact on the way they would enact inquiry-oriented instruction. This was followed by classroom observations of each teacher's implementation of one of the State released inquiry-oriented labs found in the CAPT Handbook for Science, so as to determine whether the labs were carried out as the teachers had intended and as was expected by the State. At the end of year, semi-structured interviews were also conducted to verify whether their attitudes changed over the course of the year. Originally, it was thought that teacher attitudes would impact the way they would carry out the State recommended labs. However, teacher attitudes in this study were only one predictor of the way the inquiry-oriented labs were implemented. Teacher experience, familiarity with the content, and knowledge of inquiry-based pedagogy also were found to be possible influences on how they described and implemented the State reforms. The results of this work highlight the need for large-scale reforms to consider the multiple factors that influence teachers' understanding and implementation in order for such instructional changes to be successful.

Thomas, Jeffrey D.

133

Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) non-yolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

134

Parent–Child Mutuality in Early Childhood: Two Behavioral Genetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent–child dyadic mutuality (shared positive affect, responsiveness, and cooperation) is an important component of family socialization processes. This study sought to extend previous research on mutuality by using a quantitative genetic design to examine between- and within-family variations (e.g., sibling differences) and gene–environment processes. The first study included 125 pairs of identical and same-sex fraternal 3-year-old twins. Observations of mutuality

Kirby Deater-Deckard; Thomas G. O’Connor

2000-01-01

135

From mutualism to moral transcendence.  

PubMed

Baumard et al. attribute morality to a naturally selected propensity to share costs and benefits of cooperation fairly. But how does mundane mutualism relate to transcendent notions of morality critical to creating cultures and civilizations? Humans often make their greatest exertions for an idea they form of their group. Primary social identity is bounded by sacred values, which drive individuals to promote their group through non-rational commitment to actions independently of likely risks and rewards. PMID:23445578

Atran, Scott

2013-02-01

136

Mutualism and biodiversity in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soil invertebrates and roots have developed strong interactions with micro-organisms to exploit the organic and mineral resources of soil. Micro-fauna are mainly predators of microorganisms whereas larger organisms interact with micro-organisms through the “external rumen” or facultative endosymbiotic digestive systems. Mobilisation of nutrient and organic resources through mutualism with soil microflora seems to be all the more efficient as

P. Lavelle; C. Lattaud; D. Trigo; I. Barois

1995-01-01

137

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae’s cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD90 and LD99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

138

Plant invasions – the role of mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal- mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are

DAVID M. RICHARDSON; NICKY ALLSOPP; CARLA M. D'ANTONIO; SUZANNE J. MILTON; MARCEL REJMÁNEK

2000-01-01

139

Strategic Orientation and Nursing Home Response to Public Reporting of Quality Measures: An Application of the Miles and Snow Typology  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether differences in strategic orientation of nursing homes as identified by the Miles and Snow typology are associated with differences in their response to the publication of quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare website. Data Sources Administrator survey of a national 10 percent random sample (1,502 nursing homes) of all facilities included in the first publication of the Nursing Home Compare report conducted in May–June 2004; 724 responded, yielding a response rate of 48.2 percent. Study Design The dependent variables are dichotomous, indicating whether or not action was taken and the type of action taken. Four indicator variables were created for each of the four strategic types: Defender, Analyzer, Prospector, and Reactor. Other variables were included in the seven logistic regression models to control for factors other than strategic type that could influence nursing home response to public disclosure of their quality of care. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey data were merged with data on quality measures and organizational characteristics from the first report (November 2002). Principal Findings About 43 percent of surveyed administrators self-typed as Defenders, followed by Analyzers (33 percent), and Prospectors (19 percent). The least self-selected strategic type was the Reactor (6.6 percent). In general, results of the regression models indicate differences in response to quality measure publication by strategic type, with Prospectors and Analyzers more likely, and Reactors less likely, to respond than Defenders. Conclusions While almost a third of administrators took no action at all, our results indicate that whether, when, and how nursing homes reacted to publication of federally reported quality measures is associated with strategic orientation.

Zinn, Jacqueline S; Spector, William D; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

2008-01-01

140

Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation.  

PubMed

Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) non-yolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed. PMID:11537823

Neff, A W; Smith, R C; Malacinski, G M

1986-01-01

141

Plant—carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and carnivorous arthropods can interact mutualistically. A recent discovery is that such mutualisms can be mediated by volatile compounds — produced by plants in response to herbivore damage — that attract carnivores. However, after emission of these attractants, the plant has no control over their use. Thus, exploitation of the information may occur, to the detriment of the plant,

Junji Takabayashi; Marcel Dicke

1996-01-01

142

Ecosystem engineers activate mycorrhizal mutualism in salt marshes.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that ecosystem engineers should have their most dramatic effects when they enable species, through habitat amelioration, to live in zones where physical and biological conditions would otherwise suppress or limit them. Mutualisms between mycorrhizal fungi and plants are key determinants of productivity and biodiversity in most terrestrial systems, but are thought to be unimportant in wetlands because anoxic sediments exclude fungal symbionts. Our field surveys revealed arbuscular mycorrhizal associations on salt marsh plant roots, but only in the presence of crabs that oxygenate soils as a by-product of burrowing. Field experiments demonstrate that fungal colonization is dependent on crab burrowing and responsible for nearly 35% of plant growth. These results highlight ecosystem engineers as ecological linchpins that can activate and maintain key mutualisms between species. Our findings align salt marshes with other important biogenic habitats whose productivity is reliant on mutualisms between the primary foundation species and micro-organisms. PMID:17845290

Daleo, Pedro; Fanjul, Eugenia; Mendez Casariego, Agustina; Silliman, Brian R; Bertness, Mark D; Iribarne, Oscar

2007-10-01

143

Decision processes in German mutual fund companies: Evidence from a telephone survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of actively managed mutual funds is largely dependent upon the investment decisions of the responsible fund managers. However, little is known about the behavior of these managers. This survey study sheds light on the decision processes of German fund managers. The design of the survey allows us to link fund manager data with information about mutual funds and

Kerstin Drachter; Alexander Kempf; Michael Wagner

2006-01-01

144

Parent-Child Dyadic Mutuality and Child Behavior Problems: An Investigation of Gene-Environment Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Parent-child mutuality is comprised of emotional reciprocity, co-responsiveness, and cooperation, which together represent aspects of co-regulation of emotion and behavior that may be important in the etiology of children's behavior problems. Furthermore, individual differences in children's mutuality and behavior problems involve…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

145

An investigation of the influences of noise on EEG power bands and visual cognitive responses for human-oriented product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various different human-oriented approaches are required in industrial activities. Noise is one of the most widespread sources\\u000a of environmental stress. So, it is important to consider noise when we design human-oriented products. This study investigates\\u000a the responses of EEG and eye movement data in order to evaluate the direct effects of low, middle, and high frequency noise\\u000a on the two

Wonhak Cho; Sung-Ho Hwang; Hyeonki Choi

2011-01-01

146

A middleware for service-oriented communication in mobile disaster response environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the work of disaster response teams is being increas- ingly supported and coordinated by using portable comput- ing devices. Connected to mobile ad-hoc networks, these devices establish a communication infrastructure immune to damages caused by natural disasters. However, ad-hoc net- works are dynamic and volatile environments, which ham- pers hosting of critical applications relying on fast respon- siveness. These

Lukasz Juszczyk; Schahram Dustdar

2008-01-01

147

Effects of a Body-oriented Response Measure on the Neural Substrate of Imagined Perspective Rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous behavioral studies suggest that response measures related to the body, such as pointing, serve to anchor participants to their physical body during mental rotation tasks in which their perspective must be shifted elsewhere. This study investigated whether such measures engage spatial and lowlevel cortical motor areas of the brain more readily than nonbody-related measures. We directly compared activation found

Maryjane Wraga; Catherine M. Flynn; Holly K. Boyle; Gretchen C. Evans

2009-01-01

148

Research on the application of technology-oriented rapid response manufacturing in a distributed network environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid response manufacturing in a distributed network environment is a new manufactory pattern that can be used to implement the concept of agile design and manufacturing, but there are some new problems associated with it. In this paper, the authors establish some approaches to solve these problems in the product development process. The paper then presents research on key application

J. W Jin; Y. R Ni; J. T Xi; F. Y Fan; Y Jin

2002-01-01

149

Spatial orientation of extraocular muscle EMG responses to tilt in the rabbit during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unanaesthetized pigmented rabbits 2–45 days of age were gradually tilted (15° steps) over 360° around three orthogonal body axes. The multiunit electromyogram activity of superior rectus (SR) and superior oblique (SO) extraocular muscles was recorded with chronically implanted pairs of fine wire electrodes after each tilt step. The integrated EMG activity of the extraocular muscles in response to static tilt

Helmut Tegetmeyer

1994-01-01

150

PRES: Physical Response Education Systems. The Oriental Model Goes to School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physical Response Education System (PRES) project began in pilot studies of the effectiveness of acupressure in addressing the physical and emotional problems of disabled students. In the pilot study (1979-80), 12 students received 6 weekly sessions from a professional acupressurist, and in the intern study (1980-81) 15 students received 8…

St. John, Jeanne

151

Early electrophysiological responses to multiple face orientations correlate with individual discrimination performance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picture-plane inversion dramatically impairs face recognition. Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest that this effect takes place during perceptual encoding of the face stimulus. However, the relationship between early electrophysiological responses to upright and inverted faces and the behavioral face inversion effect remains unclear. To address this question, we recorded ERPs while presenting 10 subjects with face photographs at

Corentin Jacques; Bruno Rossion

2007-01-01

152

Length dependent foam-like mechanical response of axially indented vertically oriented carbon nanotube arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial compressive mechanical response of substrate-supported carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with heights from 35 to 1200?m is evaluated using flat punch nanoindentation with indentation depths to 200?m. The compressive behavior is consistent with that of an open-cell foam material with array height playing a role similar to that of occupation density for traditional foam. Mechanical yielding of all arrays

Matthew R. Maschmann; Qiuhong Zhang; Feng Du; Liming Dai; Jeffery Baur

2011-01-01

153

Spatial cueing, sensory gating and selective response preparation: an ERP study on visuo-spatial orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a visuo-spatial attention task where the position of an imperative stimulus was indicated either validly or invalidly by a central arrow (trial-by-trial cueing). Subjects had to perform choice RT tasks with the response being dependent either on the identity of the target stimulus or on its position. When target identity was relevant

Martin Eimer

1993-01-01

154

Ciliary frequency and orientational responses to clamped voltage steps in Paramecium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Simultaneous voltage clamping and microcinematography were used to examine the behavior of cilia in response to prolonged hyperpolarizing and depolarizing steps in the membrane potential ofParamecium caudatum. In the absence of stimulation the cilia beat at less than 20 cycles per second with the power stroke directed toward the posterior and somewhat to the right (i.e. 4 o'clock) of

Hans Machemer; Roger Eckert

1975-01-01

155

Holographic mutual information is monogamous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A, B, C obey the inequality I(A?B?C)?I(A?B)+I(A?C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic theories arise primarily from entanglement rather than classical correlations. We also show that the Ryu-Takayanagi formula is consistent with all known general inequalities obeyed by the entanglement entropy, including an infinite set recently discovered by Cadney et al.; this constitutes strong evidence in favor of its validity.

Hayden, Patrick; Headrick, Matthew; Maloney, Alexander

2013-02-01

156

Mechanical Response of Stitched T300 Mat/Urethane 420 IMR Composite Laminates: Property/Orientation Dependence and Damage Evolution  

SciTech Connect

This report presents experimental and analytical results of investigations on the mechanical response of stitched T300 mat/urethane 420 IMR composite laminates with three different lay-up configurations. Tensile tests and short-term creep and recovery tests were conducted on the laminate coupons at various orientations. The X-ray photographic technique was adopted to detect the internal damage due to external loading history. The tensile data of laminates with antisymmetric and symmetric lay-ups indicated that lay- up sequences of cross-ply laminates do not have much influence on their tensile properties. However, misalignments within the stitch-bonded plies disturb the symmetry of intended quasi-isotropic laminates and thereby cause the mechanical properties to exhibit a certain amount of angular dependence. Classic lamination theory was found to be able to provide a very good prediction of tensile properties for the stitched laminates within linear range. Creep and recovery response of laminate coupons is greatly dependent on loading angles and load levels. The internal damage of laminate coupons is also directly related to loading angles and load levels as well as loading history.

Deng, S.; Weitsman, Y.J.

2000-03-01

157

Sex-related response to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in adult Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta.  

PubMed

During the development of a resistance-monitoring bioassay that uses males as the life-stage tested, the relationship of adult female and male susceptibility of Grapholita molesta to different classes of insecticides was investigated. Preliminary results indicated that more males survived diagnostic doses of azinphos-methyl than females. Additional research revealed that, although the body mass of adult male G molesta was only 69% of that of female moths (5.67 and 8.20 mg, respectively), their LC50 values were 2.6, 4.1 and 10.3 times higher than those of females for azinphosmethyl, malathion and parathion-methyl, respectively. However, female G molesta moths were more tolerant to methomyl than were male moths. There was no indication that this sex-related response occurred in G molesta larvae. The results presented here raise concerns regarding the use of pheromone traps for determining whether insecticide treatments are required and as part of resistance monitoring programs. PMID:11561408

Shearer, P W; Usmani, K A

2001-09-01

158

Of Tournaments and Temptations: An Analysis of Managerial Incentives in the Mutual Fund Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test the hypothesis that, when their compensation is linked to relative performance, managers of investment portfolios likely to end up as 'losers' will manipulate fund risk differently than those managing portfolios likely to be 'winners.' An empirical investigation of the performance of 334 growth-oriented mutual funds during 1976 to 1991 demonstrates that mid-year losers tend to increase fund

Keith C Brown; W. V. Harlow; Laura T Starks

1996-01-01

159

Between modernization and mutual aid: the changing perceptions of voluntary sports clubs in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an exploration of the emergent tensions arising from the participation of mutual-aid orientated voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) within a modernized sport delivery system in England. The analysis identifies the tenets of the New Labour government's ‘modernisation project’, the meaning of modernization for VSC organization and operation and the extent to which opposing pressures are negotiated within VSCs.

Andrew Adams

2011-01-01

160

Modeling mutually exclusive events in fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given for constructing fault tree gates to model mutually exclusive events. The gates are constructed from stochastically independent events, AND gates and NOT gates. Examples are presented to illustrate the technique. If the gate construction must be performed manually, the method adds complexity to the fault tree model that may not be justified. Approximating mutually exclusive events

D. W. Twigg; A. V. Ramesh; U. R. Sandadi; T. C. Sharma

2000-01-01

161

Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

2010-01-01

162

Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

2010-08-23

163

Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism  

PubMed Central

Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host–symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume–rhizobia and yucca–moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature.

Weyl, E. Glen; Frederickson, Megan E.; Yu, Douglas W.; Pierce, Naomi E.

2010-01-01

164

Detecting mutual consistency of shared objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In systems that support disconnected operations, shared objects must be cached at client sites to ensure that the objects are accessible while the client is disconnected. It is desirable that objects cached at a client site are mutually consistent with respect to the level of consistency provided by the system. We present a new technique for detecting mutual consistency of

M. Ahamad; Francisco Jose Torres-Rojas; Rammohan Kordale; Jasjit Singh; Shawn Smith

1994-01-01

165

Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters  

PubMed Central

For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control.

Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

2012-01-01

166

Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

2009-01-01

167

Mutual Orbits of Transneptunian Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the latest results from a program of high spatial resolution imaging to resolve the individual components of binary transneptunian objects. These observations use Hubble Space Telescope and also laser guide star adaptive optics systems on Keck and Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea. From relative astrometry over multiple epochs, we determine the mutual orbits of the components, and thus the total masses of the systems. Accurate masses anchor subsequent detailed investigations into the physical characteristics of these systems. For instance, dynamical masses enable computation of bulk densities for systems where the component sizes can be estimated from other measurements. Additionally, patterns in the ensemble characteristics of binary orbits offer clues to circumstances in the protoplanetary nebula when these systems formed, as well as carrying imprints of various subsequent dynamical evolution processes. The growing ensemble of known orbits shows intriguing patterns that can shed light on the evolution of this population of distant objects. This work has been supported by an NSF Planetary Astronomy grant and by several Hubble Space Telescope and NASA Keck data analysis grants. The research makes use of data from the Gemini Observatory obtained through NOAO survey program 11A-0017, from a large number of Hubble Space Telescope programs, and from several NASA Keck programs.

Grundy, William M.; Noll, K. S.; Roe, H. G.; Porter, S. B.; Trujillo, C. A.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.

2012-10-01

168

Variable orientation within a natural population of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) as a response to a variable environment: The case-study of Berkoukesh beach, Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy beaches are harsh environments, driving resident arthropod populations to various typical adaptations, particularly behavioural ones. Here we evaluated the effects of seasonal meteorological variability on the behaviour of Talitrus saltator on Berkoukesh beach (N-W Tunisia). The site is characterised by a Mediterranean climate, but is particularly exposed to seasonal winds and storms. The shoreline is in morphodynamic equilibrium. We tested sandhopper Talitrus saltator orientation in April, when sudden rainfall and storms are common, and in June, when as a rule the weather is warm and dry. The results were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, in order to highlight differences in orientation under the various conditions. Depending on the environmental conditions, amphipods from the same population appeared to utilise various orientation strategies as a response to different environmental constraints. The use of a range of behavioural mechanisms (sun-orientation seaward, sun-orientation landward, and phototaxis) resulted in links to the local landscape and to the animals' life cycle. As a general conclusion, we can infer that the behavioural variability found within the same population represents a response to seasonal environmental fluctuation. Such an increase in variability is likely to develop on a beach in dynamic equilibrium, where landscape references are stable, and a variable behaviour represents a strategy for dealing with environmental fluctuations.

Fanini, Lucia; Scapini, Felicita

2008-03-01

169

New mutually pumped phase conjugator using a KNSBN crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mutually pumped phase conjugator is demonstrated with a novel photorefractive crystal of copper-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate, in which the beams travel in a geometric path similar to the outline of a sickle. The maximum reflectivity is up to 168%. Faster response times are measured and are also simulated as a function of incident beam power ratio. Four available input geometries are found. The phase conjugation signals exist wide range of angular and position alignment.

Zhang, Liangmin; Mu, Xiaodong; Shao, Zongshu; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Jun; Chen, Huanchu; Jiang, Minhua

1996-09-01

170

Integrated circuit ac mutual inductance bridge for magnetic susceptibility measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile ac mutual inductance bridge is described which uses integrated circuit operational amplifiers (op-amps) for the measurement of magnetic susceptibilities of ferro-, ferri-, and para-magnetic samples. The circuit employs op-amps both for balancing the bridge and for detecting the differential signal from the sample coil. The response of the circuit is linear over a wide range of sample susceptibilities,

C. M. Brodbeck; R. R. Bukrey; J. T. Hoeksema

1978-01-01

171

Community Oriented Policing Services: The Benefits and Consequences of Police Crackdowns. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response Guides Series No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide deals with crackdowns, a response police commonly use to address crime and disorder problems. The term crackdown is widely used in reference to policing and law enforcement, although it is often used rather loosely. Journalists, for example, co...

M. S. Scott

2003-01-01

172

Mother— and Father—Child Mutuality in Anglo and Indian British Families: A Link with Lower Externalizing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed Mother— and Father—Child dyadic mutuality (responsiveness, interaction reciprocity, and cooperation), and its association with child behavior problems, in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 125 male (51%) and female 7-to-9-year-old children. Dyadic mutuality and positivity were coded from in-home videotaped structured tasks, and parents completed ratings of child externalizing problems. Mothers showed more mutuality than fathers. The

Kirby Deater-Deckard; Naama Atzaba-Poria; Alison Pike

2004-01-01

173

Holographic evolution of the mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the time evolution of the mutual information in out of equilibrium quantum systems whose gravity duals are Vaidya spacetimes in three and four dimensions, which describe the formation of a black hole through the collapse of null dust. We find the holographic mutual information to be non monotonic in time and always monogamous in the ranges explored. We also find that there is a region in the configuration space where it vanishes at all times. We show that the null energy condition is a necessary condition for both the strong subadditivity of the holographic entanglement entropy and the monogamy of the holographic mutual information.

Allais, Andrea; Tonni, Erik

2012-01-01

174

Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.  

PubMed

We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. PMID:22011186

Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

2011-10-20

175

The effect of poly (L-lactic acid) nanofiber orientation on osteogenic responses of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells.  

PubMed

In this study, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA)/trifluoroethanol (TFE) solution was electrospun to fabricate fibrous scaffolds with different fiber orientations. Random and parallel PLLA nanofiber alignments were achieved by using a metal plate and a rolling rod as the receiver, respectively. The parallel PLLA fibrous scaffolds were further hot-stretched to obtain hyperparallel PLLA fibrous scaffolds. The PLLA fibrous scaffolds were characterized by fiber diameter, interfiber distance, fiber array angle, water contact angle, morphology and mechanical strength. The tensile strength of hyperparallel nano-fibers was approximately 5- and 14-times the parallel and random fibers, respectively. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the PLLA scaffolds to study the effects of fiber orientation on cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation. The cells on the randomly-oriented scaffolds showed irregular forms, while the cells exhibited shuttle-like shapes on the parallel scaffolds and had larger aspect ratios along the fiber direction of the hyperparallel scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen I (placeStateCol I) and osteocalcin (OC) deposition exhibited fiber orientation dependence. With an increase in parallelism of the fibers, there was a decrease in ALP activity and placeStateCol I and OC production. These results suggest that exploitation of PLLA fiber orientation may be used to control osteoblast-like cell responses. PMID:21396609

Wang, Bo; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Shen; Yang, Xiaoping; Deng, Xuliang

2011-01-31

176

Holographic mutual information at finite temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Ryu-Takayanagi conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of gauge-gravity duality, we investigate properties of mutual information between two disjoint rectangular subsystems in finite temperature relativistic conformal field theories in d spacetime dimensions and nonrelativistic scale-invariant theories in some generic examples. In all these cases, mutual information undergoes a transition beyond which it is identically zero. We study this transition in detail and find universal qualitative features for the above class of theories, which has holographic dual descriptions. We also obtain analytical results for mutual information in the specific regime of the parameter space. This demonstrates that mutual information contains the quantum entanglement part of the entanglement entropy, which is otherwise dominated by the thermal entropy at large temperatures.

Fischler, Willy; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

2013-06-01

177

Endophytic fungal communities of Bromus tectorum: Mutualisms ...  

Treesearch

Title: Endophytic fungal communities of Bromus tectorum: Mutualisms, ... However, its success is likely influenced by a variety of other mechanisms including symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi. ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

178

Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)|

Medve, Richard J.

1978-01-01

179

Antagonisms, mutualisms and commensalisms affect outbreak ...  

Treesearch

One mutualism involves an obligate association between the bark beetle, ... increase the abundance of O. minus, which reduces per capita reproduction of beetles. ... in a manner consistent with strong indirect interactions between organisms.

