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Sample records for mutually responsive orientation

  1. Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Conscience Development: From Toddler to Early School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Murray, Kathleen T.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the long-term consequences of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience at early school age. Found that mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's conscience, even after controlling for developmental continuity of conscience. Toddler mutually responsive…

  2. Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: implications for early socialization.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, G

    1997-02-01

    Parent-child mutually responsive, binding, reciprocal orientation, or a system of reciprocity has been implicated as fundamental in socialization, particularly by Maccoby, but it remains poorly understood. In this study, two posited components of such orientation, mother-child shared cooperation with each other and mother-child shared positive affect, were measured in multiple contexts of daily interactions using a combination of micro- and macroscopic behavioral coding systems, and subsequently aggregated. Mothers' self-reports were also used. Two implications of thus conceptualized mutually responsive orientation were examined: mothers' use of power in disciplinary interactions and children's degree of internalization of maternal rules, both assessed using multiple observational and mother-reported measures. Mothers and children were studied twice, when children were 26-41 months (Time 1, N = 103), and when they were 43-56 months (Time 2, N = 99). In the dyads high on the mutually responsive orientation (particularly those who maintained such orientation throughout early childhood), mothers resorted to less power and children were more internalized regarding maternal values and rules, in the contemporaneous and longitudinal sense. Mothers high on empathic perspective taking were more likely to establish a system of reciprocity with their children. The importance of such systems for social development is discussed. PMID:9084128

  3. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  4. Mother-Child and Father-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation in the First 2 Years and Children's Outcomes at Preschool Age: Mechanisms of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Prisco, Theresa R.; Adams, Erin E.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms accounting for the effects of mutually responsive orientation (MRO) at 7, 15, and 25 months in 102 mother-child and father-child dyads on child internalization and self-regulation at 52 months were examined. Two mediators at 38 months were tested: parental power assertion and child self-representation. For mother-child relationships,…

  5. Learning Design and Service-Oriented Architectures: A Mutual Dependency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Patrick; Weller, Martin; Barrett-Baxendale, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at how the concept of reusability has gained currency in e-learning. Initial attention was focused on reuse of content, but recently attention has focused on reusable software tools and reusable activity structures. The former has led to the proposal of service-oriented architectures, and the latter has seen the development of the…

  6. Population dynamics and mutualism: Functional responses of benefits and costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    We develop an approach for studying population dynamics resulting from mutualism by employing functional responses based on density‐dependent benefits and costs. These functional responses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as functions of the density of its partner. Net effects to mutualists are likely a monotonically saturating or unimodal function of the density of their partner. We show that fundamental differences in the growth, limitation, and dynamics of a population can occur when net effects to that population change linearly, unimodally, or in a saturating fashion. We use the mutualism between senita cactus and its pollinating seed‐eating moth as an example to show the influence of different benefit and cost functional responses on population dynamics and stability of mutualisms. We investigated two mechanisms that may alter this mutualism's functional responses: distribution of eggs among flowers and fruit abortion. Differences in how benefits and costs vary with density can alter the stability of this mutualism. In particular, fruit abortion may allow for a stable equilibrium where none could otherwise exist.

  7. Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ian PS

    2006-01-01

    Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

  8. Mutualism fails when climate response differs between interacting species.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Warren RJ 2nd; Bradford MA

    2014-02-01

    Successful species interactions require that both partners share a similar cue. For many species, spring warming acts as a shared signal to synchronize mutualist behaviors. Spring flowering plants and the ants that disperse their seeds respond to warming temperatures so that ants forage when plants drop seeds. However, where warm-adapted ants replace cold-adapted ants, changes in this timing might leave early seeds stranded without a disperser. We investigate plant seed dispersal south and north of a distinct boundary between warm- and cold-adapted ants to determine if changes in the ant species influence local plant dispersal. The warm-adapted ants forage much later than the cold-adapted ants, and so we first assess natural populations of early and late blooming plants. We then transplant these plants south and north of the ant boundary to test whether distinct ant climate requirements disrupt the ant-plant mutualism. Whereas the early blooming plant's inability to synchronize with the warm-adapted ant leaves its populations clumped and patchy and its seedlings clustered around the parents in natural populations, when transplanted into the range of the cold-adapted ant, effective seed dispersal recovers. In contrast, the mutualism persists for the later blooming plant regardless of location because it sets seed later in spring when both warm- and cold-adapted ant species forage, resulting in effective seed dispersal. These results indicate that the climate response of species interactions, not just the species themselves, is integral in understanding ecological responses to a changing climate. Data linking phenological synchrony and dispersal are rare, and these results suggest a viable mechanism by which a species' range is limited more by biotic than abiotic interactions - despite the general assumption that biotic influences are buried within larger climate drivers. These results show that biotic partner can be as fundamental a niche requirement as abiotic resources.

  9. Mutualism fails when climate response differs between interacting species.

    PubMed

    Warren, Robert J; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Successful species interactions require that both partners share a similar cue. For many species, spring warming acts as a shared signal to synchronize mutualist behaviors. Spring flowering plants and the ants that disperse their seeds respond to warming temperatures so that ants forage when plants drop seeds. However, where warm-adapted ants replace cold-adapted ants, changes in this timing might leave early seeds stranded without a disperser. We investigate plant seed dispersal south and north of a distinct boundary between warm- and cold-adapted ants to determine if changes in the ant species influence local plant dispersal. The warm-adapted ants forage much later than the cold-adapted ants, and so we first assess natural populations of early and late blooming plants. We then transplant these plants south and north of the ant boundary to test whether distinct ant climate requirements disrupt the ant-plant mutualism. Whereas the early blooming plant's inability to synchronize with the warm-adapted ant leaves its populations clumped and patchy and its seedlings clustered around the parents in natural populations, when transplanted into the range of the cold-adapted ant, effective seed dispersal recovers. In contrast, the mutualism persists for the later blooming plant regardless of location because it sets seed later in spring when both warm- and cold-adapted ant species forage, resulting in effective seed dispersal. These results indicate that the climate response of species interactions, not just the species themselves, is integral in understanding ecological responses to a changing climate. Data linking phenological synchrony and dispersal are rare, and these results suggest a viable mechanism by which a species' range is limited more by biotic than abiotic interactions - despite the general assumption that biotic influences are buried within larger climate drivers. These results show that biotic partner can be as fundamental a niche requirement as abiotic resources. PMID:24399754

  10. Performing Mutuality in the Writing Class: Creating Emancipatory Teacher-Student Relationships through Response and Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrebik, John Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This study offers a step-by-step process for encouraging mutuality in the freshman composition class. This discussion begins by reexamining the theoretical underpinnings of response methodology in an effort to situate the act of responding to student writing within the scope of mutuality. In particular, this reconsideration reveals that most…

  11. Managing Mutual Orientation in the Absence of Physical Copresence: Multiparty Voice-Based Chat Room Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Christopher Joseph; Brandt, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the interactional work involved in ratifying mutual participation in online, multiparty, voice-based chat rooms. The purpose of this article is to provide a preliminary sketch of how talk and participation is managed in a spoken communication environment that comprises interactants who are not physically copresent but are…

  12. Managing Mutual Orientation in the Absence of Physical Copresence: Multiparty Voice-Based Chat Room Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Christopher Joseph; Brandt, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the interactional work involved in ratifying mutual participation in online, multiparty, voice-based chat rooms. The purpose of this article is to provide a preliminary sketch of how talk and participation is managed in a spoken communication environment that comprises interactants who are not physically copresent but are

  13. Evolution of plant–pollinator mutualisms in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, R Tucker; Fabina, Nicholas S; Abbott, Karen C; Rafferty, Nicole E

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to desynchronize the phenologies of interdependent species, with potentially catastrophic effects on mutualist populations. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plant–pollinator mutualism under climate change. How the populations evolve, and thus whether the populations and the mutualism persist, depends not only on the rate of climate change but also on the densities and phenologies of other species in the community. Abundant alternative mutualist partners with broad temporal distributions can make a mutualism more robust to climate change, while abundant alternative partners with narrow temporal distributions can make a mutualism less robust. How community composition and the rate of climate change affect the persistence of mutualisms is mediated by two-species Allee thresholds. Understanding these thresholds will help researchers to identify those mutualisms at highest risk owing to climate change. PMID:25568025

  14. The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the…

  15. The Architecture of Interdependent Minds: A Motivation-Management Theory of Mutual Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sandra L.; Holmes, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A model of mutual responsiveness in adult romantic relationships is proposed. Behaving responsively in conflict-of-interest situations requires one partner to resist the temptation to be selfish and the other partner to resist the temptation to protect against exploitation. Managing risk and the attendant temptations of self-interest require the

  16. Levisohn's Orientations: A Response from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn has made a significant contribution to the scholarship of teaching in his article proposing that the teaching of rabbinic literature is most successfully accomplished when teachers think about

  17. Numerical responses in resource-based mutualisms: A time scale approach.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Tomás A

    2015-08-01

    Many mutualisms involve inter-specific resource exchanges, making consumer-resource approaches ideal for studying their dynamics. Also in many cases these resources are short lived (e.g. flowers) compared with the population dynamics of their producers and consumers (e.g. plants and insects), which justifies a separation of time scales. As a result, we can derive the numerical response of one species with respect to the abundance of another. For resource consumers, the numerical responses can account for intra-specific competition for mutualistic resources (e.g. nectar), thus connecting competition theory and mutualism mechanistically. For species that depend on services (e.g. pollination, seed dispersal), the numerical responses display saturation of benefits, with service handling times related with rates of resource production (e.g. flower turnover time). In both scenarios, competition and saturation have the same underlying cause, which is that resource production occurs at a finite velocity per individual, but their consumption tracks the much faster rates of population growth characterizing mutualisms. The resulting models display all the basic features seen in many models of facultative and obligate mutualisms, and they can be generalized from species pairs to larger communities. PMID:25936757

  18. Geographical matching of volatile signals and pollinator olfactory responses in a cycad brood-site mutualism.

    PubMed

    Suinyuy, Terence N; Donaldson, John S; Johnson, Steven D

    2015-10-01

    Brood-site mutualisms represent extreme levels of reciprocal specialization between plants and insect pollinators, raising questions about whether these mutualisms are mediated by volatile signals and whether these signals and insect responses to them covary geographically in a manner expected from coevolution. Cycads are an ancient plant lineage in which almost all extant species are pollinated through brood-site mutualisms with insects. We investigated whether volatile emissions and insect olfactory responses are matched across the distribution range of the African cycad Encephalartos villosus. This cycad species is pollinated by the same beetle species across its distribution, but cone volatile emissions are dominated by alkenes in northern populations, and by monoterpenes and a pyrazine compound in southern populations. In reciprocal choice experiments, insects chose the scent of cones from the local region over that of cones from the other region. Antennae of beetles from northern populations responded mainly to alkenes, while those of beetles from southern populations responded mainly to pyrazine. In bioassay experiments, beetles were most strongly attracted to alkenes in northern populations and to the pyrazine compound in southern populations. Geographical matching of cone volatiles and pollinator olfactory preference is consistent with coevolution in this specialized mutualism. PMID:26446814

  19. Social Anhedonia and Medial Prefrontal Response to Mutual Liking in Late Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kati L.; Morgan, Judith; Musselman, Samuel C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depression defined as difficulty experiencing pleasure, is also a possible endophenotype and prognostic factor for the development of depression. The onset of depression typically occurs during adolescence, a period in which social status and affiliation are especially salient. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in reward, self-relevant processing, and social cognition, exhibits altered function in adults with anhedonia, but its association with adolescent anhedonia has yet to be investigated. We examined neural response to social reward in 27 late adolescents, 18–21 years old, who varied in social anhedonia. Participants reported their social anhedonia, completed ratings of photos of unfamiliar peers, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving feedback about being liked. Adolescents with higher social anhedonia exhibited greater mPFC activation in response to mutual liking (i.e., being liked by someone they also liked) relative to received liking (i.e., being liked by someone whom they did not like). This association held after controlling for severity of current depressive symptoms, although depressive severity was also associated with greater mPFC response. Adolescents with higher levels of social anhedonia also had stronger positive connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the mPFC during mutual versus received liking. These results, the first on the pathophysiology of adolescent anhedonia, support altered neural reward-circuit response to social reward in young people with social anhedonia. PMID:24412087

  20. Ethics of care in medical tourism: Informal caregivers' narratives of responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism through an ethics of care lens. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery, asking questions that dealt with their experiences prior to, during and after travel. Thematic analysis revealed three themes central to an ethics of care: responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality. Ethics of care theorists have highlighted how care has been historically devalued. We posit that medical tourism reproduces dominant narratives about care in a novel care landscape. Informal care goes unaccounted for by the industry, as it occurs in largely private spaces at a geographic distance from the home countries of medical tourists. PMID:26313855

  1. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; van Moort, Marianne L.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES) has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES. PMID:27010472

  2. Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  3. Trade-off between reciprocal mutualists: local resource availability-oriented interaction in fig/fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui Wu; Shi, Lei; Ai, Shi Meng; Zheng, Qi

    2008-05-01

    1. The mechanisms that prevent competition (conflict) between the recipient and co-operative actor in co-operative systems remain one of the greatest problems for evolutionary biology. Previous hypotheses suggest that self-restraint, dispersal or spatial constraints can prevent direct competition for local resources or any other common resources, thereby maintaining stable co-operation interactions. In this study, we use the obligate fig-fig-wasp mutualism to examine whether the above mechanisms can maintain stable co-operation sufficiently between figs and fig wasps. 2. Our data on obligate co-operation between figs (Ficus racemosa Linn.) and fig wasps (Ceratoslen fusciceps Mayr) show that the number of viable seeds of figs is positively correlated with the number of pollinator offspring when the number of vacant female flowers is high while the foundress number is low (two foundresses). Meanwhile, they are negatively correlated when the number of vacant female flowers is low and the number of foundresses is increased manually (eight foundresses). The correlation coefficient between viable seeds and wasp offspring (galls) depends on vacant female flower availability. 3. Our data suggest that the interaction between figs and fig wasps is conditional, and that they co-operate when local resource availability is plentiful but are in conflict when local resource availability is limited. The self-restraint, dispersal and spatial heterogeneity previously hypothesized in maintaining stable co-operation cannot sufficiently prevent the symbionts from utilizing more local resources at the expense of the recipients. The conflict, which can disrupt the co-operation interaction, exists after the local resource is saturated with symbionts. The repression of symbiont increase, therefore repressing the utilization of local resources in the conflict period, is crucial in the maintenance and evolution of co-operation. PMID:18266694

  4. Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2012-01-01

    Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

  5. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Functional Response, Prey Stage Preference, and Mutual Interference of the Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Tomato and Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Campos-Figueroa, Manuel; Silva, Adrian; Henne, Donald C

    2015-04-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (šulc), has been detrimental to potato, tomato, and other solanaceous crop production in many countries. Management of B. cockerelli is dominated by frequent insecticide applications, but other approaches need consideration, including biological control. The sole arrhenotokous ectoparasitoid of nymphal potato psyllids is Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Here, laboratory evaluations of host stage preference, parasitoid mutual interference, and functional response of T. triozae were conducted with varying host B. cockerelli nymphal stages and densities on both tomato and bell pepper plant leaves. Significant differences in prey stage preferences were found on both host plants. In a no-choice host stage test, significantly greater parasitism of fourth- and fifth-instar B. cockerelli nymphs occurred, and no parasitism of first or second instars was found. Similar preferences were found in a host stage choice test. Effect of mutual interference on per capita female parasitism was significant when confining two or three simultaneously ovipositing female T. triozae adults on a given host density versus solitary females. The per capita search efficiency (s) of female T. triozae was significantly and negatively correlated with T. triozae density. The functional response of T. triozae to nymphal B. cockerelli was a Type III form on both host plants. In addition, host plant type did not exert a significant bottom-up effect on either parasitism or functional response of female T. triozae. The feasibility of using bell pepper as a potential banker plant for T. triozae augmentation is also discussed. PMID:26470152

  7. The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, G

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this review is to compare two divergent lines of research on signal-centered behavior: the orienting reflex (OR) and autoshaping. A review of conditioning experiments in animals and humans suggests that the novelty hypothesis of the OR is no longer tenable. Only stimuli that represent biological "relevance" elicit ORs. A stimulus may be relevant a priori (i.e., unconditioned) or as a result of conditioning. Exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts a positive reinforcer causes the animal to orient to it throughout conditioning. Within the CS-US interval, the initial CS-directed orienting response is followed by US-directed tendencies. Experimental evidence is shown that the development and maintenance of the conditioned OR occur in a similar fashion both in response-independent (classical) and response-dependent (instrumental) paradigms. It is proposed that the conditioned OR and the signal-directed autoshaped response are identical. Signals predicting aversive events repel the subject from the source of the CS. It is suggested that the function of the CS is not only to signal the probability of US occurrence, but also to serve as a spatial cue to guide the animal in the environment. PMID:7097153

  8. Selective Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses During Live Mutual Gaze Interactions in Human Infants: An fNIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in processing multimodal communicative ostensive signals in infants, we measured cerebral hemodynamic responses by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the social interactive play "peek-a-boo", in which both visual (direct gaze) and auditory (infant-directed speech) stimuli were presented. The infants (mean age, around 7 months) sat on their mother's lap, equipped with an NIRS head cap, and looked at a partner's face during "peek-a-boo". An eye-tracking system simultaneously monitored the infants' visual fixation patterns. The results indicate that, when the partner presented a direct gaze, rather than an averted gaze, toward an infant during social play, the infant fixated on the partner's eye region for a longer duration. Furthermore, hemodynamic activity increased more prominently dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to social play with a partner's direct gaze compared to an averted gaze. In contrast, hemodynamic activity increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (R-lPFC) regardless of a partner's eye gaze direction. These results indicate that a partner's direct gaze shifts an infant's attention to the partner's eyes for interactive communication, and specifically activates the mPFC. The differences in hemodynamic responses between the mPFC and R-lPFC suggest functional differentiation within the PFC, and a specific role of the mPFC in the perception of face-to-face communication, especially in mutual gaze, which is essential for social interaction. PMID:25367848

  9. Evaluative Priming of Naming and Semantic Categorization Responses Revisited: A Mutual Facilitation Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The evaluative priming effect (i.e., faster target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) in nonevaluative priming tasks (such as naming or semantic categorization tasks) is considered important for the question of how evaluative connotations are represented in memory. However, the empirical

  10. Evaluative Priming of Naming and Semantic Categorization Responses Revisited: A Mutual Facilitation Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The evaluative priming effect (i.e., faster target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) in nonevaluative priming tasks (such as naming or semantic categorization tasks) is considered important for the question of how evaluative connotations are represented in memory. However, the empirical…

  11. Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Holland, J. Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the fraction of flowers pollinated or seeds parasitized in pollination (pre-dispersal) seed-parasitism mutualisms, such as those between fig wasps and fig trees or yucca moths and yucca plants. Here we examine the appropriate functional responses for how the fraction of flowers pollinated and seeds parasitized vary with the density of pollinators (predator dependence) or the ratio of pollinator and flower densities (ratio dependence). We show that both types of functional responses can emerge from minor, but biologically important variations on a single model. An individual-based model was first used to describe plant–pollinator interactions. Conditional upon on whether the number of flowers visited by the pollinator was limited by factors other than search time (e.g., by the number of eggs it had to lay, if it was also a seed parasite), and on whether the pollinator could directly find flowers on a plant, or had to search, the simulation results lead to either a predator-dependent or a ratio-dependent functional response. An analytic model was then used to show mathematically how these two cases can arise.

  12. Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

  13. The Magnetospheric Response to Abrupt Variations in the IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    We run the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic model at NASA/GSFC's CCMCto study the magnetospheric response to abrupt variations in the IMF orientation but constant solar wind plasmaparameters. IMF rotations from southward to duskward orientations diminish reconnection rates and the flow ofplasma to the dayside magnetopause, launch Alfven waves that carry strong duskward magnetic field perturbationsto the cusp ionosphere, introduce a weak duskward magnetic field perturbation to the outer dayside magnetosphere, twistthe magnetotail current sheet counterclockwise when viewed from the Sun, flatten the north/south dimensions of the distant magnetotail, andgenerate a broad slow-mode fan on the magnetotail flanks. Southward IMF turnings strengthen the Region 1 Birkelandcurrents, prominently depressing magnetic field strengths in the inner dayside magnetosphere and to a lesserdegree those in the outer magnetosphere, consistent with inward dayside magnetopause erosion. The daysidemagnetopause becomes blunter. As evidenced by enhanced magnetosheath thermal and magnetosphericmagnetic pressures, the magnetopause therefore becomes subject to a greater fraction of the incident solar winddynamic pressure at locations away from the subsolar point.

  14. Orientation-selective Responses in the Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xiaorong

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) receives visual information from the retina and transmits it to the cortex. In this study, we made extracellular recordings in the dLGN of both anesthetized and awake mice, and found that a surprisingly high proportion of cells were selective for stimulus orientation. The orientation selectivity of dLGN cells was unchanged after silencing the visual cortex pharmacologically, indicating that it is not due to cortical feedback. The orientation tuning of some dLGN cells correlated with their elongated receptive fields, while in others orientation selectivity was observed despite the fact that their receptive fields were circular, suggesting that their retinal input might already be orientation selective. Consistently, we revealed orientation/axis-selective ganglion cells in the mouse retina using multielectrode arrays in an in vitro preparation. Furthermore, the orientation tuning of dLGN cells was largely maintained at different stimulus contrasts, which could be sufficiently explained by a simple linear feedforward model. We also compared the degree of orientation selectivity in different visual structures under the same recording condition. Compared with the dLGN, orientation selectivity is greatly improved in the visual cortex, but is similar in the superior colliculus, another major retinal target. Together, our results demonstrate prominent orientation selectivity in the mouse dLGN, which may potentially contribute to visual processing in the cortex. PMID:23904611

  15. Usefulness of Differentiating Arousal Responses Within Communication Theories: Orienting Response or Defensive Arousal Within Nonverbal Theories of Expectancy Violation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Burgoon, Judee K.

    1996-01-01

    States that arousal has become a central variable within much of communication research from deception to emotional communication. Describes a two-part study that explored the application of the "orienting response" to these interpersonal communication theories explaining violations of expectancies. Concludes that the orientation response did…

  16. Counselors' Responsibility and Etiology Attributions, Theoretical Orientations, and Counseling Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed psychologists at university counseling centers with American Psychological Association-approved internships to examine relationships between their theoretical orientations, counseling strategy recommendations, etiology attributions, and models of helping. Participants responded to vignettes portraying students with adjustment disorder and…

  17. Count Me In: Response to Sexual Orientation Measures Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don’t know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. PMID:25651579

  18. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. PMID:25651579

  19. Mutually exclusive mutations in NOTCH1 and PIK3CA associated with clinical prognosis and chemotherapy responses of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bin; Cui, Heyang; Li, Yaoping; Cheng, Caixia; Yang, Bin; Wang, Fang; Kong, Pengzhou; Li, Hongyi; Zhang, Ling; Jia, Zhiwu; Bi, Yanghui; Wang, Jiaqian; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Xiaoling; Shi, Ruyi; Yang, Jie; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ting; Li, Yike; Xu, Enwei; Qian, Yu; Xi, Yanfeng; Guo, Shiping; Chen, Yunqing; Wang, Jinfen; Li, Guodong; Liang, Jianfang; Jia, Junmei; Chen, Xing; Guo, Jiansheng; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Yanbo; Li, Qingshan; Wang, Chuangui; Cheng, Xiaolong; Zhan, Qimin; Cui, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent genetic abnormalities that correlate with clinical features could be used to determine patients' prognosis, select treatments and predict responses to therapy. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) contains genomic alterations of undefined clinical significance. We aimed to identify mutually exclusive mutations that are frequently detected in ESCCs and characterized their associations with clinical variables. Methods We analyzed next-generation-sequencing data from 104 ESCCs from Taihang Mountain region of China; 96 pairs were selected for deep target-capture-based validation and analysis of clinical and pathology data. We used model proposed by Szczurek to identify exclusive mutations and to associate these with pathology findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses with Cox proportional hazards model were used to examine the association between mutations and overall survival and response to chemotherapy. Findings were validated in an analysis of samples from 89 patients with ESCC from Taihang Mountain. Results We identified statistically significant mutual exclusivity between mutations in NOTCH1 and PIK3CA in ESCC samples. Mutations in NOTCH1 were associated with well-differentiated, early-stage malignancy and less metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Nonetheless, patients with NOTCH1 mutations had shorter survival times than patients without NOTCH1 mutations, and failed to respond to chemotherapy. In contrast, patients with mutations in PIK3CA had better responses to chemotherapy and longer survival times than patients without PIK3CA mutations. Conclusions In a genetic analysis of ESCCs from patients in China, we identified mutually exclusive mutations in NOTCH1 and PIK3CA. These findings might increase our understanding of ESCC development and be used as prognostic factors. PMID:26528858

  20. Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and

  1. Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

  2. The evolution of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-12-01

    Like altruism, mutualism, cooperation between species, evolves only by enhancing all participants' inclusive fitness. Mutualism evolves most readily between members of different kingdoms, which pool complementary abilities for mutual benefit: some of these mutualisms represent major evolutionary innovations. Mutualism cannot persist if cheating annihilates its benefits. In long-term mutualisms, symbioses, at least one party associates with the other nearly all its life. Usually, a larger host harbours smaller symbionts. Cheating is restrained by vertical transmission, as in Buchnera; partner fidelity, as among bull-thorn acacias and protective ants; test-based choice of symbionts, as bobtail squid choose bioluminescent bacteria; or sanctioning nonperforming symbionts, as legumes punish nonperforming nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Mutualisms involving brief exchanges, as among plants and seed-dispersers, however, persist despite abundant cheating. Both symbioses and brief-exchange mutualisms have transformed whole ecosystems. These mutualisms may be steps towards ecosystems which, like Adam Smith's ideal economy, serve their members' common good. PMID:20942825

  3. Futures Tended: Care and Future-Oriented Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Barbara; Groves, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of technological hazards, whose existence is only revealed many years after they were initially produced, shows that the question of our responsibilities toward future generations is of urgent importance. However, the nature of technological societies means that they are caught in a condition of structural irresponsibility: the…

  4. Effect of grain orientation on mechanical properties and thermomechanical response of Sn-based solder interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hongtao; Yan, Bingbing; Yang, Ming; Ma, Xin; Li, Mingyu

    2013-11-15

    The thermomechanical response of Sn-based solder interconnects with differently oriented grains was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction technique under thermal cycling and thermal shock testing in this study. The results showed that deformation and cracking of solder interconnects have a close relationship with the unique characteristics of grain orientation and boundaries in each solder interconnect, and deformation was frequently confined within the high-angle grain boundaries. The micro Vickers hardness testing results showed that the hardness varied significantly depending on the grain orientation and structure, and deformation twins can be induced around the indents by the indentation testing. - Highlights: • Thermomechanical response shows a close relationship with the grain structure. • Deformation was frequently confined within the high-angle grain boundaries. • Different grain orientations exhibit different hardness. • Deformation twins can be induced around the indents in SAC105 solder interconnects.