180

Hierarchical token based mutual exclusion algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual exclusion is a basic block of distributed synchronization algorithms. One of the challenges in highly distributed environments (like peer-to-peer or Grid configurations) is to provide scalable synchronizations taking into account the hierarchical network topology. This paper proposes hierarchical mutual exclusion algorithms. These algorithms are extensions of the Naimi-Trehel token algorithm, reducing the cost of latency and the number of

Marin Bertier; Luciana Bezerra Arantes; Pierre Sens

2004-01-01

181

Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations\\u000a among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination\\u000a and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife\\u000a should be managed for human benefit and are more likely

Jerry J. Vaske; Maarten H. Jacobs; Mette T. J. Sijtsma

2011-01-01

182

Mutual selection in time-varying networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-varying networks play an important role in the investigation of the stochastic processes that occur on complex networks. The ability to formulate the development of the network topology on the same time scale as the evolution of the random process is important for a variety of applications, including the spreading of diseases. Past contributions have investigated random processes on time-varying networks with a purely random attachment mechanism. The possibility of extending these findings towards a time-varying network that is driven by mutual attractiveness is explored in this paper. Mutual attractiveness models are characterized by a linking function that describes the probability of the existence of an edge, which depends mutually on the attractiveness of the nodes on both ends of that edge. This class of attachment mechanisms has been considered before in the fitness-based complex networks literature but not on time-varying networks. Also, the impact of mutual selection is investigated alongside opinion formation and epidemic outbreaks. We find closed-form solutions for the quantities of interest using a factorizable linking function. The voter model exhibits an unanticipated behavior as the network never reaches consensus in the case of mutual selection but stays forever in its initial macroscopic configuration, which is a further piece of evidence that time-varying networks differ markedly from their static counterpart with respect to random processes that take place on them. We also find that epidemic outbreaks are accelerated by uncorrelated mutual selection compared to previously considered random attachment.

Hoppe, K.; Rodgers, G. J.

2013-10-01

183

Mother- And Father-Child Mutuality in Anglo and Indian British Families: A Link with Lower Externalizing Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We observed mother- and father-child dyadic mutuality (responsiveness, interaction reciprocity, and cooperation), and its association with child behavior problems, in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 125 male (51%) and female 7-to-9-year-old children. Dyadic mutuality and positivity were coded from in-home videotaped…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

2004-01-01

184

Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral responses of adult female oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalisHendel, to the odor of papayas from three ripeness classes were studied using a threechoice flight tunnel bioassay. Laboratoryreared flies were allowed to respond freely to any of three papaya odors (mature green, colorbreak to one-fourth ripe, and one-half to full ripe) emanating from identical (spherical) fruit models. Five behaviors were

Eric B. Jang; Douglas M. Light

1991-01-01

185

Density-dependent outcomes in a digestive mutualism between carnivorous Roridula plants and their associated hemipterans.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that mutualisms often have variable outcomes in space and time. In particular, the outcomes may be dependent on the density of the partners with unimodal or saturating outcomes providing stability to the mutualism. We examine density-dependent outcomes of an obligate, species-specific mutualism between a South African carnivorous plant (Roridula dentata) and a hemipteran (Pameridea) that facilitates prey digestion, but also sucks plant sap. Plants occur in sandy, leached, nitrogen-poor soils and have no digestive enzymes to digest prey. Instead they rely on obligately dependent hemipterans to supply nitrogen by digesting prey for them and defecating on their leaves. We documented the densities of Pameridea on Roridula in the field. In the greenhouse, we manipulated the hemipteran densities on Roridula and measured the mean relative growth rates of plants with differing hemipteran densities. Plants exhibited a unimodal response to the density of their mutualist partners. Those with no hemipterans had negative growth rates, suggesting that hemipterans are important in facilitating nitrogen absorption. Plants with intermediate hemipteran densities had positive growth rates but growth rates were negative under very high hemipteran densities. Our research provides support for variable and unimodal outcomes in mutualism. Unimodal outcomes may be particularly important in obligate mutualisms and this is one of the few studied outside of pollinating seed parasite mutualisms. In this system, extrinsic factors such as other predators may affect the mutualism by altering the numbers of hemipterans. PMID:17221256

Anderson, Bruce; Midgley, Jeremy J

2007-01-13

186

Responses of Adaxial and Abaxial Stomata of Normally Oriented and Inverted Leaves of Vicia faba L. to Light.  

PubMed

Stomatal conductances of normally oriented and inverted leaves were measured as light levels (photosynthetic photon flux densities) were increased to determine whether abaxial stomata of Vicia faba leaves were more sensitive to light than adaxial stomata. Light levels were increased over uniform populations of leaves of plants grown in an environmental chamber. Adaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum water vapor conductances at a light level of 60 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which abaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Abaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum conductances at a light level of 500 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which adaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Maximum conductances in both normally oriented and inverted leaves were about 200 millimoles per square meter per second for adaxial stomata and 330 millimoles per square meter per second for abaxial stomata. Regardless of whether leaves were normally oriented or inverted, when light levels were increased to values high enough that upper leaf surfaces reached maximum conductances (about 500 micromoles per square meter per second), light levels incident on lower, shaded leaf surfaces were just sufficient (about 60 micromoles per square meter per second) for stomata of those surfaces to reach maximum conductances. This ;coordinated' stomatal opening on the separate epidermes resulted in total leaf conductances for normally oriented and inverted leaves that were the same at any given light level. We conclude that stomata in abaxial epidermes of intact Vicia leaves are not more sensitive to light than those in adaxial epidermes, and that stomata in leaves of this plant do not respond to light alone. Additional factors in bulk leaf tissue probably produce coordinated stomatal opening on upper and lower leaf epidermes to optimally meet photosynthetic requirements of the whole leaf for CO(2). PMID:16665038

Yera, R; Davis, S; Frazer, J; Tallman, G

1986-10-01

187

Responses of Adaxial and Abaxial Stomata of Normally Oriented and Inverted Leaves of Vicia faba L. to Light 1  

PubMed Central

Stomatal conductances of normally oriented and inverted leaves were measured as light levels (photosynthetic photon flux densities) were increased to determine whether abaxial stomata of Vicia faba leaves were more sensitive to light than adaxial stomata. Light levels were increased over uniform populations of leaves of plants grown in an environmental chamber. Adaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum water vapor conductances at a light level of 60 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which abaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Abaxial stomata of inverted leaves reached maximum conductances at a light level of 500 micromoles per square meter per second, the same light level at which adaxial stomata of normally oriented leaves reached maximum conductances. Maximum conductances in both normally oriented and inverted leaves were about 200 millimoles per square meter per second for adaxial stomata and 330 millimoles per square meter per second for abaxial stomata. Regardless of whether leaves were normally oriented or inverted, when light levels were increased to values high enough that upper leaf surfaces reached maximum conductances (about 500 micromoles per square meter per second), light levels incident on lower, shaded leaf surfaces were just sufficient (about 60 micromoles per square meter per second) for stomata of those surfaces to reach maximum conductances. This `coordinated' stomatal opening on the separate epidermes resulted in total leaf conductances for normally oriented and inverted leaves that were the same at any given light level. We conclude that stomata in abaxial epidermes of intact Vicia leaves are not more sensitive to light than those in adaxial epidermes, and that stomata in leaves of this plant do not respond to light alone. Additional factors in bulk leaf tissue probably produce coordinated stomatal opening on upper and lower leaf epidermes to optimally meet photosynthetic requirements of the whole leaf for CO2.

Yera, Ramon; Davis, Stephen; Frazer, John; Tallman, Gary

1986-01-01

188

Cooperative Adaptation to Establishment of a Synthetic Bacterial Mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how two organisms that have not previously been in contact can establish mutualism, it is first necessary to examine temporal changes in their phenotypes during the establishment of mutualism. Instead of tracing back the history of known, well-established, natural mutualisms, we experimentally simulated the development of mutualism using two genetically-engineered auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli, which mimic two

Kazufumi Hosoda; Shingo Suzuki; Yoshinori Yamauchi; Yasunori Shiroguchi; Akiko Kashiwagi; Naoaki Ono; Kotaro Mori; Tetsuya Yomo; Katy Kao

2011-01-01

189

Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2005-01-01

190

Improved MIMO antenna by mutual coupling suppression between Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel method for suppressing mutual coupling between antenna elements for application in MIMO antenna design. To suppress mutual coupling, several parasitic elements were employed in the proposed MIMO array antennas. Due to the effect of these parasitic elements, mutual coupling is markedly reduced. The proposed method shows that the improvement of mutual coupling is at least

Kyeong-Sik Min; Dong-Jin Kim; Young-Min Moon

2005-01-01

191

Single gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dimers of metal nanospheres are well-known for their characteristic anisotropic optical response. Here, we demonstrate in single-particle SERS experiments that individual gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response. This optical behavior of single particle clusters provides constant SERS signals, independent of the mutual orientation of the incident laser polarization and the plasmonic nanostructure, which is desired or even required in many SERS applications.Dimers of metal nanospheres are well-known for their characteristic anisotropic optical response. Here, we demonstrate in single-particle SERS experiments that individual gold trimers and 3D superstructures exhibit a polarization-independent SERS response. This optical behavior of single particle clusters provides constant SERS signals, independent of the mutual orientation of the incident laser polarization and the plasmonic nanostructure, which is desired or even required in many SERS applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31982a

Steinigeweg, Dennis; Schütz, Max; Schlücker, Sebastian

2012-12-01

192

The response of mental health professionals to clients seeking help to change or redirect same-sex sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: we know very little about mental health practitioners' views on treatments to change sexual orientation. Our aim was to survey a representative sample of professional members of the main United Kingdom psychotherapy and psychiatric organisations about their views and practices concerning such treatments. METHODS: We sent postal questions to mental health professionals who were members of British Psychological Society,

Annie Bartlett; Glenn Smith; Michael King

2009-01-01

193

Lateral Inhibition between Orientation Detectors in the Human Visual System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment has shown that two lines of different orientation interact with each other so that they seem to be displaced from one another in orientation. This could be explained in terms of mutual inhibition between neighbouring columns in the visual cortex.

Colin Blakemore; Roger H. S. Carpenter; MARK A. GEORGESON

1970-01-01

194

Learning curves for mutual information maximization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered.

Urbanczik, R.

2003-07-01

195

Impact of Mutual Mentoring on Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will give some specific ways that we have supported and helped to expand each other's research. For some new areas of research were opened, for others new focus was brought to existing areas, and still others found acceptance for where they were.

Whitten, Barbara; Blaha, Cynthia; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda

2011-03-01

196

Mutually Pumped Phase-Conjugate Mirror: Sickle Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mutually pumped phase conjugator is demonstrated with a novel photorefractive crystal of copper-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate, in which the beams travel in a geometric path similar to the outline of a sickle. The maximum reflectivity is up to 168%. Faster response times are measured and are also simulated as a function of incident beam power ratio. Four available input geometries are found. The phase conjugation signals exist wide range of angular and positional alignment. No apparent cross talk is observed. The faster build-up process of phase conjugation beams is tentatively explained.

Zhang, Liang-min; Zhang, Jing-wen; Shao, Zong-shu; Mu, Xiao-dong; Chen, Huan-chu; Jiang, Min-hua

1996-09-01

197

Integrated circuit ac mutual inductance bridge for magnetic susceptibility measurements.  

PubMed

A versatile ac mutual inductance bridge is described which uses integrated circuit operational amplifiers (op-amps) for the measurement of magnetic susceptibilities of ferro-, ferri-, and para-magnetic samples. The circuit employs op-amps both for balancing the bridge and for detecting the differential signal from the sample coil. The response of the circuit is linear over a wide range of sample susceptibilities, and is calibrated directly in absolute units (emu) using a multiturn digital potentiometer. The sensitivity of the instrument for weak paramagnetic samples (1 g) is +/-3x10(-7) emu. PMID:18699301

Brodbeck, C M; Bukrey, R R; Hoeksema, J T

1978-09-01

198

Gender Atypicality and Sexual Orientation Development Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Prevalence, Sex Differences, and Parental Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth aged 15 to 19 were recruited from three community-based organizations. Sexual orientation milestones and events related to youths' childhood gender atypicality were examined and compared to current self-esteem and internalized homophobia. Three-quarters felt different from other youth as they were growing up. Two-thirds were considered gender atypical by others, at about age 8. Over half

Michael T. Starks

199

Survivorship Bias and Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual fund attrition can create problems for a researcher because funds that disappear tend to do so due to poor performance. In this article we estimate the size of the bias by tracking all funds that existed at the end of 1976. When a fund merges we calculate the return, taking into account the merger terms. This allows a precise

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

1996-01-01

200

The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1992-01-01

201

Costly Search and Mutual Fund Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the flows of funds into and out of equity mutual funds. Consumers base their fund purchase decisions on prior performance information, but do so asymmetrically, investing disproportionately more in funds that performed very well the prior period. Search costs seem to be an important determinant of fund flows. High performance appears to be most salient for funds

Erik R. Sirri; Peter Tufano

1998-01-01

202

Aggregate mutual fund flows and security returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I find that aggregate security returns are highly correlated with concurrent unexpected cash flows into mutual funds, but unrelated to concurrent expected flows. An unexpected inflow equal to 1% of total stock fund assets ($4.75 billion) corresponds to a 5.7% increase in the stock price index. Further, fund flows are correlated with the returns of the securities

Vincent A. Warther

1995-01-01

203

On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample free of survivor bias, the author demonstrates that common factors in stock returns and investment expenses almost completely explain persistence in equity mutual funds' mean and risk-adjusted returns. Darryll Hendricks, Jayendu Patel, and Richard Zeckhauser's (1993) 'hot hands' result is mostly driven by the one-year momentum effect of Narasimham Jegadeesh and Sheridan Titman (1993), but individual funds

Mark M Carhart

1997-01-01

204

Cognitive Dissonance and Mutual Fund Investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence from questionnaire studies of mutual fundinvestors about recollections of past fund performance. We findthat investor memories exhibit a positive bias, consistent withcurrent psychological models. We find that the degree of bias isconditional upon previous investor choice, a phenomenon relatedto the well known theory of cognitive dissonance.

William N. Goetzmann; Nadav Peles

1995-01-01

205

Expense preference behavior in mutual life insurers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alternative ownership structures, stock versus mutual, on the cost of production is studied for firms in the life insurance industry. The effect of differential incentives on the cost structure of both groups of firms is examined by means of a multiproduct cost function. This research shows that despite differences in legal form and incentives of managers, stock

Joseph A. Fields

1988-01-01

206

Selection Neglect in Mutual Fund Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual fund companies selectively advertise their better performing funds. However, investors respond to advertised performance data as if those data were unselected (i.e., representative of the population). We identify the failure to discount selected or potentially selected data as selection neglect. We examine these phenomena in an archival study (Study 1) and two controlled experiments (Studies 2 and 3). Study

Jonathan J. Koehler; Molly Mercer

2009-01-01

207

The macroecology of marine cleaning mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Marine cleaning mutualisms generally involve small fish or shrimps removing ectoparasites and other material from cooperating 'client' fish. We evaluate the role of fish abundance, body size and behaviour as determinants of interactions with cleaning mutualists. 2. Data come from eight reef locations in Brazil, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and Australia. 3. We conducted a meta-analysis of client-cleaner

SERGIO R. FLOETER; DIEGO P. VÁZQUEZ; ALEXANDRA S. GRUTTER

2007-01-01

208

Empowering Public Welfare Workers through Mutual Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the organizational binds facing social workers concerned with the provision of services to clients in times of fiscal restraint. Suggests a mutual support group as a step toward empowerment. Workers may shift from a support group to a coalition for action as change agents within institutional settings. (JAC)|

Sherman, Wendy Ruth; Wenocur, Stanley

1983-01-01

209

Liquidity, investment ability, and mutual fund structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of the mutual fund industry in which the management fees and loads charged by actively managed open-end funds and average fund returns are determined endogenously in a competitive market setting. It is shown that heterogeneity in managerial skills at investing and minimizing costs, and the existence of investor clienteles with differing liquidity and marketing needs, gives

Vikram Nanda; M. P. Narayanan; Vincent A. Warther

2000-01-01

210

Mutual Funds and the Market for Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how actively managed equity mutual funds select the liquidity level of their equity portfolio and the effects of this selection on performance. We provide evidence of five key determinants of portfolio liquidity: portfolio size, portfolio concentration, the manager’s trading frequency, investment style, and fee structure. We also show that liquidity is a persistent characteristic, but it is nevertheless

Massimo Massa; Ludovic Phalippou

2004-01-01

211

Mutual Submission in the Marriage Union \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual submission and selfless love are the basic principles of Christian family life. Many young adults are beginning a family of their own. They need to model their marriage after the instructions of scripture. Adults can find help in strengthening their marriages by applying scriptural principles. In recent decades we as a culture have fallen away from the ethical and

LOUIS K. ANSPACHER

212

Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

Sanders, Shirley

213

Mutual Repulsion Between Moving Visual Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two spatially intermingled sets of random dots move in different directions, the direction of each set may be misperceived. Observers report that each set of dots appears to move in a direction displaced by as much as 20 degrees from the direction of its companion set. Probably the result of inhibitory interactions, this mutual repulsion occurs at a central

William Marshak; Robert Sekuler

1979-01-01

214

Insurance pricing, reinsurance and investment decision based on the Mutual Benefit of the insurer and the customer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we establish an optimal decision model of insurance pricing, reinsurance and investment based on the mutual benefits of the insurer and the customer instead of only considering the benefit of the insurer, which is conformed with one of important objective of financial institution, that is, customer-oriented. We assume that the price and the claim loss rate are

Hong Mao; Krzysztof M. Ostaszewski

2011-01-01

215

Mutual exclusivity analysis identifies oncogenic network modules  

PubMed Central

Although individual tumors of the same clinical type have surprisingly diverse genomic alterations, these events tend to occur in a limited number of pathways, and alterations that affect the same pathway tend to not co-occur in the same patient. While pathway analysis has been a powerful tool in cancer genomics, our knowledge of oncogenic pathway modules is incomplete. To systematically identify such modules, we have developed a novel method, Mutual Exclusivity Modules in cancer (MEMo). The method uses correlation analysis and statistical tests to identify network modules by three criteria: (1) Member genes are recurrently altered across a set of tumor samples; (2) member genes are known to or are likely to participate in the same biological process; and (3) alteration events within the modules are mutually exclusive. Applied to data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the method identifies the principal known altered modules in glioblastoma (GBM) and highlights the striking mutual exclusivity of genomic alterations in the PI(3)K, p53, and Rb pathways. In serous ovarian cancer, we make the novel observation that inactivation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is mutually exclusive of amplification of CCNE1 and inactivation of RB1, suggesting distinct alternative causes of genomic instability in this cancer type; and, we identify RBBP8 as a candidate oncogene involved in Rb-mediated cell cycle control. When applied to any cancer genomics data set, the algorithm can nominate oncogenic alterations that have a particularly strong selective effect and may also be useful in the design of therapeutic combinations in cases where mutual exclusivity reflects synthetic lethality.

Ciriello, Giovanni; Cerami, Ethan; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

2012-01-01

216

Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: Microstructure and mechanical response.  

PubMed

Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6.0 Na?O, 7.9 K?O, 7.7 MgO, 22.1 CaO, 1.7 P?O?, 54.6 SiO? (mol.%)) containing oriented pores of controllable diameter were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol.% particles) on a cold substrate (-196 °C or 3 °C). By varying the annealing time (0-72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15-160 ?m) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690 °C) was accompanied by a decrease in porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20-60% and average pore diameter of 6-120 ?m. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa (porosity=20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa (porosity=60%), respectively, which were 2-3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Qiang

2010-08-31

217

A mutualism-parasitism system modeling host and parasite with mutualism at low density.  

PubMed

A mutualism-parasitism system of two species is considered, where mutualism is the dominant interaction when the predators (parasites) are at low density while parasitism is dominant when the predators are at high density. Our aim is to show that mutualism at low density promotes coexistence of the species and leads to high production of the prey (host). The mutualism-parasitism system presented here is a combination of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. By comparing dynamics of this system with those of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we present the mechanisms by which the mutualism improves the coexistence of the species and production of the prey. Then the parameter space is divided into six regions, which correspond to the four outcomes of mutualism, commensalism, predation/parasitism and neutralism, respectively. When the parameters are varied continuously among the six regions, it is shown that the interaction outcomes of the system transition smoothly among the four outcomes. By comparing the dynamics of the specific system with those of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model, we show that the parasitism at high density promotes stability of the system. A novel aspect of this paper is the simplicity of the model, which allows rigorous and thorough analysis and transparency of the results. PMID:22901072

Wang, Yuanshi; Deangelis, Donald L

2012-04-01

218

Face recognition by exploring information jointly in space, scale and orientation.  

PubMed

Information jointly contained in image space, scale and orientation domains can provide rich important clues not seen in either individual of these domains. The position, spatial frequency and orientation selectivity properties are believed to have an important role in visual perception. This paper proposes a novel face representation and recognition approach by exploring information jointly in image space, scale and orientation domains. Specifically, the face image is first decomposed into different scale and orientation responses by convolving multiscale and multiorientation Gabor filters. Second, local binary pattern analysis is used to describe the neighboring relationship not only in image space, but also in different scale and orientation responses. This way, information from different domains is explored to give a good face representation for recognition. Discriminant classification is then performed based upon weighted histogram intersection or conditional mutual information with linear discriminant analysis techniques. Extensive experimental results on FERET, AR, and FRGC ver 2.0 databases show the significant advantages of the proposed method over the existing ones. PMID:20643604

Lei, Zhen; Liao, Shengcai; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

2010-07-19

219

47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...application. (b) Filing groups. Pending mutually exclusive...are processed in filing groups. Mutually exclusive applications in a filing group are given concurrent...

2012-10-01

220

47 CFR 24.831 - Mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will consider applications for broadband PCS licenses to be mutually exclusive if they relate to the same geographical boundaries (MTA or BTA) and are timely filed for the same frequency block. (b) Mutually exclusive applications filed on Form 175...

2011-10-01

221

47 CFR 24.831 - Mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will consider applications for broadband PCS licenses to be mutually exclusive if they relate to the same geographical boundaries (MTA or BTA) and are timely filed for the same frequency block. (b) Mutually exclusive applications filed on Form 175...

2012-10-01

222

47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. 22.131 Section 22.131...Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22.131 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Two or more pending...

2010-10-01

223

47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. 22.131 Section 22.131...Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22.131 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Two or more pending...

2009-10-01

224

75 FR 47063 - Mutual Fund Distribution Fees; Confirmations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...240 et al. Mutual Fund Distribution Fees; Confirmations; Proposed Rule Federal...RIN 3235-AJ94 Mutual Fund Distribution Fees; Confirmations AGENCY: Securities and...of redemption, or through a continuing fee charged to fund assets). Unlike the...

2010-08-04

225

Light-curve modelling for mutual transits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe an algorithm and deduce the related mathematical formulae that allow the computation of observed fluxes in stellar and planetary systems with an arbitrary number of bodies that are part of a transit or occultation event. The method presented does not have any limits or constraints on the geometry and can be applied for almost all of the available limb-darkening models as well. As a demonstration, we apply this scheme to gather information about the orbital inclinations from multiple transiting planetary systems in cases in which mutual transits occur. We also show here that these mutual events constrain the inclinations unambiguously, yielding a complete picture for the whole system.