  5. Quantifying Dialect Mutual Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    Measurement of the mutual intelligibility of dialects of a language is discussed. The focus is on several theoretical constructs in measurement, illustrated with data from an earlier study of the mutual intelligibility of 17 Chinese dialects. Measurement procedures are also explained. It is proposed that mutual intelligibility is based on the…

  6. Conceptualizing psychological processes in response to globalization: Components, antecedents, and consequences of global orientations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Hui, Bryant P H; Ng, Jacky C K; Mak, Winnie W S; Guan, Yanjun; Buchtel, Emma E; Tang, Willie C S; Lau, Victor C Y

    2016-02-01

    The influences of globalization have permeated various aspects of life in contemporary society, from technical innovations, economic development, and lifestyles, to communication patterns. The present research proposed a construct termed global orientation to denote individual differences in the psychological processes of acculturating to the globalizing world. It encompasses multicultural acquisition as a proactive response and ethnic protection as a defensive response to globalization. Ten studies examined the applicability of global orientations among majority and minority groups, including immigrants and sojourners, in multicultural and relatively monocultural contexts, and across Eastern and Western cultures. Multicultural acquisition is positively correlated with both independent and interdependent self-construals, bilingual proficiency and usage, and dual cultural identifications. Multicultural acquisition is promotion-focused, while ethnic protection is prevention-focused and related to acculturative stress. Global orientations affect individuating and modest behavior over and above multicultural ideology, predict overlap with outgroups over and above political orientation, and predict psychological adaptation, sociocultural competence, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnocultural groups over and above acculturation expectations/strategies. Global orientations also predict English and Chinese oral presentation performance in multilevel analyses and the frequency and pleasantness of intercultural contact in cross-lagged panel models. We discuss how the psychological study of global orientations contributes to theory and research on acculturation, cultural identity, and intergroup relations. PMID:26302436

  7. Orientational bistability and magneto-optical response in compensated ferronematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N.; Petrov, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of continuum theory we consider magnetic field induced transitions in soft compensated ferronematic liquid crystals, i.e., suspensions of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in nematic solvents with equiprobable distribution of the particles parallel and antiparallel to the director. Such systems are liquid-crystalline analogs of antiferromagnetics. We study the sequence of re-entrant transitions (uniform compensated phase - non-uniform phase - uniform saturation phase - non-uniform phase) between phases with different orientations of the director and magnetization. These transitions take place under the magnetic field action in the case of weak coupling between disperse magnetic phase and nematic matrix. We show that these transitions can be first or second order, and obtain the expressions for determining the order of orientational transitions. For the case of first order transitions, when the ferronematic shows orientational bistability, we study magnetic field influence on the orientational behavior of the director and magnetization, redistribution of magnetic impurity, and magneto-optical response.

  8. Using Audience Response Systems to Encourage Student Engagement and Reflection on Ethical Orientation and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheletto, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…

  9. Social Skills Training with Children: Responsiveness to Modeling and Coaching as a Function of Peer Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Nagle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Coaching and modeling were equivalent procedures for teaching social skills to isolated children. The abbreviated combination of coaching and modeling did not add to the effects. Peer orientation proved to be only a relatively weak modulator of responsiveness to social skills training. (Author)

  10. The Gravikinetic Response of Paramecium is Based on Orientation-Dependent Mechanotransduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Manuel; Watzke, Daniela; Machemer, Hans

    Paramecium generates persistent shifts of the membrane potential of a few millivolts depending on its orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The resulting potential-induced modulation of the speed of propulsion is called gravikinesis because it acts to neutralize, fully or in part, sedimentation. Gravisensitivity is maximal at neutral orientation, i.e., in horizontally swimming cells, when the gravitational force per unit membrane area is at minimum. Stimulus-response relationships and energetic considerations show that sensing of the gravity vector by a nonspecialized, single-cell organism ranks among the most sensitive mechanoreceptors known in nature.

  11. Cell orientation response to cyclically deformed substrates: experimental validation of a cell model.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ip, W; Boissy, R; Grood, E S

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a stochastic model that describes the orientation response of bipolar cells grown on a cyclically deformed substrate. The model was based on the following hypotheses regarding the behavior of individual cells: (a) the mechanical signal responsible for cell reorientation is the peak to peak surface strain along the cell's major axis (p-p axial strain); (b) each cell has an axial strain threshold and the threshold is normally distributed in the cell population; (c) the cell will avoid any direction where the p-p axial strain is above its threshold; and (d) the cell will randomly orient within the range of directions where the p-p axial strains are less than the cell's threshold. These hypotheses were tested by comparing model predictions with experimental observations from stretch experiments conducted with human melanocytes. The cells were grown on elastic rectangular culture dishes subjected to unidirectional cyclic (1 Hz) stretching with amplitudes of 0, 4, 8, and 12%. After 24 h of stimulation, the distribution of cell orientations was determined by measuring the orientations of 300-400 randomly selected cells. The 12% stretch experiment was used to determine the mean, 3.5%, and the standard deviation, 1.0% of the strain threshold for the cell population. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was then used to determine if the orientation distributions predicted by the model were different from experimentally measured distributions for the 4 and 8% stretches. No significant differences were found between the predicted and experimental distributions (4%: p = 0.70; and 8%: p = 0.71). These results support the hypothesis that cells randomly orient, but avoid directions where the p-p axial strains are above their thresholds. PMID:8666593

  12. When goal orientations collide: effects of learning and performance orientation on team adaptability in response to workload imbalance.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christopher O L H; Webb, Justin W; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-09-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results of a laboratory study in which teams worked on a computerized, decision-making task over 3 performance trials revealed that learning and performance orientation had independent effects on team adaptability when teams had slack resources available for managing their changed task. Time helped explain the independent effects of performance orientation. Results also revealed that learning and performance orientation had interactive effects when teams did not have slack resources. Finally, the results of this study indicate that teams lacking slack resources were better able to balance high levels of learning and performance orientation over time with practice on the changed task. PMID:20718514

  13. The political (and physiological) divide: Political orientation, performance monitoring, and the anterior cingulate response.

    PubMed

    Weissflog, Meghan; Choma, Becky L; Dywan, Jane; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to test a model of sociopolitical attitudes that posits a relationship between individual differences in liberal versus conservative political orientation and differential levels of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsivity. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants who varied along a unidimensional liberal-conservative continuum engaged in a standard Go/NoGo task. We also measured component attitudes of political orientation in the form of traditionalism (degree of openness to social change) and egalitarianism (a preference for social equality). Generally, participants who reported a more liberal political orientation made fewer errors and produced larger ACC-generated ERPs (the error-related negativity, or ERN and the NoGo N2). This ACC activation, especially as indicated by a larger NoGo N2, was most strongly associated with greater preference for social equality. Performance accuracy, however, was most strongly associated with greater openness to social change. These data are consistent with a social neuroscience view that sociopolitical attitudes are related to aspects of neurophysiological responsivity. They also indicate that a bidimensional model of political orientation can enhance our interpretation of the nature of these associations. PMID:24028311

  14. Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Claudia C.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23678099

  15. Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

  16. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Ficus hirta: obligate pollination mutualism and constraints on range expansion in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Nason, John D

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a phylogeographic approach to investigate how interspecific interactions in an obligate pollination mutualism enhance or constrain dispersal and the range distributions of species through time. Fifteen populations of Ficus hirta, a bird-dispersed fig pollinated by a species-specific fig wasp, were sampled from Thailand to the northern limits of the tropical forest in China. These populations were assayed for six nuclear microsatellite loci and two intergenic chloroplast DNA sequences. Analyses of range expansion and genetic clustering indicated a relatively slow rate of range expansion from two or more southern glacial refugia. Low nuclear differentiation, combined with high interpopulation differentiation, and phylogeographic structuring of chloroplast variation indicated that seed dispersal has had a greater constraint than obligate interactions with fig wasps on the rate of post-glacial range expansion. This study is the first to investigate the phylogeographic history of a widely distributed southeast Asian tropical plant whose distribution extends to the northern limits of tropical forest habitat in China. It is also the first study of Ficus utilizing molecular data to evaluate whether species-specific pollination is a limitation or an aid to range expansion in response to climate change. PMID:23127195

  17. Nematode-bacteria mutualism: Selection within the mutualism supersedes selection outside of the mutualism.

    PubMed

    Morran, Levi T; Penley, McKenna J; Byrd, Victoria S; Meyer, Andrew J; O'Sullivan, Timothy S; Bashey, Farrah; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Lively, Curtis M

    2016-03-01

    The coevolution of interacting species can lead to codependent mutualists. Little is known about the effect of selection on partners within verses apart from the association. Here, we determined the effect of selection on bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) both within and apart from its mutualistic partner (a nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae). In nature, the two species cooperatively infect and kill arthropods. We passaged the bacteria either together with (M+), or isolated from (M-), nematodes under two different selection regimes: random selection (S-) and selection for increased virulence against arthropod hosts (S+). We found that the isolated bacteria evolved greater virulence under selection for greater virulence (M-S+) than under random selection (M-S-). In addition, the response to selection in the isolated bacteria (M-S+) caused a breakdown of the mutualism following reintroduction to the nematode. Finally, selection for greater virulence did not alter the evolutionary trajectories of bacteria passaged within the mutualism (M+S+ = M+S-), indicating that selection for the maintenance of the mutualism was stronger than selection for increased virulence. The results show that selection on isolated mutualists can rapidly breakdown beneficial interactions between species, but that selection within a mutualism can supersede external selection, potentially generating codependence over time. PMID:26867502

  18. Evolution of mutualism between species

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  19. Mutual boosting effects of sensitization with timothy grass pollen and latex glove extract on IgE antibody responses in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Diepgen, T L; Kubeta, O; Leakakos, T; Truscott, W; Schuler, G; Kraft, D; Valenta, R

    2000-05-01

    Type I allergy to natural rubber latex can be an important health problem for latex-exposed individuals (e.g., health care workers, spina bifida children). Also beyond these risk groups, a high sensitization rate of varying and partly unknown clinical relevance has been reported. Atopy represents a risk factor for latex allergy and recent studies indicate that patients suffering from pollen allergies may have pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies which cross-react with latex allergens. In order to investigate whether sensitization to pollen allergens can have priming effects on the production of IgE antibodies against latex in vivo, a mouse model was established. Groups of 10 BALB/C mice were immunized with Al(OH)3-adsorbed pollen extracts from timothy grass, ragweed, mugwort, or birch. For control purposes, one additional group received adjuvant only and another group was not immunized. Half of the mice of each group were subsequently immunized with Al(OH)3-adsorbed latex glove extract, the other half with adjuvant only. Pollen and latex-specific IgE- and IgG1-antibody responses were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and statistically evaluated by analysis of variance. Antibody responses to cross-reactive antigens were investigated by immunoblotting. We found significantly increased IgE reactivities to latex after pollen sensitization and vice versa. Moreover, mice immunized with timothy grass pollen extract alone - without subsequent latex immunization - displayed IgE reactivity to latex. Cross-reactive antibodies were directed against pollen antigens of approximately 60 kDa molecular weight. Our results thus demonstrate a mutual boosting effect of pollen and latex sensitization in vivo which may be also operative in polysensitized plant allergic patients. PMID:10771489

  20. Stochastic gravitational wave measurements with bar detectors: dependence of response on detector orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, John T.

    2006-02-01

    The response of a cross-correlation measurement to an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background depends on the observing geometry via the overlap reduction function. If one of the detectors being correlated is a resonant bar whose orientation can be changed, the response to stochastic gravitational waves can be modulated. I derive the general form of this modulation as a function of azimuth, both in the zero-frequency limit and at arbitrary frequencies. Comparisons are made between pairs of nearby detectors, such as LIGO Livingston ALLEGRO, Virgo AURIGA, Virgo NAUTILUS and EXPLORER AURIGA, with which stochastic cross-correlation measurements are currently being performed, planned or considered.

  1. Algorithms for mutual exclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a survey of concrete and highly complex research on algorithms for parallel or distributed control. Since parallelism makes it difficult to analyze the properties of algorithms, that can solve these problems, all of the algorithms have been rewritten in a single language and restructured so that they are easy to understand and compare. The book systematically outlines design principles, and provide quantitative data for their assessment. Contents: Preface. The Nature of Control Problems in Parallel Processing The Mutual Exclusion Problem in a Centralized Framework: Software Solutions. The Mutual Exclusion Problem in a Centralized Framework: Hardware Solutions. The Mutual Exclusion Problem in a Distributed Framework: Solutions Based on State Variables. The Mutual Exclusion Problem in a Distributed Framework: Solutions Based on Message Communication. Two Further Control Problems.

  2. Behavioral Ecology: Manipulative Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David P

    2015-09-21

    A new study reveals that an apparent mutualism between lycaenid caterpillars and their attendant ants may not be all it seems, as the caterpillars produce secretions that modify the brains and behavior of their attendant ants. PMID:26394105

  3. Trajectory Orientation: A Technology-Enabled Concept Requiring a Shift in Controller Roles and Responsibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiden, Ken; Green, Steven

    2000-01-01

    The development of a decision support tool (DST) for the en-route domain with accurate conflict prediction time horizons of 20 minutes has introduced an interesting problem. A 20 minute time horizon for conflict prediction often results in the predicted conflict occurring one or more sectors downstream from the sector controller who "owns" (i-e., is responsible for the safe separation of aircraft) one or both of the aircraft in the conflict pair. Based on current roles and responsibilities of today's en route controllers, the upstream controller would not resolve this conflict. In most cases, the downstream controller would wait until the conflicting aircraft entered higher sector before resolving the conflict. This results in a delay of several minutes from the time when the conflict was initially predicted. This delay is inefficient from both a controller workload and user's cost of operations perspective. Trajectory orientation, a new concept for facilitating an efficient, conflict-free flight path across several sectors while conforming to metering or miles-in-trail spacing, is proposed as an alternative to today's sector-oriented method. This concept necessitates a fundamental shift in thinking about inter-sector coordination. Instead of operating independently, with the main focus on protecting their internal airspace, controllers would work cooperatively, depending on each other for well-planned, conflict-free flow of aircraft. To support the trajectory orientation concept, a long time horizon (15 to 20 minutes) for conflict prediction and resolution would most likely be a primary requirement. In addition, new tools, such as controller-pilot data link will be identified to determine their necessity and applicability for trajectory orientation. Finally, with significant controller participation from selected Air Route Traffic Control Centers, potential shifts in R-side/D-side roles and responsibilities as well as the creation of a new controller position for multi-sector planning will be examined to determine the most viable solutions.

  4. Interhemispheric Geomagnetic Field Response to Sudden Change in Solar Wind Pressure and IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Cai, X.; Clauer, C. R.; Stolle, C.; Matzka, J.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary investigation of geomagnetic field response to sudden change in solar wind pressure and IMF orientation is presented using data from satellite and ground magnetometer array in both northern and southern hemispheres. Some data sets in this study have been provided by AGO (Automatic Geophysical Observatory) and AAL-PIP (Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform) stations deployed in Antarctica along the 40° magnetic meridian. These stations facilitate high-latitude multi-point magnetic conjugate observation pairs to the Greenland West Coast magnetometer chain for interhemispheric investigations, which have been rarely made because of the difficulty in accessing the Antarctic regions. Geomagnetic field perturbations in response to solar wind pressure impulse events, in which the solar wind pressure changes are more than ˜5 nPa in less than ~16 minutes and the pressures are steady for ~1 hour before and ~20 minutes after the pressure changes, have been examined using the data sets obtained from 1998 to 2010 to show global local time distribution of the ground response, timing response between the two hemispheres and its seasonal variation, and the relationship between IMF orientation and the ground response accompanied by the solar wind sudden pressure change.

  5. A Framework of Task-Oriented Decision Support System in Disaster Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Zou, Qin; Cheng, Shaochuan; Wang, Kanliang

    Based on the analysis of organizing of rescuing process of Wenchuan Earthquake in China, the paper developed a task-oriented management model to deal with the disaster emergency response. The management mechanism of task generating in emergency response has been established. Four kinds of task generation mechanism have been studied and three decision-making patterns have been suggested. The routings to produce task system were discussed, which could dispose the essential task into sub-task and form the task system through the processes of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A framework of decision support system in emergency response has been proposed, which based on the Hall for Workshop of Mate-synthetic Engineering. It could help the operation team to transfer the predetermined plan to execution plan in emergency response and to assign and dynamic supervise the task system.

  6. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic response in rat brain areas induced by long-term administration of nandrolone: the mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Neri, Margherita; Cerretani, Daniela; Cantatore, Santina; Frati, Paola; Moltoni, Laura; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response in different brain areas of rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND). Immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cells' apoptosis and to measure the effects of expression of specific mediators, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), SMAC/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low PI) and VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) on apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that a long-term administration of ND promotes oxidative injury in rat brain specific areas. A link between oxidative stress and NF-κB signalling pathways is supported by our results. In addition to high levels of oxidative stress, we consistently observed a strong immunopositivity to NF-κB. It has been argued that one of the pathways leading to the activation of NF-κB could be under reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated control. In fact, growing evidence suggests that although in limited doses, endogenous ROS may play an activating role in NF-κB signalling, while above a certain threshold, they may negatively impact upon this signalling. However, a mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-κB exists and recent studies have shown that ROS activity is subject to negative feedback regulation by NF-κB, and that this negative regulation of ROS is the means through which NF-κB counters programmed cells. PMID:26828721

  7. Unexpected novelty and familiarity orienting responses in lateral parietal cortex during recognition judgment

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Antonio; Konkel, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The role of lateral parietal cortex during recognition memory is heavily debated. We examined parietal activation during an Explicit Memory Cueing recognition paradigm that biases participants towards expecting novel or familiar stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis using anticipatory cues (“Likely Old”, “Likely New”), compared to trials with neutral cues (“????”). Three qualitatively distinct patterns were observed in the left lateral parietal cortex. An unexpected novelty response occurred in left anterior intraparietal cortex (IPS)/post-central gyrus (PoCG) in which greater activation was observed for new versus old materials following the “Likely Old” cue, but not following the “Likely New” cue. In contrast, anterior angular gyrus demonstrated an unexpected familiarity response with greater activation for old versus new materials following the “Likely New” cue, but not the “Likely Old” cue. Thus these two regions demonstrated increased responses that were selective for either new or old materials respectively, but only when they were unexpected. In contrast, a mid IPS area demonstrated greater response for whichever class of memoranda was unanticipated given the cue condition (an unexpected memory response). Analogous response patterns in regions outside of parietal cortex, and the results of a resting state connectivity analysis, suggested these three response patterns were associated with visuo-spatial orienting following unexpected novelty, source monitoring operations following unexpected familiarity, and general executive control processes following violated expectations. These findings support a Memory Orienting Model of the left lateral parietal cortex in which the region is linked to the investigation of unexpected novelty or familiarity in the environment. PMID:23499719

  8. Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined infants' negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) on children's self-regulation (n = 102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months.…

  9. The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A Dimensional Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosconi, Matthew W.; Reznick, J. Steven; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of…

  10. The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A Dimensional Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosconi, Matthew W.; Reznick, J. Steven; Mesibov, Gary; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism show deficits in social referencing, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale assessing each of these behaviors during the course of

  11. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results

  12. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  13. Orienting asymmetries in dogs' responses to different communicatory components of human speech.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David

    2014-12-15

    It is well established that in human speech perception the left hemisphere (LH) of the brain is specialized for processing intelligible phonemic (segmental) content (e.g., [1-3]), whereas the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive to prosodic (suprasegmental) cues. Despite evidence that a range of mammal species show LH specialization when processing conspecific vocalizations, the presence of hemispheric biases in domesticated animals' responses to the communicative components of human speech has never been investigated. Human speech is familiar and relevant to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), who are known to perceive both segmental phonemic cues and suprasegmental speaker-related and emotional prosodic cues. Using the head-orienting paradigm, we presented dogs with manipulated speech and tones differing in segmental or suprasegmental content and recorded their orienting responses. We found that dogs showed a significant LH bias when presented with a familiar spoken command in which the salience of meaningful phonemic (segmental) cues was artificially increased but a significant RH bias in response to commands in which the salience of intonational or speaker-related (suprasegmental) vocal cues was increased. Our results provide insights into mechanisms of interspecific vocal perception in a domesticated mammal and suggest that dogs may share ancestral or convergent hemispheric specializations for processing the different functional communicative components of speech with human listeners. PMID:25454584

  14. Mars' "Magnetospheric" Response to Interplanetary Field Orientation: Inferences from Models for MAVEN Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Dong, C.; Ma, Y.-J.; Curry, S. M.; Alvarez, K.; Hara, T.; Halekas, J.; Brain, D. A.; Bougher, S.; Espley, J.

    2015-10-01

    Planetary space weather at Mars has attracted much interest, but the focus is usually on the response to solar activity and its related disturbances in the solar wind. While this aspect is important and may be key to understanding Mars' atmosphere evolution, an additional consideration is based on the sensitivity of Earth's magnetospheric solar wind interaction to southward interplanetary magnetic fields. The study described here investigates whether Mars has its own specific interplanetary field orientation sensitivities that might be identified in the MAVEN data analyses.

  15. Stakeholders' Responses to CSR Tradeoffs: When Other-Orientation and Trust Trump Material Self-Interest

    PubMed Central

    Bridoux, Flore; Stofberg, Nicole; Den Hartog, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    When investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR), managers may strive for a win-win scenario where all stakeholders end up better off, but they may not always be able to avoid trading off stakeholders' interests. To provide guidance to managers who have to make tradeoffs, this study used a vignette-based experiment to explore stakeholders' intention to associate with a firm (i.e., buy from or become an employee) that trades off CSR directed at the stakeholders' own group (self-directed CSR) and CSR directed at another stakeholder group (other-directed CSR). Results show that stakeholders were not systematically more attracted to a firm that favors their own group over another stakeholder group. Specifically, stakeholders' other-orientation moderated their reaction to tradeoffs: stakeholders higher on other-orientation were willing to forego some material benefits to associate with a firm that treated suppliers in developing countries significantly better than its competitors, whereas stakeholders lower on other-orientation were more attracted to a firm favoring their own stakeholder group. Other-orientation also moderated reactions to tradeoffs involving the environment, although high CSR directed at the environment did not compensate for low self-directed CSR even for stakeholders higher on other-orientation. Second, the vignette study showed that trust mediated the relationship between tradeoffs and stakeholders' reactions. The study contributes first and foremost to the burgeoning literature on CSR tradeoffs and to the multimotive approach to CSR, which claims that other motives can drive stakeholders' reactions to CSR in addition to self-interest. First, it provides further evidence that studying CSR tradeoffs is important to understand both (prospective) employees' and customers' reactions to CSR-related activities. Second, it identifies other-orientation as a motive-related individual difference that explains heterogeneity in stakeholders' reactions to CSR. These findings suggest several avenues for future research for organizational psychologists interested in organizational justice. Third, it investigates trust as a mediating mechanism. Fourth, it reveals differences in stakeholders' reactions depending on which other stakeholder group is involved in the tradeoff. For practice, the findings suggest that tradeoffs are important because they influence which stakeholders are attracted to the firm. PMID:26834657

  16. Stakeholders' Responses to CSR Tradeoffs: When Other-Orientation and Trust Trump Material Self-Interest.

    PubMed

    Bridoux, Flore; Stofberg, Nicole; Den Hartog, Deanne

    2015-01-01

    When investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR), managers may strive for a win-win scenario where all stakeholders end up better off, but they may not always be able to avoid trading off stakeholders' interests. To provide guidance to managers who have to make tradeoffs, this study used a vignette-based experiment to explore stakeholders' intention to associate with a firm (i.e., buy from or become an employee) that trades off CSR directed at the stakeholders' own group (self-directed CSR) and CSR directed at another stakeholder group (other-directed CSR). Results show that stakeholders were not systematically more attracted to a firm that favors their own group over another stakeholder group. Specifically, stakeholders' other-orientation moderated their reaction to tradeoffs: stakeholders higher on other-orientation were willing to forego some material benefits to associate with a firm that treated suppliers in developing countries significantly better than its competitors, whereas stakeholders lower on other-orientation were more attracted to a firm favoring their own stakeholder group. Other-orientation also moderated reactions to tradeoffs involving the environment, although high CSR directed at the environment did not compensate for low self-directed CSR even for stakeholders higher on other-orientation. Second, the vignette study showed that trust mediated the relationship between tradeoffs and stakeholders' reactions. The study contributes first and foremost to the burgeoning literature on CSR tradeoffs and to the multimotive approach to CSR, which claims that other motives can drive stakeholders' reactions to CSR in addition to self-interest. First, it provides further evidence that studying CSR tradeoffs is important to understand both (prospective) employees' and customers' reactions to CSR-related activities. Second, it identifies other-orientation as a motive-related individual difference that explains heterogeneity in stakeholders' reactions to CSR. These findings suggest several avenues for future research for organizational psychologists interested in organizational justice. Third, it investigates trust as a mediating mechanism. Fourth, it reveals differences in stakeholders' reactions depending on which other stakeholder group is involved in the tradeoff. For practice, the findings suggest that tradeoffs are important because they influence which stakeholders are attracted to the firm. PMID:26834657

  17. The relationship between visual orienting responses and clinical characteristics in children attending special education for the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children. PMID:25038127