Pál, András.

2012-02-01

226

Pre-A.A. Alcoholic Mutual Aid Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scant attention has been paid to the American alcoholic mutual aid societies that preceded AA. This article seeks to stir interest in lost chapters of the history of alcoholism recovery in America by cataloguing and comparing pre-AA. alcoholic mutual aid societies with AA. and post-AA. mutual aid groups, and by describing those characteristics that pre-AA. alcoholic mutual aid societies shared

William L. White

2001-01-01

227

[Advances in medical image registration based on mutual information].  

PubMed

The matching algorithm based on mutual information, which has the advantages of high speed, good automation and superion accuracy, is widely used in medical image registration. In this paper are presented the basic conception of mutual information, the transform model, the insert value algorithm, the optimization algorithm and the strategy in computing mutual information. Furthermore, we introduce some efficient methods for solving the problems in registration technique based on mutual information, and look forward to the future research work. PMID:16294759

Feng, Lin; Guan, Huijuan; Teng, Hongfei

2005-10-01

228

Bacterial Protection of Beetle-Fungus Mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-microbe symbioses play a critical role in the evolution of biological diversity and complexity. In a notably intricate system, southern pine beetles use symbiotic fungi to help overcome host-tree defenses and to provide nutrition for their larvae. We show that this beetle-fungal mutualism is chemically mediated by a bacterially produced polyunsaturated peroxide. The molecule's selective toxicity toward the beetle's fungal

Jarrod J. Scott; Dong-Chan Oh; M. Cetin Yuceer; Kier D. Klepzig; Jon Clardy; Cameron R. Currie

2008-01-01

229

Employability - creating a contract of mutual investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employability can be a new form of job security. It involves a new mutual psychological contract where employers provide self-development for vulnerable employees (i.e. all employees) and employees take advantage of those opportunities. It is important that the self-enhancement is in tune with business goals. There needs to be an ongoing dialogue about the present and future needs of the

Michael Bagshaw

1997-01-01

230

Active Object Recognition Using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present the development of an active object recognition system. Our system uses a mutual information framework\\u000a in order to choose an optimal sensor configuration for recognizing an unknown object. System builds a conditional probability\\u000a density functions database for some observed features over a discrete set of sensor configurations for a set of interesting\\u000a objects. Using a

Felipe Trujillo-romero; Víctor Ayala-ramírez; Antonio Marín-hernández; Michel Devy

2004-01-01

231

Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.  

PubMed Central

The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters.

Maxwell, C

1982-01-01

232

Cyclic stress-strain response and surface deformation features of [011] multiple-slip-oriented copper single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic deformation behavior and surface deformation features of [011] multiple-slip-oriented single crystals were investigated at constant plastic shear stain amplitude ({gamma}{sub pl}) in the range of 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}--7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} at room temperature in air. It was revealed that the cyclic deformation characteristic of [011] copper single crystal is quite different from that of [001] and [{bar 1}11] multiple-slip-oriented copper single crystals. The cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve of the [011] crystal exhibits a clear plateau region over the range of plastic strain amplitude investigated. Surface observations indicated that the primary persistent slip bands (PSBs) already occur under a lower strain amplitude of 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, but the operation of secondary slip was strongly suppressed by the corresponding dislocation interactions even at high strain amplitudes. This slip characteristic was suggested to be associated with the occurrence of the plateau region. When {gamma}{sub pl} {ge} 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}, two types of deformation bands (DBI and DBII) formed on the specimen surface and their habit planes are perpendicular to each other strictly. An analysis based on the classical crystallographic deformation geometry was proposed to interpret the existence of an irreversible rotation of crystal in single crystal subjected to symmetrical push-pull loading. This phenomenon is assumed to be an essential reason for the formation of DBI and DBII. When {gamma}{sub pl} {ge} 5.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}, another type of deformation band (DBII) was observed on the specimen surface and its habit plane is exactly (001) for the formation of DBIII, giving rise to the cyclic softening in the cyclically deformed [011] copper single crystals at high strain amplitudes ({gamma}{sub pl} {ge} 5.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}).

Li, X.W.; Wang, Z.G.; Li, G.Y.; Wu, S.D.; Li, S.X. [Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials

1998-08-10

233

Nonrigid image registration using conditional mutual information.  

PubMed

Maximization of mutual information (MMI) is a popular similarity measure for medical image registration. Although its accuracy and robustness has been demonstrated for rigid body image registration, extending MMI to nonrigid image registration is not trivial and an active field of research. We propose conditional mutual information (cMI) as a new similarity measure for nonrigid image registration. cMI starts from a 3-D joint histogram incorporating, besides the intensity dimensions, also a spatial dimension expressing the location of the joint intensity pair. cMI is calculated as the expected value of the cMI between the image intensities given the spatial distribution. The cMI measure was incorporated in a tensor-product B-spline nonrigid registration method, using either a Parzen window or generalized partial volume kernel for histogram construction. cMI was compared to the classical global mutual information (gMI) approach in theoretical, phantom, and clinical settings. We show that cMI significantly outperforms gMI for all applications. PMID:19447700

Loeckx, Dirk; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

2009-05-12

234

Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.  

PubMed

The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

2012-10-24

235

Mutual funds in the context of current economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a theoretical approach of managing open-ended investment funds (mutual funds) in the current crisis. This concerns the organization and operation of a mutual fund, the investment decision in the environment and certainly uncertain direction and placement of funds by mutual funds investments conceptualization. This approach, knowledge and use of concepts related to open-ended investment funds, is especially

Marin Dumitru; Dumitru Nica; Brindusa Covaci; Cristinel Claudiu Cocosatu

2009-01-01

236

26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section...1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general...section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described...portion of the consolidated net operating loss deduction...

2013-04-01

237

Mutual Aid Groups with Mentally Ill Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of literature that describes the theory of and practice with mutual aid groups. Much of the literature is generic in nature in that it describes mutual aid groups in general terms. However, groups of persons experiencing one vulnerable life condition or circumstance will bring different issues and behaviors to mutual aid groups than groups experiencing

Timothy B. Kelly

1999-01-01

238

Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan Titman

1993-01-01

239

Human eye iris recognition using the mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the new biometric electro-optical measuring method supported by PC for identification of a person by its eye iris image recognition. The aim of this approach is to show the ability of mutual information to such recognition. Couples of the comparative human iris images were geometrically aligned by maximization of their mutual information and subsequently recognized. The mutual

M. Dobes; L. Machala; P. Tichavsky; J. Pospisil

2004-01-01

240

Adsorption and chlorination of mutual solvents used in acidizing  

SciTech Connect

Loss of mutual solvents during acidizing can be severe, depending on the type of product. Results showed that some mutual solvents can penetrate deeply into a test formation. Chlorinization of mutual solvents by HCl was also considered and was found to be minimal when the treatments were designed properly.

King, G.E.; Lee, R.M.

1988-05-01

241

Volatility Timing in Mutual Funds: Evidence from Daily Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

I use daily mutual fund returns to shed new light on the question of whether or not mutual fund managers are successful market timers. Previous studies find that funds are unable to time the market return. I study the funds' ability to time market volatility. I show that volatility timing is an important factor in the returns of mutual funds

Jeffrey A. Busse

1999-01-01

242

Mutual information based on Renyi's entropy feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature selection problem has become the focus of much pattern classification research and mutual information is more and more important in the feature selection algorithms. We proposed normalized mutual information based on Renyi's quadratic entropy feature selection, which reduces the computational complexity, relying on the efficient estimation of the mutual information. Then we combine NMIFS with wrappers into a two-stage

Liu Can-Tao; Hu Bao-Gang

2009-01-01

243

Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects.

Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

244

Semantic Conditioning and Generalization of the Galvanic Skin Response-Orienting Reflex with Overt and Covert Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses an innocuous tone as the imperative stimulus, or unconditioned stimulus, as in a forewarned reaction time situation but with no overt response required. Evidence of conditioning and generalization to words is obtained. (Editor/RK)

Maltzman, Irving; And Others

1977-01-01

245

Semantic Conditioning and Generalization of the Galvanic Skin Response-Orienting Reflex with Overt and Covert Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses an innocuous tone as the imperative stimulus, or unconditioned stimulus, as in a forewarned reaction time situation but with no overt response required. Evidence of conditioning and generalization to words is obtained. (Editor/RK)|

Maltzman, Irving; And Others

1977-01-01

246

Integrating corporate responsibility principles and stakeholder approaches into mainstream strategy: a stakeholder-oriented and integrative strategic management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to establish a strategic management framework that supports the integration of corporate social responsibility principles and stakeholder approaches into mainstream business strategy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A top-down and bottom-up approach was used to develop the proposed framework. The top-down approach focused on analyzing the main strategic management theories including social responsibility movements to

Takis Katsoulakos; Yannis Katsoulacos

2007-01-01

247

Remaining Flexible in Old Alliances: Functional Plasticity in Constrained Mutualisms  

PubMed Central

Central to any beneficial interaction is the capacity of partners to detect and respond to significant changes in the other. Recent studies of microbial mutualists show their close integration with host development, immune responses, and acclimation to a dynamic external environment. While the significance of microbial players is broadly appreciated, we are just beginning to understand the genetic, ecological, and physiological mechanisms that generate variation in symbiont functions, broadly termed “symbiont plasticity” here. Some possible mechanisms include shifts in symbiont community composition, genetic changes via DNA acquisition, gene expression fluctuations, and variation in symbiont densities. In this review, we examine mechanisms for plasticity in the exceptionally stable mutualisms between insects and bacterial endosymbionts. Despite the severe ecological and genomic constraints imposed by their specialized lifestyle, these bacteria retain the capacity to modulate functions depending on the particular requirements of the host. Focusing on the mutualism between Blochmannia and ants, we discuss the roles of gene expression fluctuations and shifts in bacterial densities in generating symbiont plasticity. This symbiont variation is best understood by considering ant colony as the host superorganism. In this eusocial host, the bacteria meet the needs of the colony and not necessarily the individual ants that house them.

Wheeler, Diana E.

2009-01-01

248

Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

2013-04-01

249

Rockefeller Philanthropy and the Institute of Pacific Relations: A Reappraisal of Long-Term Mutual Dependency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archival evidence is used to explore the development of funding for the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) and the Canadian Institute of International Affairs (the secretariat for the Canadian national council of the IPR) provided by the Rockefeller Foundation (RF). It suggests that the withdrawal of funding should be interpreted in a long-term perspective as a joint responsibility of mutually

Lawrence T. Woods

1999-01-01

250

Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation System Using Fast Adaptive Neural Network Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of financial information systems requires instant and fast response for continually changing market conditions. The purpose of this paper is to construct a mutual fund performance evaluation model utilizing the fast adaptive neural network classifier (FANNC), and to compare our results with those from a backpropagation neural networks (BPN) model. In our experiment, the FANNC approach requires much less

Kehluh Wang; Szuwei Huang; Yi-Hsuan Chen

2008-01-01

251

Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

1977-01-01

252

Physiological stress responses to the 2008 U.S. presidential election: The role of policy preferences and social dominance orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines physiological stress responses to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The week before and after Election Day, participants provided three daily saliva samples, assayed for cortisol (a principal “stress hormone”) and testosterone. Results revealed that, on Election Day, all participants on average and Republicans in particular exhibited stunted cortisol and testosterone rhythms, perhaps reflecting participants’ anticipation. After Election

Sophie Trawalter; Vicki S. Chung; Amy S. DeSantis; Clarissa D. Simon; Emma K. Adam

2012-01-01

253

Board Level Dynamic Response and Solder Ball Joint Reliability Analysis under Drop Impact Test with Various Impact Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronics, such as notebooks, cameras and cell phones, can be easily dropped by our miss handling. To mimic the real dropping, drop tests are usually used to study the dynamic response of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) as well as the reliability of the solder ball joints in laboratory. The reliability of solder ball joints is a critical issue since

Z. J. Xu; T. X. Yu

2008-01-01

254

Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)|

Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

1977-01-01

255

The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

Trifonas, Peter

2003-01-01

256

Subgroup 4 R2R3-MYBs in conifer trees: gene family expansion and contribution to the isoprenoid- and flavonoid-oriented responses.  

PubMed

Transcription factors play a fundamental role in plants by orchestrating temporal and spatial gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Several R2R3-MYB genes of the Arabidopsis subgroup 4 (Sg4) share a C-terminal EAR motif signature recently linked to stress response in angiosperm plants. It is reported here that nearly all Sg4 MYB genes in the conifer trees Picea glauca (white spruce) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) form a monophyletic clade (Sg4C) that expanded following the split of gymnosperm and angiosperm lineages. Deeper sequencing in P. glauca identified 10 distinct Sg4C sequences, indicating over-representation of Sg4 sequences compared with angiosperms such as Arabidopsis, Oryza, Vitis, and Populus. The Sg4C MYBs share the EAR motif core. Many of them had stress-responsive transcript profiles after wounding, jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, or exposure to cold in P. glauca and P. taeda, with MYB14 transcripts accumulating most strongly and rapidly. Functional characterization was initiated by expressing the P. taeda MYB14 (PtMYB14) gene in transgenic P. glauca plantlets with a tissue-preferential promoter (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) and a ubiquitous gene promoter (ubiquitin). Histological, metabolite, and transcript (microarray and targeted quantitative real-time PCR) analyses of PtMYB14 transgenics, coupled with mechanical wounding and JA application experiments on wild-type plantlets, allowed identification of PtMYB14 as a putative regulator of an isoprenoid-oriented response that leads to the accumulation of sesquiterpene in conifers. Data further suggested that PtMYB14 may contribute to a broad defence response implicating flavonoids. This study also addresses the potential involvement of closely related Sg4C sequences in stress responses and plant evolution. PMID:20732878

Bedon, Frank; Bomal, Claude; Caron, Sébastien; Levasseur, Caroline; Boyle, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

2010-08-23

257

Subgroup 4 R2R3-MYBs in conifer trees: gene family expansion and contribution to the isoprenoid- and flavonoid-oriented responses  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors play a fundamental role in plants by orchestrating temporal and spatial gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Several R2R3-MYB genes of the Arabidopsis subgroup 4 (Sg4) share a C-terminal EAR motif signature recently linked to stress response in angiosperm plants. It is reported here that nearly all Sg4 MYB genes in the conifer trees Picea glauca (white spruce) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) form a monophyletic clade (Sg4C) that expanded following the split of gymnosperm and angiosperm lineages. Deeper sequencing in P. glauca identified 10 distinct Sg4C sequences, indicating over-represention of Sg4 sequences compared with angiosperms such as Arabidopsis, Oryza, Vitis, and Populus. The Sg4C MYBs share the EAR motif core. Many of them had stress-responsive transcript profiles after wounding, jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, or exposure to cold in P. glauca and P. taeda, with MYB14 transcripts accumulating most strongly and rapidly. Functional characterization was initiated by expressing the P. taeda MYB14 (PtMYB14) gene in transgenic P. glauca plantlets with a tissue-preferential promoter (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) and a ubiquitous gene promoter (ubiquitin). Histological, metabolite, and transcript (microarray and targeted quantitiative real-time PCR) analyses of PtMYB14 transgenics, coupled with mechanical wounding and JA application experiments on wild-type plantlets, allowed identification of PtMYB14 as a putative regulator of an isoprenoid-oriented response that leads to the accumulation of sesquiterpene in conifers. Data further suggested that PtMYB14 may contribute to a broad defence response implicating flavonoids. This study also addresses the potential involvement of closely related Sg4C sequences in stress responses and plant evolution.

Bedon, Frank; Bomal, Claude; Caron, Sebastien; Levasseur, Caroline; Boyle, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Seguin, Armand; MacKay, John

2010-01-01

258

Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables  

SciTech Connect

Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

Sheppeard, M. D. [Oxford University Computing Laboratory, Wolfson Building, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

259

Immune Response to Chlamydophila abortus POMP91B Protein in the Context of Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP); Role of Antigen in the Orientation of Immune Response  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, we used bacterial flagellin to deliver antigens such as p27 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a host immune system and obtained a potent Th1 response compared to those obtained with Freund’s adjuvant and DNA immunization. In the current study, using a POMP91B antigen of Chlamydophila abortus, a human and animal pathogen, as a model, we found that this antigen is unable to promote Th1 response. However, this antigen, unlike others, was able to induce a good Th2 response and IL-4 production after immunization by recombinant protein in Freund’s adjuvant or in phosphate buffered saline. Our results suggest that immune response is not only dependent on the immunization adjuvant, but also dependent on the nature of antigen used.

Moigne, Vincent Le; Robreau, Georges; Mahana, Wahib

2009-01-01

260

Inhibitory response capacities of bilateral lower and upper extremities in children with developmental coordination disorder in endogenous and exogenous orienting modes.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that involved various applications of asynchronous stimuli to the feet or hands at various intervals. The results demonstrated that children with DCD-LEs had a significantly longer reaction time than the controls for all tasks, and were not alert to the appearance of the target. However, they displayed a deficit in volitional shifts of attention (endogenous mode), but not in automatic dislocation of attention (exogenous mode), whenever they performed the tasks with either their lower or their upper-limbs-even 6 months after the initial study. These findings confirm the deficit in the inhibitory response capacity in terms of volitional movement of attention by children with DCD. Additionally, the negative effect of lateralization on the bilateral extremities was not present in children with DCD-LEs. Significantly differences in response ability were detected only between the dominant and non-dominant sides of upper-limbs, but not between the lower-limbs, suggesting a future avenue for further experimentation on bilateral extremities. PMID:18762360

Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

2008-08-31

261

Strategic management, corporate responsibility and stakeholder management Integrating corporate responsibility principles and stakeholder approaches into mainstream strategy: a stakeholder-oriented and integrative strategic management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - The purpose of this article is to establish a strategic management framework that supports the integration of corporate social responsibility principles and stakeholder approaches into mainstream business strategy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - A top-down and bottom-up approach was used to develop the proposed framework. The top-down approach focused on analyzing the main strategic management theories including social responsibility movements to

Takis Katsoulakos; Yannis Katsoulacos

262

Improved elastic medical image registration using mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the future-oriented areas of medical image processing is to develop fast and exact algorithms for image registration. By joining multi-modal images we are able to compensate the disadvantages of one imaging modality with the advantages of another modality. For instance, a Computed Tomography (CT) image containing the anatomy can be combined with metabolic information of a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image. It is quite conceivable that a patient will not have the same position in both imaging systems. Furthermore some regions for instance in the abdomen can vary in shape and position due to different filling of the rectum. So a multi-modal image registration is needed to calculate a deformation field for one image in order to maximize the similarity between the two images, described by a so-called distance measure. In this work, we present a method to adapt a multi-modal distance measure, here mutual information (MI), with weighting masks. These masks are used to enhance relevant image structures and suppress image regions which otherwise would disturb the registration process. The performance of our method is tested on phantom data and real medical images.

Ens, Konstantin; Schumacher, Hanno; Franz, Astrid; Fischer, Bernd

2007-03-01

263

A Philological Orientation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." As someone who is experimenting not only with how to teach rabbinic texts but with which texts to select in virtually every course the author teaches for American undergraduate as well as graduate…

Fonrobert, Charlotte Elisheva

2010-01-01

264

Lichen-Transplant Biomonitoring in the Assessment of Dispersion of Atmospheric Trace-Element Pollutants: Effects of Orientation Towards the Wind Direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplants of the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata were suspended in nylon bags in a special device allowing a fixed orientation of the lichen towards the wind direction, viz. facing the wind (F orientation) or shielded from the wind by its substrate (T orientation). The F- and T-orientation data were mutually compared and also with reference values (= time zero values

A. P. Marques; M. C. Freitas; M. A. Reis; H. Th. Wolterbeek; T. Verburg; J. J. M. De Goeij

2004-01-01

265

Electro-optical response of homeotropic-oriented nematic having DeltaE>0 in an inhomogeneous electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) deformation near the pore in a metal-dielectric-NLC-ITO structure under the action of positive polarity of voltage is studied. Experiments indicate that deformation of NLC is observed over any size ores. Character time of relaxation depends on the size or pre and takes more than ten minutes for large (> 20 micrometers ) pores and less than a second for small (< 10 micrometers ) ones respectively. It is shown, that the electrically driven transferring of lecithin can be responsible for a long period of time relaxation.

Gritsenko, M. I.; Kucheev, S. I.

1998-09-01

266

Fabrication of oriented poly-L-lysine/bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane multilayer structure for enhanced photoelectric response.  

PubMed

A poly-L-lysine (PLL)/bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane (bR-PM) multilayer film has been successfully constructed by a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process to enhance the photoelectric response of bR. The assembly conditions were investigated and optimized. The PLL/bR-PM adsorption process was in situ studied by surface plasmon resonance and the growth of multilayer was further characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate that the amount of adsorbed bR-PM vs. the assembled layer number exhibits linear relationship. The atomic force microscopy images of sequentially assembled PLL/bR-PM bilayers show that the patch structure of bR-PM in the structure is well preserved and the roughness increases with increase of the bilayer number. The peak photocurrent generated from PLL/bR-PM film increases with increase of the PLL/bR-PM bilayers until achieving a maximum value. The photocurrent of bR-PM from the film through PLL assembler is higher than those assembled by other polycations, thus rendering a new platform to effectively enhance the bR photoelectric responses. PMID:20056227

Li, Rui; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Weihua; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Chang Ming

2009-12-06

267

Application of outer membrane vesicle of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B as a new adjuvant to induce strongly Th1-oriented responses against HIV-1.  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide efforts made in the field of HIV vaccine development, an efficient AIDS vaccine strategy is still vague. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the introduced aspects for HIV vaccine development since the non-replicative nature of HIV VLPs, resulting from the lack of viral genomic RNA, makes them suitable for broad applications. We have previously designed and introduced non-infectious VLPs (mzNL4-3) by introduction of a deletion mutation in the reverse transcriptase and integrase coding regions of HV-1. There are evidences suggesting that an effective cellular immune response against HIV-1 is able to control and suppress viremia during primary and chronic HIV infections. In the present study we have evaluated the potency of mzNL4-3 VLPs mixed with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B outer-membrane vesicle (OMV), which is among the microbial components with proved adjuvant properties, to induce humoral and cellular responses against HIV-1. Analysis of anti-HIV-1 responses elicited in immunized BALB/c mice following different immunization regimens indicated OMV+VLP as an immunopotent combination which significantly induced anti-HIV-1 IgG with IgG2a dominancy. Results of cytokine and ELISpot assays also showed the capability of VLP+OMV immunogen for effective induction of IFN-gamma; and IL4 secreting cells and further suggested the promotion of Th1-oriented response that was evidenced with the increased IFN-?/IL4 secretion ratio. According to our study, HIV-1 VLPs combined with N. meningitidis B OMVs seem to be a promising approach in vaccine development against HIV-1. PMID:22211657

Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Salmani, Ali Sharifat; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Javadi, Foozieh; Memarnejadian, Arash; Vahabpour, Rouhoullah; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Moshiri, Arfa; Siadat, Seyed Davar

2011-12-01

268

The Observation of Humoral Responses after Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Japanese Oriental (Kampo) Medicine: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in patients treated with Japanese Oriental (Kampo) Medicine is unknown. The objectives of this study were to observe the efficacy of influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo. Methods. Trivalent influenza subunit vaccine was administered to 45 RA patients who had received Kampo. They were divided into 2 groups: RA patients treated without MTX (“without MTX group”) and treated with MTX (“with MTX group”). Antibody titers were measured before and 4 weeks after vaccination using hemagglutination inhibition assay. Results. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-influenza antibodies significantly increased for all influenza strains. Response to the influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo was not lower than that of healthy subjects and the response in the “with MTX group” had a tendency to be higher than that in RA patients treated with MTX in the previous study. There was no significant difference in the GMT after 4 weeks between the “with MTX group” and the “without MTX group.” A decreased efficacy in both seroprotection and seroconversion was not found in the “with MTX group.” Conclusion. These observations may open the way for further clinical trials to establish the efficacy for the influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo.