  18. A model of surface depth and orientation predicts BOLD responses in human scene-selective cortex.

    PubMed

    Lescroart, Mark; Gallant, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A network of areas in the human brain-including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), the Occipital Place Area (OPA), and the Retrosplenial Cortex (RSC)-represent visual scenes. However, it is still unclear whether these areas represent high-level features (such as local scene structure or scene category), or low-level features (such as high spatial frequencies and rectilinear corners). To better characterize the representation of visual features in PPA, OPA, and RSC, we define several feature spaces hypothesized to be represented in scene-selective areas, and use them to predict brain activity. The feature spaces we define reflect scene structure (3D orientation of large surfaces), scene expanse (distance from visible surfaces to the virtual camera), and local spatial frequency (Gabor wavelet transformations) of each rendered scene. We fit each feature space to BOLD fMRI data recorded while human subjects viewed movies of a virtual world rendered using 3D graphics software. The graphics software allows us to quantify scene structure and expanse with continuous parameters instead of categorical labels such as "open" or "closed". We fit models for all feature spaces using L2-regularized regression, and evaluate each model based on how much response variance it predicts in a withheld data set. The scene structure model explains more response variance in our data than the scene expanse and local spatial frequency models. A hybrid model that combines surface orientation and distance from the virtual camera explains still more variance. These results are consistent whether subjects attend to the size of each scene or to the number of objects in each scene. Together, these results suggest that PPA, OPA, and RSC represent conjunctions of the depth and orientation of walls, ceilings, and other large objects in scenes. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326261

  19. Existence of an orientational electric dipolar response in c60 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Alers, G B; Golding, B; Kortan, A R; Haddon, R C; Theil, F A

    1992-07-24

    The dielectric constant in and conductivity sigma of undoped C(60) single crystals have been measured as a function of temperature, 10 K < T < 330 K, and frequency, 0.2 kilohertz < f < 100 kilohertz. On cooling below the first-order structural phase transition at 260 K, a Debye-like relaxational contribution to the dielectric response is observed, which requires the presence of permanent electric dipoles. The relaxation rate is thermally activated with a broad distribution of energies centered at 270 millielectron volts. The existence of a dipole moment in C(60) is unexpected, because it is precluded by symmetry for the pure ordered cubic phase. These data suggest that the high degree of frozen-in orientational disorder of the C(60) molecules is responsible for the existence of electric dipolar activity. PMID:17778682

  20. Cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum: chemoreceptor orientation and specificity.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T; Reid, S G; Perry, S F

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypercarbia (elevated water P(CO2)) in the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum are stimulated by externally oriented receptors that are sensitive to water CO(2) tension as opposed to water pH. Cardiorespiratory responses to acute hypercarbia were evaluated in both the absence and presence of internal hypercarbia (elevated blood P(CO2)), achieved by treating fish with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. Exposure to acute hypercarbia (15 min at each level, final water CO(2) tensions of 7.2, 15.5 and 26.3 mmHg) elicited significant increases in ventilation frequency (at 26.3 mmHg, a 42% increase over the normocarbic value) and amplitude (128%), together with a fall in heart rate (35%) and an increase in cardiac stroke volume (62%). Rapid washout of CO(2) from the water reversed these effects, and the timing of the changes in cardiorespiratory variables corresponded more closely to the fall in water P(CO2) (Pw(CO2)) than to that in blood P(CO2) (Pa(CO2)). Similar responses to acute hypercarbia (15 min, final Pw(CO2) of 13.6 mmHg) were observed in acetazolamide-treated (30 mg kg(-1)) tambaqui. Acetazolamide treatment itself, however, increased Pa(CO2) (from 4.81+/-0.58 to 13.83+/-0.91 mmHg, mean +/-S.E.M.; N=8) in the absence of significant change in ventilation, heart rate or cardiac stroke volume. The lack of response to changes in blood P(CO2) and/or pH were confirmed by comparing responses to the bolus injection of hypercarbic saline (5% or 10% CO(2); 2 ml kg(-1)) into the caudal vein with those to the injection of CO(2)-enriched water (1%, 3%, 5% or 10% CO(2); 50 ml kg(-1)) into the buccal cavity. Whereas injections of hypercarbic saline were ineffective in eliciting cardiorespiratory responses, changes in ventilation and cardiovascular parameters accompanied injection of CO(2)-laden water into the mouth. Similar injections of CO(2)-free water acidified to the corresponding pH of the hypercarbic water (pH 6.3, 5.6, 5.3 or 4.9, respectively) generally did not stimulate cardiorespiratory responses. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that in tambaqui, externally oriented chemoreceptors that are predominantly activated by increases in water P(CO2), rather than by accompanying decreases in water pH, are linked to the initiation of cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia. PMID:15767310

  1. The influence of primary and secondary orientations on the elastic response of a nickel-base single-crystal superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of primary orientation on the elastic response of a (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical, thermal, and combined thermal and mechanical loading conditions using finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed using the MARC finite element code on a square plate of PWA 1480 material. Primary orientation of the single crystal superalloy was varied in increments of 2 deg, from 0 to 10 deg, from the (001) direction. Two secondary orientations (0 and 45 deg) were considered, with respect to the global coordinate system, as the primary orientation angle was varied. The stresses developed within the single crystal plate were determined for each loading condition. In this paper, the influence of the angular offset between the primary crystal orientation and the loading direction on the elastic stress response of the PWA 1480 plate is presented for different loading conditions. The influence of primary orientation angle, when constrained between the bounds considered, was not found to be as significant as the influence of the secondary orientation angle, which is not typically controlled.

  2. Mutual information algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ai-Hua; Huang, Xiu-Chang; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Hua, Hong-Xin

    2010-11-01

    Three new mutual information algorithms are raised for time delay in the phase space reconstruction process. Firstly, Cellucci's mutual information algorithm is analyzed based on partitioning plane, which is constructed by a pair of Lorenz series with the same size, into four and sixteen grids with equal distribution probability in elements on each axis. Then three new mutual information algorithms are promoted based on the original probability matrix that shows the distribution of points corresponding to the data pairs of Lorenz series on the plane, the matrix excluding the last column and the last row of the original one as well as the proportionally revised matrix from the original one. Synchronously, an algorithm to compute the probability matrix is also advanced by sorting two series and replacing each numerical value with its order number in its own series so as to judge the element in which data sets are located. The optimal time delay of the three new mutual information algorithms as well as the computing time is also compared when series sizes are different. Finally, after reconstructing phase space with the optimal time delay, comparison between the maximal Lyapunov exponent calculated by Rosenstein's algorithm from time series and that gained by Jacobi matrix from Lorenz equation is used to confirm the validity of the new mutual information algorithms. The results show that Cellucci's mutual information algorithm will lead to wrong optimal time delay when series size is not a multiple of elements. The three new algorithms, whose results are more steady when a large number of data pairs are used, can not only eliminate the default of Cellucci's algorithm but also is very speedy, and the time spent on calculations by three algorithms nearly enhances linearly with the increase in series size. Moreover, the algorithm using original probability distribution matrix is more accurate than the others when small size series are used, and is also faster than the others irrespective of how large the size of series is. Besides, the lesser error of the maximal Lyapunov exponents from the comparison shows that the three new mutual information algorithms are available and feasible.

  3. [The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Trabert, G

    2008-02-01

    The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility is critically reflected by examining the medical care of those who are deprived. Poverty in Germany is dramatically increasing. There are confirmed findings on the correlation of being poor and being ill. Poverty leads to an increased number of cases of illness and a higher mortality rate. And vice versa, chronic illnesses very often cause impoverishment. This correlation has largely been ignored not only by the public but also by experts, especially when public health-care issues are on the political agenda. With reference to the current discussion about public health-care and the widespread disregard of the living conditions of the poor, the categories of "reasonable behaviour" (Kant) and "communicative behaviour" (Habermas) are reflected on in a philosophical excursion. Further interest groups affecting the political sphere, such as the pharmaceutical industry, the medical profession, patients and scientists are also examined with regard to public health-care. What are the premises of a health-care discussion that is controlled by economic considerations, particularly when keeping in mind the humanistic and Christian ethics of our society? And what does this mean for our responsibility for those who are handicapped and are in need of our help? Do decision makers and participants of the health-care discussion satisfy these ethical challenges? And what are the effects of the so-called "social peace" on social cooperation and economic power of a country? The increasing market orientation (commercialisation) of the public health sector can only be accepted on the basis of practiced humanity and social responsibility. In the light of a human public health-care, deprived people are in need of our solidarity. PMID:18278701

  4. Multiple-Response Sequences in Classroom Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Sungbae

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines multiple-response sequences (MRSs), occurring in adult Korean TESOL classrooms, to show the responses produced by students in the language classroom are not always confined within the boundaries of a single response, but are likely to be seen as mutually orienting to, and collaborating to produce a comprehensible outcome to the…

  5. Optical Response of Oriented and Highly Anisotropic Subwavelength Metallic Nanostructure Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Danny J.; Mendoza, Albert; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2013-05-23

    Here we describe the optical transmission response of novel coatings with subwavelength metallic structures based on a quasi-open ring resonator design fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering. This offers a relatively simple approach to the fabrication of dense arrays of optically responsive subwavelength structures over large areas with an oriented two-dimensional array of parallel Au nanoshells. The cross-section of the individual lines is “L” shaped with an approximately 95 nm width, 75 nm height, and pitch of 140 nm to yield a resonant optical response in the visible/near infrared spectrum. Along the long axis of the shells, the geometry is wire-like and quasi-infinite in length compared to the cross-section. This highly anisotropic structure has a strongly polarization-dependent optical response. The coatings are characterized via optical transmission measurements as a function of wavelength, polarization, and angle are presented along with complementary numerical modeling results predicting the resonance shift with corresponding changes in fabrication parameters.

  6. Changes in local stress field orientation in response to magmatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Diana Christine

    A complete understanding of the initiation, evolution, and termination of volcanic eruptions requires reliable monitoring techniques to detect changes in the conduit system during periods of activity, as well as corresponding knowledge of conduit structure and of magma physical properties. Case studies of stress field orientation at active volcanoes can be used to relate changes in local stress to magma movement through conduits; these relationships may be tested through numerical modeling of induced stresses. Stress field analyses of earthquakes recorded during magma eruption and intrusion at Iliamna Volcano and Crater Peak vent, Alaska indicate that during magmatic activity, the orientation of the local axis of maximum compressive stress was perturbed relative to the orientation of the regional or ambient stress field. The exact nature of the perturbation is not resolved at Iliamna Volcano, but data from Crater Peak clearly show that the local stress field rotated horizontally by approximately 90° during periods of magmatic activity. Similar horizontal rotations have been observed at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand, Usu Volcano, Japan, and Unzen Volcano, Japan in conjunction with eruptive activity. Stress field rotations are also observed during episodes of magma intrusion. In contrast, horizontal rotations are not observed at volcanoes erupting low-viscosity basaltic magma. Together these observations suggest that the observed horizontal rotation may reflect pressurization and inflation of a dike-like conduit system by an influx of magma, and may require magma to have appropriate rheological properties. Numerical modeling of Coulomb stress changes induced by inflation of dike-like conduits supports the hypothesis that conduit dilation results in a local reorientation of the axis of maximum compressive stress. Modeling results indicate that faults surrounding the conduit experience an increase in Coulomb stress of ten bars or more in response to ≤1 m of conduit dilation for a 'rotated' sense of slip (with respect to the regional stress field), corresponding to the stress field rotation observed in case studies.

  7. Mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, S.

    2002-08-01

    After a brief review of the notion of a full set of mutually unbiased bases in an N-dimensional Hilbert space, we summarize the work of Wootters and Fields (W K Wootters and B C Fields, Ann. Phys. 191, 363 (1989)) which gives an explicit construction for such bases for the case N=pr, where p is a prime. Further, we show how, by exploiting certain freedom in the Wootters-Fields construction, the task of explicitly writing down such bases can be simplified for the case when p is an odd prime. In particular, we express the results entirely in terms of the character vectors of the cyclic group G of order p. We also analyse the connection between mutually unbiased bases and the representations of G.

  8. Orienting response reinstatement and dishabituation: effects of substituting, adding, and deleting components of nonsignificant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shakhar, G; Gati, I; Ben-Bassat, N; Sniper, G

    2000-01-01

    The prediction that orienting response (OR) reinstatement is negatively related to the measure of common features, shared by the stimulus input and representations of preceding events, and positively related to the measure of their distinctive features, was examined. A nonsignificant test stimulus (TS) was presented after nine repetitions of a standard stimulus (SS), followed by two additional repetitions of SS. TS was created by either substituting 0, 1, or 2 components of SS (Experiment 1), or by either adding or deleting 0, 1, or 2 components of SS (Experiment 2). Skin conductance changes to TS (OR reinstatement) and the subsequent SS (dishabituation) were used as dependent measures. The results of Experiment 1 supported the prediction that substituting components of neutral stimuli affects OR reinstatement, with a larger effect for between-categories than within-categories substitution. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding and deleting components similarly affects OR reinstatement. PMID:10705772

  9. Response of amphibian egg cytoplasm to novel gravity orientation and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Wakahara, M.; Jurand, A.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inversion and centrifugation on the compartmentalization of cytoplasm in Xenopus laevis eggs are investigated experimentally. The rearrangement of yolk-platelet compartments (YPC) characterized by morphology, density, and viscosity differences is studied in fertilized, unfertilized, and unfertilized electrically activated eggs in normal, and inverted positions and with and without centrifugation at 10-183 x g for 5 min. The eggs are fixed and embedded in plastic or paraffin prior to sagittal sectioning (0.5, 4, or 8 microns) and microscopic examination; the results are presented in a diagram and discussed. A density-compartment model combining both animal/vegetal and dorsal/ventral polarities is proposed: YPC determined without gravity orientation during oogenesis respond to both sperm entrance point and gravity after fertilization, and the response involves breaking of the radial symmetry of the egg. It is predicted that Xenopus eggs in a microgravity environment will encounter difficulties in establishing a primary embryonic axis.

  10. Influence of turbulence, orientation, and site configuration on the response of buildings to extreme wind.

    PubMed

    Aly, Aly Mousaad

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  11. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  12. Kinematic Responses to Changes in Walking Orientation and Gravitational Load in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, César S.; Rajendren, Soumya V.; Bartos, Imre; Márka, Szabolcs; Mann, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects. PMID:25350743

  13. The Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS): A dimensional measure for preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, M.W.; Reznick, J.S.; Mesibov, G.; Piven, J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism show deficits in social orienting, joint attention, orienting to their names, and social smiling as early as the first year of life. The present study describes the development of the Social Orienting Continuum and Response Scale (SOC-RS), a quantitative scale that is designed to be used in the context of video-recorded Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) sessions. The SOC-RS was shown to be reliable and valid, and when applied to a longitudinal sample of children with autism studied at 2 and 4 years of age, was shown to be sensitive to decreased levels of social referencing, joint attention, orientating to name, and social smiling in autism. The implications of these findings and potential applications of the SOC-RS are discussed. PMID:18648919

  14. Mutual help in SETIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, F.; Frisch, D. H.

    1985-06-01

    Techniques to establish communication between earth and extraterrestrial intelligent beings are examined analytically, emphasizing that the success of searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETIs) depends on the selection by both sender and receiver of one of a few mutually helpful SETI strategies. An equation for estimating the probability that an SETI will result in the recognition of an ETI signal is developed, and numerical results for various SETI strategies are presented in tables. A minimum approach employing 10 40-m 20-kW dish antennas for a 30-yr SETI in a 2500-light-year disk is proposed.

  15. Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Shantz, Andrew A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Burkepile, Deron E

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world's nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change. PMID:26549314

  16. The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Kellah M.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics…

  17. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  18. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the

  19. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options. PMID:25898342

  20. A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.

  1. Thermal and physiologic responses to 1200-MHz radiofrequency radiation: Differences between exposure in E and H orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Padilla, J.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to far-field 1200-MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation in both E and H orientations (long axis of animal parallel to electric or magnetic field, respectively). Power densities were used that resulted in equivalent whole-body specific absorption rates of approximately 8 W/kg in both orientations (20 mW/cm{sup 2} for E and 45 mW/cm{sup 2} for H). Exposure was conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5{degrees}C in both orientations in the same animal. Irradiation in E orientation resulted in greater colonic, tympanic, left subcutaneous (side toward antenna), and tail heating. The results indicated a more uniform distribution of heat than that which occurred in previous experiments of 2450-MHz irradiation in E and H orientation. A lack of significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses between exposures in the two orientations in this study suggest that greater peripheral heating, as was seen in the earlier study of 2450 MHz, is necessary for these differences to occur.

  2. Oviposition and flight orientation response of Aedes aegypti to certain aromatic aryl hydrazono esters.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Sathe, Manisha; Sharma, Pratibha; Parashar, B D; Kaushik, M P

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is a day-biting, highly anthropophilic mosquito and a potential vector of dengue and chikungunya in India. A. aegypti is a container breeder, generally oviposit in the stored and fresh water bodies, and discarded containers near residential areas that provide suitable habitats for oviposition by gravid females. The diurnal activity and endophilic nature of these mosquitoes have increased the frequency of contact with human being. Assured blood meal from human host in an infested area leads to increased disease occurrence. Gravid mosquitoes can potentially be lured to attractant-treated traps and could subsequently be killed with insecticides or growth regulators. In this direction, oviposition by A. aegypti females to aryl hydrazono esters (AHE)-treated bowls at 10 ppm concentration was tested in dual choice experiment, and their orientation response to these ester compounds was studied in Y-tube olfactometer. Among the esters tested, AHE-2, AHE-11 and AHE-12 elicited increased egg deposition with oviposition activity indices (OAI) of +0.39, +0.24 and +0.48, respectively, compared to control; in contrast, AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 showed negative oviposition response with OAI of -0.46, -0.35 and -0.29, respectively, at 10 mg/L. In the Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, AHE-2 attracted 60 % females compared to control, while to the odour of AHE-11 and AHE-12, about 70 % of the females were trapped in treated chambers. In contrast, only 27-30 % of gravid females entered the chamber releasing AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 odour plumes, while 70 % entered control chamber, evincing a possible non-preference of treatment odours as well as interference with olfactory receptors. These compounds have the potential for application as oviposition stimulants or deterrents for surveillance and control of mosquito population using ovitraps. PMID:22552771

  3. Effects of sex of caller, implied sexual orientation of caller, and urgency on altruistic response using the wrong number technique.

    PubMed

    Gore, K Y; Tobiasen, M A; Kayson, W A

    1997-06-01

    This study using the wrong number technique focussed on the effects of sex of caller, sexual orientation of caller, and urgency on the altruistic response of making a call. In a 2 (sex) x 2 (heterosexual or homosexual) x 2 ("last quarter" or "no more change") factorial design the dependent variable was the number of seconds taken for a return telephone call. A woman or man asking for a boyfriend or girlfriend were helped faster than homosexual ones. Further research exploring the ways people of different sexual orientations are responded to is recommended. PMID:9198395

  4. Thermal and mechanical response of [0001]-oriented GaN nanowires during tensile loading and unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2012-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the thermal and mechanical responses of GaN nanowires with the [0001] orientation and hexagonal cross sections to tensile loading and unloading. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires at each deformed state is calculated using the Green-Kubo approach with quantum correction. The thermal conductivity is found to be dependent on the strain induced by tensile loading and unloading. Phase transformations are observed in both the loading and unloading processes. Specifically, the initially wurtzite-structured (WZ) nanowires transform into a tetragonal structure (TS) under tensile loading and revert to the WZ structure in the unloading process. In this reverse transformation from TS to WZ, transitional states are observed. In the intermediate states, the nanowires consist of both TS regions and WZ regions. For particular sizes, the nanowires are divided into two WZ domains by an inversion domain boundary (IDB). The thermal conductivity in the intermediate states is approximately 30% lower than those in the WZ structure because of the lower phonon group velocity in the intermediate states. Significant effects of size and crystal structure on mechanical and thermal behaviors are also observed. Specifically, as the diameter increases from 2.26 to 4.85 nm, the thermal conductivity increases by 30%, 10%, and 50%, respectively, for the WZ, WZ-TS, and WZ-IDB structured wires. However, change in conductivity is negligible for TS-structured wires as the diameter changes. The different trends in thermal conductivity appear to result from changes in the group velocity which is related to the stiffness of the wires and surface scattering of phonons.

  5. Mutual information in Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We compute the mutual information of two Hawking particles emitted consecutively by an evaporating black hole. Following Page, we find that the mutual information is of order e-S where S is the entropy of the black hole. We speculate on implications for black hole unitarity, in particular on a possible failure of locality at large distances.

  6. Cuttlefish responses to visual orientation of substrates, water flow and a model of motion camouflage.

    PubMed

    Shohet, A J; Baddeley, R J; Anderson, J C; Kelman, E J; Osorio, D

    2006-12-01

    Low-level mechanisms in vertebrate vision are sensitive to line orientation. Here we investigate orientation sensitivity in the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, by allowing animals to settle on stripe patterns. When camouflaging themselves cuttlefish are known to be sensitive to image parameters such as contrast and spatial scale, but we find no effect of background orientation on the patterns displayed. It is nonetheless clear that the animals see orientation, because they prefer to rest with the body-axis perpendicular to the stripes. We consider three possible mechanisms to account for this behaviour. Firstly, that the body patterns are themselves oriented, and that the cuttlefish align themselves to aid static camouflage. This is unlikely, as the patterns displayed have no dominant orientation at any spatial scale. A second possibility is that motion camouflage favours alignment of the body orthogonal to background stripes, and we suggest how this alignment can minimise motion signals produced by occlusion. Thirdly we show that cuttlefish prefer to rest with their body-axis parallel to the water flow, and it is possible that they use visual patterns such as sand ripples to determine water flow. PMID:17114404

  7. The Evolution of Interspecific Mutualisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doebeli, Michael; Knowlton, Nancy

    1998-07-01

    Interspecific mutualisms are widespread, but how they evolve is not clear. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is the main theoretical tool to study cooperation, but this model ignores ecological differences between partners and assumes that amounts exchanged cannot themselves evolve. A more realistic model incorporating these features shows that strategies that succeed with fixed exchanges (e.g., Tit-for-Tat) cannot explain mutualism when exchanges vary because the amount exchanged evolves to 0. For mutualism to evolve, increased investments in a partner must yield increased returns, and spatial structure in competitive interactions is required. Under these biologically plausible assumptions, mutualism evolves with surprising ease. This suggests that, contrary to the basic premise of past theoretical analyses, overcoming a potential host's initial defenses may be a bigger obstacle for mutualism than the subsequent recurrence and spread of noncooperative mutants.

  8. Determination of the mutual orientation of the 15N and 13C NMR chemical shift tensors of 13- 15N double labeled model peptides for silk fibroin from the dipolar-coupled powder patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Yasunobu; Seng, Koo Wey; Demura, Makoto

    1998-05-01

    The 15N and 13C chemical shift tensors, and the orientation of the principal axis system relative to the molecular symmetry axes were determined for 15N and 13C carbonyl carbon sites of 13C 15N double labeled model peptides for Bombyx mori silk fibroin, that is, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly-OMe, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac, Boc-AlaGly[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac, Boc-[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]AlaGlyAla-OPac, Boc-GlyAla[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]AlaGlyAla-OPac and Boc-[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]ValGlyAla-OPac, where Boc is t-butoxycarbonyl, OMe is methyl ester, OPac is phenacyl ester, Ala is alanine, Gly is glycine and Val is valine. From the comparisons of the 15N chemical shift tensors and the orientations of the principal axis system relative to the molecular symmetry axes among three compounds having [1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly units, it is concluded that the intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding are different between Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly-OMe and two compounds, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac and Boc-AlaGly[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac although the latter two compounds have similar structures. A similar conclusion has also been obtained from the 13C chemical shift tensors of these compounds.

  9. Mutual tolerance after liver and not after heart transplantation? Evaluation of patient-anti-donor and donor-anti-patient responses by mixed lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed

    van der Mast, B J; van Besouw, N M; Hepkema, B G; Weimar, W; van de Berg, A P; Slooff, M J; Claas, F H

    1998-03-01

    The ultimate goal in organ transplantation is the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. The fact that in some patients it is possible to withdraw immunosuppressive therapy completely, suggests that immunological adaptation or donor-specific nonresponsiveness can occur following transplantation. In earlier studies we have shown that after blood transfusion, the mixed lymphocyte reactivity of the donor against patient peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes taken after blood transfusion gradually decreased with time. This may reflect the induction of an immunoregulatory mechanism, which protects the recipient against an immune reaction of the donor, enhancing a state of mixed chimerism. A similar phenomenon might also play a role in the immunological mechanism leading to transplantation tolerance. Therefore, we studied responses in patients with a well-functioning liver and heart transplant using a primed lymphocyte test (PLT) and a mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). Two years after liver transplantation the PLT and MLC responses of patient against donor were decreased significantly compared to the situation before transplantation. The response of donor against patient was also lower two years after transplantation. The decreased responses were donor-specific since responses to third-party cells generally remained unchanged. In heart transplant recipients we could not detect a donor-specific downregulation. The reversed response, of donor against patient, was not different from responses of third-party against patient cells. Therefore, we conclude that donor-specific nonresponsiveness is not induced in patients with well-functioning heart transplants. In contrast, after a successful liver transplantation the response of patient against donor is decreased, as is the reversed response. It may be valuable to test whether in liver transplant patients withdrawing or reducing of maintenance immunosuppression is permitted for patients who appear to have developed two-way donor-specific hyporeactivity. PMID:9640626

  10. Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and palliative care related to end-of-life circumstances. Specifically, the complementarity of grief and palliative care, as well as a controvertible view thereof, will be considered. PMID:25278758

  11. Differential Responsiveness of Cortical Microtubule Orientation to Suppression of Cell Expansion among the Developmental Zones of Arabidopsis thaliana Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

    2013-01-01

    ?he bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

  12. Cotton response to crop row offset and orientation to subsurface drip irrigation laterals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent increase in the use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) for cotton production in the Texas High Plains has resulted in questions concerning drip lateral position and orientation relative to crop rows. Field experiments were conducted at Halfway, Texas to evaluate traditional SDI installat...

  13. Reflexive Orienting in Response to Eye Gaze and an Arrow in Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one…

  14. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  15. YIELD RESPONSE TO PEANUT ROW ORIENTATION AND SEEDING RATE WHEN IRRIGATED USING SDI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are typically planted in a single or twin row orientation, however, research indicates that peanut planted at equidistance between rows and plants in alternating rows (diamond shape) and using the same planting rate can increase pod yield. A study was conducted to eval...

  16. "With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2013-01-01

    How do students from privileged communities respond to educational efforts encouraging them to become justice-oriented citizens? Observational and interview data collected during a semester-long case study of eleven high school students in a social studies class at an elite private school reveal four markedly different interpretations of their…

  17. Mutual Mentoring Makes Better Mentors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Cindy; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda; Whitten, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will describe how our peer-to-peer mentoring has enabled us to become better mentors for our undergraduate students, for recent graduates beginning their careers and for colleagues at local and neighboring institutions.

  18. Attentional modulation of fMRI responses in human V1 is consistent with distinct spatial maps for chromatically defined orientation and contrast.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo-Hyun; Rowland, Jess; McPeek, Robert M; Wade, Alex R

    2011-09-01

    Attending to different stimulus features such as contrast or orientation can change the pattern of neural responses in human V1 measured with fMRI. We show that these pattern changes are much more distinct for colored stimuli than for achromatic stimuli. This is evidence for a classic model of V1 functional architecture in which chromatic contrast and orientation are coded in spatially distinct neural domains, while achromatic contrast and orientation are not. PMID:21900568

  19. Attentional modulation of fMRI responses in human V1 is consistent with distinct spatial maps for chromatically-defined orientation and contrast

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo-Hyun; Rowland, Jess; McPeek, Robert M; Wade, Alex R

    2012-01-01

    Attending to different stimulus features such as contrast or orientation can change the pattern of neural responses in human V1 measured with fMRI. We show that these pattern changes are much more distinct for colored stimuli than for achromatic stimuli. This is evidence for a classic model of V1 functional architecture in which chromatic contrast and orientation are coded in spatially distinct neural domains, while achromatic contrast and orientation are not. PMID:21900568

  20. Influence of crystallographic orientation on the response of copper crystallites to nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.; Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S. E-mail: kost@ispms.tsc.ru; Zolnikov, Konstantin P. E-mail: kost@ispms.tsc.ru; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2014-11-14

    Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the features of nucleation and development of plastic deformation in copper crystallites in nanoindentation with different crystallographic orientations of their loaded surface: (011), (001), and (111). Atomic interaction was described by a potential constructed in terms of the embedded atom method. It is shown that behavior of the crystallite reaction force correlates well with a change in the fraction of atoms involved in local structural rearrangements. The generation of local structural changes decreases the slope of the crystallite reaction force curve or results in an extremum due to internal stress relaxation. Analysis of structural changes in the material being indented demonstrates that the orientation of its loaded surface greatly affects the features of nucleation and development of plastic deformation.

  1. Client attachment orientations, working alliances, and responses to therapy: a psychology training clinic study.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Eric M; Anderson, Mary Z; Gormley, Barbara; Richmond, Christopher J; Preacco, Lara

    2010-11-01

    The authors examined the associations between client attachment orientations, working alliance, and progress in therapy. Ninety-five clients at two university-based training clinics completed measures of adult attachment, attachment to therapist, and working alliance immediately preceding the third counseling session with therapists-in-training. A standardized measure of progress in therapy was administered at intake, third counseling session, and termination. Hierarchical linear modeling findings indicated that stronger working alliances and secure attachment to therapist were significantly associated with greater reductions in client distress over time. Higher levels of adult attachment anxiety were significantly associated with greater distress ratings at the outset of treatment. Directions for future research and suggestions for developing therapeutic relationships in the context of specific client attachment orientations are discussed. PMID:21154028

  2. A response to reform: Teachers' attitudes and practice of inquiry-oriented instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeffrey D.

    The intention of the current reform effort in Connecticut is to influence the way science is taught to improve student achievement. To meet this goal, the State aligned curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices with the most recent versions of the Core Science Curriculum Framework, CAPT Handbook for Science, and the Connecticut Aptitude Performance Test (CAPT). The lack of widespread and sustainable implementation of instructional reforms, such as implementing inquiry-oriented standards-based curriculum, is an issue that has evolved out of reform efforts similar to the one in Connecticut. A possible explanation for this problem might be traced back to teacher attitudes towards the proposed instructional changes. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the attitudes of six high school earth science teachers toward reform in one Connecticut suburban school district and the impact these attitudes may have had on the implementation of inquiry-oriented instructional reforms. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess teacher attitudes toward the reform and the expected impact on the way they would enact inquiry-oriented instruction. This was followed by classroom observations of each teacher's implementation of one of the State released inquiry-oriented labs found in the CAPT Handbook for Science, so as to determine whether the labs were carried out as the teachers had intended and as was expected by the State. At the end of year, semi-structured interviews were also conducted to verify whether their attitudes changed over the course of the year. Originally, it was thought that teacher attitudes would impact the way they would carry out the State recommended labs. However, teacher attitudes in this study were only one predictor of the way the inquiry-oriented labs were implemented. Teacher experience, familiarity with the content, and knowledge of inquiry-based pedagogy also were found to be possible influences on how they described and implemented the State reforms. The results of this work highlight the need for large-scale reforms to consider the multiple factors that influence teachers' understanding and implementation in order for such instructional changes to be successful.

  3. [Mutual interaction of the renin-angiotensin system and the atrial natriuretic factor in the renal response to acute volume loading].

    PubMed

    Horký, K; Tesar, V; Gregorová, I; Srámková, J; Dvoráková, J

    1990-07-01

    The authors investigated dynamic changes and the interaction of the plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PAC), i.e. the main representatives of sodium retaining systems, and of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) the decisive natriuretic substance in acute expansion of the extracellular volume (ECV) by infusion of two litres of saline in six controls, seven patients with essential hypertension and liver cirrhosis without ascites (6 patients) and with ascites (6 patients). The expansion evoked controversial changes of these systems. It led to a rise of ANF and suppression of PAC and PRA. Although ANF rose after infusion to the roughly similar range (12.4 to 15.7 pmol/l), the natriuretic response to expansion differed significantly in different groups of patients. It was most marked in hypertonic subjects (517.2 to 93.2 mumols/min) and practically zero in ascitic liver cirrhosis (54.2 +/- 44.2 mumols/min). The explanation of this finding may be the persistence of high activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system despite its partial inhibition by infusion of saline in cirrhosis of the liver (PRA 1.69 +/- 0.66 nmols/l/hr., PAC 1.12 nmol/l). For the renal response to acute expansion of the ECV thus not only the absolute plasma concentration of ANF is decisive but also its ratio to the activity of the sodium retaining renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. PMID:2147304

  4. Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

  5. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  6. Disorienting Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn's article provides educators with a comprehensive review of possible modes of studying and teaching rabbinic literature. His method of extensive consultation and dialogue with teachers of

  7. Hierarchical clustering using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraskov, A.; Stögbauer, H.; Andrzejak, R. G.; Grassberger, P.

    2005-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple method for hierarchical clustering of data called mutual information clustering (MIC) algorithm. It uses mutual information (MI) as a similarity measure and exploits its grouping property: The MI between three objects X, Y, and Z is equal to the sum of the MI between X and Y, plus the MI between Z and the combined object (XY). We use this both in the Shannon (probabilistic) version of information theory and in the Kolmogorov (algorithmic) version. We apply our method to the construction of phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial DNA sequences and to the output of independent components analysis (ICA) as illustrated with the ECG of a pregnant woman.

  8. Repeatability of functional anisotropy in navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation--coil-orientation versus response.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Könönen, Mervi; Julkunen, Petro

    2015-06-17

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used for evaluating the function of motor pathways. According to the principles of electromagnetism and electrophysiology, TMS activates those neurons that are suitably oriented with respect to the TMS-induced electric field. We hypothesized that TMS could potentially be able to evaluate the neuronal structure, although until now, this putative application has not been exploited. We have developed a TMS-based method to evaluate the function and structure of the motor cortex concurrently in a quantitative manner. This method produced a measure, the anisotropy index (AI), which is based on the motor-evoked potentials induced at different coil orientations. The AI was demonstrated to exhibit an association with both motor cortex excitability and neuronal structure. In the present study, we evaluated the repeatability (intrasession and intersession) of AI in three consecutive measurements. In addition, we studied the repeatability of the optimal coil angle in inducing motor-evoked potentials. Two of the measurements were conducted on the same stimulation target and the third on a remapped target. The coefficient of repeatability of the AI was 0.022 for intrasession and 0.040 for intersession assessments. For the optimal stimulation angle, the coefficients of repeatability were 3.7° and 5.1°, respectively. Both the AI and the optimal stimulation angle demonstrated good repeatability (Cronbach's α>0.760). In conclusion, the results indicate that the AI can provide a reliable estimation of local functional anisotropy changes under conditions affecting the cortex, such as during stroke or focal dysplasia. PMID:26011386

  9. Strategic Orientation and Nursing Home Response to Public Reporting of Quality Measures: An Application of the Miles and Snow Typology

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, Jacqueline S; Spector, William D; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess whether differences in strategic orientation of nursing homes as identified by the Miles and Snow typology are associated with differences in their response to the publication of quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare website. Data Sources Administrator survey of a national 10 percent random sample (1,502 nursing homes) of all facilities included in the first publication of the Nursing Home Compare report conducted in May–June 2004; 724 responded, yielding a response rate of 48.2 percent. Study Design The dependent variables are dichotomous, indicating whether or not action was taken and the type of action taken. Four indicator variables were created for each of the four strategic types: Defender, Analyzer, Prospector, and Reactor. Other variables were included in the seven logistic regression models to control for factors other than strategic type that could influence nursing home response to public disclosure of their quality of care. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey data were merged with data on quality measures and organizational characteristics from the first report (November 2002). Principal Findings About 43 percent of surveyed administrators self-typed as Defenders, followed by Analyzers (33 percent), and Prospectors (19 percent). The least self-selected strategic type was the Reactor (6.6 percent). In general, results of the regression models indicate differences in response to quality measure publication by strategic type, with Prospectors and Analyzers more likely, and Reactors less likely, to respond than Defenders. Conclusions While almost a third of administrators took no action at all, our results indicate that whether, when, and how nursing homes reacted to publication of federally reported quality measures is associated with strategic orientation. PMID:18370969

  10. Sex Differences in Orienting to Pictures with and without Humans: Evidence from the Cardiac Evoked Response (ECR) and the Cortical Long Latency Parietal Positivity (LPP)

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; van der Schaft, Lutske; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tucha, Oliver; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Wijers, Albertus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of social relevance in affective pictures on two orienting responses, i.e. the evoked cardiac response (ECR), and a long latency cortical evoked potential (LPP) and whether this effect would differ between males and females. Assuming that orienting to affective social information is fundamental to experiencing affective empathy, associations between self-report measures of empathy and the two orienting responses were investigated. Method ECRs were obtained from 34 female and 30 male students, and LPPs from 25 female and 27 male students viewing 414 pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Pictures portrayed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Results Both the ECR and LPP showed the largest response to pictures with humans in unpleasant situations. For both measures, the responses to pictures with humans correlated with self-report measures of empathy. While we found a greater male than female responsiveness to the pictures without humans in the ECR, a greater female than male responsiveness was observed in the LPP response to pictures with humans. Conclusion and Significance The sensitivity of these orienting responses to social relevance and their differential contribution to the prediction of individual differences underline the validity of their combined use in clinical studies investigating individuals with social disabilities. PMID:25330003

  11. Supervisors' Responses to Subordinate Performance: Effect of Personal-Control Orientation and Situational Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study extending a model of leadership response based on attribution theories to include measures of locus of control and situational control. Describes a procedure by which subjects responded to descriptions of subordinate performance. Concludes that supervisors with an external locus of control were less sensitive to subordinate…

  12. PRES: Physical Response Education Systems. The Oriental Model Goes to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Jeanne

    The Physical Response Education System (PRES) project began in pilot studies of the effectiveness of acupressure in addressing the physical and emotional problems of disabled students. In the pilot study (1979-80), 12 students received 6 weekly sessions from a professional acupressurist, and in the intern study (1980-81) 15 students received 8…

  13. Trying to fit in: are patterns of orientation of a keystone grazer set by behavioural responses to ecosystem engineers or wave action?

    PubMed

    Fraser, Clarissa M L; Coleman, Ross A; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of animals varies at different temporal and spatial scales. At the smallest scale, distribution may be orientated in regard to particular environmental variables or habitat features. For animals on the rocky intertidal, the processes which set and maintain patterns of distribution and abundance in wave-exposed areas are well studied, with explanatory models focused on wave action and, more recently, the role of biogenic habitats. In contrast, patterns of orientation by intertidal animals have received less attention, although having ecological and fitness consequences. Here, we report tests of competing models to explain the observation that limpets on steeply sloped surfaces orientate downwards. A greater proportion of downwards-facing limpets was found in sheltered sites and areas without barnacles and this pattern was consistent across many shores and sampling occasions. Additionally, the frequency at which limpets were dislodged after a storm was independent of orientation. To test whether orientation is a behavioural response to habitat-forming barnacles, barnacles were removed and/or killed from patches of substrata and the change in proportion of downwards-facing limpets measured. The proportion increased with barnacle removal and this behaviour was a response to the structure of the barnacles, not a biotic effect associated with the living organism. Our study suggests that biogenic habitat not wave action sets patterns of limpet orientation and barnacle shells, regardless of whether the barnacle is alive or not, limit the ability of limpets to adopt a downward orientation. PMID:23996227

  14. Using item response theory in the development and validation of the College-Oriented Eating Disorders Screen.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jennifer A; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Strong, David R; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lejuez, Carl W

    2003-11-01

    The current study examined the psychometric characteristics of the College-Oriented Eating Disorders Screen (COEDS), a college-student-focused screening measure to assess and identify individuals at-risk for the development of eating disordered pathology. By screening a large pool of pilot questions and using methods based in item response theory (IRT), seven items were identified with well-targeted contents that discriminated well across the continuum of eating disorder severity. The resulting measure evidenced a unidimensional factor structure and correlated highly with the original COEDS, standard measures of eating disorders pathology, and a measure of associated symptomatology (e.g., depressive symptoms). Based on these results, we discuss the utility of the COEDS as a prognostic indicator for risk of eating disordered pathology among college students. PMID:15000961

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Form 1120. Insurance companies are entitled, in computing insurance company taxable income, to the... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual...

  16. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  17. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  18. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  19. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  20. A cross-functional service-oriented architecture to support real-time information exchange in emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Hauenstein, Logan; Gao, Tia; Sze, Tsz Wo; Crawford, David; Alm, Alex; White, David

    2006-01-01

    Real-time information communication presents a persistent challenge to the emergency response community. During a medical emergency, various first response disciplines including Emergency Medical Service (EMS), Fire, and Police, and multiple health service facilities including hospitals, auxiliary care centers and public health departments using disparate information technology systems must coordinate their efforts by sharing real-time information. This paper describes a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that uses shared data models of emergency incidents to support the exchange of data between heterogeneous systems. This architecture is employed in the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) system, a testbed investigating information technologies to improve interoperation among multiple emergency response organizations in the Washington DC Metropolitan region. This architecture allows us to enable real-time data communication between three deployed systems: 1) a pre-hospital patient care reporting software system used on all ambulances in Arlington County, Virginia (MICHAELS), 2) a syndromic surveillance system used by public health departments in the Washington area (ESSENCE), and 3) a hazardous material reference software system (WISER) developed by the National Library Medicine. Additionally, we have extended our system to communicate with three new data sources: 1) wireless automated vital sign sensors worn by patients, 2) web portals for admitting hospitals, and 3) PDAs used by first responders at emergency scenes to input data (SIRP). PMID:17959430

  1. Mutual impedance computation between printed dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, N. G.; Rana, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    The mutual impedance between microstrip dipoles printed on a grounded substrate is computed. Results for the microstrip dipoles in broadside, collinear, and echelon arrangements are presented. The significance of surface wave to mutual coupling is discussed.

  2. Jealousy in response to online and offline infidelity: the role of sex and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

    2013-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the emotional content and intensity of jealousy in response to different types of infidelity (both online and offline unfaithful partner behaviors) among Dutch heterosexuals (n = 191) and homosexuals (n = 121). Based on previous research (Dijkstra, Barelds & Groothof, 2010), participants were presented with ten jealousy-evoking situations following which the intensity of two different emotional aspects of jealousy was assessed (betrayal/anger and threat). Results showed that scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else or falling in love with someone else primarily evoked betrayal/anger-related jealousy, whereas scenarios describing an emotional connection between a partner and someone else primarily evoked threat-related jealousy. In addition, women experienced more jealousy than men in response to scenarios in which a partner engaged in potentially extra-dyadic online (but not offline) behaviors. Finally, compared to same-sex heterosexuals, homosexuals, both male and female, responded with less intense jealousy to scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else. Implications for the treatment of (internet) infidelity are discussed. PMID:23682617

  3. Pluto-charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Binzel, R.P. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  4. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  5. Shock Response of an Unidirectional Composite at Various Orientation of Fibers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordzilovskii, Serge; Karakhanov, Serge; Merzhievskii, Lev

    1997-07-01

    The shock response of an unidirectional laminated composite for an angle α (5, 15, 45, and 90^o) between the normal to the shock surface and the direction of reinforcing fibers was studied. The samples were cut from polymeric aramid composite representing an epoxy resin reinforced with aramid fibers of 15 μm thick. The samples were loaded by attenuating shock waves with maximum stress ranged from 3.8 to 5.4 GPa. Manganin gauges recorded the stress-time profiles at the near interface when the shock entered the sample, and at the far interface between the sample and the back plate. At α = 5 and 15^o the second profile showed a distinct elastic precursor followed by the main stress rise of short duration. At α = 45^o the elastic precursor gradually transformed into the "smeared" plastic wave; And only a single shock of short rise time was observed at α = 90^o. It was found that the actual strength (yielding) of the aramid composite under shock loading depends on the angle between the direction of load and reinforcing fibers. The comparison of these data with the results of tensile test showed that the dynamic strength is determined either by the critical stress of the epoxy matrix or the interlaminar shear stress characterized the composite in static test.

  6. Mechanical Response of Stitched T300 Mat/Urethane 420 IMR Composite Laminates: Property/Orientation Dependence and Damage Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Weitsman, Y.J.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents experimental and analytical results of investigations on the mechanical response of stitched T300 mat/urethane 420 IMR composite laminates with three different lay-up configurations. Tensile tests and short-term creep and recovery tests were conducted on the laminate coupons at various orientations. The X-ray photographic technique was adopted to detect the internal damage due to external loading history. The tensile data of laminates with antisymmetric and symmetric lay-ups indicated that lay- up sequences of cross-ply laminates do not have much influence on their tensile properties. However, misalignments within the stitch-bonded plies disturb the symmetry of intended quasi-isotropic laminates and thereby cause the mechanical properties to exhibit a certain amount of angular dependence. Classic lamination theory was found to be able to provide a very good prediction of tensile properties for the stitched laminates within linear range. Creep and recovery response of laminate coupons is greatly dependent on loading angles and load levels. The internal damage of laminate coupons is also directly related to loading angles and load levels as well as loading history.

  7. Ecosystem engineers activate mycorrhizal mutualism in salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Daleo, Pedro; Fanjul, Eugenia; Mendez Casariego, Agustina; Silliman, Brian R; Bertness, Mark D; Iribarne, Oscar

    2007-10-01

    Theory predicts that ecosystem engineers should have their most dramatic effects when they enable species, through habitat amelioration, to live in zones where physical and biological conditions would otherwise suppress or limit them. Mutualisms between mycorrhizal fungi and plants are key determinants of productivity and biodiversity in most terrestrial systems, but are thought to be unimportant in wetlands because anoxic sediments exclude fungal symbionts. Our field surveys revealed arbuscular mycorrhizal associations on salt marsh plant roots, but only in the presence of crabs that oxygenate soils as a by-product of burrowing. Field experiments demonstrate that fungal colonization is dependent on crab burrowing and responsible for nearly 35% of plant growth. These results highlight ecosystem engineers as ecological linchpins that can activate and maintain key mutualisms between species. Our findings align salt marshes with other important biogenic habitats whose productivity is reliant on mutualisms between the primary foundation species and micro-organisms. PMID:17845290

  8. Parent-Child Dyadic Mutuality and Child Behavior Problems: An Investigation of Gene-Environment Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Parent-child mutuality is comprised of emotional reciprocity, co-responsiveness, and cooperation, which together represent aspects of co-regulation of emotion and behavior that may be important in the etiology of children's behavior problems. Furthermore, individual differences in children's mutuality and behavior problems involve…

  9. Five new and three improved mutual orbits of transneptunian binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Nimmo, F.; Roe, H. G.; Buie, M. W.; Porter, S. B.; Benecchi, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Levison, H. F.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We present three improved and five new mutual orbits of transneptunian binary systems (58534) Logos-Zoe, (66652) Borasisi-Pabu, (88611) Teharonhiawako-Sawiskera, (123509) 2000 WK 183, (149780) Altjira, 2001 QY 297, 2003 QW 111, and 2003 QY 90 based on Hubble Space Telescope and Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics observations. Combining the five new orbit solutions with 17 previously known orbits yields a sample of 22 mutual orbits for which the period P, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e have been determined. These orbits have mutual periods ranging from 5 to over 800 days, semimajor axes ranging from 1600 to 37,000 km, eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.8, and system masses ranging from 2 × 10 17 to 2 × 10 22 kg. Based on the relative brightnesses of primaries and secondaries, most of these systems consist of near equal-sized pairs, although a few of the most massive systems are more lopsided. The observed distribution of orbital properties suggests that the most loosely-bound transneptunian binary systems are only found on dynamically cold heliocentric orbits. Of the 22 known binary mutual orbits, orientation ambiguities are now resolved for 9, of which 7 are prograde and 2 are retrograde, consistent with a random distribution of orbital orientations, but not with models predicting a strong preference for retrograde orbits. To the extent that other perturbations are not dominant, the binary systems undergo Kozai oscillations of their eccentricities and inclinations with periods of the order of tens of thousands to millions of years, some with strikingly high amplitudes.

  10. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  11. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  12. Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

  13. Verbal conditioning of stimulus significance in the orienting response context: an exploration demonstrating a new personality effect.

    PubMed

    Barry, R J; O'Reilly, H

    1988-01-01

    The manipulation of stimulus significance, by instructions from the experimenter, may be taken as an example of verbal conditioning. Consideration of such a mechanism suggested that personality effects previously found in conditioning studies should be apparent in instructional manipulations of significance in a study of the orienting response (OR) to words. Because of recent changes in dimensioning of the personality structure, some of the items originally used to define Eysenck's extraversion (E) dimension are now used to assess the new dimension of psychoticism (P), suggesting that at least some of the established effects of E upon conditioning may be associated now with P. Hence the P scale was focused on in this study. Words differing on the evaluative dimension of the semantic differential were presented in three blocks, the first under indifferent instructions, the second under instructions to rate the words for their affective impact, and the third under indifferent instructions again. These blocks correspond to baseline, conditioning, and extinction conditions respectively. Electrodermal activity indicated enhanced conditioning, together with greater carry-over effects in the extinction phase, for low-P compared with high-P subjects. The results indicate the importance of personality effects in studies of stimulus significance and illustrate the value of the verbal conditioning mechanism in this area of the OR field. They also suggest the need to re-examine previously obtained E-effects in conditioning studies in light of changing personality tests. PMID:3357709

  14. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT. PMID:25997025

  15. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H.; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT. PMID:25997025

  16. Explaining mutualism variation: a new evolutionary paradox?

    PubMed

    Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-02-01

    The paradox of mutualism is typically framed as the persistence of interspecific cooperation, despite the potential advantages of cheating. Thus, mutualism research has tended to focus on stabilizing mechanisms that prevent the invasion of low-quality partners. These mechanisms alone cannot explain the persistence of variation for partner quality observed in nature, leaving a large gap in our understanding of how mutualisms evolve. Studying partner quality variation is necessary for applying genetically explicit models to predict evolution in natural populations, a necessary step for understanding the origins of mutualisms as well as their ongoing dynamics. An evolutionary genetic approach, which is focused on naturally occurring mutualist variation, can potentially synthesize the currently disconnected fields of mutualism evolution and coevolutionary genetics. We outline explanations for the maintenance of genetic variation for mutualism and suggest approaches necessary to address them. PMID:24303853

  17. Constructing mutually unbiased bases in dimension six

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    The density matrix of a qudit may be reconstructed with optimal efficiency if the expectation values of a specific set of observables are known. In dimension six, the required observables only exist if it is possible to identify six mutually unbiased complex (6x6) Hadamard matrices. Prescribing a first Hadamard matrix, we construct all others mutually unbiased to it, using algebraic computations performed by a computer program. We repeat this calculation many times, sampling all known complex Hadamard matrices, and we never find more than two that are mutually unbiased. This result adds considerable support to the conjecture that no seven mutually unbiased bases exist in dimension six.