Kogure, Toshiaki; Harada, Naoyuki; Oku, Yuko; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Niizawa, Atsushi

2012-01-01

269

Evolution of Mutualism Between Globeflowers and their Pollinating Flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant\\/seed-eater pollinators mutualisms involve a plant pollinated by an insect whose larvae develop by eating a fraction of host-plant seeds. The outcome of the interaction therefore depends on the number of ovules fertilized by adult visits and the number of seeds destroyed by larvae. Among the very few cases of such mutualisms reported so far is the globeflower–globeflower flies mutualism,

JEAN-BAPTISTE FERDY; LAURENCE DESPRÉS; BERNARD GODELLE

2002-01-01

270

New Construction of Mutually Unbiased Bases in Square Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that k=w+2 mutually unbiased bases can be constructed in any square dimension d=s^2 provided that there are w mutually orthogonal Latin squares of order s. The construction combines the design-theoretic objects (k,s)-nets (which can be constructed from w mutually orthogonal Latin squares of order s and vice versa) and generalized Hadamard matrices of size s. Using known lower

Pawel Wocjan; Thomas Beth

2004-01-01

271

Evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in New Caledonian Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

About half a dozen obligate pollination mutualisms between plants and their seed-consuming pollinators are currently recognized, including fig-fig wasp, yucca-yucca moth, and the recently discoveredGlochidion tree-Epicephala moth mutualisms. A common principle among these interactions is that the pollinators consume only a limited amount of the seed crop within a developing fruit (or fig in the case of fig-fig wasp mutualism),

ATSUSHI KAWAKITA; MAKOTO KATO

2004-01-01

272

Managerial Abilities: Evidence from Religious Mutual Fund Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze the financial performance and the managerial abilities of religious mutual fund managers, implementing\\u000a a comparative analysis with conventional mutual funds. We use a broad sample, free of survivorship bias, of religious equity\\u000a mutual funds from the US market, for the period from January 1994 to September 2010. We build a matched-pair conventional\\u000a sample in order

Luis Ferruz; Fernando Muñoz; María Vargas

2012-01-01

273

Understanding and Interpretations for Mutual Coupling Within Sonar Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, understanding and interpretations for mutual coupling within sonar arrays are given. Mathematically, our past mutual-coupling understanding of electromagnetic waves is successfully extended to treat acoustic sonar arrays. Physically, new acoustic-wave interpretations are given in this study. Numerical examples converge very fast and show that our mutual-coupling understanding for sonar arrays is very accurate. Our analyses are not

Kun-Chou Lee

2008-01-01

274

Minimax Mutual Information Approach for Independent Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Minimum,output mutual information is regarded ,as a ,natural criterion for independent ,component ,analysis (ICA) and is used as the performance,measure,in many,ICA algorithms. Two common,approaches,in information theoretic ICA algorithms are minimum,mutual information and maximum,output entropy approaches. In the former approach, we substitute some form of probability density function (pdf) estimate into the mutual information expression, and in the latter we

Deniz Erdogmus; Kenneth E. Hild II; Yadunandana N. Rao; José Carlos Príncipe

2004-01-01

275

Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles  

PubMed Central

There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant step towards understanding the coevolution and population dynamics of mutualistic interactions.

Boza, Gergely; Kun, Adam; Scheuring, Istvan; Dieckmann, Ulf

2012-01-01

276

Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

2010-03-01

277

MUTUAL AID IN THE CLASSROOM: AN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine the use of instructional technology in creating a mutual aid environment in the classroom. By developing and exploring Internet-based exercises designed to promote interaction in a distance education environment, the authors tested the hypothesis that instructional technology offers opportunities to promote mutual aid among students. This article describes these exercises and presents

Karen A. Randolph; Denise J. Krause

2002-01-01

278

Higher Education and Foster Grandparent Programs: Exploring Mutual Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to highlight ways in which programs within institutions of higher education and Foster Grandparent Programs can interact to their mutual benefit. Given federal and state initiatives to develop linkages between institutions of higher education and community service sites, mutual benefits exist at the program level for…

Peacock, James R.; O'Quin, Jo Ann

2006-01-01

279

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Affine constellations without mutually unbiased counterparts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

Weigert, Stefan; Durt, Thomas

2010-10-01

280

Mutual Coupling Effects on MIMO-Adaptive Beamforming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the impact of mutual coupling (MC) on the performance of a MIMO-beamforming system with closely spaced antenna elements. Simulation results confirm the decrease in system performance when antenna mutual coupling is taken into account.

Mostafa Hefnawi; Jing Gai; Rachid Abou Elasoued

2007-01-01

281

Emerging market mutual fund performance: Evidence for Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence on the performance of mutual funds in a prominent emerging market; Poland. Studying an emerging market provides an excellent opportunity to test whether the consensus on the inability of mutual funds in developed and highly efficient markets to beat the market, also holds in less efficient markets. While the weaknesses of legal institutions and underdeveloped capital

J?drzej Bia?kowski; Roger Otten

2011-01-01

282

Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Quarterly Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs the 1975-84 quarterly holdings of a sample of mutual funds to construct an estimate of their gross returns. This sample, which is not subject to survivorship bias, is used in conjunction with a sample that contains the actual (net) returns of the mutual funds. In addition to allowing the authors to estimate the bias in measured performance

Mark Grinblatt; Sheridan D Titman

1989-01-01

283

Returns from Investing in Equity Mutual Funds 1971 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies suggest that equity mutual fund managers achieve superior returns and that considerable persistence in performance exists. This study utilizes a unique data set including returns from all equity mutual funds existing each year. These data enables the author to more precisely examine performance and the extent of survivorship bias. In the aggregate, funds have underperformed benchmark portfolios

Burton G Malkiel

1995-01-01

284

Equilibrium in Marine Mutual Insurance Markets with Convex Operating Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the possibility of reaching an equilibrium in a market of marine mutual insurance syndicates, called Protection and Indemnity Clubs, or P&I Clubs for short, displaying economies of scale. Our analysis rationalizes some empirically documented findings, and points out an interesting future scenario. We find an equilibrium in a market of mutual marine insurers, in which some smaller

Knut K. Aase

2005-01-01

285

Equilibrium in Marine Mutual Insurance Markets with Convex Operating Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The article analyzes the possibility of reaching an equilibrium in a market of marine mutual insurance syndicates, called Protection and Indemnity Clubs, or P&I Clubs for short, displaying economies of scale. Our analysis rationalizes some empirically documented findings, and points out an interesting future scenario. We find an equilibrium in a market of mutual marine insurers, in which some

Knut K. Aase

2007-01-01

286

Distributed mutual exclusion algorithms for grid applications: A hierarchical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of current distributed mutual exclusion algorithms are not suited for parallel or distributed applications on a Grid as they do not consider the heterogeneity of latency on Grids. We propose two distributed mutual exclusion algorithms, based on Naimi–Trehel's token-based algorithm, which take into account latency gaps, especially those between local and remote clusters of machines. Our first algorithm

Marin Bertier; Luciana Bezerra Arantes; Pierre Sens

2006-01-01

287

Cooperative Adaptation to Establishment of a Synthetic Bacterial Mutualism  

PubMed Central

To understand how two organisms that have not previously been in contact can establish mutualism, it is first necessary to examine temporal changes in their phenotypes during the establishment of mutualism. Instead of tracing back the history of known, well-established, natural mutualisms, we experimentally simulated the development of mutualism using two genetically-engineered auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli, which mimic two organisms that have never met before but later establish mutualism. In the development of this synthetic mutualism, one strain, approximately 10 hours after meeting the partner strain, started oversupplying a metabolite essential for the partner's growth, eventually leading to the successive growth of both strains. This cooperative phenotype adaptively appeared only after encountering the partner strain but before the growth of the strain itself. By transcriptome analysis, we found that the cooperative phenotype of the strain was not accompanied by the local activation of the biosynthesis and transport of the oversupplied metabolite but rather by the global activation of anabolic metabolism. This study demonstrates that an organism has the potential to adapt its phenotype after the first encounter with another organism to establish mutualism before its extinction. As diverse organisms inevitably encounter each other in nature, this potential would play an important role in the establishment of a nascent mutualism in nature.

Hosoda, Kazufumi; Suzuki, Shingo; Yamauchi, Yoshinori; Shiroguchi, Yasunori; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Ono, Naoaki; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

2011-01-01

288

Constrained Subspace ICA Based on Mutual Information Optimization Directly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new approach to constrained Independent Compo- nent Analysis (ICA) by formulating the original, unconstrained ICA problem as well as the constraints in mutual information terms di- rectly. As an estimate of mutual information, a robust version of the Edgeworth expansion is used, and on which gradient descent is performed. As an application, we consider the extraction of

Marc M. Van Hulle

2008-01-01

289

Directed Information and Mutual Information in Linear Feedback Tracking Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information transmission in discrete time LTI feedback tracking systems was investigated by using measures of directed information and mutual information. It was proved that, for pairs of extraneous input and internal variable, directed information (rate) is always equal to mutual information (rate); for pairs of internal variables, the former is smaller than the latter. Comparing the open-loop and closed-loop systems

Hui Zhang; You-Xian Sun

2006-01-01

290

Mutual Recognition in Goods and Services: An Economic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual recognition is a remarkable innovation facilitating economic intercourse across borders. In the EU's internal goods market it has been helpful in tackling or avoiding the remaining obstacles, namely, regulatory barriers between member states. However, there is a curious paradox. Despite the almost universal acclaim of the great merits of mutual recognition, the principle has, in and by itself, contributed

Jacques Pelkmans

2003-01-01

291

Internet and the lifeworld: updating Schutz's theory of mutual knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to understand the formation of mutual knowledge in the online world using the phenomenological framework that Alfred Schutz and his associates constructed for the examination of the lifeworld. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study consists of three parts: reviewing Schutz's theory of the constitution of intersubjectivity in the lifeworld; extending Schutz's analysis to the acquisition of mutual

Shanyang Zhao

2007-01-01

292

Estimating the errors on measured entropy and mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information entropy and the related quantity mutual information are used extensively as measures of complexity and to identify nonlinearity in dynamical systems. Expressions for the probability distribution of entropies and mutual informations calculated from finite amounts of data exist in the literature but the expressions have seldom been used in the field of nonlinear dynamics. In this paper formulae for

Mark S Roulston

1999-01-01

293

Empirical Evaluation of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms for Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual exclusion in distributed memory systems is realized by passing messages among sites to establish a sequence for the waiting sites to enter the critical section. We have evaluated various distributed mutual exclusion algorithms on the IBM SP2 machine and the Intel iPSC\\/860 system, with their empirical results compared in terms of such criteria as the number of message exchanges

Shiwa S. Fu; Nian-feng Tzeng; Jen-yao Chung

2000-01-01

294

Phase and Frequency Transfer Between Mutually Synchronized Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate phase and frequency transfer between mutually synchronized oscillators is a problem of current interest. This paper addresses a system of two mutually synchronized oscillators with inherently sinusoidal phase detectors. The system is studied in the context of nonlinear phase-locked loop theory. This is accomplished by Statistically characterizing the \\

KHALED DESSOUKY; WILLIAM C. LINDSEY

1984-01-01

295

Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants  

PubMed Central

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species.

Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

2010-01-01

296

Fungal viral mutualism moderated by ploidy.  

PubMed

Endosymbionts and their hosts have inherently ambiguous relationships as symbionts typically depend upon their hosts for shelter, nutrition, and reproduction. Endosymbionts can acquire these needs by two alternative strategies: exploitation and cooperation. Parasites exploit hosts to advance their own reproduction at the cost of host fitness. In contrast, mutualists increase their reproductive output by increasing host fitness. Very often the distinction between parasites and mutualists is not discrete but rather contingent on the environment in which the interaction occurs, and can shift along a continuous scale from parasitism to mutualism. The cost benefit dynamics at any point along this continuum are of particular interest as they establish the likelihood of an interaction persisting or breaking down. Here we show how the interaction between the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an endosymbiotic killer virus is strongly dependent on both host ploidy and environmental pH. Additionally we elucidate the mechanisms underlying the ploidy-dependent interaction. Understanding these dynamics in the short-term is key to understanding how genetic and environmental factors impact community diversity. PMID:18564376

McBride, Robert; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

2008-06-28

297

Mutualism with plants drives primate diversification.  

PubMed

Understanding the origin of diversity is a fundamental problem in biology. Evolutionary diversification has been intensely explored during the last years due to the development of molecular tools and the comparative method. However, most studies are conducted using only information from extant species. This approach probably leads to misleading conclusions, especially because of inaccuracy in the estimation of extinction rates. It is critical to integrate the information generated by extant organisms with the information obtained from the fossil record. Unfortunately, this integrative approach has been seldom performed, and thus, our understanding of the factors fueling diversification is still deficient. Ecological interactions are a main factor shaping evolutionary diversification by influencing speciation and extinction rates. Most attention has focused on the effect of antagonistic interactions on evolutionary diversification. In contrast, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping diversification has been much less explored. In this study, by combining phylogenetic, neontological, and paleontological information, we show that a facultative mutualistic plant-animal interaction emerging from frugivory and seed dispersal has most likely contributed to the diversification of our own lineage, the primates. We compiled diet and seed dispersal ability in 381 extant and 556 extinct primates. Using well-established molecular phylogenies, we demonstrated that mutualistic extant primates had higher speciation rates, lower extinction rates, and thereby higher diversification rates than nonmutualistic ones. Similarly, mutualistic fossil primates had higher geological durations and smaller per capita rates of extinction than nonmutualistic ones. As a mechanism underlying this pattern, we found that mutualistic extinct and extant primates have significantly larger geographic ranges, which promotes diversification by hampering extinction and increasing geographic speciation. All these outcomes together strongly suggest that the establishment of a facultative mutualism with plants has greatly benefited primate evolution and fueled its taxonomic diversification. PMID:22228798

Gómez, José M; Verdú, Miguel

2012-01-05

298

76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...treatment of a mutual insurance holding company as an insurance company...that is a mutual insurance holding company will be conducted in...treatment of mutual insurance holding companies under Section 203...Washington, DC 20429. Hand Delivery/Courier:...

2011-12-13

299

Mutually orthogonal Latin squares from the inner products of vectors in mutually unbiased bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are important in quantum information theory. While constructions of complete sets of d + 1 MUBs in {\\bb C}^d are known when d is a prime power, it is unknown if such complete sets exist in non-prime power dimensions. It has been conjectured that complete sets of MUBs only exist in {\\bb C}^d if a maximal set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS) of side length d also exists. There are several constructions (Roy and Scott 2007 J. Math. Phys. 48 072110; Paterek, Daki? and Brukner 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 012109) of complete sets of MUBs from specific types of MOLS, which use Galois fields to construct the vectors of the MUBs. In this paper, two known constructions of MUBs (Alltop 1980 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26 350-354 Wootters and Fields 1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363-381), both of which use polynomials over a Galois field, are used to construct complete sets of MOLS in the odd prime case. The MOLS come from the inner products of pairs of vectors in the MUBs.

Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha

2010-04-01

300

Autumn migratory orientation and displacement responses of two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula) in South Sweden.  

PubMed

Topography and historical range expansion has formed a so-called migratory divide between two subspecies of willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) in central Scandinavia. The autumn migratory directions of individuals assigned molecularly to both subspecies and possible hybrids were recorded using orientation cage experiments in southwest and southeast Sweden. We found pronounced differences in willow warblers' orientation in respect to genotype. The mean directions registered in the control experiments were in accordance with the ringing recoveries and analyses of stable isotopes for Scandinavian willow warblers. With the same individuals we performed displacement experiments between both sites. They resulted in non-significant orientation, which could be explained by the intermediate distance of the displacement or reactions to housing, transportation and location. On a separate set of birds we tested whether stress following transportation could explain the disorientation and found that orientation before and after transport was unchanged. Experimental studies of effects of intermediate displacements across longitudes and studies of orientation of hybrid individuals in the zones of migratory divides are crucial for understanding the mechanisms underlying orientation behaviour. Our work further stresses the importance of knowing the migration genotype of a particular bird under study, in order to correctly evaluate expected migration routes. PMID:23022572

Ilieva, Mihaela; Toews, David P L; Bensch, Staffan; Sjöholm, Christoffer; Akesson, Susanne

2012-09-27

301

Non-Blocking Synchronization and Object-Oriented Operating System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual exclusion is typically employed for multiprocess synchronization. However, Massalin and Pu (MP91), and Greenwald and Cheriton (GC96) have implemented com- plete operating systems using non-blocking synchronization instead of mutual exclusion. Although most operating sys- tems are implemented using procedural languages, both of these systems have signi cant object-oriented characteris- tics. We show the interaction of non-blocking synchroniza- tion and

C. Scott Ananian

302

Permutation Arrays for Powerline Communication and Mutually Orthogonal Latin Squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a connection between permutation arrays that are used in powerline communication and well-studied combinatorial objects, mutually orthogonal latin squares (MOLS). From this connection, many new results on permutation arrays can be obtained.

Charles J. Colbourn; Torleiv Kløve; Alan C. H. Ling

2004-01-01

303

77 FR 48566 - The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mutual Funds II, Inc., Hartford Series Fund, Inc., Hartford HLS Series Fund II, Inc., Hartford Variable Insurance Trust I, Hartford Variable Insurance Trust II (collectively, the ``Companies''); Hartford Investment Financial...

2012-08-14

304

Mutual Coupling Effects in Antenna Arrays, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mutual coupling between rectangular apertures in a finite antenna array, in an infinite ground plane, is analyzed using the vector potential approach. The method of moments is used to solve the equations that result from setting the tangential magnetic fi...

R. E. Collin

1986-01-01

305

Estimation and Classification by Sigmoids Based on Mutual Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimate of the probability density function of a random vector is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the input and the output of a feedforward network of sigmoidal units with respect to the input weights. Classification problems can...

Y. Baram

1994-01-01

306

Surface effects and Io volcano effects [satellite mutual phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high astrometric accuracy in observation of mutual phenomena is possible only if photometric surface effects are taken into account in the reduction. On the other hand, such observations allow to get physical information about surface regolith.

P. Descamps

1996-01-01

307

78 FR 4145 - Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...Federal Register proposed recommendations regarding money market mutual funds (``MMFs'') pursuant to Section...

2013-01-18

308

EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

2008-11-01

309

Chemical communication and coevolution in an ant–plant mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective ant–plant interactions provide valuable model systems to study mutualisms. Here, we summarise our recent research\\u000a on chemical and physiological adaptations that contribute to the stabilisation of the mutualism between Mesoamerican Acacia host plants and their Pseudomyrmex ant inhabitants against exploiters, that is, species using host-derived rewards without rendering a service. Acacia hosts produce food bodies (FBs) and extrafloral nectar

Martin Heil; Domancar Orona-Tamayo; Sascha Eilmus; Stefanie Kautz; Marcia González-Teuber

2010-01-01

310

Mutual Grooming in Human Dyadic Relationships: An Ethological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its widespread practice among primates writ large, social scientists have given mutual grooming among humans little\\u000a attention. This research provides an important first step in describing mutual grooming among humans. A scale was developed\\u000a to measure self-reported giving and receiving of grooming. In Study 1, 184 female and 94 male participants first indicated\\u000a their closest emotional relationship (for example,

Holly Nelson; Glenn Geher

2007-01-01

311

Mutual adaptation to mind mapping in human-agent interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a human-agent interaction framework in which a user and a life-like agent mutually acquire the other's mind mapping through a mutual mind reading game. Through development of various life-like agents and an internal state (mind) of an agent like emotion, processing load has been recognized to play an important role in making them believable to a user.

Seiji YAMADA; Tomohiro YAMAGUCHI

2002-01-01

312

Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric plasma mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The authors present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric two-component plasma (TCP). They compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. for the case of viscosity they propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion they point out some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.

Bastea, S

2004-09-07

313

Strategies of a parasite of the ant– Acacia mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms can be exploited by parasites—species that obtain resources from a partner but provide no services. Though the\\u000a stability of mutualisms in the presence of such parasites is under intensive investigation, we have little information on\\u000a life history traits that allow a species to be a successful mutualist or rather a parasite, particularly in cases where both\\u000a are closely related.

Lars W. Clement; Stephan C. W. Köppen; Willi A. Brand; Martin Heil

2008-01-01

314

Evolutionary stability of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTERSPECIFIC mutualisms inherently possess a conflict of interests between the interacting species in that fitness increases of one species occur at the expense of the other. This holds for mutualisms as diverse as plant associations with mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen-fixing bacteria, animals and endosymbionts, and obligate plant-pollinator associations1-6. Prevailing models of interspecific cooperation predict that mutualistic interactions are evolutionary stable

Olle Pellmyr; Chad J. Huth

1994-01-01

315

Maximally entangled states via mutual unbiased collective bases  

SciTech Connect

Relative and center-of-mass coordinates are used to generalize mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and define mutually unbiased collective bases (MUCB). Maximally entangled states are given as product states in the collective variables. These states are analyzed in terms of the Wigner representative function of the states and shown to display a discontinuous attribute of the entanglement. Finite Hilbert space dimensionality collective coordinates are introduced and provide a framework for the analysis.

Revzen, M. [Department of Physics, Technion--Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2010-01-15

316

Mutual Information for Automated Unwarping of Rat Brain Autoradiographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated multimodal warping based on mutual information metric (MI) as a mapping cost function is demonstrated. Mutual information (I) is calculated from a two-dimensional (2D) gray scale histogram of an image pair, and MI (=?I) provides a matching cost function which can be effective in registration of two- or three-dimensional data sets independent of modality. Most histological image data,

Boklye Kim; Jennifer L. Boes; Kirk A. Frey; Charles R. Meyer

1997-01-01

317

Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

Fernández-Pérez, A.; Klimov, A. B.; Saavedra, C.

2011-05-01

318

Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis  

SciTech Connect

We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A. B. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

2011-05-15

319

Orientation-Independent Measures of Ground Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori- zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation

David M. Boore; Jennie Watson-Lamprey; Norman A. Abrahamson

2006-01-01

320

A novel obligate cultivation mutualism between damselfish and Polysiphonia algae.  