  18. Developing Relationships, Being Cool, and Not Looking Like a Loser: Social Goal Orientation Predicts Children’s Responses to Peer Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Flynn, Megan; Sugimura, Niwako; Agoston, Anna Monica

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in how children respond to peer aggression. This research explored the contribution of social goal orientation, specifically development goals (improving social skills and relationships), demonstration-approach goals (gaining positive judgments), and demonstration-avoidance goals (minimizing negative judgments). Children (M age = 7.97, SD = .34) were followed from 2nd to 3rd grade. Validity of the social goal orientation construct was established through correlations with situation-specific goals and social adjustment. Development goals predicted adaptive responses (more effortful engagement, problem solving, advice seeking; fewer involuntary responses); demonstration goals predicted maladaptive responses (less effortful engagement, problem solving; more disengagement, retaliation). This study contributes to theoretical understanding of the process of peer aggression and interventions to promote optimal social health. PMID:21765534

  19. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  20. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  1. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    PubMed

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. PMID:26453930

  2. The effect of poly (L-lactic acid) nanofiber orientation on osteogenic responses of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Shen; Yang, Xiaoping; Deng, Xuliang

    2011-05-01

    In this study, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA)/trifluoroethanol (TFE) solution was electrospun to fabricate fibrous scaffolds with different fiber orientations. Random and parallel PLLA nanofiber alignments were achieved by using a metal plate and a rolling rod as the receiver, respectively. The parallel PLLA fibrous scaffolds were further hot-stretched to obtain hyperparallel PLLA fibrous scaffolds. The PLLA fibrous scaffolds were characterized by fiber diameter, interfiber distance, fiber array angle, water contact angle, morphology and mechanical strength. The tensile strength of hyperparallel nano-fibers was approximately 5- and 14-times the parallel and random fibers, respectively. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the PLLA scaffolds to study the effects of fiber orientation on cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation. The cells on the randomly-oriented scaffolds showed irregular forms, while the cells exhibited shuttle-like shapes on the parallel scaffolds and had larger aspect ratios along the fiber direction of the hyperparallel scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen I (placeStateCol I) and osteocalcin (OC) deposition exhibited fiber orientation dependence. With an increase in parallelism of the fibers, there was a decrease in ALP activity and placeStateCol I and OC production. These results suggest that exploitation of PLLA fiber orientation may be used to control osteoblast-like cell responses. PMID:21396609

  3. When orienting and anticipation dissociate - a case for scoring electrodermal responses in multiple latency windows in studies of human fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2016-02-01

    Electrodermal activity in studies of human fear conditioning is often scored by distinguishing two electrodermal responses occurring during the conditional stimulus-unconditional stimulus interval. These responses, known as first interval responding (FIR) and second interval responding (SIR), are reported to be differentially sensitive to the effects of orienting and anticipation. Recently, the FIR/SIR scoring convention has been questioned, with some arguing in favor of scoring a single response within the entire conditional stimulus-unconditional stimulus interval (entire interval responding, EIR). EIR can be advantageous in practical terms but may fail to capture experimental effects when manipulations produce dissociations between orienting and anticipation. As an illustration, we rescored the data reported by Luck and Lipp (2015b) using both FIR/SIR and EIR scoring techniques and provide evidence that the EIR scoring technique fails to detect the effects of instructed extinction, an experimental manipulation which produces a dissociation between orienting and anticipation. Thus, using a technique that scores electrodermal response indices of fear conditioning in multiple latency windows is recommended. PMID:26688271

  4. Promoting Mutual Help Groups Among Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes several kinds of mutual help groups and two ways to initiate them: (1) through conferences, and (2) through short-term training programs. A substantial need continues for mutual help groups in an era of reduced professional and consumer resources. Research is needed to document their extensiveness, impact and longevity. (JAC)

  5. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Weyl, E. Glen; Frederickson, Megan E.; Yu, Douglas W.; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2010-01-01

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host–symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume–rhizobia and yucca–moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

  6. The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

  7. Induction logging device with a pair of mutually perpendicular bucking coils

    DOEpatents

    Koelle, Alfred R.; Landt, Jeremy A.

    1981-01-01

    An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

  8. Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2012-01-01

    For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

  9. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared to those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of two rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. PMID:26479279

  10. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  11. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2016-02-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared with those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of 2 rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479279

  12. Electro-optical response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal single layers of large nematic droplets oriented by rubbed teflon nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Y. G.; Hadjichristov, G. B.; Petrov, A. G.; Marino, S.; Versace, C.; Scaramuzza, N.

    2013-02-01

    The surface orienting effect of rubbed teflon nanolayers on the morphology and electro-optical (EO) response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) single layers of large nematic droplets was studied experimentally. In PDLC composites of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 and NOA65 polymer, single droplets of LC with diameters as larger as 10 μm were confined in layers with a thickness of 10 μm, and the nematic director field was efficiently modified by nanostructuring teflon rubbing of the glass plates of the PDLC cell. For layered PDLCs arranged and oriented in this way, the modulated EO response by the dielectric oscillations of the nematic director exhibits a selective amplitude-frequency modulation controllable by both temperature and voltage applied, and is simply related to the LC droplet size. That may be of practical interest for PDLC-based modulators operating in the infrasound frequency range.

  13. Supplemental choline does not attenuate the effects of neonatal ethanol administration on habituation of the heart rate orienting response in rats.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Pamela S; Jacobson, Sarah E; Kim, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Several studies using rodent subjects have now shown that extra dietary choline may prevent or even reverse the deleterious effects of pre- and early post-natal ethanol administration. Choline supplementation has been shown to attenuate many, although not all, of ethanol's effects on brain development and behavior. Our laboratory has consistently reported impaired habituation of the heart rate orienting response to a novel olfactory stimulus in animals exposed to ethanol on postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Here we examine whether supplemental choline given both during and after ethanol administration could alleviate these ethanol-induced deficits. Subjects were given 5g/kg/day ethanol or sham intubations on PD 4-9. Half of the subjects in each group were given a single daily s.c. injection of choline chloride on PD 4-20, while the other half were injected daily with saline. Pups were tested for heart rate orienting and response habituation in a single test session on PD 23. Results replicated the ethanol-induced impairment in response habituation. However, choline supplementation had no effect on orienting or habituation in either neonatal treatment group. These findings indicate that habituation deficits induced by ethanol are not alleviated by extra dietary choline using these parameters. Choline holds great promise as a treatment for some fetal alcohol effects, but is not an effective treatment for all ethanol-related deficits. PMID:24907459

  14. On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Zadam, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer ( θ-2 θ) with the CuKα radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments.

  15. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed. PMID:25928677

  16. A wind-oriented sticky trap for evaluating the behavioural response of diabrotica speciosa (germar) to bitter cucurbit extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbitacins attract many species of Luperini leaf beetles, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Males and females feed avidly on these compounds, but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. A wind oriented baited sticky trap was...

  17. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  18. 76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC or Committee) formerly administered by the Office of... of and challenges facing mutual savings associations. The OCC is seeking nominations of...

  19. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. PMID:22011186

  20. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  1. Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions. PMID:25883391

  2. Predicting the orientation-dependent stress-induced transformation and detwinning response of shape memory alloy single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, T. E.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-02-01

    The present investigation examines three models that predict the orientation dependence of the stress-induced transformation strain in shape memory alloys (SMAs). The merits of each model are con-sidered in light of experimental results for three SMAs: NiTi, Cu-Ni-Al, and Ni-Al. Published experimental results fit model predictions well in most cases; the few exceptions can be accounted for by factors not included in the present models. As part of the comparison of model results with experimental observations, Ni-Al stress-strain curves generated by one of the models are found to closely match experimental stress-strain curves for the [001], [011], and [111] stress axis orientations. Finally, the predicted transformation stress anisotropy is analyzed in detail to examine the effect of detwinning of the stress-induced martensite.

  3. Mutually unbiased bases with free parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Gómez, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic method to introduce free parameters in sets of mutually unbiased bases. In particular, we demonstrate that any set of m real mutually unbiased bases existing in dimension N >2 admits the introduction of (m -1 )N /2 free parameters that cannot be absorbed by a global unitary operation. As consequence, there are m =k +1 mutually unbiased bases in every dimension N =k2 with k3/2 free parameters, where k is even. We explicitly construct the maximal set of triplets of mutually unbiased bases for two-qubit systems and triplets, quadruplets, and quintuplets of mutually unbiased bases with free parameters for three-qubit systems. Furthermore, we study the richness of the entanglement structure of such bases and provide the quantum circuits required to implement all these bases with free parameters in the laboratory. We also show that the free parameters introduced can be controlled by a single party of the system. Finally, we find the upper bound for the maximal number of real and complex mutually unbiased bases existing in every dimension. This proof is simple, short, and considers basic matrix algebra.

  4. Certainty relations, mutual entanglement, and nondisplaceable manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Chabuda, Krzysztof; Paraniak, Mikołaj; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    We derive explicit bounds for the average entropy characterizing measurements of a pure quantum state of size N in L orthogonal bases. Lower bounds lead to novel entropic uncertainty relations, while upper bounds allow us to formulate universal certainty relations. For L =2 the maximal average entropy saturates at logN because there exists a mutually coherent state, but certainty relations are shown to be nontrivial for L ≥3 measurements. In the case of a prime power dimension, N =pk , and the number of measurements L =N +1 , the upper bound for the average entropy becomes minimal for a collection of mutually unbiased bases. An analogous approach is used to study entanglement with respect to L different splittings of a composite system linked by bipartite quantum gates. We show that, for any two-qubit unitary gate U ∈U(4 ) there exist states being mutually separable or mutually entangled with respect to both splittings (related by U ) of the composite system. The latter statement follows from the fact that the real projective space R P3⊂C P3 is nondisplaceable by a unitary transformation. For L =3 splittings the maximal sum of L entanglement entropies is conjectured to achieve its minimum for a collection of three mutually entangled bases, formed by two mutually entangling gates.

  5. The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) onboard ROSETTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Béghin, Christian; Décréau, Pierrette; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Mazelle, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Schmidt, Walter; Winterhalter, Daniel; Aouad, Youcef; Lagoutte, Dominique; Vallières, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The ROSETTA mission will reach the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and enable, for the first time, the in situ survey of a comet activity during along orbit. On board the ROSETTA orbiter, the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) is one of the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) that aims at monitoring the cometary plasma environment. MIP is a quadrupolar probe that measures the frequency response of the coupling impedance between two emitting and two receiving dipoles. The electron density and temperature are derived from the resonance peak and the interference pattern of the mutual impedance spectrum. We will describe this instrument and discuss the preliminary results obtained during the third ROSETTA Earth flyby to show its expected capabilities. The RPC switch ON for the post-hibernation recommissioning is planned at the end of March. The health status of the instrument will be discussed.

  6. The preset grating effect for mutually pumped phase conjugator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Kang, Zhihua; Zhang, Ninghua; Liu, Jifang; Shi, Shunxiang

    2014-11-01

    Based on the four-wave mixing mechanism and light fanning effect, a mutually pumped phase conjugator(MPPC) model is proposed to analyze the variation of MPPC output response with time for different scattering seed value. It shows that preset grating can enhance the fan light intensity when it satisfies Bragg condition and also can shorten MPPC response time. In experiment the bird-wings MPPC is done with or without the preset grating and the variation of MPPC reflectivity with time is obtained in two cases, and simulation conclusion is in agreement with the experimental result. These results have importance for applications of MPPC on optical heterodyne detection.

  7. Mother- And Father-Child Mutuality in Anglo and Indian British Families: A Link with Lower Externalizing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2004-01-01

    We observed mother- and father-child dyadic mutuality (responsiveness, interaction reciprocity, and cooperation), and its association with child behavior problems, in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 125 male (51%) and female 7-to-9-year-old children. Dyadic mutuality and positivity were coded from in-home videotaped structured…

  8. Reflexive orienting in response to short- and long-duration gaze cues in young, young-old, and old-old adults.

    PubMed

    Gayzur, Nora D; Langley, Linda K; Kelland, Chris; Wyman, Sara V; Saville, Alyson L; Ciernia, Annie T; Padmanabhan, Ganesh

    2014-02-01

    Shifting visual focus on the basis of the perceived gaze direction of another person is one form of joint attention. In the present study, we investigated whether this socially relevant form of orienting is reflexive and whether it is influenced by age. Green and Woldorff (Cognition 122:96-101, 2012) argued that rapid cueing effects (i.e., faster responses to validly than to invalidly cued targets) were limited to conditions in which a cue overlapped in time with a target. They attributed slower responses following invalid cues to the time needed to resolve the incongruent spatial information provided by the concurrently presented cue and target. In the present study, we examined the orienting responses of young (18-31 years), young-old (60-74 years), and old-old (75-91 years) adults following uninformative central gaze cues that overlapped in time with the target (Exp. 1) or that were removed prior to target presentation (Exp. 2). When the cue and target overlapped, all three groups localized validly cued targets more quickly than invalidly cued targets, and validity effects emerged earlier for the two younger groups (at 100 ms post-cue-onset) than for the old-old group (at 300 ms post-cue-onset). With a short-duration cue (Exp. 2), validity effects developed rapidly (by 100 ms) for all three groups, suggesting that validity effects resulted from reflexive orienting based on the gaze cue information rather than from cue-target conflict. Thus, although old-old adults may be slow to disengage from persistent gaze cues, attention continues to be reflexively guided by gaze cues late in life. PMID:24170377

  9. The response of mental health professionals to clients seeking help to change or redirect same-sex sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Annie; Smith, Glenn; King, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background we know very little about mental health practitioners' views on treatments to change sexual orientation. Our aim was to survey a representative sample of professional members of the main United Kingdom psychotherapy and psychiatric organisations about their views and practices concerning such treatments. Methods We sent postal questions to mental health professionals who were members of British Psychological Society, the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Participants were asked to give their views about treatments to change homosexual desires and describe up to five patients each, whom they has treated in this way. Results Of 1848 practitioners contacted, 1406 questionnaires were returned and 1328 could be analysed. Although only 55 (4%) of therapists reported that they would attempt to change a client's sexual orientation if one consulted asking for such therapy, 222 (17%) reported having assisted at least one client/patient to reduce or change his or her homosexual or lesbian feelings. 413 patients were described by these 222 therapists: 213 (52%) were seen in private practice and 117 (28%) were not followed up beyond the period of treatment. Counselling was the commonest (66%) treatment offered and there was no sign of a decline in treatments in recent years. 159 (72%) of the 222 therapists who had provided such treatment considered that a service should be available for people who want to change their sexual orientation. Client/patient distress and client/patient autonomy were seen as reasons for intervention; therapists paid attention to religious, cultural and moral values causing internal conflict. Conclusion A significant minority of mental health professionals are attempting to help lesbian, gay and bisexual clients to become heterosexual. Given lack of evidence for the efficacy of such treatments, this is likely to be unwise or even harmful. PMID:19323803

  10. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  11. Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (−196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 μm) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 μm. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

  12. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  13. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  14. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  15. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  16. 12 CFR 144.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 144... MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 144.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual savings association shall operate under bylaws that contain...

  17. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544... MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual savings association shall operate under bylaws that contain...

  18. 12 CFR 144.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 144... MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 144.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual savings association shall operate under bylaws that contain...

  19. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544... MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual savings association shall operate under bylaws that contain...

  20. 75 FR 77048 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the... Thrift Supervision has determined that the renewal of the ] Charter of the OTS Mutual Savings Association... facing mutual savings associations. DATES: The Charter of the OTS Mutual Savings Association...

  1. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544... MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual savings association shall operate under bylaws that contain...

  2. 12 CFR 144.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 144... MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 144.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual savings association shall operate under bylaws that contain...

  3. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3 Section 575.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize...

  4. 12 CFR 575.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 575.3 Section 575.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.3 Mutual holding company reorganizations. A mutual savings association may reorganize...

  5. College Student Capacity for Socially Responsible Leadership: Understanding Norms and Influences of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, John P.; Komives, Susan R.; Segar, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using theoretical measures grounded in the social change model of leadership development (HERI, 1996). Findings represent responses from 50,378 participants enrolled at 52 colleges and universities across the United States. Students scored highest on the…

  6. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g., at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and to show that they actually feature the least macroscopic correlations compared to their symmetric superpositions is highly nontrivial. We prove this result in general, by considering the quantum mutual information based on the two-Rényi entanglement entropy and using a locality result stemming from quasiadiabatic continuation. Moreover, in the paradigmatic case of the exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum X Y model, we further verify the general result by considering also the quantum mutual information based on the von Neumann entanglement entropy.

  7. The Effect of Mutualism on Community Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainaka, K.; Yoshida, N.; Terazawa, N.; Nakagiri, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshimura, J.

    2003-04-01

    The so-called Lotka-Volterra model, which is thought to be appropriate for the dynamics of mutualistic relationship, tells us that mutualism does not play positive roles for the stability of ecosystem. When the mutualistic interactions between species are stronger than a certain threshold, population sizes of species unlimitedly increases. In the present paper, in order to prevent the divergence, we apply a lattice model, and introduce extended Lotka-Volterra equations. The latter is the mean-field theory of the former. These models contain the property of competition due to space limitation. In both models population is usually stable, when the intensity of mutualism are strong. In the lattice model, spatial distribution of species naturally evolves into a specific pattern of either mutualism or competition, depending on environmental conditions.

  8. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    71 I. 71 II. 72 III. 73 IV. 74 V. 74 74 References 74 SUMMARY: Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle. PMID:26414800

  9. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  10. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  11. Control of human cytochrome P450 2E1 electrocatalytic response as a result of unique orientation on gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Lok Hang; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Fantuzzi, Andrea; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2010-06-15

    Oriented immobilization of human cytochrome P450 2E1 and its catalytic activity by direct electrochemistry was achieved by engineering two multisite mutants of P450 2E1: MUT261 (C268S-C480S-C488S) and MUT268 (C261S-C480S-C488S). Here, all the exposed cysteines are mutated into serines, with the exception of one (C261 for MUT261 and C268 for MUT268) that is able to link covalently to a modified gold electrode. The P450 2E1 wild type, as well as the two mutants, were immobilized onto gold electrodes using dithio-bismaleimidoethane as a self-assembled monolayer. The catalytic activity of the wild type and of the two cysteine mutants were determined using p-nitrophenol as a substrate, and the amount of the electrocatalysis product (p-nitrocatechol) was determined spectrophotometrically. The amounts of product formed by the mutants on the electrodes were 2-fold to 3-fold higher than those of the wild type. Control experiments performed in solution using the cytochrome P450 reductase as the electron donor show no significant differences in the level of product formed. The higher level of product formation of the two mutants on the electrode is ascribed to the controlled immobilization on the gold surface: the heme electron transfer proximal side is linked to the electrode, while the substrate binding distal side is exposed to the bulk solution. This is the first evidence that the control over the orientation of the human cytochromes P450 is key to maximize the electrocatalytic efficiency of these enzymes. PMID:20507171

  12. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  13. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  14. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  16. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  17. [Comparative characteristics of the action of sydnocarb, phenamine and caffeine on multiple alteration in the orientation of the avoidance response in rats].

    PubMed

    Baturin, V A

    1977-01-01

    The ability of rats to alter orientation of the avoidance response in an Y-shaped maze was determined. Sydnocarb (20 mg/kg) improved the reversal learning of the animals, shortened the latent reaction periods and did not upset passive avoidance. Amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) and caffein (25 mg/kg) shortened the latency of reactions, but did not affect the reversal learning. In large doses (2 and 5 mg/kg) amphetamine distinctly disturbed the reversal learning, while sydnocarb (50 mg/kg) did not impair the alteration of the avoidance response. In rats poorly amenable to reversal learning during control testing syndnocarb facilitated the alteration of the habit better than other drugs. In animals well amenable to reversal learning, in contrast to amphetamine and caffein, it did not derange their behavior. PMID:598492

  18. Impact of Mutual Mentoring on Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Barbara; Blaha, Cynthia; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will give some specific ways that we have supported and helped to expand each other's research. For some new areas of research were opened, for others new focus was brought to existing areas, and still others found acceptance for where they were.

  19. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: Buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, James L.; Erickson, Thane M.; Mayer, Stefanie E.; Crocker, Jennifer; Briggs, Hedieh; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical mediator linking stress to health. Understanding how to modulate its reactivity could potentially help reduce the detrimental health effects of HPA axis activation. Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of this system. Access to control and coping responses can reduce its reactivity to pharmacological activation. Compassionate or affiliative behaviors may also moderate stress reactivity. Impact of these moderators on social evaluative threat is unknown. Here, we tested the hypotheses that interventions to increase control, coping, or compassionate (versus competitive) goals could reduce HPA-axis response to social evaluative threat. Methods Healthy participants (n = 54) were exposed to social evaluative threat using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). They were randomly assigned to receive one of four different instructions prior to the stressor: Standard TSST instructions (SI), standard instructions with access to “control” (SI Control), or one of two cognitive interventions (CI) that (1) increased familiarity and helped participants prepare coping strategies (CI Coping), or (2) shifted goal orientation from self-promotion to helping others (CI Compassionate Goals). ACTH and Cortisol were obtained before and after stress exposure via intravenous catheter. Results Control alone had no effect. CI Compassionate Goals significantly reduced ACTH and Cortisol responses to the TSST; CI Coping raised baseline levels. Compassionate Goals reduced hormonal responses without reducing subjective anxiety, stress or fear, while increasing expression of pro-social intentions and focus on helping others. Conclusions Brief intervention to shift focus from competitive self-promotion to a goal orientation of helping-others can reduce HPA-axis activation to a potent psychosocial stressor. This supports the potential for developing brief interventions as inoculation tools to reduce the impact of predictable stressors and lends support to growing evidence that compassion and altruistic goals can moderate the effects of stress. PMID:24767620

  20. Child Temperament Moderates Effects of Parent-Child Mutuality on Self-Regulation: A Relationship-Based Path for Emotionally Negative Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined infants’ negative emotionality as moderating the effect of parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) on children’s self-regulation (N=102). Negative emotionality was observed in anger-eliciting episodes and in interactions with parents at 7 months. MRO was coded in naturalistic interactions at 15 months. Self-regulation was measured at 25 months in effortful control battery and as self-regulated compliance to parental requests and prohibitions. Negative emotionality moderated the effects of mother-child MRO. Highly negative infants were less self-regulated when they were in unresponsive relationships (low MRO), but more self-regulated when in responsive relationships (high MRO). For infants not prone to negative emotionality, there was no link between MRO and self-regulation. The “regions-of-significance” analysis supported the differential susceptibility model not the diathesis-stress model. PMID:22670684

  1. Motion Estimation Based on Mutual Information and Adaptive Multi-Scale Thresholding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Taubman, David; Naman, Aous Thabit

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a new method of calculating a matching metric for motion estimation. The proposed method splits the information in the source images into multiple scale and orientation subbands, reduces the subband values to a binary representation via an adaptive thresholding algorithm, and uses mutual information to model the similarity of corresponding square windows in each image. A moving window strategy is applied to recover a dense estimated motion field whose properties are explored. The proposed matching metric is a sum of mutual information scores across space, scale, and orientation. This facilitates the exploitation of information diversity in the source images. Experimental comparisons are performed amongst several related approaches, revealing that the proposed matching metric is better able to exploit information diversity, generating more accurate motion fields. PMID:26742132

  2. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

    2012-01-01

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

  3. The Genogram: From Diagnostics to Mutual Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Adriana Balaguer; Levitt, Mary Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents the need for integration of mutual client-therapist collaboration into the process of genogram construction and demonstrates through case examples how such integration enhances the therapeutic power of the genogram. Suggests possible changes in the training of marriage and family therapists in order for such integration to become more

  4. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... agencies to comment on proposed and continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork... Treasury will submit the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office...

  5. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection request (ICR... OMB and OTS at these addresses: Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attention: Desk...

  6. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group

  7. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  8. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4%, 5.4%, 10.4%, 30.4%, and 100.1% ...

  9. Orientation behavior of predaceous ground beetle species in response to volatile emissions from yellow starthistle damaged by an invasive slug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The up-regulation or emission of plant volatiles in response to herbivory may signal to the natural predators and parasitoids that a plant is under attack from herbivores. This is known as an indirect defense within a tritrophic system - where herbivore number is reduced through predation that is st...

  10. The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

  11. The Landscape of Host Transcriptional Response Programs Commonly Perturbed by Bacterial Pathogens: Towards Host-Oriented Broad-Spectrum Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Yared H.; Lawrence, Christopher; Murali, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergence of drug-resistant pathogen strains and new infectious agents pose major challenges to public health. A promising approach to combat these problems is to target the host’s genes or proteins, especially to discover targets that are effective against multiple pathogens, i.e., host-oriented broad-spectrum (HOBS) drug targets. An important first step in the discovery of such drug targets is the identification of host responses that are commonly perturbed by multiple pathogens. Results In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and the drug Simvastatin for hematopoietic pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Conclusions Using a combination of automated analysis of host-response gene expression data and manual study of the literature, we have been able to suggest host-oriented treatments for specific bacterial infections. The analyses and suggestions made in this study may be utilized to generate concrete hypothesis on which gene sets to probe further in the quest for HOBS drug targets for bacterial infections. All our results are available at the following supplementary website: http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/ murali/supplements/2013-kidane-plos-one PMID:23516507

  12. [Sexual orientations].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, K; Brunner, F

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

  13. Modeling the glacio-hydrological response of a Himalayan watershed to climate change using a physically-oriented distributed model: sources of model uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; Immerzeel, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we apply the physically-oriented, fully distributed glacio-hydrological model TOPKAPI-ETH to a large glacierized catchment in the Karakoram, in the northwestern part of the Greater Himalaya. The study region comprises some of the largest alpine valley-glaciers of the world. We use TOPKAPI-ETH to analyze the effect of snow- and glacier changes on water availability in the region. Stochastic downscaling of available GCMs is used to derive predictions of water resources under future climate. While recent studies report rapid declines in glacier area from the Greater Himalaya and most of mainland Asia, many central Karakoram glaciers began expanding in the late 1990s. In order to take into account the particular conditions which lead to this specific response to climate change, the focus of this study was on the reproduction of glacier dynamics, debris cover effects and snow redistribution by avalanches as well as on finding appropriate patterns for the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation. We use a novel sensitivity method to discuss the spatio-temporal variability in sources of model uncertainty with respect to modeled streamflow and glacier cover. Glacio-hydrological processes in high watersheds are difficult to quantify and study: low density of meteorological data, difficulties in terrain and complex topography are some of the common limitations researchers face when trying to understand the processes in remote mountainous areas. Our results show that data scarcity is restricting the applicability of a physically-oriented modeling approach, if model parameter values cannot be estimated based on measurements. However, the inclusion of the relevant processes for simulations of the hydrological response and the distributed nature of the model allow a detailed assessment of model uncertainty. We attribute to each model component and model parameter an "information content", which quantifies the (seasonally-dependent) contribution to total model uncertainty. Different sources of model uncertainty can thus be determined as a function of time and space and this helps to answer the question where resources should be allocated for model development, for collection of field observations, and how fieldwork can be most efficiently planned in order to collect the information which in physically-oriented models can effectively reduce model uncertainty in predictions about future streamflow response to climate change.

  14. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    PubMed

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate the evolutionary designs of biomineralized microstructures and understand the tolerance to fracture and damage of chiton radular teeth. PMID:25913610

  15. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    de Obaldia EE; Jeong C; Grunenfelder LK; Kisailus D; Zavattieri P

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate the evolutionary designs of biomineralized microstructures and understand the tolerance to fracture and damage of chiton radular teeth.

  16. Face recognition by exploring information jointly in space, scale and orientation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Liao, Shengcai; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    Information jointly contained in image space, scale and orientation domains can provide rich important clues not seen in either individual of these domains. The position, spatial frequency and orientation selectivity properties are believed to have an important role in visual perception. This paper proposes a novel face representation and recognition approach by exploring information jointly in image space, scale and orientation domains. Specifically, the face image is first decomposed into different scale and orientation responses by convolving multiscale and multiorientation Gabor filters. Second, local binary pattern analysis is used to describe the neighboring relationship not only in image space, but also in different scale and orientation responses. This way, information from different domains is explored to give a good face representation for recognition. Discriminant classification is then performed based upon weighted histogram intersection or conditional mutual information with linear discriminant analysis techniques. Extensive experimental results on FERET, AR, and FRGC ver 2.0 databases show the significant advantages of the proposed method over the existing ones. PMID:20643604

  17. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  18. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  19. Plant invasions--the role of mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D M; Allsopp, N; D'Antonio, C M; Milton, S J; Rejmánek, M

    2000-02-01

    Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal-mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are well served by generalist pollinators (insects and birds), and pollinator limitation does not appear to be a major barrier for the spread of introduced plants (special conditions relating to Ficus and orchids are described). Seeds of many of the most notorious plant invaders are dispersed by animals, mainly birds and mammals. Our review supports the view that tightly coevolved, plant-vertebrate seed dispersal systems are extremely rare. Vertebrate-dispersed plants are generally not limited reproductively by the lack of dispersers. Most mycorrhizal plants form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which, because of their low specificity, do not seem to play a major role in facilitating or hindering plant invasions (except possibly on remote islands such as the Galapagos which are poor in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi). The lack of symbionts has, however, been a major barrier for many ectomycorrhizal plants, notably for Pinus spp. in parts of the southern hemisphere. The roles of nitrogen-fixing associations between legumes and rhizobia and between actinorhizal plants and Frankia spp. in promoting or hindering invasions have been virtually ignored in the invasions literature. Symbionts required to induce nitrogen fixation in many plants are extremely widespread, but intentional introductions of symbionts have altered the invasibility of many, if not most, systems. Some of the world's worst invasive alien species only invaded after the introduction of symbionts. Mutualisms in the new environment sometimes re-unite the same species that form partnerships in the native range of the plant. Very often, however, different species are involved, emphasizing the diffuse nature of many (most) mutualisms. Mutualisms in new habitats usually duplicate functions or strategies that exist in the natural range of the plant. Occasionally, mutualisms forge totally novel combinations, with profound implications for the behaviour of the introduced plant in the new environment (examples are seed dispersal mutualisms involving wind-dispersed pines and cockatoos in Australia; and mycorrhizal associations involving plant roots and fungi). Many ecosystems are becoming more susceptible to invasion by introduced plants because: (a) they contain an increasing array of potential mutualistic partners (e.g. generalist frugivores and pollinators, mycorrhizal fungi with wide host ranges, rhizobia strains with infectivity across genera); and (b) conditions conductive for the establishment of various alien/alien synergisms are becoming more abundant. Incorporating perspectives on mutualisms in screening protocols will improve (but not perfect) our ability to predict whether a given plant species could invade a particular habitat. PMID:10740893

  20. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  1. 76 FR 35084 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The proposed information...

  2. 77 FR 74052 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC or Committee). DATES: A public meeting of the MSAAC... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donna Deale, Deputy Comptroller for Thrift Supervision, (202)...

  3. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  4. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  5. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  6. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  7. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  8. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  9. Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, Istvn

    2013-02-01

    The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

  10. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin )

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  11. Family Sex Communication Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Clay; Neer, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Suggests (1) family sex communication is infrequent and ineffective, (2) frequent, effective family sex communication may serve as a contextual model for children's communication patterns, (3) strong family sex communication orientation seems to facilitate children's open discussion with dates and parents, and develops responsible pre-parenting…

  12. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual capital... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No...

  13. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544.5 Section 544.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws....

  14. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual capital... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No...

  15. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual capital... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No...

  16. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544.5 Section 544.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws....

  17. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual capital... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No...

  18. 77 FR 48566 - The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... COMMISSION The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application August 8, 2012. AGENCY: Securities... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., The Hartford Mutual Funds II, Inc., Hartford Series Fund, Inc., Hartford HLS Series Fund II, Inc.,...

  19. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual capital... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No...

  20. 77 FR 73115 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... public interest in order to provide advice and information concerning the current condition of mutual... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... has determined that the renewal of the charter of the OCC Mutual Savings Association...

  1. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mutual aid agreements. 553.105 Section 553.105 Labor... Mutual aid agreements. An agreement between two or more States, political subdivisions, or interstate governmental agencies for mutual aid does not change the otherwise volunteer character of services performed...

  2. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mutual aid agreements. 553.105 Section 553.105 Labor... Mutual aid agreements. An agreement between two or more States, political subdivisions, or interstate governmental agencies for mutual aid does not change the otherwise volunteer character of services performed...

  3. 12 CFR 239.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 239.3 Section 239.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies §...

  4. 12 CFR 239.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 239.3 Section 239.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies §...

  5. 12 CFR 239.3 - Mutual holding company reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual holding company reorganizations. 239.3 Section 239.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual Holding Companies §...

  6. Orientation response of haematophagous bugs to CO2: the effect of the temporal structure of the stimulus.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, R B; Lazzari, C R

    2006-08-01

    Carbon dioxide is generally recognized as an important cue used by haematophagous insects to locate a food source. When the mammalian hosts of these insects breathe, they normally emanate considerable amounts of CO2 at discrete intervals, i.e. with each exhalation. In this work, we analysed the effect of temporally pulsing CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour of Triatoma infestans. We investigated the ability of T. infestans to follow continuous and intermittent air pulses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Hz that included different concentrations of CO2. We found that insects were attracted to pulsed airstreams of 0.25 and 0.5 Hz transporting 400 ppm of CO2 above the ambient levels and to continuous streams added with the same amount of CO2. On the other hand, insects walked away from streams pulsed at rates of 1 Hz regardless of the amount of CO2 they bear. The walking trajectories displayed by bugs to attractive CO2-pulsed streams were as rectilinear and accurate as those to CO2-continuous streams. Our results are discussed in the frame of the interaction between olfactory and mechanoreceptive inputs as affecting the behavioural response of bugs. PMID:16586085

  7. Analysis of the orientational order effect on n-alkanes: Evidences on experimental response functions and description using Monte Carlo molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Bessières, D; Piñeiro, M M; De Ferron, G; Plantier, F

    2010-08-21

    Short-range correlations of the molecular orientations in liquid n-alkanes have been extensively studied from depolarized Rayleigh scattering and thermodynamic measurements. These correlations between segments induce structural anisotropy in the fluid bulk. This phenomenon, which is characteristic of linear chain molecules when the constituting segments are nor freely jointed, but interact through a given angular potential, is then present in the linear n-Cn series, increasing its magnitude with chain length, and it is therefore less relevant or even completely absent in branched alkanes. This intermolecular effect is clearly revealed in second-order excess magnitudes such as heat capacities when the linear molecule is mixed with one whose structure approaches sphericity. The mixing process of different aspect ratio chain molecules is thought to modify the original pure fluid structure, by producing a diminution of the orientational order previously existing between pure n-alkane chains. However, second-order thermodynamics quantities of pure liquids C(P), ( partial differentialv/ partial differentialT)(P), and ( partial differentialv/ partial differentialP)(P) are known to be very sensitive to the specific interactions occurring at the microscopic level. In other words, the behavior of these derived properties versus temperature and pressure can be regarded as response functions of the complexity of the microscopic interactions. Thus, the purpose of the present work is to rationalize the orientational order evolution with both temperature and molecular chain length from the analysis of pure fluid properties. To this aim, we focused on two linear alkanes, n-octane (n-C(8)) and n-hexadecane (n-C(16)), and two of their branched isomers, i.e., 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (br-C(8)) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (br-C(16)). For each compound, we propose a combined study from direct experimental determination of second-order derivative properties and Monte Carlo simulations. We performed density rho, speed of sound c, and isobaric heat capacity C(P) measurements in broad ranges of pressure and temperature allowing a complete thermodynamic characterization of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations provide a link between the molecular scale model and the experimental thermodynamic properties. Additional information about the microscopic structure of the simulated fluid model was derived, through the calculation of the radius of gyration and average end-to-end distances. Orientational order is clearly revealed by the experimental residual heat capacity trend of pure linear alkanes. The close agreement observed between this experimental macroscopic property and the calculated theoretical structural parameters support the conclusion that the orientational order between segments of linear molecules should be regarded as a conformational effect due to the flexibility of the chain. PMID:20726652

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species. PMID:26687531

  9. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  10. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Form 1120. Insurance companies are entitled, in computing insurance company taxable income, to the... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing...

  11. Mutual positive effects between shrubs in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Tirado, Reyes; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

    2015-01-01

    One-way facilitation in plants has been found in many harsh environments and their role as structural forces governing species composition in plant communities is now well established. However, reciprocal positive effects benefiting two interacting species have seldom been reported and, in recent reviews, conceptually considered merely as facilitation when in fact there is room for adaptive strategies and evolutionary responses. We tested the existence of such reciprocal positive effects in an arid environment in SE Spain using spatial pattern analysis, a species removal experiment, and a natural experiment. We found that the spatial association between Maytenus senegalensis and Whitania frutescens, two shrub species of roughly similar size intimately interacting in our community, resulted in mutual benefit for both species. Benefits included improved water relations and nutritional status and protection against browsing, and did occur despite simultaneous competition for resources. Our data suggest two-way facilitation or, rather, a facultative mutualism among higher plant species, a process often overlooked which could be a main driver of plant community dynamics allowing for evolutionary processes. PMID:26419958

  12. Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

  13. Identifying Driver Genomic Alterations in Cancers by Searching Minimum-Weight, Mutually Exclusive Sets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Songjian; Lu, Kevin N; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Hu, Bo; Ma, Xiaojun; Nystrom, Nicholas; Lu, Xinghua

    2015-08-01

    An important goal of cancer genomic research is to identify the driving pathways underlying disease mechanisms and the heterogeneity of cancers. It is well known that somatic genome alterations (SGAs) affecting the genes that encode the proteins within a common signaling pathway exhibit mutual exclusivity, in which these SGAs usually do not co-occur in a tumor. With some success, this characteristic has been utilized as an objective function to guide the search for driver mutations within a pathway. However, mutual exclusivity alone is not sufficient to indicate that genes affected by such SGAs are in common pathways. Here, we propose a novel, signal-oriented framework for identifying driver SGAs. First, we identify the perturbed cellular signals by mining the gene expression data. Next, we search for a set of SGA events that carries strong information with respect to such perturbed signals while exhibiting mutual exclusivity. Finally, we design and implement an efficient exact algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem encountered in our approach. We apply this framework to the ovarian and glioblastoma tumor data available at the TCGA database, and perform systematic evaluations. Our results indicate that the signal-oriented approach enhances the ability to find informative sets of driver SGAs that likely constitute signaling pathways. PMID:26317392

  14. Identifying Driver Genomic Alterations in Cancers by Searching Minimum-Weight, Mutually Exclusive Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Songjian; Lu, Kevin N.; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Hu, Bo; Ma, Xiaojun; Nystrom, Nicholas; Lu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    An important goal of cancer genomic research is to identify the driving pathways underlying disease mechanisms and the heterogeneity of cancers. It is well known that somatic genome alterations (SGAs) affecting the genes that encode the proteins within a common signaling pathway exhibit mutual exclusivity, in which these SGAs usually do not co-occur in a tumor. With some success, this characteristic has been utilized as an objective function to guide the search for driver mutations within a pathway. However, mutual exclusivity alone is not sufficient to indicate that genes affected by such SGAs are in common pathways. Here, we propose a novel, signal-oriented framework for identifying driver SGAs. First, we identify the perturbed cellular signals by mining the gene expression data. Next, we search for a set of SGA events that carries strong information with respect to such perturbed signals while exhibiting mutual exclusivity. Finally, we design and implement an efficient exact algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem encountered in our approach. We apply this framework to the ovarian and glioblastoma tumor data available at the TCGA database, and perform systematic evaluations. Our results indicate that the signal-oriented approach enhances the ability to find informative sets of driver SGAs that likely constitute signaling pathways. PMID:26317392

  15. Prisoners or Volunteers: Developing Mutual Respect in the Elementary Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Richard A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to investigate how teacher educators might help preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course understand the need for mutual respect rather than coercion between pupil and teacher in an elementary classroom. An evaluation instrument was developed that consisted of a pre and post open-ended response to a…

  16. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics. PMID:17995458

  17. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-03-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that different plant species vary in the spatial precision with which they can select partners. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is presumably context-dependent and can be mediated by factors like (relative) resource abundance and resource fluctuations, competition among mycorrhizas, arrival order and cultivation history. Such factors complicate our current understanding of the importance of partner selection and its effectiveness in stimulating mutualistic cooperation. PMID:25421912

  18. Response-oriented measuring inequalities in Tehran: second round of UrbanHealth Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2), concepts and framework

    PubMed Central

    Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Cherghian, Bahman; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Golmakani, Mehdi; Haeri-Mehrizi, Ali-Asghar; Hesari, Hossein; Kalantari, Naser; Kamali, Mohammad; Kordi, Ramin; Malek-Afzali, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Motevallian, Abbas; Noorbala, Ahmad; Raghfar, Hossein; Razzaghi, Emran

    2013-01-01

    Background Current evidence consistently confirm inequalities in health status among socioeconomic none, gender,ethnicity, geographical area and other social determinants of health (SDH), which adversely influence health ofthe population. SDH refer to a wide range of factors not limited to social component, but also involve economic, cultural,educational, political or environmental problems. Measuring inequalities, improving daily living conditions, andtackling inequitable distribution of resources are highly recommended by international SDH commissioners in recentyears to ‘close the gaps within a generation’. To measure inequalities in socio-economic determinants and core healthindicators in Tehran, the second round of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2)was conducted in November 2011, within the main framework of WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe Centre). Method For ‘assessment’ part of the project, 65 indicators in six policy domains namely ‘physical and infrastructure’,‘human and social’, ‘economic’, ‘governance’, ‘health and nutrition’, and also ‘cultural’ domain were targetedeither through a population based survey or using routine system. Survey was conducted in a multistage random sampling,disaggregated to 22 districts and 368 neighborhoods of Tehran, where data of almost 35000 households(118000 individuals) were collected. For ‘response’ part of the project, widespread community based development(CBD) projects were organized in all 368 neighborhoods, which are being undertaken throughout 2013. Conclusion Following the first round of Urban HEART project in 2008, the second round was conducted to trackchanges over time, to institutionalize inequality assessment within the local government, to build up community participationin ‘assessment’ and ‘response’ parts of the project, and to implement appropriate and evidence-based actionsto reduce health inequalities within all neighborhoods of Tehran. PMID:24926187

  19. Automatic registration of multispectral images through maximization of mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, Pietro; Mascolo, Luigi; Cifarelli, Giuseppe; Abbattista, Cristoforo; Tragni, Mario

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we propose a method to get fine registration of high resolution multispectral images. The algorithm supposes that a coarse registration, based on ancillary information, has been already performed. It is known, in fact, that residual distortions remain, due to the combined effects of Earth rotation and curvature, view geometry, sensor operation, variations in platform velocity, atmospheric and terrain effects. The algorithm grounds its main idea on the information-theoretic approach to register volumetric medical images of different modalities. Registration is achieved by adjustment of the relative position and orientation until the mutual information between the images is maximized. The idea is that the join information is maximized when the two images are at their best registration. This approach works directly with image data but in principle it can be applied in any transformed domain. While the original algorithm has been thought to make registration in a limited search space (i.e. translation and orientation), in the remote sensing framework the class of transformations is extended allowing scaling, shearing or a general polynomial model. The maximization of the target function is performed using both the stochastic gradient descent algorithm and the simulated annealing, since the former is known to occasionally deadlock in local maxima. We have applied the algorithm on a SPOT-5 couple of images, achieving the registration of chips of size 256x256 pixels at time. Accuracy has been obtained comparing the results with the outcomes of a commercial software that adopts a sort of Normalized Cross-Correlation method. On 143 chips taken throughout the image, the final translation accuracy resulted well below 1 pixel and the rotation accuracy about 0.015deg.

  20. Improved elastic medical image registration using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Konstantin; Schumacher, Hanno; Franz, Astrid; Fischer, Bernd

    2007-03-01

    One of the future-oriented areas of medical image processing is to develop fast and exact algorithms for image registration. By joining multi-modal images we are able to compensate the disadvantages of one imaging modality with the advantages of another modality. For instance, a Computed Tomography (CT) image containing the anatomy can be combined with metabolic information of a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image. It is quite conceivable that a patient will not have the same position in both imaging systems. Furthermore some regions for instance in the abdomen can vary in shape and position due to different filling of the rectum. So a multi-modal image registration is needed to calculate a deformation field for one image in order to maximize the similarity between the two images, described by a so-called distance measure. In this work, we present a method to adapt a multi-modal distance measure, here mutual information (MI), with weighting masks. These masks are used to enhance relevant image structures and suppress image regions which otherwise would disturb the registration process. The performance of our method is tested on phantom data and real medical images.

  1. Methanobrevibacter smithii archaeosomes-entrapped mzNL4-3 virus-like particles induce specific T helper 1-oriented cellular and humoral responses against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Salmani, Ali S; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad R; Nategh, Rakhshandeh; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Siadat, Seyed D

    2013-09-01

    Despite numerous and tremendous achievements in the development and standardization of HIV vaccines, there are still lots of vague concepts in HIV vaccinology. Various approaches have been applied to design an efficient HIV vaccine. Due to their lack of replication ability and expression of native antigens at the same time virus-like particles, such as previously introduced mzNL4-3 HIV-1 VLPs are among the highlighted candidates in this field. On the other part, application of adjuvants is an inseparable strategy in the vaccine development researches. Archaeosomes are liposomal adjuvants with intensifiying features of T helper 1 and cytotoxic T-cells responses. Archaeosomes derived from Methanobrevibacter smithii has been shown to enhance MHC class I-dependent antigen presentation and hence, are to be advantageous in the development of vaccines against viral infections. Herein, we have studied efficiency of mzNL4-3 VLPs entrapped in M. smithii archaeosomes as an HIV-1 vaccine candidate to induce humoral and cellular responses in BALB/c mice. Analysis of total and subtype-specific anti-Env IgG antibody, as well as, cytokine secretion pattern revealed an efficient promotion of anti-HIV specific T helper 1 responses in immunized animals. This finding was evidenced by the significant dominance of IgG2a subtype in the sera and considerable secretion of IFN-γ by specifically induced splenocytes of mice immunized with VLP-containing archaeosomes (VLP+ Archaeosome). In addition, ELISpot assay verified these results and indicated the significantly higher frequency of IFN-γ secreting splenocytes in immunized models. The ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 spot forming cells (SFCs) in the VLP+ Archaeosome immunized mice was also higher than that of the other groups immunized with either VLP-free archaeosomes or VLPs formulated with complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvants. These results propound M. smithii archaeosomes-entrapped mzNL4-3 VLPs as a promising immunogen which specifically induces and augments T-helper 1 oriented responses against HIV antigens. PMID:24329177

  2. MIRA: mutual information-based reporter algorithm for metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Cicek, A. Ercument; Roeder, Kathryn; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Discovering the transcriptional regulatory architecture of the metabolism has been an important topic to understand the implications of transcriptional fluctuations on metabolism. The reporter algorithm (RA) was proposed to determine the hot spots in metabolic networks, around which transcriptional regulation is focused owing to a disease or a genetic perturbation. Using a z-score-based scoring scheme, RA calculates the average statistical change in the expression levels of genes that are neighbors to a target metabolite in the metabolic network. The RA approach has been used in numerous studies to analyze cellular responses to the downstream genetic changes. In this article, we propose a mutual information-based multivariate reporter algorithm (MIRA) with the goal of eliminating the following problems in detecting reporter metabolites: (i) conventional statistical methods suffer from small sample sizes, (ii) as z-score ranges from minus to plus infinity, calculating average scores can lead to canceling out opposite effects and (iii) analyzing genes one by one, then aggregating results can lead to information loss. MIRA is a multivariate and combinatorial algorithm that calculates the aggregate transcriptional response around a metabolite using mutual information. We show that MIRA’s results are biologically sound, empirically significant and more reliable than RA. Results: We apply MIRA to gene expression analysis of six knockout strains of Escherichia coli and show that MIRA captures the underlying metabolic dynamics of the switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. We also apply MIRA to an Autism Spectrum Disorder gene expression dataset. Results indicate that MIRA reports metabolites that highly overlap with recently found metabolic biomarkers in the autism literature. Overall, MIRA is a promising algorithm for detecting metabolic drug targets and understanding the relation between gene expression and metabolic activity. Availability and implementation: The code is implemented in C# language using .NET framework. Project is available upon request. Contact: cicek@cs.cmu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online PMID:24931981

  3. Mutually injection locked lasers for enhanced frequency response

    SciTech Connect

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A; Chow, Weng W

    2014-04-01

    Semiconductor light-emitting devices; methods of forming semi-conductor light emitting devices, and methods of operating semi-conductor light emitting devices are provided. A semiconductor light-emitting device includes a first laser section monolithically integrated with a second laser section on a common substrate. Each laser section has a phase section, a gain section and at least one distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure. The first laser section and the second laser section are optically coupled to permit optical feedback therebetween. Each phase section is configured to independently tune a respective one of the first laser section and second laser section relative to each other.

  4. School Principals' Understanding of Mutual Responsiveness in Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, George; Beekley, Cynthia X.

    Research has demonstrated that corporations succeed or fail on the basis of how well they are led. Although the importance of leadership in organizational decision making has been recognized and studied extensively, numerous studies have also demonstrated the central role that the principal plays in shaping the school culture which, in turn, is a…

  5. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  6. Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

  7. Orientation effect on the stress response by strain-rate change at 400 K in Ni{sub 3}Al single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, M.; Hirano, T.

    1999-07-01

    Cyclic strain-rate change tests were performed by using binary, stoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al single crystalline specimens with different tensile orientations at 400K. In all the specimens, the flow stress was independent of strain rate in steady state and exhibited a temporary change by the strain-rate change. The characteristics of the temporary stress change, the initial stress change and transient time, were independent of orientation. Based on the multiplication-immobilization model, the authors concluded that the immobilization mechanism, the Kear-Wilsdorf locking mechanism, is independent of orientation in binary, stoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al.

  8. Can the evolution of plant defense lead to plant-herbivore mutualism?

    PubMed

    de Mazancourt, C; Loreau, M; Dieckmann, U

    2001-08-01

    Moderate rates of herbivory can enhance primary production. This hypothesis has led to a controversy as to whether such positive effects can result in mutualistic interactions between plants and herbivores. We present a model for the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore systems to address this question. In this model, herbivores have a positive indirect effect on plants through recycling of a limiting nutrient. Plants can evolve but are constrained by a trade-off between growth and antiherbivore defense. Although evolution generally does not lead to optimal plant performance, our evolutionary analysis shows that, under certain conditions, the plant-herbivore interaction can be considered mutualistic. This requires in particular that herbivores efficiently recycle nutrients and that plant reproduction be positively correlated with primary production. We emphasize that two different definitions of mutualism need to be distinguished. A first ecological definition of mutualism is based on the short-term response of plants to herbivore removal, whereas a second evolutionary definition rests on the long-term response of plants to herbivore removal, allowing plants to adapt to the absence of herbivores. The conditions for an evolutionary mutualism are more stringent than those for an ecological mutualism. A particularly counterintuitive result is that higher herbivore recycling efficiency results both in increased plant benefits and in the evolution of increased plant defense. Thus, antagonistic evolution occurs within a mutualistic interaction. PMID:18707340

  9. Competition between Mutually Exclusive Object States in Event Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sarah H; Hindy, Nicholas C; Altmann, Gerry T M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Successful language comprehension requires one to correctly match symbols in an utterance to referents in the world, but the rampant ambiguity present in that mapping poses a challenge. Sometimes the ambiguity lies in which of two (or more) types of things in the world are under discussion (i.e., lexical ambiguity); however, even a word with a single sense can have an ambiguous referent. This ambiguity occurs when an object can exist in multiple states. Here, we consider two cases in which the presence of multiple object states may render a single-sense word ambiguous. In the first case, one must disambiguate between two states of a single object token in a short discourse. In the second case, the discourse establishes two different tokens of the object category. Both cases involve multiple object states: These states are mutually exclusive in the first case, whereas in the second case, these states can logically exist at the same time. We use fMRI to contrast same-token and different-token discourses, using responses in left posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pVLPFC) as an indicator of conflict. Because the left pVLPFC is sensitive to competition between multiple, incompatible representations, we predicted that state ambiguity should engender conflict only when those states are mutually exclusive. Indeed, we find evidence of conflict in same-token, but not different-token, discourses. Our data support a theory of left pVLPFC function in which general conflict resolution mechanisms are engaged to select between multiple incompatible representations that arise in many kinds of ambiguity present in language. PMID:26284994

  10. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology we try, with examples, to give an impression of that current state of research. The articles will not be discussed individually but their titles reveal that most deal with low-dimensional systems. The study of spin relaxation plays a major role. Interface effects at the ferromagnet/semiconductor boundary are subtle and important for spin injection from a ferromagnet. Each of the contributions is a combination of review and recent results and stands by itself. The affiliations of the authors reveal that the majority come from St Petersburg, clearly indicating that the heritage of Boris Zakharchenya is alive and thriving. We would like to thank all authors for their cooperation, especially for delivering their manuscripts in a reasonable time. Claire Bedrock and Adam Day of the IOP Publishing deserve thanks for their support in the publication process. We are much indebted to Ruslana Zakharchenya for making the manuscript on the discovery of the exciton available and especially to Nina Nikolaevna Vasil'eva for her translation. References [1] Zakharchenya B P 2008 The Happiness of Creativity (St Petersburg, in Russian) [2] Rashba E I and Landwehr G (ed) 1991 Landau Level Spectroscopy (Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences vol 27) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) [3] Seisyan R B and Zakharchenya B P 1991 Landau Level Spectroscopy ed E I Rashba and G Landwehr (Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences vol 27) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) p 345 [4] Meier F and Zakharchenya B P (ed) 1984 Optical Orientation (Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences vol 8) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) An obituary of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenyia, contributed to Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk by his Russian colleagues, is available at http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1063-7869/49/8/M09

  11. A Novel Prime and Boost Regimen of HIV Virus-Like Particles with TLR4 Adjuvant MPLA Induces Th1 Oriented Immune Responses against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Poteet, Ethan; Lewis, Phoebe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Sheng; Gu, Jianhua; Chen, Changyi; Ho, Sam On; Do, Thai; Chiang, SuMing; Fujii, Gary; Yao, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) present the HIV envelope protein in its native conformation, providing an ideal vaccine antigen. To enhance the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine, we sought to improve upon two components; the route of administration and the additional adjuvant. Using HIV VLPs, we evaluated sub-cheek as a novel route of vaccine administration when combined with other conventional routes of immunization. Of five combinations of distinct prime and boost sequences, which included sub-cheek, intranasal, and intradermal routes of administration, intranasal prime and sub-cheek boost (IN+SC) resulted in the highest HIV-specific IgG titers among the groups tested. Using the IN+SC regimen we tested the adjuvant VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV) + monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) at MPLA concentrations of 0, 7.5, 12.5, and 25 μg/dose in combination with our VLPs. Mice that received 12.5 or 25 μg/dose MPLA had the highest concentrations of Env-specific IgG2c (20.7 and 18.4 μg/ml respectively), which represents a Th1 type of immune response in C57BL/6 mice. This was in sharp contrast to mice which received 0 or 7.5 μg MPLA adjuvant (6.05 and 5.68 μg/ml of IgG2c respectively). In contrast to IgG2c, MPLA had minor effects on Env-specific IgG1; therefore, 12.5 and 25 μg/dose of MPLA induced the optimal IgG1/IgG2c ratio of 1.3. Additionally, the percentage of germinal center B cells increased significantly from 15.4% in the control group to 31.9% in the CALV + 25 μg MPLA group. These mice also had significantly more IL-2 and less IL-4 Env-specific CD8+ T cells than controls, correlating with an increased percentage of Env-specific central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study shows the strong potential of IN+SC as an efficacious route of administration and the effectiveness of VLPs combined with MPLA adjuvant to induce Env specific Th1-oriented HIV-specific immune responses. PMID:26312747

  12. A Novel Prime and Boost Regimen of HIV Virus-Like Particles with TLR4 Adjuvant MPLA Induces Th1 Oriented Immune Responses against HIV.