PubMed

In cultivation mutualisms, farming animals prepare fields for cultivars, enhance their growth and harvest them. For example, in terrestrial ecosystems, plant-herbivore cultivation mutualisms arose between humans and their crops only relatively recently. We discovered an obligate cultivation mutualism between a damselfish and an alga in a coral reef ecosystem. The damselfish, Stegastes nigricans, manages algal farms through territorial defence against the invading grazers and through weeding of unpalatable algae. As a result, the algal farms of S. nigricans are dominated by one species, Polysiphonia sp. We performed an exhaustive survey of algal assemblages inside and outside the territories of five damselfish species around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, using molecular and morphological characteristics. Polysiphonia sp. 1 grew exclusively inside the farms of S. nigricans, and never elsewhere. Since only Polysiphonia sp. 1 is harvested and consumed by the damselfish as a staple food, this interdependent relationship is an obligate cultivation mutualism. This is the first record of an obligate plant-herbivore cultivation mutualism in a marine ecosystem. Our data also suggest that three other Polysiphonia species are facultatively mutual with, commensal with, or parasitic on other damselfish species. PMID:17148297

Hata, Hiroki; Kato, Makoto

2006-12-22

321

A novel obligate cultivation mutualism between damselfish and Polysiphonia algae  

PubMed Central

In cultivation mutualisms, farming animals prepare fields for cultivars, enhance their growth and harvest them. For example, in terrestrial ecosystems, plant–herbivore cultivation mutualisms arose between humans and their crops only relatively recently. We discovered an obligate cultivation mutualism between a damselfish and an alga in a coral reef ecosystem. The damselfish, Stegastes nigricans, manages algal farms through territorial defence against the invading grazers and through weeding of unpalatable algae. As a result, the algal farms of S. nigricans are dominated by one species, Polysiphonia sp. We performed an exhaustive survey of algal assemblages inside and outside the territories of five damselfish species around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, using molecular and morphological characteristics. Polysiphonia sp. 1 grew exclusively inside the farms of S. nigricans, and never elsewhere. Since only Polysiphonia sp. 1 is harvested and consumed by the damselfish as a staple food, this interdependent relationship is an obligate cultivation mutualism. This is the first record of an obligate plant–herbivore cultivation mutualism in a marine ecosystem. Our data also suggest that three other Polysiphonia species are facultatively mutual with, commensal with, or parasitic on other damselfish species.

Hata, Hiroki; Kato, Makoto

2006-01-01

322

Inapplicability of an auxiliary-system approach to chaotic oscillators with mutual-type coupling and complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auxiliary system approach being de facto the standard for the study of generalized synchronization in the unidirectionally coupled chaotic oscillators is also widely used to examine the mutually coupled systems and networks of nonlinear elements with the complex topology of links between nodes. In this Brief Report we illustrate by two simple counterexamples that the auxiliary-system approach gives incorrect results for the mutually coupled oscillators and therefore to study the generalized synchronization this approach may be used only for the drive-response configuration of nonlinear oscillators and networks.

Moskalenko, Olga I.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

2013-06-01

323

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

324

Detecting dynamical interdependence and generalized synchrony through mutual prediction in a neural ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to characterize dynamical interdependence among nonlinear systems is derived based on mutual nonlinear prediction. Systems with nonlinear correlation will show mutual nonlinear prediction when standard analysis with linear cross correlation might fail. Mutual nonlinear prediction also provides information on the directionality of the coupling between systems. Furthermore, the existence of bidirectional mutual nonlinear prediction in unidirectionally coupled systems

Steven J. Schiff; Paul So; Taeun Chang; Robert E. Burke; Tim Sauer

1996-01-01

325

Testing models of non-kin cooperation: mutualism and the Prisoner’s Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has dominated studies of non-kin cooperation. Alternative models have received relatively little attention. The simplest alternative is mutualism, in which mutual cooperation always pays best. The behaviour of three pairs of blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata, was tested in precisely controlled iterated mutualism and Prisoner's Dilemma games. Although the jays readily cooperated in the mutualism game,

KEVIN C. CLEMENTS; DAVID W. STEPHENS

1995-01-01

326

Mutual passivation of donors and isovalent nitrogen in GaAs.  

PubMed

We study the mutual passivation of shallow donor and isovalent N in GaAs. We find that all the donor impurities, SiGa, GeGa, SAs, and SeAs, bind to N in GaAs:N, which has a large N-induced band-gap reduction relative to GaAs. For a group-IV impurity such as Si, the formation of the nearest-neighbor SiGa-NAs defect complex creates a deep donor level below the conduction band minimum (CBM). The coupling between this defect level with the CBM pushes the CBM upwards, thus restoring the GaAs band gap; the lowering of the defect level relative to the isolated SiGa shallow donor level is responsible for the increased electrical resistivity. Therefore, Si and N mutually passivate each other's electrical and optical activities in GaAs. For a group-VI shallow donor such as S, the binding between SAs and NAsdoes not form a direct bond; therefore, no mutual passivation exists in the GaAs:(S+N) system. PMID:16486726

Li, Jingbo; Carrier, Pierre; Wei, Su-Huai; Li, Shu-Shen; Xia, Jian-Bai

2006-01-25

327

Generalized mutual information tests applied to fMRI analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data sets, the physiologically induced signals have to be separated from noise or from artifacts as a result of involuntary patient motion or MRI detection techniques. In the past years various methods of analysis of fMRI data were proposed, however one of the unsolved problems is related to dependence of the results with the threshold applied within each analysis. An alternative fMRI time series analysis method based on information theory and Tsallis entropy is proposed to decrease this dependency. The method applies the generalized mutual information (GMI) concept. Within the fMRI framework the GMI between the hemodynamic response function of a given voxel and the paradigm slope is evaluated as a measure of the amount of information that the paradigm could be encoded by a given brain region or voxel. This value represented the activation of the voxels. However, the analysis relies heavily on the Tsallis q parameter, allowing for a broad spectrum of results. As a test of applicability of the method real fMRI data were obtained in a simple motor paradigm and subsequently analyzed with GMI for several values of a q as well as with classical methods (cross-correlation and Student's t-test). The simulated data were used to compare quantitatively the presented method with the classical ones by means of the construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results showed the applicability of the GMI method as well as the range of optimum q-values.

Tedeschi, W.; Müller, H.-P.; de Araujo, D. B.; Santos, A. C.; Neves, U. P. C.; Ernè, S. N.; Baffa, O.

2005-07-01

328

What triggers grass endophytes to switch from mutualism to pathogenism?  

PubMed

Symbioses between cool season grasses and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae are an integral component of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. An excellent experimental model is the association between the biotrophic fungus Epichloë festucae and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass). The fungal partner produces a suite of secondary metabolites that protect the host from various biotic and abiotic stresses. The plant host provides a source of nutrients and a mechanism of dissemination via seed transmission. Crucial mechanisms that maintain a stable mutualistic association include signaling through the stress activated MAP kinase pathway and production of reactive oxygen species by the fungal NADPH oxidase (Nox) complex. Disruption of components of the Nox complex (NoxA, NoxR and RacA), or the stress-activated MAP kinase (SakA), leads to a breakdown in this finely balanced association, resulting in pathogenic infection instead of mutualism. Hosts infected with fungi lacking a functional Nox complex, or the stress-activated MAP kinase, display a stunted phenotype and undergo premature senescence, while the fungus switches from restricted to proliferative growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie these physiological changes, high throughput mRNA sequencing has been used to analyze the transcriptomes of both host and symbiont in wild-type and a mutant association. In the ?sakA mutant association, a dramatic up-regulation of fungal hydrolases and transporters was observed, changes consistent with a switch from restricted symbiotic to proliferative pathogenic growth. Analysis of the plant transcriptome revealed dramatic changes in expression of host genes involved in pathogen defense, transposon activation and hormone biosynthesis and response. This review highlights how finely tuned grass-endophyte associations are, and how interfering with the signaling pathways involved in maintenance of these associations can trigger a change from mutualistic to pathogenic interaction. PMID:21421360

Eaton, Carla J; Cox, Murray P; Scott, Barry

2010-10-16

329

Evidence for a mutual interaction between noradrenergic and serotonergic agonists in stimulation of ACTH and corticosterone secretion in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the mutual interactions between hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in mediating the ACTH and corticosterone responses to direct stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) with adrenergic and serotonergic agonists. The hormone responses to the intrahypothalamic injection of the ?1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (20 nmol\\/2 ?l) were significantly reduced by prior depletion of hypothalamic 5-HT with intra-PVN injection of

Joseph Weidenfeld; Shaul Feldman; Anna Itzik; Louis D. Van de Kar; Michael E. Newman

2002-01-01

330

Tidal damping of the mutual inclination in hierarchical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical two-planet systems, in which the inner body's semi-major axis is between 0.1 and 0.5 AU, usually present high eccentricity values, at least for one of the orbits. As a result of the formation process, one may expect that planetary systems with high eccentricities also have high mutual inclinations. However, here we show that tidal effects combined with gravitational interactions damp the initial mutual inclination to modest values in timescales that are shorter than the age of the system. This effect is not a direct consequence of tides on the orbits, but it results from a secular forcing of the inner planet's flattening. We then conclude that these hierarchical planetary systems are unlikely to present very high mutual inclinations, at least as long as the orbits remain outside the Lidov-Kozai libration areas. The present study can also be extended to systems of binary stars and to planet-satellite systems.

Correia, A. C. M.; Boué, G.; Laskar, J.; Morais, M. H. M.

2013-05-01

331

Accelerated evolution as a consequence of transitions to mutualism  

PubMed Central

Differential rates of nucleotide substitutions among taxa are a common observation in molecular phylogenetic studies, yet links between rates of DNA evolution and traits or behaviors of organisms have proved elusive. Likelihood ratio testing is used here for the first time to evaluate specific hypotheses that account for the induction of shifts in rates of DNA evolution. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of mutualist (lichen-forming fungi and fungi associated with liverworts) and nonmutualist fungi revealed four independent transitions to mutualism. We demonstrate a highly significant association between mutualism and increased rates of nucleotide substitutions in nuclear ribosomal DNA, and we demonstrate that a transition to mutualism preceded the rate acceleration of nuclear ribosomal DNA in these lineages. Our results suggest that the increased rate of evolution after the adoption of a mutualist lifestyle is generalized across the genome of these mutualist fungi.

Lutzoni, Francois; Pagel, Mark

1997-01-01

332

Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size.  

PubMed

The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J Doyne

2010-06-18

333

Mutual exclusivity in autism spectrum disorders: testing the pragmatic hypothesis.  

PubMed

While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial vocabularies despite impoverished social-pragmatic skills. We tested children and adolescents with ASD in a paradigm examining mutual exclusivity for words and facts. Words were interpreted contrastively more often than facts. Word performance was associated with vocabulary size; fact performance was associated with social-communication skills. Thus mutual exclusivity does not appear to be driven by pragmatics, suggesting that it is either a lexical constraint or a reflection of domain-general learning processes. PMID:21238952

de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

2011-01-15

334

Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.  

PubMed

The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration. PMID:3835200

Sohier, R

335

Lessons learned from two peer-led mutual support groups.  

PubMed

This case report and analysis describe the formation of two peer-led mutual support groups conducted within the context of a Veterans Administration Medical Center. Based on our assessment of the success of one of these groups and the failure of the other, we offer several recommendations and suggestions to help promote this modality. More specifically, we hypothesize that such groups are more likely to be successful (1) if participants are transferred en masse from another group, (2) that, at least initially, housing the group in the same context as formal clinician-led groups or overlapping clinician-led and peer-led groups may help smooth the transition from authority-led treatment to a mutual peer support format, and finally, (3) that prior experiences in interpersonal process groups may promote the skills and cohesion to promote successful transition to mutual support. PMID:24004015

Viverito, Kristen M; Cardin, Scott A; Johnson, Leigh Ann; Owen, Richard R

2013-10-01

336

High-schoolers' peer orientation priorities: a snapshot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper reports a set of qualitative research findings which reveal something of the peer orientation priorities of 462 British high-schoolers (14-year olds)—who they hang out with and why. Offering a snapshot of young people's current social and relational priorities, these data point to their over-riding concern for mutuality and “hanging” itself (e.g. “having a laugh”); boys' single-minded preference

CRISPIN THURLOW

2002-01-01

337

Sexual sterilization of oriental fruit flies and Mediterranean fruit flies by thiotepa: Dosage?response, mating competitiveness, and resistance to deprivation of food and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

When oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, of mixed sex were supplied with sugar treated with 0.026% thiotepa for 3 days after eclosion no eggs hatched. Only 0.2% hatched when the dose was 0.0065% thiotepa. A dose of 0.10% was toxic to the insects. Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were not completely sterilized at any dose tested although eggs

Mohammad Ashraf; Irving Keiser; Ernest J. Harris

1976-01-01

338

Sequential fixed-point ICA based on mutual information minimization.  

PubMed

A new gradient technique is introduced for linear independent component analysis (ICA) based on the Edgeworth expansion of mutual information, for which the algorithm operates sequentially using fixed-point iterations. In order to address the adverse effect of outliers, a robust version of the Edgeworth expansion is adopted, in terms of robust cumulants, and robust derivatives of the Hermite polynomials are used. Also, a new constrained version of ICA is introduced, based on goal programming of mutual information objectives, which is applied to the extraction of the antepartum fetal electrocardiogram from multielectrode cutaneous recordings on the mother's thorax and abdomen. PMID:18085987

Van Hulle, Marc M

2008-05-01

339

Latency effects in orientation popout.  

PubMed

A target that differs in orientation from neighboring lines and "pops out" has been found to evoke larger responses in cortical V1 cells than lines in the uniform texture surround which do not popout (e.g., Journal of Neurophysiology 67 (1992) 961). If this is more than a coincidence of observations, physiological properties of contextual modulation should be reflected in the perception of salience. In particular, as the differential suppression from texture surround has been reported to be delayed, target salience may be affected by the history of surrounding lines, i.e. by their orientation before the target was presented. This was tested using a feature flicker paradigm in which target and background lines changed their orientations (Experiment 2). All subjects (N = 4) indicated a benefit in target detection when target orientation was not previously present in the surround. A control experiment showed that this effect was not caused by the purely temporal aspects of asynchronous stimulus presentation (Experiment 3). To distinguish this effect from other sources of delayed processing, Experiment 1 compared the performance in target detection and target identification tasks, for single-lines and popout targets. All subjects required longer stimulus presentation time to identify the orientation of a single line than to detect the line itself, indicating that orientation coding needs longer processing than encoding stimulus onset. However, most subjects needed even longer presentations to detect popout, suggesting that the processing of orientation contrast adds to this delay. In an appendix, putative response variations of V1 cells to asynchronous flicker are computed. PMID:12220582

Nothdurft, Hans-Christoph

2002-09-01

340

Response of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Patterned and Randomly Oriented Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nano-fibrous Scaffolds Surface-Modified with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) Ligand.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to obtain a better insight of how nano-fibrous scaffolds can affect human mesenchymal stem cells responses. Therefore, in this study, using electrospinning technique, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nano-fibers with two different patterns were prepared. In the first structure, PVA nano-fibers were oriented randomly and in the second structure, nano-fibers were electrospun in such a way that a special pattern was obtained. In order to enhance their stability, scaffolds were cross-linked using glutaraldehyde vapor. RGD immobilization was used to improve cell adhesion properties of the scaffolds. SEM micrographs demonstrated that the cell adhesion was effectively enhanced after RGD immobilization and higher cell densities were observed on RGD-modified scaffolds. Randomly oriented nano-fibers showed better cell adhesion compared to patterned structure. Patterned structure also revealed slightly lower cell viability compared to random nano-fibers. Finally, it was assumed that randomly oriented nano-fibers provide a more favorable surface for cells. PMID:23963718

Zamani, Yasaman; Rabiee, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin; Tahriri, Mohammadreza

2013-08-21

341

Analysis of orientation bias in cat retina  

PubMed Central

1. Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to a drifting sinusoidal grating stimulus were measured as a function of the grating orientation and spatial frequency. 2. The response at fixed frequency and contrast varied with orientation in the manner of a cosine function. A new measure was introduced to quantify this orientation bias in the response domain on an absolute scale of 0-100%. Under experimental conditions designed to maximize the effect, the mean bias for 250 cells was 16% and the range was 0-46%. In 70% of cells there was significant bias. 3. Orientation bias varied with spatial frequency and was maximal near the high-frequency limit. The majority of biassed cells preferred the same orientation at high and low frequencies but in some cells a reversal occurred: the orientation which gave maximum response at high frequencies gave minimum response at low frequencies. The greatest variation of cut-off frequency with orientation was ? octave. 4. Orientation bias was due to neural, not optical, factors. Nevertheless, the phenomenon could often be imitated by deliberately introduced optical astigmatism of up to 4 dioptres for brisk-sustained units and over 10 dioptres for brisk-transient units. 5. The grating orientation preferred by cells varied systematically with position in the visual field. The central tendency was for the grating which yielded maximum response to lie parallel to the line joining the cell to the area centralis. This generalization failed for units within 2° of the centre of the area centralis. 6. Analysis of orientation bias indicates a functional asymmetry of receptive fields such that the centre mechanism, and sometimes also the surround mechanism, is elongated along the line joining cell to area centralis. ImagesFig. 2

Levick, W. R.; Thibos, L. N.

1982-01-01

342

Manual response preparation and saccade programming are linked to attention shifts: ERP evidence for covert attentional orienting and spatially specific modulations of visual processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premotor theory of attention claims that attentional shifts are triggered during response programming, regardless of which response modality is involved. To investigate this claim, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants covertly prepared a left or right response, as indicated by a precue presented at the beginning of each trial. Cues signalled a left or right eye movement

Martin Eimer; José Van Velzen; Elena Gherri

2006-01-01

343

Multivariate analysis of TLD orientation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of orientation on extruded thermoluminescent dosimeters has been investigated. TLD's placed on the surface and within a phantom were exposed separately to five diagnostic beam qualities and to ⁶°Co ..gamma.. rays. The resulting data were subjected to analysis of variance and examined for significant correlations. The response of dosimeters on the phantom surface varied with orientation and was

Benjamin R. Archer; S. C. Bushong; J. I. Thornby

1980-01-01

344

THE MEASUREMENT OF MARKET ORIENTATION EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market orientation efficiency is conceptualized as the speed by which a company gathers information about customers and competitors, disseminates the information throughout the organization, arrives at a shared meaning, and implements a response. A reliable scale with demonstrated content and convergent validity is developed and the impact of market orientation efficiency on business performance is assessed based on multiple informant

L. Jean Harrison-Walker

345

The contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being.  

PubMed

This article explores the contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being. Self-help/mutual aid groups are self-organising groups where people come together to address a shared a health or social issue through mutual support. They are associated with a range of health and social benefits, but remain poorly understood. This article draws on data from stage one of ESTEEM, a project which runs from 2010 to 2013. Stage one ran from 2010 to 2011 and involved participatory, qualitative research carried out in two UK sites. Twenty-one groups were purposively selected to include a range of focal issues, longevity, structures and ethnic backgrounds. Researchers carried out 21 interviews with group coordinators and twenty group discussions with members to explore the groups' purpose, nature and development. Preliminary analysis of the data suggested that mental well-being was a common theme across the groups. Subsequently the data were re-analysed to explore the groups' contribution to mental well-being using a checklist of protective factors for mental well-being as a coding framework. The findings showed that groups made a strong contribution to members' mental well-being by enhancing a sense of control, increasing resilience and facilitating participation. Group members were uplifted by exchanging emotional and practical support; they gained self-esteem, knowledge and confidence, thereby increasing their control over their situation. For some groups, socio-economic factors limited their scope and threatened their future. The article provides an evidence-base which illustrates how self-help/mutual aid groups can enhance mental well-being. If supported within a strategy for social justice, these groups enable people with varied concerns to develop a tailored response to their specific needs. The authors suggest that policy-makers engage with local people, investing in support proportionate to the needs of different populations, enabling them to develop their own self-help/mutual aid groups to enhance their sense of mental well-being. PMID:23445336

Seebohm, Patience; Chaudhary, Sarah; Boyce, Melanie; Elkan, Ruth; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

2013-02-28

346

Sustained oscillations generated by mutually inhibiting neurons with adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic oscillatory activities exist in almost every living thing and most of them are produced by rhythmic activities of the corresponding neural systems (locomotion, respiration, heart beat, etc.). This paper mathematically discusses sustained oscillations generated by mutual inhibition of the neurons which are represented by a continuous-variable model with a kind of fatigue or adaptation effect. If the neural network

Kiyotoshi Matsuoka

1985-01-01

347

Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

2011-01-01

348

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

349

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

350

Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

2011-01-01

351

Are advocacy, mutuality, and evaluation incompatible mentoring functions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exemplary faculty–student mentorships in graduate school are defined by several salient mentor functions and numerous benefits for student protégés. Over time, helpful mentorships are increasingly defined by mutuality, reciprocity and professional collegiality; mentors often become increasingly partisan advocates for their protégés. Few scholars have addressed the potential incompatibility between the mentor’s collegial, advocacy, and evaluative roles. This article addresses the

W. Brad Johnson

2008-01-01

352

The mutual information: Detecting and evaluating dependencies between variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Clustering co-expressed genes usually requires the definition of 'distance' or 'similarity' between measured datasets, the most common choices being Pearson correlation or Euclidean distance. With the size of available datasets steadily increasing, it has become feasible to consider other, more general, definitions as well. One alternative, based on information theory, is the mutual information, providing a general measure of

Ralph E. Steuer; Jürgen Kurths; Carsten O. Daub; Janko Weise; Joachim Selbig

2002-01-01

353

Explaining the Disambiguation Effect: Don't Exclude Mutual Exclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When they see a familiar object and an unfamiliar one, and are asked to select the referent of a novel label, children usually choose the unfamiliar object. We asked whether this "disambiguation effect" reflects an expectation that each object has just one label (mutual exclusivity), or an expectation about the intent of the speaker who uses a…

Jaswal, Vikram K.