    PubMed

    Poteet, Ethan; Lewis, Phoebe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Sheng; Gu, Jianhua; Chen, Changyi; Ho, Sam On; Do, Thai; Chiang, SuMing; Fujii, Gary; Yao, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) present the HIV envelope protein in its native conformation, providing an ideal vaccine antigen. To enhance the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine, we sought to improve upon two components; the route of administration and the additional adjuvant. Using HIV VLPs, we evaluated sub-cheek as a novel route of vaccine administration when combined with other conventional routes of immunization. Of five combinations of distinct prime and boost sequences, which included sub-cheek, intranasal, and intradermal routes of administration, intranasal prime and sub-cheek boost (IN+SC) resulted in the highest HIV-specific IgG titers among the groups tested. Using the IN+SC regimen we tested the adjuvant VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV) + monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) at MPLA concentrations of 0, 7.5, 12.5, and 25 μg/dose in combination with our VLPs. Mice that received 12.5 or 25 μg/dose MPLA had the highest concentrations of Env-specific IgG2c (20.7 and 18.4 μg/ml respectively), which represents a Th1 type of immune response in C57BL/6 mice. This was in sharp contrast to mice which received 0 or 7.5 μg MPLA adjuvant (6.05 and 5.68 μg/ml of IgG2c respectively). In contrast to IgG2c, MPLA had minor effects on Env-specific IgG1; therefore, 12.5 and 25 μg/dose of MPLA induced the optimal IgG1/IgG2c ratio of 1.3. Additionally, the percentage of germinal center B cells increased significantly from 15.4% in the control group to 31.9% in the CALV + 25 μg MPLA group. These mice also had significantly more IL-2 and less IL-4 Env-specific CD8+ T cells than controls, correlating with an increased percentage of Env-specific central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study shows the strong potential of IN+SC as an efficacious route of administration and the effectiveness of VLPs combined with MPLA adjuvant to induce Env specific Th1-oriented HIV-specific immune responses. PMID:26312747

  13. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-01-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. PMID:25855249

  14. Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes About Treating Patients With Alcohol Addiction After Attending a Required Mutual Support Group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction. Design. Third-year (P3) pharmacy students enrolled in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory course were required to watch an introductory video about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and then attend 2 “open meetings” during the semester. Students submitted a written reflection as proof of attendance. Assessment. Pharmacy students who agreed to participate in the study completed the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) during the course orientation and again at the end of the semester. Mutual support group attendance significantly affected the students’ attitudes within the domains of role adequacy, task specific self-esteem, and work satisfaction. Significant changes were not observed within the domains of motivation and role legitimacy. Conclusion. Mutual support group attendance exposed pharmacy students to the negative effects of alcohol abuse and increased their self-confidence to provide care to patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:24672072

  15. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  16. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping.

    PubMed

    Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression. PMID:26360706

  17. Understanding the differential thermal behaviour of an oriented polymeric film, in response to the modulated differential scanning calorimetry variables, for determination of the degree of crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambardekar, Rohan; Karandikar, Hrushikesh; Kelly, Adrian; Caton-Rose, Phil; Coates, Phil; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-05-01

    The degree and the nature of crystallinity determine several key properties of an oriented polymeric system. Thermal analysis, although widely used for crystallinity determination, may have limited precision with oriented polymers, due to the differential nature and overlap of multiple thermal events (cold-crystallisation, chain-relaxation, etc). In this paper we have studied, how MDSC (Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry) variables manipulate the thermal behaviour of oriented materials, so that the degree and the nature of crystallisation can be well defined. MDSC curves suggested that the thermal events were significantly shaped by the amplitude (α) and the period (ρ) of thermal modulations. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of the oriented PLA film lead to generation of an error in the calculation of non-reversible signal, seen as an artefact in the crystallisation exotherm. Higher amplitude increased the sensitivity of the method. However, when the rise in the amplitude lead to a shift from a `heat-only' to a `heat-cool-heat' cycle, contribution from a poor baseline resulted in the low estimate of the crystallinity. For the `heat-only' cycles, measured crystallinity decreased inversely with the heating rate and α, due to time dependent crystallisation and melting. Heat-cool-heat cycles lead to crystallisation of some part of the polymer in a more perfected crystal form, whose melting was visible as a non-reversible event. The observations suggested that the heat-only cycles with longer period and faster heating rates favour estimation of the crystallinity, whereas heat-cool-heat cycles with higher amplitude help in understanding pre-melting thermal events associated with polymer orientation. A clear understanding of such an effect is necessary to establish the suitability of MDSC in rapid estimation of crystallinity of the oriented polymers. Accuracy of the method was evaluated by studying the films oriented to different draw ratios and comparison to other established methods. However, this part is not included in this brief communication.

  18. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  19. Higher Education and Foster Grandparent Programs: Exploring Mutual Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, James R.; O'Quin, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight ways in which programs within institutions of higher education and Foster Grandparent Programs can interact to their mutual benefit. Given federal and state initiatives to develop linkages between institutions of higher education and community service sites, mutual benefits exist at the program level for…

  20. 78 FR 64600 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC). DATES: A public meeting of the MSAAC will be held..., November 15, 2013, to inform the OCC of their desire to attend the meeting and to provide the...

  1. 78 FR 26424 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee (MSAAC). DATES: A public meeting of the MSAAC will be held... of their desire to attend the meeting and to provide the information that will be required...

  2. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation of Agreements § 550.13 Mutuality of interest....

  3. Use of the Mutual Exclusivity Assumption by Young Word Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel B.

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been…

  4. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mutually exclusive applications. 27.321 Section 27.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321 Mutually exclusive applications. (a) Two...

  5. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were

  6. Social Climate Comparison of Mutual Help and Psychotherapy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian

    In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…

  7. Mutual Antipathies during Early Adolescence: More than Just Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkow, Melissa R.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that having a mutual antipathy, in comparison to not having an antipathy, is associated with a host of negative outcomes. However, the methods used may not have adequately controlled for rejection and therefore may have provided an incomplete description of the psychosocial correlates of having a mutual antipathy. With a…

  8. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  9. Crystal Chirality Selected by Mutual Antagonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukio Saito,; Hiroyuki Hyuga,

    2010-08-01

    To explore the mechanism of chiral symmetry breaking in a process of crystal growth under grinding, we propose a simple irreversible growth model of a lattice-gas with four possible states on a site: occupied by an achiral molecule A, or by a chiral enantiomer R or S, or empty. After two A molecules on neighboring sites form a chiral dimer R2 or S2, clusters grow by incorporating A’s at cluster periphery, irreversibly. Only the grinding recycles products R or S back to A. It is then demonstrated in kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations that chirality selection takes place in the presence of the grinding. The cause for this realization is attributed to mutual antagonistic inhibition: that is, clusters of opposite enantiomeric types are brought into contact through stirring, and they block crystallization sites on cluster peripheries each other. The density evolution obtained by time integration of the rate equations with this antagonistic inhibition fits well with results of KMC simulations.

  10. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  11. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  12. No Evidence of Emotional Dysregulation or Aversion to Mutual Gaze in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Pupillometry Study.

    PubMed

    Nuske, Heather J; Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2015-11-01

    The 'gaze aversion hypothesis', suggests that people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) avoid mutual gaze because they experience it as hyper-arousing. To test this hypothesis we showed mutual and averted gaze stimuli to 23 mixed-ability preschoolers with ASD (M Mullen DQ = 68) and 21 typically-developing preschoolers, aged 2-5 years, using eye-tracking technology to measure visual attention and emotional arousal (i.e., pupil dilation). There were no group differences in attention to the eye region or pupil dilation. Both groups dilated their pupils more to mutual compared to averted gaze. More internalizing symptoms in the children with ASD related to less emotional arousal to mutual gaze. The pattern of results suggests that preschoolers with ASD are not dysregulated in their responses to mutual gaze. PMID:26031923

  13. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  14. Mutual information between SSH and SST fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le goff, Clment; Chapron, Bertrand; Fablet, Ronan; Tandeo, Pierre; Autret, Emmanuelle; Ailliot, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Mutual information between SST and SSH Investigations to relate satellite SST and SSH measurements in the Agulhas return current region are presented. In this study, we focus on the use of SSH and SST maps obtained during the year 2004, corresponding to a particularly well-sampled period for altimetry. The SST and SSH anomalies are then obtained as high-pass filtered fields, to analyze scales smaller than approximately 300km. As revealed, we clearly distinguish different regimes. During the winter months, a marked strong correlation between fields of SSH and SST anomalies is clearly revealed. During the summer months, a much lower correlation is found. Further conditioning the analysis to separate the areas of positive and negative SSH anomalies, it is then obtained, for both summer and winter periods, that aeras of negative SSH anomalies always correspond with areas of negative SST anomalies. This high correspondance also applies in winter but only for areas of positive SSH anomalies, which indeed well match with areas of positive SST anomalies. In summer, this high correspondance is lost, and areas with positive SSH anomalies do not necessarily correspond to positive SST anomalies. Accordingly, such an effect affects and weakens the overall SST/SSH correlation during the summer months. Yet, the areas of positive SSH anomalies are not fully disconnected from the areas of positive SST anomalies. For these cases, observations and results demonstrate a systematic spatial shift between them. This suggests the influence of the mixed layer depth and wind speed to control the spatial correspondance between SST and SSH anomalies, especially below regions of positive SSH anomalies. In such cases, the upper layer SST anomalies are certainly advected by the interior flow to also provide means to relate surface observations and interior dynamics.

  15. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  16. Mutual Coupling and Compensation in FMCW MIMO Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Christian M.; Feger, Reinhard; Wagner, Christoph; Stelzer, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with mutual coupling, its effects and the compensation thereof in frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array radar systems. Starting with a signal model we introduce mutual coupling and its primary sources in FMCW MIMO systems. We also give a worst-case boundary of the effects that mutual coupling can have on the side lobe level of an array. A method of dealing with and compensating for these effects is covered in this paper and verified by measurements from a 77-GHz FMCW radar system.

  17. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  18. Nonlinear pattern analysis of ventricular premature beats by mutual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaka, M.; Saitoh, H.; Yokoshima, T.; Kishida, H.; Hayakawa, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) has been related to the risk of mortality. However, little is known about the temporal pattern of occurrence of VPBs and its relationship to autonomic activity. Hence, we applied a general correlation measure, mutual information, to quantify how VPBs are generated over time. We also used mutual information to determine the correlation between VPB production and heart rate in order to evaluate effects of autonomic activity on VPB production. We examined twenty subjects with more than 3000 VPBs/day and simulated random time series of VPB occurrence. We found that mutual information values could be used to characterize quantitatively the temporal patterns of VPB generation. Our data suggest that VPB production is not random and VPBs generated with a higher value of mutual information may be more greatly affected by autonomic activity.

  19. Complex degree of mutual anisotropy of biological liquid crystals nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yuriy O.; Tomka, Yuriy Ya.; Misevitch, Igor Z.; Istratiy, Vadim V.; Telenga, Olga I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the potentiality of describing and differentiating optical-anisotropic properties of biological liquid crystal net by statistic analysis of coordinate distributions of a new analytical parameter, a complex degree of mutual anisotropy.

  20. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  1. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP 1906: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP - 1906: ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PATERSON, N.J. (4x5 NEGATIVE) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  3. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  4. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  5. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  6. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22... under Commission rules governing the Public Mobile Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Public Mobile...

  7. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22... under Commission rules governing the Public Mobile Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Public Mobile...

  8. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  9. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  10. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  11. Information-disturbance theorem for mutually unbiased observables

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2006-04-15

    We derive a version of information-disturbance theorems for mutually unbiased observables. We show that the information gain by Eve inevitably makes the outcomes by Bob in the conjugate basis not only erroneous but random.

  12. Parasponia: a novel system for studying mutualism stability.

    PubMed

    Behm, Jocelyn E; Geurts, Rene; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how mutualistic interactions are stabilized in the presence of cheaters is a major question in evolutionary biology. The legume-rhizobia mutualism has become a model system for studying how plants control cheating partners. However, the generality and evolutionary origins of these control mechanisms are intensely debated. In this Opinion article, we argue that a novel system--the Parasponia-rhizobia mutualism--will significantly advance research in mutualism stability. Parasponia is the only non-legume lineage to have evolved a rhizobial symbiosis, which provides an evolutionary replicate to test how rhizobial exploitation is controlled. Evidence also suggests that this symbiosis is young. This allows studies at an earlier evolutionary stage in mutualisms, so the origin of control mechanisms can be better understood. PMID:25239777

  13. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-05-15

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  14. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pérez, A.; Klimov, A. B.; Saavedra, C.

    2011-05-01

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  15. Mutual Diffusion of Inclusions in Freely-Suspended Smectic Liquid Crystal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriabova, Tatiana; Qi, Zhiyuen; Nguyen, Zoom; Park, Cheol; Glaser, Matthew; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel; Powers, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size-dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. The observed dependence of the mutual mobilities on inclusion size is described well for arbitrary separations by a model that generalizes the Levine/MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix. This work was supported by NASA Grant NNX-13AQ81G and NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0820579 (University of Colorado), and by NSF Grant CBET-0854108 (Brown University).

  16. Microindentation of oriented polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, James C. W.

    The thesis focuses on the measurement of conventional engineering mechanical properties like yield strength, and dynamic mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of polymers using microindentation. In order to obtain high spatial resolutions, a flat punch indenter with a relatively small diameter of 80 mum was used. The present work emphasizes anisotropic materials: in particular oriented polypropylene. The initial test material was prepared by two solid state forming processes: uniaxial tensile drawing at elevated temperatures, and channel die forming. The latter allowed for greater control of the deformation ratio during forming over a much wider range of tensile strains. The mechanism of deformation under the tip of the indenter was studied using optical microscopy of thin sections viewed in transmission. The deep penetration mechanism changed with direction of indentation relative to the orientation axis. The observations were consistent with the mechanisms observed for unidirectional fiber reinforced composites. In particular, when penetrated parallel to the orientation direction, sharply defined zones of deformation which were similar to kink bands seen in compressed composites were seen. Detailed analysis of this behaviour showed that a modified version of the kink band formation theories developed for fiber composites could be successfully applied to oriented polypropylene. To confirm this, experiments on oriented polypropylene were compared to similar experiments on unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The development of deformation during deep penetration could be monitored by using a dynamic mechanical test which measured the stress amplitude response to an applied oscillating strain. One possible interpretation of these experimental observations involved the progressive development of the kink band deformation structure as the indenter was pushed into the material. The results of the first part of the thesis were used in a practical application: namely the measurement of the gradient of mechanical properties in the near surface region of a processed polypropylene. For this, a novel processing method was developed in which a strain gradient was produced in the near surface region of the material. The tensile strain gradation resulted in a corresponding gradient in mechanical properties. The micro indentation dynamic mechanical test was used to measure this variation in near surface properties. The usefulness of the microindentation test to measure local variations in viscoelastic properties was thus demonstrated on a scale which is similar to that expected in many processed plastics.

  17. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  18. Connectedness and Autonomy Support in Parent-Child Relationships: Links to Children's Socioemotional Orientation and Peer Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Karen E.; Ladd, Gary W.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the constructs of connectedness and autonomy in relation to 5-year-olds' relational competence, including socioemotional orientation, friendship, and peer acceptance. Found that connectedness was correlated with children's socioemotional orientations, number of mutual friendships, and peer acceptance, and that the relation between…

  19. Authentic science experiences as a vehicle for assessing orientation towards science and science careers relative to identity and agency: a response to ``learning from the path followed by Brad''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2009-09-01

    This response draws from the literature on adaptive learning, traditional ecological knowledge, and social-ecological systems to show that Brad's choice is not a simple decision between traditional ecological knowledge and authentic science. This perspective recognizes knowledge systems as dynamic, cultural and historical activities characterized by diverse worldviews and ways of constructing and legitimizing knowledge. Brad's decision is seen as an example of adaptive learning, identity development and personal/collective agency oriented to increasing tribal influence in resource management decisions and policies. I will conclude that science literacy for all is not served by a transcendent, universal, Western modern view of science.

  20. Family Orientation in Family Medicine Training

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves R.; Tannenbaum, David

    1990-01-01

    Teaching about the family has become an important part of the family medicine curriculum. The family orientation index, a 39-item questionnaire, was designed to evaluate the family orientation of services and care provided as well as the teaching and research. The questionnaire was distributed to 55 program directors at 16 Canadian universities. The response rate was 84%. The results indicate that the family orientation of services is less than optimal. PMID:21233938

  1. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  2. Customers' perceptions of salespersons' orientation and susceptibility to salespersons' influence.

    PubMed

    Goff, Brent G; Jackson, Gary B

    2003-10-01

    This study examined correlations of scores for salespersons' and customers' orientation, as indicated by a modified Salesperson Orientation-Customer Orientation scale, with self-reported consumers' susceptibility to salespersons' information, recommendations, and relational influence. Vehicle purchasers provided 508 useable survey responses. Correlations for customers' perceptions of both salespersons' orientation (-.39 and -.21) and customers' orientation (.39 and .24) were related to self-reports of susceptibility to salespersons' information and relational influence. PMID:14650664

  3. Vestibular compensation and orientation during locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphan, T.; Imai, T.; Moore, S. T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Body, head, and eye movements were studied in three dimensions while walking and turning to determine the role of the vestibular system in directing gaze and maintaining spatial orientation. The body, head, and eyes were represented as three-dimensional coordinate frames, and the movement of these frames was related to a trajectory frame that described the motion of the body on a terrestrial plane. The axis-angle of the body, head, and eye rotation were then compared to the axis-angle of the rotation of the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA). We inferred the role of the vestibular system during locomotion and the contributions of the VCR and VOR by examining the interrelationship between these coordinate frames. Straight walking induced head and eye rotations in a compensatory manner to the linear accelerations, maintaining head pointing and gaze along the direction of forward motion. Turning generated a combination of compensation and orientation responses. The head leads and steers the turn while the eyes compensate to maintain stable horizontal gaze in space. Saccades shift horizontal gaze as the turn is executed. The head pitches, as during straight walking. It also rolls so that the head tends to align with the orientation of the GIA. Head orientation changes anticipate orientation changes of the GIA. Eye orientation follows the changes in GIA orientation so that the net orientation gaze is closer to the orientation of the GIA. The study indicates that the vestibular system utilizes compensatory and orienting mechanisms to stabilize spatial orientation and gaze during walking and turning.

  4. Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

    2009-12-01

    Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this has been the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of prior interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80percent faster and were up to 30percent more productive (biomass yield per mole substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis but not D. vulgaris. Together, these results show that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution.

  5. Toward mutual support: a task analysis of the relational justice approach to infidelity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kirstee; Galick, Aimee; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Huenergardt, Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Gender, culture, and power issues are intrinsic to the etiology of infidelity, but the clinical literature offers little guidance on how to work with these concerns. The Relational Justice Approach (RJA) to infidelity (Williams, Family Process, 2011, 50, 516) uniquely places gender and power issues at the heart of clinical change; however, this approach has not been systematically studied. Therefore a qualitative task analysis was utilized to understand how change occurs in RJA. The findings indicated four necessary tasks: (a) creating an equitable foundation for healing, (b) creating space for alternate gender discourse, (c) pursuing relational responsibility of powerful partner, and (d) new experience of mutual support. Therapists' attention to power dynamics that organize couple relationships, leadership in intervening in power processes, and socio-cultural attunement to gender discourses were foundational to this work. These findings help clarify the processes by which mutual healing from the trauma of infidelity may occur and offer empirically based actions that therapists can take to facilitate mutual support. PMID:25059297

  6. Thermal Plasma Measurements in the Earth's Plasmasphere by the Mutual Impedance Probe Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J.; Lagoutte, D.; Michau, J.; Grimald, S.; Décréau, P. M.; Randriamboarison, O.; Robert, P.; Lebreton, J.; Hamelin, M.; Mazelle, C.

    2005-12-01

    To reach Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft must undergo four planet gravity assistances. The first one, an Earth fly-by, occurred in early March 2005. At closest approach, on 4 March at 22:09 U.T., Rosetta passed at about 1950 km over the Pacific Ocean just west of Mexico. It was thus the closest-ever Earth fly-by made by an ESA's spacecraft. The mutual impedance probe, MIP, and the 4 other instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, RPC, were switched on during the event. Calibration and general testing were the main objectives, nevertheless valuable observations of the Earth's space environment have actually been made, in particular by the MIP in the plasmasphere, the high electron-density region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field. An alternating current, I, with a frequency lying in the frequency range that contains the plasma frequency resonance, is driven through a transmitting electrode. The induced difference in voltage, V, measured on open circuit between two receiving electrodes is fed into a high input impedance amplifier. The mutual impedance, Z, which is computed onboard, is equal to the ratio of V to I. As Z depends essentially on the properties of the surrounding plasma, the frequency response of the mutual impedance probe may then be used for plasma diagnosis, in particular the electron plasma density and temperature can be accurately and reliably determined.

  7. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described. PMID:22398886

  8. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

  9. Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction?

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, J R; Goward, P

    2000-03-01

    Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction? In response to issues arising out of curriculum developments, the authors wished to examine more closely the potential reasons why psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses appear to gravitate towards certain research methodologies. This paper therefore briefly examines the essential differences between qualitative and quantitative research paradigms, focusing on philosophical, epistemological and methodological issues. It then proceeds to examine some of the essential characteristics and attributes of P/MH nurses and suggests some differences in emphasis between these and other disciplines of nursing. The authors posit that psychiatric/mental health nurses are drawn to the qualitative paradigm as a result of the potential synchronicity and linkage that appears to exist between the practice of mental health nursing and qualitative research. This apparent synchronicity appears to centre around the three themes of: (a) the purposeful use of self; (b) the creation of an interpersonal relationship; and (c) the ability to accept and embrace ambiguity and uncertainty. Given this alleged synchronicity the authors argue that there are implications for nurse education and nursing research. Further it is possible that each nursing situation where the mental health nurse forms a relationship and attempts to gain an empathic sense of the individual's world is akin to an informal phenomenological study, the product of which would be a wealth of qualitative data. However, as this would be a subconscious, implicit process, the data would remain predominantly unprocessed. The authors conclude that perhaps these data are the knowledge that expert practitioners draw upon when making intuition-based clinical judgements. PMID:10718878

  10. Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haire, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. C Appendix C to Part 239—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may...

  12. 12 CFR 239.12 - Communication between members of a mutual holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and extent of the member's interest in the mutual holding company at the time the information is given... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication between members of a mutual... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual...

  13. 12 CFR 239.12 - Communication between members of a mutual holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and extent of the member's interest in the mutual holding company at the time the information is given... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication between members of a mutual... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Mutual...

  14. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION... mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No subsidiary holding company of a mutual holding company...

  15. 12 CFR 239.24 - Issuances of stock by subsidiary holding companies of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... companies of mutual holding companies. 239.24 Section 239.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION... mutual holding companies. (a) Requirements. No subsidiary holding company of a mutual holding company...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. C Appendix C to Part 239—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may...

  17. 12 CFR 575.12 - Conversion or liquidation of mutual holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion or liquidation of mutual holding... MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.12 Conversion or liquidation of mutual holding companies. (a) Conversion—(1) Generally. A mutual holding company may convert to the stock form in accordance with the...