2010-01-01

354

Mutuality: a key gap in the move to telecare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telecare is thought to be a solution for the increasing healthcare cost of an aging population. We want to identify possible issues in telecare implementations to inform technology design. By analysing telecare literature using the Locales Framework it was found that there is a gap in telecare technology research in designing awareness or presence (known as the mutuality aspect in

Ahmad Hanif Ahmad Baharin; Ralf Mühlberger; Andrew Loch

2009-01-01

355

Mutual Information Item Selection in Adaptive Classification Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A general approach for item selection in adaptive multiple-category classification tests is provided. The approach uses mutual information (MI), a special case of the Kullback-Leibler distance, or relative entropy. MI works efficiently with the sequential probability ratio test and alleviates the difficulties encountered with using other local-…

Weissman, Alexander

2007-01-01

356

Mutually orthogonal latin squares: a brief survey of constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two centuries since Euler first asked about mutually orthogonal latin squares, substantial progress has been made. The biggest breakthroughs came in 1960 with the celebrated theorems of Bose, Shrikhande, and Parker, and in 1974 in the research of Wilson. Current efforts have concentrated on refining these approaches, and finding new applications of the substantial theory opened. This paper

Charles J. Colbourn; Jeffrey H. Dinitz

2001-01-01

357

International Mutual Recognition: Progress and Prospects. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing the mobility of service providers, including professionals, via mutual recognition (of regulatory systems) agreements (MRAs) has become a significant issue worldwide. Despite increasing interest in MRAs, it may be argued that MRAs are but one of a larger range of major developments that have fueled current interest in occupational…

Hager, Paul

358

Persistent Mispricing in Mutual Funds: The Case of Real Estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive Summary. When mutual funds and related investment companies are unable to compute an accurate net asset value, unintended wealth transfers will occur among fund investors. Previous research has found this effect with international stock funds. Real estate fund managers face an even bigger challenge due to the lack of current price data. By focusing on an investment ac- count

Lee S. Redding

359

Computationally Ecient Mutual Entity Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual entity authentication plays an important role in se- curing wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we present a compu- tationally ecient authentication framework, based on learning parity with noise problem. The authentication only requires the simplest bit- operations, which makes it suitable for resource-restrained wireless sen- sor networks. The framework not only presents an approach to securely combine two

Zhijun Li; Guang Gong

360

Lamport on mutual exclusion: 27 years of planting seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual exclusion is a topic that Leslie Lamport has returned to many times throughout his career. This article, which is being written in celebration of Lamport's sixtieth birthday, is an attempt to survey some of his many contributions to research on this topic.

James H. Anderson

2001-01-01

361

The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of

Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Christopher R. Blake

1996-01-01

362

Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad  

SciTech Connect

Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB.

Schumacher, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States); Westmoreland, Michael D. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023 (United States)

2006-10-15

363

The use of derivatives in the Spanish mutual fund industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the use of derivatives in the Spanish mutual fund industry. The picture that emerges from our analysis is rather negative. In general, the use of derivatives does not improve the performance of the funds. In only one out of eight categories we find some (very weak and not robust) evidence of superior performance. In most of the cases

José M. Marín; Thomas A. Rangel

2006-01-01

364

Marine Plants and their Herbivores: Coevolutionary Myth and Precarious Mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planktonic and benthic algal-herbivore interactions are reviewed. In many cases, generation times of plant and herbivore are similar, yet there is no clear example of a coevolutionary arms race. Mutualisms have evolved, but these are vulnerable to extinction. We suggest that this vulnerability is caused by the loss of evolutionary flexibility accompanying the tightly linked, coadapted gene complexes.

R. N. Hughes; C. J. Gliddon

1991-01-01

365

Band Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral band selection is a fundamental problem in hyperspectral data processing. In this letter, a new band-selection method based on mutual information (MI) is proposed. MI measures the statistical dependence between two random variables and can therefore be used to evaluate the relative utility of each band to classification. A new strategy is described to estimate the MI using a

Baofeng Guo; Steve R. Gunn; R. I. Damper; J. D. B. Nelson

2006-01-01

366

Halton Sampling for Image Registration Based on Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual information is a widely used similarity measure for aligning multimodal medical images. At its core, it relies on the computation of a discrete joint histogram, which itself requires image samples for its estima- tion. In this paper, we study the influence of the sampling process. We show that quasi-random sampling based on Halton sequences outperforms meth- ods based on

MICHEL BIERLAIRE; MICHAEL UNSER

2006-01-01

367

Mutual Optimism as a Rationalist Explanation of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blainey (1988) popularized the argument that crises are more likely to end in war when two nations disagree about their relative bargaining power. This is known as the mutual optimism cause of war. Fey and Ramsay (2007) argue that existing models of crisis bargaining cannot properly evaluate this explanation. They propose an alternative class of models with features they claim

Branislav L. Slantchev; Ahmer Tarar

2009-01-01

368

A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

Binde, Per

2012-01-01

369

Kinematically Complete studies on Mutual Projectile and Target Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual projectile and target ionizations (MPTI) of 1MeV/amu N4+ and N5+ +He collisions have been studied in kinematically complete experiments, the data is presented in four-particle (4-D) Dalitz plots. comparison to eikonal approximation (EA) calculation results shows qualitatively good agreement.

Wang, X.; Fischer, D.; Kelkar, A.; Schneider, K.; Schulz, M.; Najjari, B.; Voitkiv, A.; Gudmundsson, M.; Grieser, M.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

2012-11-01

370

Gradient of mutual information in linear vector Gaussian channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a general linear vector Gaussian channel with arbitrary signaling and pursues two closely related goals: i) closed-form expressions for the gradient of the mutual information with respect to arbitrary parameters of the system, and ii) fundamental connections between information theory and estimation theory. Generalizing the fundamental relationship recently unveiled by Guo, Shamai, and Verd ´ u (1),

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Sergio Verdú

2006-01-01

371

Fantasy Role-Playing for Mutual Aid in Children's Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fantasy role-playing game, Dungeons and Dragons,. was used in a group of latency-age boys to foster adaptive social interaction. The game posed dilemmas and tasks that called for various aspects of mutual aid in the group. The authors provide theoretical background, a description of the game, and case material to support the usefulness of this program medium in group

Luis H Zayas; Bradford H. Lewis

1986-01-01

372

Language Experience Shapes the Development of the Mutual Exclusivity Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Halberda (2003) demonstrated that 17-month-old infants, but not 14- or 16-month-olds, use a strategy known as mutual exclusivity (ME) to identify the meanings of new words. When 17-month-olds were presented with a novel word in an intermodal preferential looking task, they preferentially fixated a novel object over an object for which they…

Houston-Price, Carmel; Caloghiris, Zoe; Raviglione, Eleonora

2010-01-01

373

A nonce-based mutual authentication system with smart card  

Microsoft Academic Search

User authentication is an important security mechanism for recognizing legal remote users. We propose an available and secure authentication scheme for service provider to verify users without using verification table. It can resist most of the attacks by improving nonce-based mutual authentication mechanism, and ensure the security by dynamic session key. User may change his password freely. Our scheme compared

Chin-Ling Chen; Wei-Chech Lin; Zong-Min Guo; Yung-Fa Huang; Neng-Chung Wang

2009-01-01

374

Mutual exclusivity in autism spectrum disorders: Testing the pragmatic hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial vocabularies despite impoverished social-pragmatic skills. We tested children and adolescents

Ashley de Marchena; Inge-Marie Eigsti; Amanda Worek; Kim Emiko Ono; Jesse Snedeker

2011-01-01

375

A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.  

PubMed

The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another. PMID:23260470

Peng, Po; Blamires, Sean J; Agnarsson, Ingi; Lin, Hui-Chen; Tso, I-Min

2012-12-20

376

Mutual Information Based Registration of Medical Images: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the medical image processing literature on mutual information based registra- tion. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. Methods are classified according to the different aspects of

Josien P. W. Pluim; J. B. Antoine Maintz; Max A. Viergever

2003-01-01

377

Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

2004-01-01

378

The Mutual Symbiosis Between Inclusive Bilingual Education and Multicultural Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the authors postulate a mutual symbiosis between multicultural and inclusive bi-lingual education. Combining bi-lingual and multicultural education to create a symbiotic relationship can stimulate reform in schools and can promote inclusive educational systems, thereby keeping native languages and cultures alive for minority students and enhancing native English speakers’ language and cultural understandings.

Beverly J. Irby; Fuhui Tong

2011-01-01

379

Anti-money laundering compliance for the mutual fund industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USA Patriot Act and its implementing regulations required mutual funds to implement anti-money laundering (AML) programs by July 24, 2002. This legislation, which substantially amended the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), no doubt will have the most far-reaching affect on the fund industry since the Investment Company Act was adopted in 1940. It also will present new challenges to fund

Robert A. Robertson; Monique S. Delhomme

2002-01-01

380

Mutual Information Item Selection in Adaptive Classification Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general approach for item selection in adaptive multiple-category classification tests is provided. The approach uses mutual information (MI), a special case of the Kullback-Leibler distance, or relative entropy. MI works efficiently with the sequential probability ratio test and alleviates the difficulties encountered with using other local-…

Weissman, Alexander

2007-01-01

381

A model of team cognition based on mutual beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a generic model of team cognition based on mutual beliefs that provide foundations for the formulation of hypotheses and predictions concerning cognitive aspects of team interactions such as team situation awareness, team communication and cooperation, as well as human–agent interactions. The proposed model describes team cognition as a set of individual cognition (processes, states and mental constructs)

Taro Kanno; Kazuo Furuta; Yasuyuki Kitahara

2011-01-01

382

SHADING: A design tool for analyzing mutual shading between buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and a model for analyzing visually and quantitatively mutual shading between buildings is presented. The method allows fast and efficient calculation of the ratio between isolated and total surface areas of any given examined object that is shaded by other irregular and nonplanar elements. The calculation of this ratio is carried out for all the months and hours

A. Yezioro; E. Shaviv

1994-01-01

383

Capacity and mutual information of wideband multipath fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the capacity and mutual information of a broadband fading channel consisting of a finite number of time-varying paths. We show that the capacity of the channel in the wideband limit is the same as that of a wideband Gaussian channel with the same average received power. However, the input signals needed to achieve the capacity must be “peaky”

Ì. Emre Telatar; David N. C. Tse

2000-01-01

384

Capacity and Mutual Information of Wideband Multipath Fading Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will investigate the capacity and mutual information of a broadbandfading channel consisting of a finite number of time-varying paths. We willshow that the capacity of the channel in the wideband limit is the same as thatof a wideband Gaussian channel with the same average received power. However,the input signals needed to achieve the capacity must be

Emre Telatar; David Tse

1999-01-01

385

Capacity and mutual information of broadband multipath fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the capacity and mutual information of a broadband fading channel consisting of a finite number of time-varying paths. We show that the capacity of the channel in the wide band limit is the same as that of a wide band Gaussian channel with the same average received power. However, the input signals needed to achieve the capacity must

I. Emre Telatar; D. Tse

1998-01-01

386

Indochinese Mutual Assistance Association: Time for a New Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of Indochinese self-help groups in the Refugee Resettlement Program is examined in this paper. Drawing on the literature dealing with Indochinese self-help groups, the paper reviews the factors which contribute to the formation of these groups, more commonly called Mutual Assistance Associations or MAAs. In addition, the value of MAAs as…

Shotts, Kermit F.

387

Cooperative Efforts: Voluntary Resettlement Agencies and Mutual Assistance Associations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, the Refugee Resource Center conducted a survey of Mutual Assistance Associations (MAA's) and local voluntary resettlement agency affiliates to find out how the two types of organizations worked together to carry out refugee resettlement. According to the survey, the relations between agency affiliates and MAA's generally revolved around…

Committee on Migration and Refugee Affairs, New York, NY. Refugee Center.

388

Equity Mutual Funds Performance in Pakistan: Risk & Return Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to find the performance of the Pakistani mutual fund industry. The performance of these funds can be considered to be very good relative to the market portfolio. This research study is focused on Secondary source of data. Analysis apply will require to investigate the related matters of research, which includes the related data of

Syed Ali Raza; Syed Aoun Raza; Abassi Zia

2011-01-01

389

Chinese and American Women: Issues of Mutual Concern. Wingspread Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article briefly describes a conference of Chinese and American women held to discuss womens' issues and promote mutual understanding between the two groups. The cultural exchange of information at the conference focused on discussion of the All China Womens' Federation (ACWF); the roles of women in China and the United States in the areas of…

Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

390

Buoyancy convection in a cavity with mutually orthogonal heated plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buoyancy driven convection in a square cavity induced by two mutually orthogonal arbitrarily placed heated thin plates is studied numerically under isothermal and isoflux boundary conditions. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional. The coupled governing equations were solved by the finite difference method using the Alternating Direction Implicit technique and Successive Over Relaxation method. The steady state results are

S. Saravanan; A. K. Abdul Hakeem; P. Kandaswamy; J. Lee

2008-01-01

391

Mutual effects of ?-actinin, calponin and filamin on actin binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual effect of three actin-binding proteins (?-actinin, calponin and filamin) on the binding to actin was analyzed by means of differential centrifugation and electron microscopy. In the absence of actin ?-actinin, calponin and filamin do not interact with each other. Calponin and filamin do not interfere with each other in the binding to actin bundles. Slight interference was observed

Olesya O Panasenko; Nikolai B Gusev

2001-01-01

392

Separating Convolutive Mixtures By Pairwise Mutual Information Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blind separation of convolutive mixtures by minimizing the mutual information between output sequences can avoid the side effect of temporally whitening the outputs, but it involves the score function difference, whose estimation may be problematic when the data dimension is greater than two. This greatly limits the application of this method. Fortunately, for separating convolutive mixtures, pairwise independence of outputs

Kun Zhang; Laiwan Chan

2007-01-01

393

Gold price risk and the returns on gold mutual funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for estimating the theoretical gold price elasticity of the value of mutual funds investing in gold mining companies. The theoretical elasticity shows that if the funds invest in companies whose assets are comprised primarily of operating gold mines, then the return of an investment in the fund will be at least as great as an investment

Laurence E. Blose

1996-01-01

394

Negotiating mutual fund advisers’ fees: The Supreme Court has spoken  

Microsoft Academic Search

is Professor of Law, Michaels Faculty Scholar, at Boston University School of Law and has written and taught in the areas of mutual funds, securitization, fi nancial system regulation, fi duciary law and corporate governance. She is the author of Trust and Honesty, America ' s Busi- ness Culture at a Crossroad (2006), The Regulation of Money Managers (2nd edn.

Tamar Frankel

2010-01-01

395

Analysis of equivalent capacitances between mutually coupled windings  

SciTech Connect

The interwinding capacitance between mutually coupled windings may play a significant role in the transient analysis of these windings. Neglecting this capacitance or dividing it equally among the interwinding node pairs would then result in considerable inaccuracy in the analysis. A method is proposed to calculate equivalent interwinding capacitances which will reduce this inaccuracy. It is illustrated by simple winding models.

Chowdhuri, P.

1986-01-01

396

Mutual interference is common and mostly intermediate in magnitude  

PubMed Central

Background Interference competition occurs when access to resources is negatively affected by the presence of other individuals. Within a species or population, this is known as mutual interference, and it is often modelled with a scaling exponent, m, on the number of predators. Originally, mutual interference was thought to vary along a continuum from prey dependence (no interference; m = 0) to ratio dependence (m = -1), but a debate in the 1990's and early 2000's focused on whether prey or ratio dependence was the better simplification. Some have argued more recently that mutual interference is likely to be mostly intermediate (that is, between prey and ratio dependence), but this possibility has not been evaluated empirically. Results We gathered estimates of mutual interference from the literature, analyzed additional data, and created the largest compilation of unbiased estimates of mutual interference yet produced. In this data set, both the alternatives of prey dependence and ratio dependence were observed, but only one data set was consistent with prey dependence. There was a tendency toward ratio dependence reflected by a median m of -0.7 and a mean m of -0.8. Conclusions Overall, the data support the hypothesis that interference is mostly intermediate in magnitude. The data also indicate that interference competition is common, at least in the systems studied to date. Significant questions remain regarding how different factors influence interference, and whether interference can be viewed as a characteristic of a particular population or whether it generally shifts from low to high levels as populations increase in density.

2011-01-01

397

Effects of orientation on the diffusive properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries during pressure solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unresolved issue in the study of pressure solution in rock materials is the dependence of grain boundary structure and\\u000a diffusive properties on the mutual orientation of neighbouring grain lattices. We report electrical measurements yielding\\u000a the diffusivity of differently oriented halite–glass and halite–halite contacts loaded in the presence of brine. The halite–glass\\u000a contact experiments show pressure solution of the halite

R. van Noort; C. J. Spiers; C. J. Peach

2007-01-01

398

High-resolution BOLD fMRI measurements of local orientation-dependent contextual modulation show a mismatch between predicted V1 output and local BOLD response  

PubMed Central

The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI response to suppressive neural activity has not been tested on a fine spatial scale. Using Gabor patches placed in the near periphery, we precisely localized individual regions of interest in primary visual cortex and measured the response at a range of contrasts in two different contexts: with parallel and with orthogonal flanking Gabor patches. Psychophysical measurements confirmed strong suppression of the target Gabor response when flanked by parallel Gabors. However, the BOLD response to the target with parallel flankers decreased as the target contrast increased, which contradicts psychophysical estimates of local neural activity.

Schumacher, Jennifer F.; Olman, Cheryl A.

2010-01-01

399

Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo

2001-10-01

400

Students' Coding Orientation and School Socializing Context in Their Relation with Students' Scientific Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzed the relationship between general coding orientation and specific characteristics associated with the family (social class, race, gender) and the school (pedagogic practice and science achievement) of (n=80) socially differentiated elementary school children. Found that there is a mutual influence of family and school factors on students'…

Fontinhas, Fernanda; And Others

1995-01-01

401

Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

Guido Caldarelli; Andrea Capocci; Paolo Laureti

2001-01-01

402

YATIRIM FONLARININ R?SK ODAKLI PERFORMANS DE?ERLEMES? RISK BASED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MUTUAL FUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article liquid funds, bondfunds and management funds in Type B mutual funds category and management funds in Type A mutual funds category are examined. Five mutual funds in each subcategory, a total 20 mutual funds, are evaluated by risk based performance criteria. The aim of this article is to evaluate the past performances of mutual funds in Turkey

Suat TEKER; Emre KARAKURUM; Osman TAV

403

Distributed Object Oriented Programming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a concurrent model of execution for object oriented programming. In addition, it describes a computation manager that implements this model and a compiler that translates a subset of Common Lisp with Flavors object oriented extension ...

A. M. Wollrath E. H. Bensley J. C. Fohlin M. J. Prelle T. J. Brando

1990-01-01

404

Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

2003-05-01

405

Unconscious Orientation Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions,

Reza Rajimehr

2004-01-01

406

Extrinsic Value Orientation and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the effect of Extrinsic Value Orientation (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996) upon harvesting strategies and personal profit within commons dilemmas, in which individual and group interests can be at odds. At an individual or within-group level of analysis, extrinsically oriented persons (who value money, fame, and popularity) harvested more than intrinsi- cally oriented persons (who value self-acceptance,

Kennon M. Sheldon; Holly A. McGregor

2000-01-01

407

26 CFR 1.594-1 - Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. 1.594-1 Section...Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business. (a) Scope of application...represented by shares which conducts a life insurance business, if: (1) The...

2013-04-01

408

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...Processing of Applications § 101.51 Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...1) The applications are entitled to comparative consideration pursuant to §...

2010-10-01

409

47 CFR 101.51 - Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...Processing of Applications § 101.51 Comparative evaluation of mutually exclusive applications...1) The applications are entitled to comparative consideration pursuant to §...

2009-10-01

410

78 FR 35359 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Liberty Mutual Insurance Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment--Liberty Mutual Insurance Company AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service...underwriting limitation for the following company has been amended: Liberty Mutual Insurance Company (NAIC 23043), which was...

2013-06-12

411

Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

2013-10-01

412

Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

2013-08-01

413

Mutual information in random Boolean models of regulatory networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a large, complex network of interacting elements, such as a genetic regulatory network within a cell, the average of the mutual information over all pairs of elements is a global measure of how well the system can coordinate its internal dynamics. We study the average pairwise mutual information I in random Boolean networks (RBNs) as a function of the distribution of Boolean rules implemented at each element, assuming that the links in the network are randomly placed. As the number N of network nodes approaches infinity, NI exhibits a discontinuity at parameter values corresponding to critical RBNs. For finite systems, NI peaks near the critical value, but slightly in the disordered regime for typical parameter variations. The source of high values of NI is the indirect correlations between pairs of elements from different long chains with a common starting point. The contribution from pairs that are directly linked approaches zero for critical networks and peaks deep in the disordered regime.

Socolar, Joshua; Ribeiro, Andre; Samuelsson, Björn; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Kauffman, Stuart

2008-03-01

414

Entanglement entropy and mutual information in Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the entanglement properties of free nonrelativistic Bose gases. At zero temperature, we calculate the bipartite block entanglement entropy of the system and find that it diverges logarithmically with the particle number in the subsystem. For finite temperatures, we study the mutual information between the two blocks. We first analytically study an infinite-range hopping model, then numerically study a set of long-range hopping models in one dimension that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. In both cases we find that a Bose-Einstein condensate, if present, makes a divergent contribution to the mutual information which is proportional to the logarithm of the number of particles in the condensate in the subsystem. The prefactor of the logarithmic divergent term is model dependent.

Ding Wenxin; Yang Kun [Department of Physics and NHMFL, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)

2009-07-15

415

Modeling of a bipedal robot using mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators.  

PubMed

The objective of the work presented here was the modeling of a bipedal robot using a central pattern generator (CPG) formed by a set of mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators. We analyzed a 2D model, with the three most important determinants of gait, that performs only motions parallel to the sagittal plane. Using oscillators with integer relation of frequency, we determined the transient motion and the stable limit cycles of the network formed by the three oscillators, showing the behavior of the knee angles and the hip angle. A comparison of the plotted graphs revealed that the system provided excellent results when compared to experimental analysis. Based on the results of the study, we come to the conclusion that the use of mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators can represent an excellent method of signal generation, allowing their application for feedback control of a walking machine. PMID:15580522

Filho, Armando C de Pina; Dutra, Max S; Raptopoulos, Luciano S C

2004-12-03

416

Retention of mutualism in a geographically diverging interaction.  

PubMed

A current challenge in coevolutionary biology is to understand how interactions between pairs of species change as they diversify into multispecific interactions. We tested whether the previously demonstrated pairwise mutualism between the widespread pollinating floral parasite Greya politella and its Lithophragma hostplants is ecologically enhanced or diminished in a region in which another Greya species, Greya obscura, uses the same host, Lithophragma cymbalaria. Field surveys and experimental trials showed that pollination efficacy by G. politella was more than an order of magnitude higher than by G. obscura, but G. politella abundance varied greatly between years. Greya obscura had a strongly positive effect on seed set in a year when G. politella densities were exceptionally low. Our results suggest that the coevolving mutualism between Greya and Lithophragma has potentially been enhanced rather than diminished as this interaction has diversified in the number of pollinating Greya species. PMID:20825452

Thompson, John N; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Thompson, Jill F

2010-09-06

417

Non-rigid Multimodal Image Registration Using Mutual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automated voxel-based algorithm for multimodal non-rigid image registration using a mutual information based similarity\\u000a criterion is presented. The image deformation vector field is found by dividing images into overlapping neighborhood regions\\u000a and translating these regions to locally increase the similarity criterion. The calculated displacement in each region is\\u000a assigned to the centered pixel of each neighborhood region and

Tom Gaens; Frederik Maes; Dirk Vandermeulen; Paul Suetens

1998-01-01

418

Mutual Diffusional Interference Between Adjacent Stomata of a Leaf 1  

PubMed Central

The mutual diffusional interference between adjacent stomata in laminar flow over a leaf is shown to play a decisive role in determining overall transpiration. The magnitude of this interference varies with the interaction of the vapor diffusional shells forming above each stoma and the air flow over the leaf. The interference decreases with increasing incident radiation and wind velocity. The effect of interference on the stomatal resistance to diffusion plays a major role in the overall variations in transpiration.

Cook, G. D.; Viskanta, R.

1968-01-01

419

Mutual Inductance in the BirdCage Resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulas are derived to account for the effect of the mutual inductances, between all meshes, upon the electrical resonance spectra bird-cage resonators, and similar structures such as the TEM resonator of P.K.H. Röschmann (United States Patent 4,746,866) and J.T. Vaughanet al.(Magn. Reson. Med.32,206, 1994). The equations are parameterized in terms of isolated mesh frequencies and coupling coefficients, and ought therefore

James Tropp

1997-01-01

420

Computationally Efficient Mutual Entity Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mutual entity authentication plays an important role in securing wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we present a computationally\\u000a efficient authentication framework, based on learning parity with noise problem. The authentication only requires the simplest\\u000a bit-operations, which makes it suitable for resource-restrained wireless sensor networks. The framework not only presents\\u000a an approach to securely combine two one-way authentication protocols from

Zhijun Li; Guang Gong

2009-01-01

421

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique was applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been exclusively applied to antennas. Here, calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained during the method of moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-04-01

422

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique has been applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been extensively applied to antennas. In this short paper calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained using the Method of Moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

1992-08-01

423

Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique has been applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been extensively applied to antennas. In this short paper calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained using the Method of Moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-07-01

424

Observations of mutual phenomena of Galilean's satellites at Catania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual phenomena between Jupiter and Saturn's satellites occur every half orbital period of these planets, when the Earth and the Sun cross their equatorial plane. At Physics and Astronomy Department of Catania University the events between Jupiter's satellites have been observed during the 1973, 1979, 1985/86, 1991, 1997 and 2009 campaigns and the ones between Saturn's satellites during the 1980/81 and 1995 campaigns. An overview of the main results obtained since 1973 is presented.

Fulvio, Daniele; Blanco, Carlo

2010-01-01

425

Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch

Laura K. Finkes; Alan B. Cady; Juliana C. Mulroy; Keith Clay; Jennifer A. Rudgers

2006-01-01

426

MUTUAL FUND TRADES: ASYMMETRIC LIQUIDITY PREFERENCES AND FUND PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the role of the liquidity of stocks traded by mutual funds on the performance of funds experiencing substantial and sustained redemptions (outflows) or inflows. Accordingly, we identify 770 redeeming fund-periods and 1,757 inflow fund-periods and find a statistically significant relation between the liquidity of the stocks they trade and the quantity of the stock traded. Notably, when funds

Alex Clarke; Grant Cullen; Dominic Gasbarro

2007-01-01

427

Does mutual fund advertising provide necessary investment information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Finance theory proposes that consumers require information about the risk-return trade-off credibility information to relieve principal-agent conflict concerns, and transaction cost information – for investment decisions. This paper aims to investigate whether or not such information is present in advertisements for one investment vehicle – mutual funds. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – All advertisements in Barron's and Money over two years

Bruce A. Huhmann; Nalinaksha Bhattacharyya

2005-01-01

428

In which Financial Markets do Mutual Fund Theorems hold true?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mutual Fund Theorem (MFT) is considered in a general semimartingale financial market S with a finite time horizon T, where agents maximize expected utility of terminal wealth. It is established that: 1) Let N be the wealth process of the num\\\\'eraire portfolio (i.e. the optimal portfolio for the log utility). If any path-independent option with maturity T written on

Walter Schachermayer; Mihai Sirbu; Erik Taflin

2007-01-01

429

In which financial markets do mutual fund theorems hold true?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual fund theorem (MFT) is considered in a general semimartingale financial market S with a finite time horizon T, where agents maximize expected utility of terminal wealth. The main results are: \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (i) \\u000a Let N be the wealth process of the numéraire portfolio (i.e., the optimal portfolio for the log utility). If any path-independent\\u000a option with maturity T written on

Walter Schachermayer; Mihai Sîrbu; Erik Taflin

2009-01-01

430

Code of AntPlant Mutualism Broken by Parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly discovered Phyllobaenus beetles are parasites of a mutualism. Piper ant-plants in tropical forests provide lipid and protein-rich food cells and shelter for Pheidole bicornis ants while the ants remove small herbivores and vines from the foliage. In contrast to all other ant-plants, Piper ant-plants produce food bodies only when Pheidole bicornis is present in the plant. However, Phyllobaenus beetles

Deborah K. Letourneau

1990-01-01

431

A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling\\u000a problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of\\u000a these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members of a local society and participation

Per Binde

432

Mutual coupling between short-circuited microstrip antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been previously developed for the computations of mutual coupling between the usual rectangular printed antennas. In the letter the short-circuited antennas with three magnetic walls and an electric wall are investigated. Using the cavity model with hybrid boundary conditions (magnetic wall and electric wall) and the equivalence theorem, the problem is reduced to the interactions of two U-shaped magnetic currents. Theory and experiment are in very good agreement.

Penard, E.; Daniel, J.-P.

1983-03-01

433

Measurement and correlation of mutual solubilities in 2-butanol + water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed laser scattering technique was tested for the determination of mutual solubilities in the 2-butanol + water system at moderate pressures. The liquid-liquid solubility data were measured from the region of solid-liquid equilibria to the upper critical solution temperature. Freezing points in this system were determined by a cooling curve method. A concave curvature of the liquid-liquid line

Kenji Ochi; Tohru Saito; Kazuo Kojima

1996-01-01

434

Proteases hold the key to an exclusive mutualism.  

PubMed

Mutualisms, cooperative interactions between species, generally involve an economic exchange: species exchange commodities that are cheap for them to provide, for ones that cannot be obtained affordably or at all. But these associations can only succeed if effective partners can be enticed to interact. In some mutualisms, partners can actively seek one another out. However, plants, which use mutualists for a wide array of essential life history functions, do not have this option. Instead, natural selection has repeatedly favoured the evolution of rewards – nutritional substances (such as sugar-rich nectar and fleshy fruit) with which plants attract certain organisms whose feeding activities can then be co-opted for their own benefit. The trouble with rewards, however, is that they are usually also attractive to organisms that confer no benefits at all. Losing rewards to 'exploiters' makes a plant immediately less attractive to the mutualists it requires; if the reward cannot be renewed quickly (or at all), then mutualistic service is precluded entirely. Thus, it is in plants' interests to either restrict rewards to only the most beneficial partners or somehow punish or deter exploiters. Yet, at least in cases where the rewards are highly nutritious, we can expect counter-selection for exploiter traits that permit them to skirt such control. How, then, can mutualisms persist? In this issue, Orona-Tamayo et al. () describe a remarkable adaptation that safeguards one particularly costly reward from nonmutualists. Their study helps to explain the evolutionary success of an iconic interaction and illuminates one way in which mutualism as a whole can persist in the face of exploitation. PMID:24058927

Bronstein, Judith L

2013-08-01

435

Mutual information in random Boolean models of regulatory networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of mutual information contained in the time series of two elements gives a measure of how well their activities are coordinated. In a large, complex network of interacting elements, such as a genetic regulatory network within a cell, the average of the mutual information over all pairs, ?I? , is a global measure of how well the system can coordinate its internal dynamics. We study this average pairwise mutual information in random Boolean networks (RBNs) as a function of the distribution of Boolean rules implemented at each element, assuming that the links in the network are randomly placed. Efficient numerical methods for calculating ?I? show that as the number of network nodes, N , approaches infinity, the quantity N?I? exhibits a discontinuity at parameter values corresponding to critical RBNs. For finite systems it peaks near the critical value, but slightly in the disordered regime for typical parameter variations. The source of high values of N?I? is the indirect correlations between pairs of elements from different long chains with a common starting point. The contribution from pairs that are directly linked approaches zero for critical networks and peaks deep in the disordered regime.

Ribeiro, Andre S.; Kauffman, Stuart A.; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Samuelsson, Björn; Socolar, Joshua E. S.

2008-01-01

436

Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single ancestral species diversifies into many descendants adapted to exploit a wide range of habitats. The appearance of ecological opportunities, or the colonisation or adaptation to novel ecological resources, has been documented to promote adaptive radiation in many classic examples. Mutualistic interactions allow species to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species diversification can greatly vary among mutualistic systems. Here, we test whether the development of obligate mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western Pacific oceans reef habitats. Results We show that clownfishes morphological characters are linked with ecological niches associated with the sea anemones. This pattern is consistent with the ecological speciation hypothesis. Furthermore, the clownfishes show an increase in the rate of species diversification as well as rate of morphological evolution compared to their closest relatives without anemone mutualistic associations. Conclusions The effect of mutualism on species diversification has only been studied in a limited number of groups. We present a case of adaptive radiation where mutualistic interaction is the likely key innovation, providing new insights into the mechanisms involved in the buildup of biodiversity. Due to a lack of barriers to dispersal, ecological speciation is rare in marine environments. Particular life-history characteristics of clownfishes likely reinforced reproductive isolation between populations, allowing rapid species diversification.

2012-01-01

437

Strategies of a parasite of the ant-Acacia mutualism.  

PubMed

Mutualisms can be exploited by parasites-species that obtain resources from a partner but provide no services. Though the stability of mutualisms in the presence of such parasites is under intensive investigation, we have little information on life history traits that allow a species to be a successful mutualist or rather a parasite, particularly in cases where both are closely related. We studied the exploitation of Acacia myrmecophytes by the ant, Pseudomyrmex gracilis, contrasting with the mutualistic ant Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus. P. gracilis showed no host-defending behavior and had a negative effect on plant growth. By preventing the mutualist from colonization, P. gracilis imposes opportunity costs on the host plant. P. gracilis produced smaller colonies with a higher proportion of alates than did the mutualist and thus showed an "r-like" strategy. This appears to be possible because P. gracilis relies less on host-derived food resources than does the mutualist, as shown by behavioral and stable isotope studies. We discuss how this system allows the identification of strategies that characterize parasites of mutualisms. PMID:19816532

Clement, Lars W; Köppen, Stephan C W; Brand, Willi A; Heil, Martin

2007-11-29

438

A novel technique of rotor resistance estimation considering variation of mutual inductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study proposes a method to estimate AC induction-machine mutual inductance and rotor resistance based on terminal voltage, current, and shaft speed as input signals. For certain operating regions of the machine, it is verified that the mutual inductance can be accurately estimated regardless of wide stator resistance variation. The equations to estimate mutual inductance and rotor resistance are derived

Seung Ki Sul

1989-01-01

439

A Mutual Network Synchronization Method for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual network synchronization is a distributed method in which geographically separated clocks align their times to one another without the need of reference or master clocks. Mutual network synchronization is attractive for wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, because there is no overhead associated with the discovery, management, and tracking of specific nodes with reference clocks. Existing mutual network synchronization

Carlos H. Rentel; Thomas Kunz

2008-01-01

440

Preferences for Stock Characteristics as Revealed by Mutual Fund Portfolio Holdings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation of the cross-section of mutual fund equity holdings for the years 1991 and 1992 shows that mutual funds have a significant preference towards stocks with high visibility and low transaction costs, and are averse to stocks with low idiosyncratic volatility. These findings are relevant to theories concerning investor recognition, a potential agency problem in mutual funds, tests of

Eric G Falkenstein

1996-01-01

441

Plant chemical defence: a partner control mechanism stabilising plant - seed-eating pollinator mutualisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutualisms are inherently conflictual as one partner always benefits from reducing the costs imposed by the other. Despite the widespread recognition that mutualisms are essentially reciprocal exploitation, there are few documented examples of traits that limit the costs of mutualism. In plant\\/seed-eating pollinator interactions the only mechanisms reported so far are those specific to one particular system, such as

Sébastien Ibanez; Christiane Gallet; Fanny Dommanget; Laurence Després

2009-01-01

442

Market states and disposition effect: evidence from Taiwan mutual fund investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the disposition effect across market states in the context of mutual fund investors in Taiwan. Using mutual fund data at the fund and individual levels during July 2001 to October 2008, we find that the disposition effect varies across market states. Our results suggest that investors redeem their mutual fund units more under a bear market than a

Jen-Sin Lee; Pi-Hsia Yen; Kam C. Chan

2013-01-01

443

24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203...Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

2013-04-01

444

Employee's Perceptions of Market Orientation in a Transitional Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market orientation places a special emphasis on the dissemination of and responsiveness to market intelligence throughout the whole organization. However, it is still not well understood how employees at different levels perceive their firm's market orientation. This paper represents a first attempt to study market orientation at the employee level in the whole organization. Based on a survey of 1,357

Kevin Zheng Zhou; Julie Juan Li; Nan Zhou

2004-01-01

445

Mutualism in a community context: the positive feedback between an ant-aphid mutualism and a gall-making midge.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms are widespread and often described in natural history accounts, their ecological influences on other community members remain largely unexplored. Many of these influences are likely a result of indirect effects. In this field study, we investigated the indirect effects of an ant-aphid mutualism on the abundance, survival rates and parasitism rates of a co-occurring herbivore. Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induces rosette galls on the developing shoots of Salix exigua trees, and populations can reach outbreak densities (up to 1,000 galls/stem) in central Washington State (USA). Ant-tended aphids feed on these same stems and often feed on gall tissue. In this study we used a combination of manipulative experiments and observational surveys to test the hypothesis that the abundances of aphids, ants, and galls have positive and reciprocal effects on one another, in a manner that would create a positive feedback loop in population growth. In addition, we examined whether the combined presence of ants and aphids reduces parasitism rates for the gallers. In support of the positive feedback loop hypothesis, aphids enjoyed higher population growth rates in the presence of ants and galls, the presence of ants and aphids resulted in increased abundance of galls, and the abundances of ants, aphids and galls were all positively correlated with one another. However, the mechanism underlying the positive effect of ants and aphids on galler density remains unknown, as the mutualism did not affect parasitism rates. More broadly, this study demonstrates that mutualisms can have significant and complex indirect effects on community and population ecology. PMID:17106723

Savage, Amy M; Peterson, Merrill A

2006-11-16

446

The relationships between market orientation and alternative strategic orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - One of the strongest convictions in marketing is that market orientation contributes to firms' performance substantially more than alternative strategic orientations such as innovation and entrepreneurial orientations. Still, some studies show that alternative orientations can also substantially affect the performance of firms, and furthermore, that firms that combine market orientation with alternative orientations are likely to perform even

Amir Grinstein

447

Maximization of feature potential mutual information in multimodality image registration using particle swarm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard Mutual Information function contains local maxima, which make against to convergence of registration transformation parameters for automated multimodality image registration problems. We proposed Feature Potential Mutual Information (FPMI) to increases the smoothness of the registration measure function and use Particle Swarm Optimization to search the optimal registration transformation parameter in this paper. At first, Edges of images are detected. Next, edge feature potential is defined by expanding edges to the neighborhood region using potential function. Each edge point influences the whole potential field, just like the particle of physics in the gravitation field space. FPMI is computed on the edge feature potential of two images. It substitutes the edge feature potential values for gray values in images. It can avoid great change of joint probability distribution and has less local maxima. The registration accuracy of FPMI is analyzed under different edge detection cases. It is shown that the registration accuracy of FPMI is more accurate and more robust than that of MI. Maximization of FPMI is done by PSO. PSO combines local search methods with global search methods, attempting to balance exploration and exploitation. Its complex behavior follows from a few simple rules and has less computational complexity. Multimodal medical images are used to compare the response of FPMI and MI to translation and rotation. Experiments show that FPMI is smoother and has less local fluctuations than that of MI. Registration results show that PSO do it better than Powell"s method to search the optimal registration parameters.

Yang, Xuan; Pei, Jihong; Xie, Weixin

2005-04-01

448

A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism.  

PubMed

Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2008-08-22

449

Reconstructing regulatory networks from the dynamic plasticity of gene expression by mutual information  

PubMed Central

The capacity of an organism to respond to its environment is facilitated by the environmentally induced alteration of gene and protein expression, i.e. expression plasticity. The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks based on expression plasticity can gain not only new insights into the causality of transcriptional and cellular processes but also the complex regulatory mechanisms that underlie biological function and adaptation. We describe an approach for network inference by integrating expression plasticity into Shannon’s mutual information. Beyond Pearson correlation, mutual information can capture non-linear dependencies and topology sparseness. The approach measures the network of dependencies of genes expressed in different environments, allowing the environment-induced plasticity of gene dependencies to be tested in unprecedented details. The approach is also able to characterize the extent to which the same genes trigger different amounts of expression in response to environmental changes. We demonstrated the usefulness of this approach through analysing gene expression data from a rabbit vein graft study that includes two distinct blood flow environments. The proposed approach provides a powerful tool for the modelling and analysis of dynamic regulatory networks using gene expression data from distinct environments.

Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Bo; Wang, Yaqun; Wang, Ningtao; Garbey, Marc; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger; Berceli, Scott A.; Wu, Rongling

2013-01-01

450

INFLUENCE OF SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY OF GROUND ON MUTUAL EFFECTS BETWEEN UNDERGROUND SHOPPING ARCADE AND HIGH BUILDINS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally thought that the underground is safer than the ground, because the acceleration amplitudes of earthquake motions tend to be smaller in the underground. However, it is considered that the seismic safety of structures will be largely affected by the mutual effects between ground structures and underground structures during earthquakes. Then, we made 3-D dynamic analyses in regard to a coupled subway - underground shopping arcade - high building system in order to evaluate the infulences of shear wave velocity on the mutual effects between high buildings and underground shopping arcade. As a result, it is considered that the displacement responses of structures and the dynamic stresses within suructures tend to increase as the shear wave velocity of ground becomes slower. In order to realize earthquake disaster prevention in urban area, it is necessary to take a dynamic interaction among the adjacent structures.

Ariga, Yoshiaki; Kakizaki, Tatsuyoshi; Inoko, Keinosuke; Takeuchi, Mikio; Oguro, Akira; Asaka, Hiroyuki; Yoda, Masahiro; Takehara, Kazuo

451

Are Children Willing to Accept Two Labels for a Single Object? A Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusivity in Monolingual and Bilingual Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares two word-learning strategies in monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, we examined children's behaviour when mutual exclusivity (ME), a lexical bias believed to be a default strategy in early word-learning, and a social cue from the experimenter conflict. We predicted that bilinguals will violate ME in response to the social cue more than monolinguals. We tested this prediction

Emma Healey; Barbora Skarabela

452

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

453

Orientation selectivity without orientation maps in visual cortex of a highly visual mammal.  

PubMed

In mammalian neocortex, the orderly arrangement of columns of neurons is thought to be a fundamental organizing principle. In primary visual cortex (V1), neurons respond preferentially to bars of a particular orientation, and, in many mammals, these orientation-selective cells are arranged in a semiregular, smoothly varying map across the cortical surface. Curiously, orientation maps have not been found in rodents or lagomorphs. To explore whether this lack of organization in previously studied rodents could be attributable to low visual acuity, poorly differentiated visual brain areas, or small absolute V1 size, we examined V1 organization of a larger, highly visual rodent, the gray squirrel. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging and single-cell recordings, we found no evidence of an orientation map, suggesting that formation of orientation maps depends on mechanisms not found in rodents. We did find robust orientation tuning of single cells, and this tuning was invariant to stimulus contrast. Therefore, it seems unlikely that orientation maps are important for orientation tuning or its contrast invariance in V1. In vertical electrode penetrations, we found little evidence for columnar organization of orientation-selective neurons and little evidence for local anisotropy of orientation preferences. We conclude that an orderly and columnar arrangement of functional response properties is not a universal characteristic of cortical architecture. PMID:15634763

Van Hooser, Stephen D; Heimel, J Alexander F; Chung, Sooyoung; Nelson, Sacha B; Toth, Louis J

2005-01-01

454

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered.

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-01-01

455

Coupled mutual diffusion in solutions of micelles and solubilizates.  

PubMed

The coupled diffusion of micelles and solubilizates has been studied by measuring ternary mutual diffusion coefficients (D(ik)) for aqueous solutions of dodecylsulfobetaine (SB12) with added butanol, pentanol, or hexanol. SB12 micelles solubilize alcohols, so diffusing SB12(1) might be expected to co-transport alcohol(2). Negative values of cross-coefficient D(21) indicate, however, that the diffusion of SB12 drives substantial counterflows of alcohol. To help interpret the results, measured decreases in critical micelle concentrations with added alcohol (ROH) are used to evaluate equilibrium constants for the formation of (SB12)(m)(ROH)(n) mixed micelles. Increasing the concentration of SB12 along a diffusion path raises the concentrations of micelles and solubilized alcohol while lowering the concentration of free alcohol. The resulting flux of relatively mobile free alcohol molecules up SB12 concentration gradients is larger than the flux of solubilized alcohol down SB12 gradients, producing net countercurrent coupled fluxes of alcohol. The measured D(ik) coefficients are in close agreement (+/- 0.05 x 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1)) with predictions using self-diffusion coefficients (D(i)*) for SB12 and alcohol in solutions at thermodynamic equilibrium and the relations D(ik) = partial differential(C(i)D(i)*)/ partial differentialC(k) proposed recently for mutual diffusion in non-equilibrium solutions of associating solutes. Mutual diffusion coefficients for coupled surfactant-solubilizate diffusion are used to evaluate equilibrium constants for the formation of surfactant-solubilizate mixed micelles. PMID:19756273

Everist, Michelle; MacNeil, Jennifer A; Moulins, Jonathan R; Leaist, Derek G

2009-07-01

456

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic.  

PubMed

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative.We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-06-22

457

Mutually Pumped Phase-Conjugate Mirror: Two Arches Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mutually pumped phase conjugator with a novel photorefractive crystal of copper-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate is reported, in which both incoherent beams are incident upon the negative c face and they travel in geometric paths similar to the outline of two arches. The maximum reflectivity attains 21%. The tolerance of the output to both incident angles and positions is assessed. No apparent cross talk is observed. A cross-readout mechanism is also used to explain phase-conjugate reflectivity production. It is verified that the configuration can be realized easily for a crystal with two longer a sides.

Zhang, Liang-min; Shao, Zong-shu; Zhang, Jing-wen; Chen, Jun; Mu, Xiao-dong; Chen, Huan-chu; Jiang, Min-hua

1997-01-01

458

Multiple spike-train analysis using mutual interval matrix.  

PubMed

The principal-component approach is applied to the analysis of sequences of neuronal action potentials (spike trains). Multiple spike trains are represented as a sequence of vectors of mutual interspike intervals and are considered to be part of the trajectory of a dynamic system. The trajectory matrix is decomposed into a number of 'basic spike patterns' and their relative magnitudes by singular-value decomposition. The representation provides a convenient framework for analysis of dynamic relations and cooperation between neurons in an observed network. Examples of applications to simulated and cerebellar data are presented. PMID:1800852

Kaluzny, P; Tarnecki, R; Zmyslowski, W

1991-12-01

459

Mutual replacement reactions in alkali feldspars I: microtextures and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracrystal microtextures formed by a process of mutual replacement in alkali feldspars record fluid–rock reactions that\\u000a have affected large volumes of the Earth’s crust. Regular, ?1 ?m-scale ‘strain-controlled’ perthitic microtextures coarsen,\\u000a by up to 103, by a dissolution–reprecipitation process, producing microporous patch or vein perthites on scales >100 ?m. We have developed\\u000a earlier studies of such reactions in alkali feldspar cm-scale primocrysts

Ian Parsons; Martin R. Lee

2009-01-01

460

Synchronization and basin bifurcations in mutually coupled oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronization behaviour of two mutually coupled double-well Duffing oscillators exhibiting cross-well chaos is examined. Synchronization of the subsystems was observed for coupling strength k > 0.4. It is found that when the oscillators are operated in the regime for which two attractors coexist in phase space, basin bifurcation sequences occur leading to n+1, n ? 2 basins as the coupling is varied -- a signature of Wada structure and final-state sensitivity. However, in the region of complete synchronization, the basins structure is identical with that of the single oscillators and retains its essential features including fractal basin boundaries.

Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Akinlade, O.

2007-05-01

461

Optimization of stable quadruped locomotion using mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Pattern Generators (CPG)s have been widely used in the field of robotics to address the task of legged locomotion generation. The adequate configuration of these structures for a given platform can be accessed through evolutionary strategies, according to task dependent selection pressures. Information driven evolution, accounts for information theoretical measures as selection pressures, as an alternative to a fully task dependent selection pressure. In this work we exploit this concept and evaluate the use of mean Mutual Information, as a selection pressure towards a CPG configuration capable of faster, yet more coordinated and stabler locomotion than when only a task dependent selection pressure is used.

Silva, Pedro; Santos, Cristina P.; Polani, Daniel

2013-10-01

462

Situational and trait interactions among goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory focus theory has been used to describe and explain a wide range of consumer responses. This goal orientation has\\u000a been examined both as a chronic difference and a situational variable. Yet, it is unclear how a situational manipulation interacts\\u000a with the individual’s chronic goal orientation. The present research investigates the potential for interactions and suggests\\u000a that typical outcomes of

Kelly L. Haws; William O. Bearden; Utpal M. Dholakia

2012-01-01

463

Theory of orientational elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe the local orientation of a macroscopic medium with broken rotational symmetries, an orientational field that consists of three orthonormal vectors is introduced. Next, the deformation free-energy density is constructed and a detailed acount is given of the form and number of the appearing surface terms. It appears that the general expression involves 39 bulk elastic constants

S. Stallinga; G. Vertogen

1994-01-01

464

Orientation in operator algebras.  

PubMed

A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457

Alfsen, E M; Shultz, F W

1998-06-01

465

Orientation in operator algebras  

PubMed Central

A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics.

Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.

1998-01-01

466

Infant Discrimination of Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants in four age groups--three, six, nine and twelve months--were exposed to an experimental procedure designed to assess the extent to which such subjects were capable of discriminating between different orientations of the same form, and the extent to which they were capable of recognizing the identity between different orientations of the…

McGurk, Harry

467

Developing a customer orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer orientation is a fine ideal. Making it a reality is difficult for many organizations. Provides a framework to guide management through the process of building a customer-driven philosophy. It is hoped that by means of such a framework it will be possible to evaluate an organization?s customer orientation profile, and to provide the basis for a comparison of interorganizational

Sonny Nwankwo

1995-01-01

468

Conjugation fidelity and bistability in a high-efficiency mutually pumped phase conjugator with ring channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a high-efficiency mutually pumped phase conjugator with ring channels in a bird-wing incident geometry in copper-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate. A transmissivity as great as 35% is measured. Optical switching is obtained. The dependence of phase-conjugation fidelity on the geometric parameters and the input-beam ratio is discussed. Some suggestions are proposed to improve the fidelity further. The response times as a function of the input-beam ratio with the input beam kept constant are measured, and the least-squares minimum is used to simulate the fitting curve equations and to explain the formation of optical switching and the reduction or improvement of image fidelity.

Zhang, Liangmin; Zhang, Jingwen; Shao, Zongshu; Mu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huanchu; Jiang, Minhua

1995-07-01

469

Pathogenesis, parasitism and mutualism in the trophic space of microbe-plant interactions.  

PubMed

Microbe-host interactions can be categorised as pathogenic, parasitic or mutualistic, but in practice few examples exactly fit these descriptions. New molecular methods are providing insights into the dynamics of microbe-host interactions, with most microbes changing their relationship with their host at different life-cycle stages or in response to changing environmental conditions. Microbes can transition between the trophic states of pathogenesis and symbiosis and/or between mutualism and parasitism. In plant-based systems, an understanding of the true ecological niche of organisms and the dynamic state of their trophic interactions with their hosts has important implications for agriculture, including crop rotation, disease control and risk management. PMID:20598545

Newton, Adrian C; Fitt, Bruce D L; Atkins, Simon D; Walters, Dale R; Daniell, Tim J

2010-07-01

470

Mutual coupling of antennas in a meteor radar interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Meteor radars have become common and important tools in the study of the climate and dynamics of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region. These systems depend on accurate angle-of-arrival measurements to locate the positions of meteor trails in the atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> coupling between antennas, although small, produces a measurable error in the antenna pair phase differences used to deduce the angle of arrival of incident radiation. Measurements of the scattering parameter matrix for antennas in an interferometric meteor radar array have been made and applied to the existing angle-of-arrival calculation algorithm. The results indicate that <span class="hlt">mutual</span> coupling of antennas in the array produces errors in the zenith angle estimate of less than ± 0.5°. This error is primarily in the form of a gradient across the field of view of the radar, which can be removed using existing phase calibration methods. The remaining error is small but will produce small systematic variations in the height estimates for detected meteors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.; Vincent, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">471</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6420E..23S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their <span class="hlt">mutual</span> relationships</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their <span class="hlt">mutual</span> relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their <span class="hlt">mutual</span> relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">472</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvE..70f6123S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Least-dependent-component analysis based on <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose to use precise estimators of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information (MI) to find the least dependent components in a linearly mixed signal. On the one hand, this seems to lead to better blind source separation than with any other presently available algorithm. On the other hand, it has the advantage, compared to other implementations of “independent” component analysis (ICA), some of which are based on crude approximations for MI, that the numerical values of the MI can be used for (i) estimating residual dependencies between the output components; (ii) estimating the reliability of the output by comparing the pairwise MIs with those of remixed components; and (iii) clustering the output according to the residual interdependencies. For the MI estimator, we use a recently proposed k -nearest-neighbor-based algorithm. For time sequences, we combine this with delay embedding, in order to take into account nontrivial time correlations. After several tests with artificial data, we apply the resulting MILCA (<span class="hlt">mutual</span>-information-based least dependent component analysis) algorithm to a real-world dataset, the ECG of a pregnant woman.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stögbauer, Harald; Kraskov, Alexander; Astakhov, Sergey A.; Grassberger, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">473</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.1593P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Markov chain order estimation with conditional <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce the Conditional <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information (CMI) for the estimation of the Markov chain order. For a Markov chain of K symbols, we define CMI of order m, Ic(m), as the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information of two variables in the chain being m time steps apart, conditioning on the intermediate variables of the chain. We find approximate analytic significance limits based on the estimation bias of CMI and develop a randomization significance test of Ic(m), where the randomized symbol sequences are formed by random permutation of the components of the original symbol sequence. The significance test is applied for increasing m and the Markov chain order is estimated by the last order for which the null hypothesis is rejected. We present the appropriateness of CMI-testing on Monte Carlo simulations and compare it to the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria, the maximal fluctuation method (Peres–Shields estimator) and a likelihood ratio test for increasing orders using ?-divergence. The order criterion of CMI-testing turns out to be superior for orders larger than one, but its effectiveness for large orders depends on data availability. In view of the results from the simulations, we interpret the estimated orders by the CMI-testing and the other criteria on genes and intergenic regions of DNA chains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papapetrou, M.; Kugiumtzis, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">474</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3327697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Housekeeping <span class="hlt">Mutualisms</span>: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutualisms</span> often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">475</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12618808"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> passivation of electrically active and isovalent impurities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The alloy GaN(x) As(1-x) (with x typically less than 0.05) is a novel semiconductor that has many interesting electronic properties because of the nitrogen-induced dramatic modifications of the conduction band structure of the host material (GaAs). Here we demonstrate the existence of an entirely new effect in the GaN(x) As(1-x) alloy system in which the Si donor in the substitututional Ga site (Si(Ga)) and the isovalent atom N in the As sublattice (N(As)) passivate each other's electronic activity. This <span class="hlt">mutual</span> passivation occurs in Si-doped GaN(x) As(1-x) through the formation of nearest-neighbour Si(Ga) -N(As) pairs and is thermally stable up to 950 degrees C. Consequently, Si doping in GaN(x) As(1-x) under equilibrium conditions results in a highly resistive GaN(x) As(1-x) layer with the fundamental bandgap governed by a net 'active' N, roughly equal to the total N content minus the Si concentration. Such <span class="hlt">mutual</span> passivation is expected to be a general phenomenon for electrically active dopants and localized state impurities that can form nearest-neighbour pairs. PMID:12618808</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, K M; Walukiewicz, W; Wu, J; Mars, D E; Chamberlin, D R; Scarpulla, M A; Dubon, O D; Geisz, J F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">476</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3609409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies of genomic integration within insect-bacterial <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Insects, the most diverse group of macroorganisms with 900,000 known species, have been a rich playground for the evolution of symbiotic associations. Symbionts of this enormous animal group include a range of microbial partners. Insects are prone to establishing relationships with intracellular bacteria, which include the most intimate, highly integrated <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> known in the biological world. In recent years, an explosion of genomic studies has offered new insights into the molecular, functional, and evolutionary consequences of these insect-bacterial partnerships. In this review, I highlight some insights from genome sequences of bacterial endosymbionts and select insect hosts. Notably, comparisons of facultative versus obligate bacterial mutualists have revealed distinct genome features representing different stages along a shared trajectory of genome reduction. Bacteria associated with the cedar aphid offer a snapshot of a transition from facultative to obligate <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>, illustrating the genomic basis of this key step along the symbiotic spectrum. In addition, genomes of stable, dual bacterial symbionts reflect independent instances of astonishing metabolic integration. In these systems, synthesis of key nutrients, and perhaps basic cellular processes, require collaboration among co-residing bacteria and their insect host. These findings provide a launching point for a new era of genomic explorations of bacterial-animal symbioses. Future studies promise to reveal symbiotic strategies across a broad ecological and phylogenetic range, to clarify key transitions along a spectrum of interaction types, and to fuel new experimental approaches to dissect the mechanistic basis of intimate host-symbiont associations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wernegreen, Jennifer J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">477</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21646154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploitation of a specialized <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> by a deceptive orchid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants that lack floral rewards may nevertheless attract pollinators through mimetic resemblance to the flowers of co-occurring rewarding plants. We show how a deceptive orchid (Disa nivea) successfully exploits a reciprocally specialized <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> between a nectar-producing plant (Zaluzianskya microsiphon) and its long-proboscid fly pollinator (Prosoeca ganglbaueri). Disa nivea is a rare southern African orchid known only from habitats that support large populations of Z. microsiphon, which it closely resembles in both general morphology and floral spectral reflectance. Significant covariation in floral traits of Z. microsiphon and D. nivea was detected among populations. Where mimics are uncommon, flies do not appear to discriminate between the flowers of the two species. Pollination success in D. nivea was much higher at a site with abundant Z. microsiphon plants than at a site where Z. microsiphon was rare. Exploitation of a highly specialized <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> appears to demand a high degree of phenotypic resemblance to a rewarding model by a deceptive mimic, as exemplified by D. nivea. The majority of deceptive orchids, on the other hand, exploit relatively generalized pollination systems and thus require only a vague resemblance to rewarding plants in the community in order to attract pollinators. PMID:21646154</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D; Carbutt, Clinton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">478</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22523536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Housekeeping <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span>: do more symbionts facilitate host performance?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutualisms</span> often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stier, Adrian C; Gil, Michael A; McKeon, C Seabird; Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C; Osenberg, Craig W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">479</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12361318"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> antipathies and their significance in middle childhood and adolescence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> antipathies (when two children or adolescents dislike one another) were studied among 2,348 school-age children and 2,768 adolescents to determine incidence, gender and age differences, and implications for social adjustment. The children were more frequently involved than were the adolescents in same-sex antipathies but not mixed-sex ones. Boys were involved more frequently than were girls in same-sex antipathies, but involvement in mixed-sex antipathies was comparable for the two genders. With peer rejection scores used as a covariate, same-sex antipathies were associated with antisocial behavior and social withdrawal among children and adolescents of both genders and, in addition, to emotionality and lack of friendship support among adolescents. Mixed-sex antipathies were related to social adjustment depending on gender: these antipathies were related to antisocial and bullying behavior in boys but not girls; and to nonaggressiveness, victimization, lesser cooperation, shyness, and depression in girls but not boys. <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> antipathies thus appear to be concomitants of adaptational risk in both childhood and adolescence. PMID:12361318</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abecassis, Maurissa; Hartup, Willard W; Haselager, Gerbert J T; Scholte, Ron H J; Van Lieshout, Cornelis F M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">480</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chm.ulaval.ca/mpezolet/Pelletier%20et%20al.%202004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Molecular <span class="hlt">Orientation</span> in Biaxially <span class="hlt">Oriented</span> Ultrathin Films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biaxial <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in ultrathin films is characterized by a preferential <span class="hlt">orientation</span> of the main molecular axis in the plane of the film in addition to its <span class="hlt">orientation</span> with respect to the normal of the film. In this paper, analytical expressions allowing the calculation of the molecular <span class="hlt">orientation</span> in biaxially <span class="hlt">oriented</span> films from their anisotropic optical constants are presented for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Isabelle Pelletier; Isabelle Laurin; Thierry Buffeteau; Michel Pezolet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">481</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48723206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating GI with non-GI services—showcasing interoperability in a heterogeneous service-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> architecture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of a service-<span class="hlt">oriented</span> architecture provides a technical foundation for delivering, using, and integrating software.\\u000a It can serve as an approach to integrate GIS with other, non-GIS applications. This paper presents and discusses a service-<span class="hlt">oriented</span>\\u000a architecture that embraces a GIS and an enterprise resource planning system. The two information systems make <span class="hlt">mutually</span> required\\u000a functionalities available as services. This defines</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Treiblmayr; Simon Scheider; Antonio Krüger; Marc von der Linden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">482</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHEP...07..081M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> information between thermo-field doubles and disconnected holographic boundaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information as a measure of the entanglement between `physical' and thermo-field double degrees of freedom in field theories at finite temperature. We compute this "thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information" in simple toy models: a quantum mechanics two-site spin chain, a two dimensional massless fermion, and a two dimensional holographic system. In holographic systems, the thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information is related to minimal surfaces connecting the two disconnected boundaries of an eternal black hole. We derive a number of salient features of this thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information, including that it is UV finite, positive definite and bounded from above by the standard <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information for the thermal ensemble. We relate the construction of the reduced density matrices used to define the thermo-<span class="hlt">mutual</span> information to the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, ensuring that all our objects are well defined in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morrison, Ian A.; Roberts, Matthew M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">483</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5737R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> information estimation for irregularly sampled time series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the automated, objective and joint analysis of time series, similarity measures are crucial. Used in the analysis of climate records, they allow for a complimentary, unbiased view onto sparse datasets. The irregular sampling of many of these time series, however, makes it necessary to either perform signal reconstruction (e.g. interpolation) or to develop and use adapted measures. Standard linear interpolation comes with an inevitable loss of information and bias effects. We have recently developed a Gaussian kernel-based correlation algorithm with which the interpolation error can be substantially lowered, but this would not work should the functional relationship in a bivariate setting be non-linear. We therefore propose an algorithm to estimate lagged auto and cross <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information from irregularly sampled time series. We have extended the standard and adaptive binning histogram estimators and use Gaussian distributed weights in the estimation of the (joint) probabilities. To test our method we have simulated linear and nonlinear auto-regressive processes with Gamma-distributed inter-sampling intervals. We have then performed a sensitivity analysis for the estimation of actual coupling length, the lag of coupling and the decorrelation time in the synthetic time series and contrast our results to the performance of a signal reconstruction scheme. Finally we applied our estimator to speleothem records. We compare the estimated memory (or decorrelation time) to that from a least-squares estimator based on fitting an auto-regressive process of order 1. The calculated (cross) <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information results are compared for the different estimators (standard or adaptive binning) and contrasted with results from signal reconstruction. We find that the kernel-based estimator has a significantly lower root mean square error and less systematic sampling bias than the interpolation-based method. It is possible that these encouraging results could be further improved by using non-histogram <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information estimators, like k-Nearest Neighbor or Kernel-Density estimators, but for short (<1000 points) and irregularly sampled datasets the proposed algorithm is already a great improvement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rehfeld, K.; Marwan, N.; Heitzig, J.; Kurths, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">484</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40156154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density-dependent outcomes in a digestive <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> between carnivorous Roridula plants and their associated hemipterans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown that <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> often have variable outcomes in space and time. In particular, the outcomes may\\u000a be dependent on the density of the partners with unimodal or saturating outcomes providing stability to the <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>. We\\u000a examine density-dependent outcomes of an obligate, species-specific <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> between a South African carnivorous plant (Roridula dentata) and a hemipteran (Pameridea) that facilitates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce Anderson; Jeremy J. Midgley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">485</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=whale&id=EJ989007"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Response</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This article presents the author's <span class="hlt">response</span> to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief <span class="hlt">response</span>, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Higgins, Chris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">486</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AnPhy.337..208S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutually</span> unbiased projectors and duality between lines and bases in finite quantum systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum systems with variables in the ring Z(d) are considered, and the concepts of weak <span class="hlt">mutually</span> unbiased bases and <span class="hlt">mutually</span> unbiased projectors are discussed. The lines through the origin in the Z(d)×Z(d) phase space, are classified into maximal lines (sets of d points), and sublines (sets of di points where di|d). The sublines are intersections of maximal lines. It is shown that there exists a duality between the properties of lines (resp., sublines), and the properties of weak <span class="hlt">mutually</span> unbiased bases (resp., <span class="hlt">mutually</span> unbiased projectors).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shalaby, M.; Vourdas, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">487</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691992"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutuality</span> and solidarity: assessing risks and sharing losses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mutuality</span> is the principle of private, commercial insurance; individuals enter the pool for sharing losses, and pay according to the best estimate of the risk they bring with them. Solidarity is the sharing of losses with payment according to some other scheme; this is the principle of state social insurance; essential features of solidarity are comprehensiveness and compulsion. Private insurance is subject to the uberrima fides principle, or utmost good faith; each side declares all it knows about the risk. The Disability Discrimination Act requires insurers to justify disability discrimination on the basis of relevant information, acturial, statistical or medical, on which it is reasonable to rely. It could be very damaging to private insurance to abandon uberrima fides. However, although some genetic information is clearly useful to underwriters, other information may be so general as to be of little use. The way in which mortality rates are assessed is also explained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkie, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">488</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvL.100g0502W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Area Laws in Quantum Systems: <span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Information and Correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The holographic principle states that on a fundamental level the information content of a region should depend on its surface area rather than on its volume. In this Letter we show that this phenomenon not only emerges in the search for new Planck-scale laws but also in lattice models of classical and quantum physics: the information contained in part of a system in thermal equilibrium obeys an area law. While the maximal information per unit area depends classically only on the number of degrees of freedom, it may diverge as the inverse temperature in quantum systems. It is shown that an area law is generally implied by a finite correlation length when measured in terms of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolf, Michael M.; Verstraete, Frank; Hastings, Matthew B.; Cirac, J. Ignacio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">489</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2688311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ant-plant <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> should be viewed as symbiotic communities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ant-plants provide food and nesting space (domatia) for ants that protect them against herbivores. These <span class="hlt">mutualisms</span> are often very specific and are usually considered as bipartite, or tripartite when ants use hemipterans as trophobionts. However, fungi growing inside domatia have been recorded by a few authors. Here we report on their occurrence on additional ant-plants from Africa, Asia and South America. We demonstrated the symbiotic nature of the relationship between the plant, the ant and the fungus in the model plant Leonardoxa africana africana and its mutualistic ant Petalomyrmex phylax. Moreover, data suggest the ant-fungus relationship is mutualistic. Here we discuss the most probable role of the fungus and the potential implications on the understanding of nutritional ecology of ant-plant symbioses. The fungus is also associated with the presence of nematodes and bacteria. Many ant-plant symbioses previously considered to be bipartite will soon likely prove to be multipartite symbiotic communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge; Selosse, Marc-Andre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">490</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000LNP...542..409K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mutual</span> Dynamics of Swimming Microorganisms and Their Fluid Habitat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Organisms alter their material environment, and their environment constrains and naturally selects organisms." Lenton's [17] statement applies especially well to populations of swimming micro-organisms. The <span class="hlt">mutual</span> dynamic of themselves and their fluid habitat orders and constrains them, generates concentration-convection patterns [12], [15], enhances transport of metabolites and, at all scales, guides many of their interactions. Our objective is to describe mathematical models sufficient for reaching insights that can further guide theory and experiment. These models necessarily include nonlinear and stochastic features. To illustrate self-organization and the type of experimental statistical inputs available, we present some rather astonishing data concerning the motile bacteria Bacillus subtilis and hydrodynamics associated with their activity. The inescapable interdependence of physics and biology emerges from the analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kessler, John O.; Burnett, G. David; Remick, Katherine E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">491</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CeMDA.tmp...62H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recursive computation of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> potential between two polyhedra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recursive computation of <span class="hlt">mutual</span> potential, force, and torque between two polyhedra is studied. Based on formulations by Werner and Scheeres (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 91:337-349, 2005) and Fahnestock and Scheeres (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 96:317-339, 2006) who applied the Legendre polynomial expansion to gravity interactions and expressed each order term by a shape-dependent part and a shape-independent part, this paper generalizes the computation of each order term, giving recursive relations of the shape-dependent part. To consider the potential, force, and torque, we introduce three tensors. This method is applicable to any multi-body systems. Finally, we implement this recursive computation to simulate the dynamics of a two rigid-body system that consists of two equal-sized parallelepipeds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">492</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18647173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photorhabdus: a model for the analysis of pathogenicity and <span class="hlt">mutualism</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photorhabdus are entomopathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In addition to killing insects Photorhabdus also have a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditidiae. Therefore, the bacteria have a complex life cycle that involves temporally separated pathogenic and mutualistic associations with two different invertebrate hosts. This tripartite Photorhabdus-insect-nematode association provides researchers with a unique opportunity to characterize the prokaryotic contribution to two different symbioses, i.e. pathogenicity and <span class="hlt">mutualism</span> while also studying the role of the host in determining the outcome of association with the bacteria. In this review I will outline the life cycle of Photorhabdus and describe recent important advances in our understanding of the symbiology of Photorhabdus. Finally, the contribution made by this model to our understanding of the nature of symbiotic associations will be discussed. PMID:18647173</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clarke, David J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">493</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544720"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Philosophy of the <span class="hlt">mutual</span> biotic system of man-environment].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With regard to environmental changes, outstanding importance is meanwhile to be attached to the cultural side of human evolution. The evolution both of mankind and of its environment are <span class="hlt">mutually</span> dependent as processes of change and together they form a complete b