  18. Broadband plasmonic response of self-organized aluminium nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Francesco; Gonella, Grazia; Maidecchi, Giulia; Buzio, Renato; Gerbi, Andrea; Moroni, Riccardo; Giglia, Angelo; Canepa, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the plasmonic response of arrays of Al nanowires fabricated in high-vacuum and embedded within a transparent protective medium. The nanostructures exhibited a strongly-birefringent plasmonic response which, depending on the mutual orientation of the incident-field polarization and the nanowire axis, allowed the plasmon resonance to span the whole spectral range from the visible to the deep-ultraviolet regime. Comparing the experimental data with theoretical calculations allowed to rationalize the optical response in terms of non-ideal nanowire morphologies arising from the bottom-up character of the nanofabrication method. The broadband plasmonic response suggests the potential application of these systems in plasmon-enhanced photovoltaics, exploiting the great advantage of the low-cost of aluminium.

  19. Assessing ecological specialization of an ant-seed dispersal mutualism through a wide geographic range.

    PubMed

    Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Specialization in species interactions is of central importance for understanding the ecological structure and evolution of plant-animal mutualisms. Most plant-animal mutualisms are facultative and strongly asymmetric. In particular, myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) has been regarded as a very generalized interaction. Although some recent studies have suggested that only a few ant species are really important for dispersal, no rigorous measurement of the specialization in ant-seed dispersal mutualisms has been performed. Here, we use individual plants as basic units for replication to investigate the generalization-specialization of the herb Helleborus foetidus on its ant dispersers over a considerable part of its geographical range. We define generalization in terms of diversity components (species richness and evenness) of the ant visitor that realizes dispersal by removing diaspores. We obtain truly comparable values of ant visitor diversity, distinguishing among different functional groups of visitors and identifying incidental visitors and real ant dispersers. Using null model approaches, we test the null hypothesis that ant-mediated dispersal is a generalized mutualism. At least two premises should be confirmed to validate the hypothesis: (1) diaspores are dispersed by multiple ant-visitor species, and (2) diaspore dispersal is significantly equitable. Though up to 37 ant species visited diaspores across 10 populations, only two large formicines, Camponotus cruentatus and Formica lugubris, were responsible for the vast majority of visits resulting in dispersal in most populations and years, which strongly suggests that ant seed dispersal in H. foetidus is ecologically specialized. Interestingly, specialization degree was unrelated to dispersal success across populations. Our study offers new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of myrmecochory. We propose the existence of an alternative scenario to extensive generalization. In this new scenario, generalization is replaced by ecological specialization, which is determined by the intrinsic traits of the plant species rather than by the ecological context in which the interaction takes place. PMID:19967857

  20. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  1. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484

  2. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza

    2016-03-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in [1] to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  3. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-01-01

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise. PMID:26501284

  4. Sparse Bayesian learning for DOA estimation with mutual coupling.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-01-01

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise. PMID:26501284

  5. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  6. Graph-state formalism for mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spengler, Christoph; Kraus, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    A pair of orthonormal bases is called mutually unbiased if all mutual overlaps between any element of one basis and an arbitrary element of the other basis coincide. In case the dimension, d, of the considered Hilbert space is a power of a prime number, complete sets of d+1 mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) exist. Here we present a method based on the graph-state formalism to construct such sets of MUBs. We show that for n p-level systems, with p being prime, one particular graph suffices to easily construct a set of pn+1 MUBs. In fact, we show that a single n-dimensional vector, which is associated with this graph, can be used to generate a complete set of MUBs and demonstrate that this vector can be easily determined. Finally, we discuss some advantages of our formalism regarding the analysis of entanglement structures in MUBs, as well as experimental realizations.

  7. Oriental eyelids. An anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Doxanas, M T; Anderson, R L

    1984-08-01

    Dissection of the eyelids and sagittal sections of the orbital blocks identified the anatomic features of the oriental eyelids responsible for their unique appearance. The basic distinction involves the formation of the eyelid crease and fold. In the occidental eyelid, the orbital septum fuses with the levator aponeurosis below the superior tarsal border. However, in the oriental eyelid, the orbital septum fuses with the levator aponeurosis below the superior tarsal border. The accompanying preaponeurotic or orbital fat is allowed to proceed to the anterior tarsal surface, resulting in a full or thickened eyelid. The inferior extension of the orbital septum, beyond the superior tarsal border, prevents anterior aponeurotic fibers from fanning toward the subcutaneous tissues to produce the normal eyelid crease. Appreciation of the unique anatomic features of oriental eyelids is important for those persons who evaluate or surgically explore these eyelids. PMID:6466190

  8. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  9. The mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils at arbitrary attitudes using a rotation matrix for airborne transient electromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yanju; Wang, Hongyuan; Lin, Jun; Guan, Shanshan; Feng, Xue; Li, Suyi

    2014-12-01

    Performance testing and calibration of airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) systems are conducted to obtain the electromagnetic response of ground loops. It is necessary to accurately calculate the mutual inductance between transmitting coils, receiving coils and ground loops to compute the electromagnetic responses. Therefore, based on Neumann's formula and the measured attitudes of the coils, this study deduces the formula for the mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils, circular and circular coils, and quadrilateral and quadrilateral coils using a rotation matrix, and then proposes a method to calculate the mutual inductance between two coils at arbitrary attitudes (roll, pitch, and yaw). Using coil attitude simulated data of an ATEM system, we calculate the mutual inductance of transmitting coils and ground loops at different attitudes, analyze the impact of coil attitudes on mutual inductance, and compare the computational accuracy and speed of the proposed method with those of other methods using the same data. The results show that the relative error of the calculation is smaller and that the speed-up is significant compared to other methods. Moreover, the proposed method is also applicable to the mutual inductance calculation of polygonal and circular coils at arbitrary attitudes and is highly expandable.

  10. Crystallographic analysis of orientational ordering in cubic fullerene C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Dilanyan, R.A.; Rybchenko, O.G.; Sheknhtman, V.Sh.

    1995-07-01

    The formation of cubic lattices by C{sub 60} molecules, is considered in terms of crystallography. The analysis-of mutual orientations of the icosahedral and cubic symmetry axes shows that the atomic motif with the m{bar 3}{bar 5} symmetry can match the cubic unit with the preservation of the m 3 symmetry by two different ways. The rotation angles between symmetry-equivalent molecule orientations are determined. The results obtained are used for the analysis of two possible models of orientational ordering: modulated structures and discrete orientational glasses. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Direction finding in the presence of mutual coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Benjamin; Weiss, Anthony J.

    1991-03-01

    An eigenstructure-based method for direction finding in the presence of sensor mutual coupling, gain, and phase uncertainties is presented. The method provides estimates of the directions-of-arrival (DOA) of all the radiating sources as well as calibration of the gain and phase of each sensor and the mutual coupling in the receiving array. The proposed algorithm is able to calibrate the array parameters without prior knowledge of the array manifold, using only signals of opportunity and avoiding the need for deploying auxiliary sources at known locations. The algorithm is described in detail, and its behavior is illustrated by numerical examples.

  12. Synchronization in a Mutualism Ecosystem Induced by Noise Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Rong; Shao, Yuan-Zhi; Bie, Meng-Jie; He, Zhen-Hui

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the cause of the synchronization of population evolution is an important issue for ecological improvement. Here we present a Lotka Volterra-type model driven by two correlated environmental noises and show, via theoretical analysis and direct simulation, that noise correlation can induce a synchronization of the mutualists. The time series of mutual species exhibit a chaotic-like fluctuation, which is independent of the noise correlation, however, the chaotic fluctuation of mutual species ratio decreases with the noise correlation. A quantitative parameter defined for characterizing chaotic fluctuation provides a good approach to measure when the complete synchronization happens.

  13. Computer modelling of electronegative plasma sheaths and their mutual interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, Jakub; Ibehej, Tomas; Hrach, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Our paper focuses on investigation of sheath structures formed in the vicinity of biased solid objects immersed in electronegative plasma. In Particular, phenomena during mutual interaction of several plasma sheaths were investigated. Our results show the manner in which the sheath of a cylindrical probe is affected by the presence of another cylindrical probe with smaller radius in its surroundings. Number density of charged particles, electric field intensity and fluxes of charged particles on the probes were observed to quantify the mutual interaction of sheaths. The study was done by means of the 2D particle-in-cell model with Monte Carlo treatment of collisions.

  14. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-01-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states. PMID:26278628

  15. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-01-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states. PMID:26278628

  16. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-08-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states.

  17. Orientation through chemo reception in fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1972-01-01

    A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

  18. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  19. Cyclic Strain Resistance, Stress Response, Fatigue Life, and Fracture Behavior of High Strength Low Alloy Steel 300 M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Tammana, Deepthi; Poorgangi, Behrang; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2014-05-01

    The focus of this technical manuscript is a record of the specific role of microstructure and test specimen orientation on cyclic stress response, cyclic strain resistance, and cyclic stress versus strain response, deformation and fracture behavior of alloy steel 300 M. The cyclic strain amplitude-controlled fatigue properties of this ultra-high strength alloy steel revealed a linear trend for the variation of log elastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure, and log plastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure for both longitudinal and transverse orientations. Test specimens of the longitudinal orientation showed only a marginal improvement over the transverse orientation at equivalent values of plastic strain amplitude. Cyclic stress response revealed a combination of initial hardening for the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for a large portion of fatigue life before culminating in rapid softening prior to catastrophic failure by fracture. Fracture characteristics of test specimens of this alloy steel were different at both the macroscopic and fine microscopic levels over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. Both macroscopic and fine microscopic observations revealed fracture to be a combination of both brittle and ductile mechanisms. The underlying mechanisms governing stress response, deformation characteristics, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the competing and mutually interactive influences of test specimen orientation, intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents, cyclic strain amplitude, and response stress.

  20. Mechanisms of hypha orientation of fungi

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Alexandra; Gow, Neil AR

    2009-01-01

    Hypha orientation is an essential aspect of polarised growth and the morphogenesis, spatial ecology and pathogenesis of fungi. The ability to re-orient tip growth in response to environmental cues is critical for colony ramification, the penetration of diverse host tissues and the formation of mating structures. Recent studies have begun to describe the molecular machinery regulating hypha orientation. Calcium signalling, the polarisome Bud1-GTPase module and the Tea cell-end marker proteins of the microtubule cytoskeleton, along with specific kinesins and sterol-rich apical microdomains, are involved in hypha orientation. Mutations that affect these processes generate normal-shaped, growing hyphae that have either abnormal meandering trajectories or attenuated tropic responses. Hyphal tip orientation and tip extension are, therefore, distinct regulatory mechanisms that operate in parallel during filamentous growth, thereby allowing fungi to orchestrate their reproduction in relation to gradients of effectors in their environments. PMID:19546023

  1. Mutual diffusion of inclusions in freely suspended smectic liquid crystal films.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A; Maclennan, Joseph E; Clark, Noel A; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R

    2014-09-19

    We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent. PMID:25279649

  2. Mutual Diffusion of Inclusions in Freely Suspended Smectic Liquid Crystal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom Hoang; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.

    2014-09-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic membranes suspended in air. By analyzing their Brownian motion, we find that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent.

  3. Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

  4. Mutualism breakdown by amplification of Wolbachia genes.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. PMID:25668031

  5. Does the growth response of woody plants to elevated CO2 increase with temperature? A model-oriented meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Sofia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Mercado, Lina M; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics of the Rubisco enzyme implies that, at the level of a chloroplast, the response of photosynthesis to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca ) will increase with increasing air temperature. Vegetation models incorporating this interaction predict that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated CO2 (eCa ) will increase with rising temperature and will be substantially larger in warm tropical forests than in cold boreal forests. We tested these model predictions against evidence from eCa experiments by carrying out two meta-analyses. Firstly, we tested for an interaction effect on growth responses in factorial eCa  × temperature experiments. This analysis showed a positive, but nonsignificant interaction effect (95% CI for above-ground biomass response = -0.8, 18.0%) between eCa and temperature. Secondly, we tested field-based eCa experiments on woody plants across the globe for a relationship between the eCa effect on plant biomass and mean annual temperature (MAT). This second analysis showed a positive but nonsignificant correlation between the eCa response and MAT. The magnitude of the interactions between CO2 and temperature found in both meta-analyses were consistent with model predictions, even though both analyses gave nonsignificant results. Thus, we conclude that it is not possible to distinguish between the competing hypotheses of no interaction vs. an interaction based on Rubisco kinetics from the available experimental database. Experiments in a wider range of temperature zones are required. Until such experimental data are available, model predictions should aim to incorporate uncertainty about this interaction. PMID:25940760

  6. Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential chemoprevention through nuclear factor kappa B and p53 mutual antagonism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is largely considered as a critical determinant in the initiation and progression of various forms of cancer. Mechanistically, NF- κB favors this process by inducing various genes responsible for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion while at the same time antagonizing growth regulators including tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown by various independent investigations that a down regulation of NF- κB activity directly, or indirectly through the activation of the p53 pathway reduces tumor growth substantially. Therefore, there is a huge effort driven by many laboratories to understand the NF- κB signaling pathways to intervene the function of this crucial player in inflammation and tumorigenesis in order to find an effective inhibitor directly, or through the p53 tumor suppressor. We discuss here on the role of NF- κB in chronic inflammation and cancer, highlighting mutual antagonism between NF- κB and p53 pathways in the process. We also discuss prospective pharmacological modulators of these two pathways, including those that were already tested to affect this mutual antagonism. PMID:25152696

  7. Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Mutual Impedance on Multi-Cell CMUT Configurations.

    PubMed

    Park, K K; Kupnik, M; Lee, H J; Khuri-Yakub, B T; Wygant, I O

    2010-10-11

    This paper presents a numerical method for calculating the frequency response of a CMUT with a large number of cells. In a multi-cell configuration, commonly found in CMUTs, each cell is affected by the acoustic loading from neighboring cells. Thus, for an accurate model of a multi-cell CMUT element it is better to consider the mutual acoustic impedance instead of the acoustic impedance of a single cell only. We calculate the velocity of every cell (plate movement) simultaneously, with the mutual impedance effects taken into account. The model predicts that the cells exhibit different frequency responses, based on their locations in the element. We used a laser interferometer to validate the model by measuring the displacement response of a CMUT immersed in vegetable oil. The device has 169 circular cells (single crystal silicon plates, 500 nm thick, 21 μm radii) placed in a hexagonal cell arrangement. The measurement results agree well with the numerical results. The computation time of our method is significantly shorter than finite element based calculations. Our model can be used for finding optimized cell configurations for CMUTs utilized in various applications such as medical imaging and therapeutic treatment. PMID:21822364

  8. Chinese and American Women: Issues of Mutual Concern. Wingspread Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    This article briefly describes a conference of Chinese and American women held to discuss womens' issues and promote mutual understanding between the two groups. The cultural exchange of information at the conference focused on discussion of the All China Womens' Federation (ACWF); the roles of women in China and the United States in the areas of

  9. Are Advocacy, Mutuality, and Evaluation Incompatible Mentoring Functions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Brad

    2008-01-01

    Exemplary faculty-student mentorships in graduate school are defined by several salient mentor functions and numerous benefits for student proteges. Over time, helpful mentorships are increasingly defined by mutuality, reciprocity and professional collegiality; mentors often become increasingly partisan advocates for their proteges. Few scholars…

  10. Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

  11. Quadratic mutual information for dimensionality reduction and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, David M.; Principe, José C.

    2010-04-01

    A research area based on the application of information theory to machine learning has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. This research area has been coined information-theoretic learning within the community. In this paper we apply elements of information-theoretic learning to the problem of automatic target recognition (ATR). A number of researchers have previously shown the benefits of designing classifiers based on maximizing the mutual information between the class data and the class labels. Following prior research in information-theoretic learning, in the current results we show that quadratic mutual information, derived using a special case of the more general Renyi's entropy, can be used for classifier design. In this implementation, a simple subspace projection classifier is formulated to find the optimal projection weights such that the quadratic mutual information between the class data and the class labels is maximized. This subspace projection accomplishes a dimensionality reduction of the raw data set wherein information about the class membership is retained while irrelevant information is discarded. A subspace projection based on this criterion preserves as much class discriminability as possible within the subspace. For this paper, laser radar images are used to demonstrate the results. Classification performance against this data set is compared for a gradient descent MLP classifier and a quadratic mutual information MLP classifier.

  12. Enhancing Web-Based Courses through a Mutual Aid Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Randolph, Karen A.; Vinton, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Students taking a class together belong to a group where members typically develop a sense of connection to each other by engaging in mutual support and assistance through shared experiences and knowledge. Some have argued that the lack of face-to-face interaction precludes such processes and prevents the effective teaching of social work in an…

  13. The subtraction of mutually displaced Gaussian Schell-model beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sande, J. Carlos G.; Santarsiero, Massimo; Piquero, Gemma; Gori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Using recently derived results about the difference of two cross-spectral densities, we consider a source whose correlation function is the difference of two mutually displaced Gaussian Schell-model cross-spectral densities. We examine the main features of this new cross-spectral density in terms of coherence and intensity distribution, both across the source plane and after free propagation.

  14. No effect of diffraction on Pluto-Charon mutual events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    Mulholland and Gustafson (1987) made the interesting suggestion that observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events might show significant dependence on both wavelength and telescope aperture because of diffraction effects. In this letter, observations are presented that show the predicted effects to be absent and demonstrate that the parameters of the system are such that the events can be accurately analyzed with geometrical optics.

  15. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.

    1988-01-01

    Circumstances for 90 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1989 opposition are presented. It is found that the deepest and longest events will occur near postopposition quadrature in early August. Two new stars are selected as comparison stars for events occurring before opposition in 1989, and it is noted that the 1988 comparison stars should be used for events occurring after opposition.

  16. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept

  17. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  18. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390, subpart Z if a state savings association; And... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 163.74 Section...

  19. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390, subpart Z if a state savings association; And... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 163.74 Section...

  20. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390, subpart Z if a state savings association; And... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 163.74 Section...

  1. 76 FR 20459 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... other Federal agencies to comment on proposed and continuing information collections, as required by the... the Treasury will submit the proposed information collection requirement described below to the...

  2. The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

    1991-01-01

    The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

  3. Flexible Use of Mutual Exclusivity in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Mattock, Karen; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-01-01

    From an early age, children apply the mutual exclusivity (ME) assumption, demonstrating preference for one-to-one mappings between words and their referents. However, for the acquisition of referentially overlapping terms, ME use must be suspended. We test whether contextual cues to intended meaning, in the form of presence of a speaker, may be…

  4. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

  5. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (according to the filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of time between and including two specific dates, which are the...

  6. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (according to the filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of time between and including two specific dates, which are the...

  7. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (according to the filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window. An announced filing window is a period of time between and including two specific dates, which are the...

  8. Self-help/mutual aid organizations: the view from Mars.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, K

    1997-12-01

    The disparity between the importance of addiction-related self-help organizations and the amount of attention they receive is discussed. Greater resources should be directed toward researching the effects of self-help/mutual aid organizations on members, professional human services, and the general public. PMID:9440155

  9. Quantum correlation in degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the quantum dynamics of two degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections. The cavity mode in the optical coupling path between the two oscillator facets is explicitly considered. Stochastic equations for the oscillators and mutual injection path based on the positive P representation are derived. The system of two gradually pumped oscillators with out-of-phase mutual injections is simulated, and its quantum state is investigated. When the incoherent loss of the oscillators other than the mutual injections is small, the squeezed quadratic amplitudes p ̂ in the oscillators are positively correlated near the oscillation threshold. It indicates finite quantum correlation, estimated via Gaussian quantum discord, and the entanglement between the intracavity subharmonic fields. When the loss in the injection path is low, each oscillator around the phase transition point forms macroscopic superposition even under a small pump noise. It suggests that the squeezed field stored in the low-loss injection path weakens the decoherence in the oscillators.

  10. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... create new or additional frequency conflicts; (3) The amendment reflects only a change in ownership or... “cut-off” requirements of this section is granted; (4) The amendment reflects only a change in... available frequencies or to the extent that mutually exclusive applications remain after this process...

  11. Language Experience Shapes the Development of the Mutual Exclusivity Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Caloghiris, Zoe; Raviglione, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    Halberda (2003) demonstrated that 17-month-old infants, but not 14- or 16-month-olds, use a strategy known as mutual exclusivity (ME) to identify the meanings of new words. When 17-month-olds were presented with a novel word in an intermodal preferential looking task, they preferentially fixated a novel object over an object for which they already…

  12. Mutual Information Item Selection in Adaptive Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    A general approach for item selection in adaptive multiple-category classification tests is provided. The approach uses mutual information (MI), a special case of the Kullback-Leibler distance, or relative entropy. MI works efficiently with the sequential probability ratio test and alleviates the difficulties encountered with using other local-…

  13. Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

  14. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  15. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education

  16. Ecological genomics of mutualism decline in nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Christie R; Lau, Jennifer A; Heath, Katy D

    2016-03-16

    Anthropogenic changes can influence mutualism evolution; however, the genomic regions underpinning mutualism that are most affected by environmental change are generally unknown, even in well-studied model mutualisms like the interaction between legumes and their nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia. Such genomic information can shed light on the agents and targets of selection maintaining cooperation in nature. We recently demonstrated that N-fertilization has caused an evolutionary decline in mutualistic partner quality in the rhizobia that form symbiosis with clover. Here, population genomic analyses of N-fertilized versus control rhizobium populations indicate that evolutionary differentiation at a key symbiosis gene region on the symbiotic plasmid (pSym) contributes to partner quality decline. Moreover, patterns of genetic variation at selected loci were consistent with recent positive selection within N-fertilized environments, suggesting that N-rich environments might select for less beneficial rhizobia. By studying the molecular population genomics of a natural bacterial population within a long-term ecological field experiment, we find that: (i) the N environment is indeed a potent selective force mediating mutualism evolution in this symbiosis, (ii) natural variation in rhizobium partner quality is mediated in part by key symbiosis genes on the symbiotic plasmid, and (iii) differentiation at selected genes occurred in the context of otherwise recombining genomes, resembling eukaryotic models of adaptation. PMID:26962142

  17. Multimodal registration via spatial-context mutual information.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhao; Soatto, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to efficiently compute mutual information between high-dimensional distributions of image patches. This in turn is used to perform accurate registration of images captured under different modalities, while exploiting their local structure otherwise missed in traditional mutual information definition. We achieve this by organizing the space of image patches into orbits under the action of Euclidean transformations of the image plane, and estimating the modes of a distribution in such an orbit space using affinity propagation. This way, large collections of patches that are equivalent up to translations and rotations are mapped to the same representative, or "dictionary element". We then show analytically that computing mutual information for a joint distribution in this space reduces to computing mutual information between the (scalar) label maps, and between the transformations mapping each patch into its closest dictionary element. We show that our approach improves registration performance compared with the state of the art in multimodal registration, using both synthetic and real images with quantitative ground truth. PMID:21761675

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  19. Mutual neutralization in low-energy H+ +F- collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezei, J. Zs.; Roos, J. B.; Shilyaeva, K.; Elander, N.; Larson, Å.

    2011-07-01

    The cross section for mutual neutralization in collisions between H+ and F- ions at low energies (E⩽10 eV) is calculated using a molecular close-coupling approach. Two different representations of the quasidiabatic potentials and couplings of HF are used. The effect of autoionization on the cross section is investigated. The coupled Schrödinger equation for the nuclear motion is solved using a numerical integration of the corresponding matrix Riccati equation and the cross section for mutual neutralization is computed from the asymptotic value of the logarithmic derivative of the radial wave function. The magnitude of the cross section for mutual neutralization in this reaction is small compared to other systems. This can be understood by the lack of avoided crossings at large internuclear distances. Resonant structures are found in the cross section and these are assigned with dominant angular momentum quantum number. The cross section for mutual neutralization in collisions of D+ and F- ions is also calculated.

  20. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  1. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  2. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  3. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet

  4. Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Carl A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…

  5. Fourth-order mutual coherence function in oceanic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Yahya

    2016-04-10

    We have recently expressed the structure constant of atmospheric turbulence in terms of the oceanic turbulence parameters, which are the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, wavelength, Kolmogorov microscale, and link length. In this paper, utilizing this recently found structure constant and the fourth-order mutual coherence function of atmospheric turbulence, we present the fourth-order mutual coherence function to be used in oceanic turbulence evaluations. Thus, the found fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence is evaluated for the special case of a point source located at the transmitter origin and at a single receiver point. The variations of this special case of the fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence against the changes in the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, the wavelength, and the Kolmogorov microscale at various link lengths are presented. PMID:27139862

  6. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  7. International Mutual Recognition: Progress and Prospects. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    Increasing the mobility of service providers, including professionals, via mutual recognition (of regulatory systems) agreements (MRAs) has become a significant issue worldwide. Despite increasing interest in MRAs, it may be argued that MRAs are but one of a larger range of major developments that have fueled current interest in occupational…

  8. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  9. A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.

    PubMed

    Peng, Po; Blamires, Sean J; Agnarsson, Ingi; Lin, Hui-Chen; Tso, I-Min

    2013-01-21

    The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another. PMID:23260470

  10. The contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being.

    PubMed

    Seebohm, Patience; Chaudhary, Sarah; Boyce, Melanie; Elkan, Ruth; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This article explores the contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being. Self-help/mutual aid groups are self-organising groups where people come together to address a shared a health or social issue through mutual support. They are associated with a range of health and social benefits, but remain poorly understood. This article draws on data from stage one of ESTEEM, a project which runs from 2010 to 2013. Stage one ran from 2010 to 2011 and involved participatory, qualitative research carried out in two UK sites. Twenty-one groups were purposively selected to include a range of focal issues, longevity, structures and ethnic backgrounds. Researchers carried out 21 interviews with group coordinators and twenty group discussions with members to explore the groups' purpose, nature and development. Preliminary analysis of the data suggested that mental well-being was a common theme across the groups. Subsequently the data were re-analysed to explore the groups' contribution to mental well-being using a checklist of protective factors for mental well-being as a coding framework. The findings showed that groups made a strong contribution to members' mental well-being by enhancing a sense of control, increasing resilience and facilitating participation. Group members were uplifted by exchanging emotional and practical support; they gained self-esteem, knowledge and confidence, thereby increasing their control over their situation. For some groups, socio-economic factors limited their scope and threatened their future. The article provides an evidence-base which illustrates how self-help/mutual aid groups can enhance mental well-being. If supported within a strategy for social justice, these groups enable people with varied concerns to develop a tailored response to their specific needs. The authors suggest that policy-makers engage with local people, investing in support proportionate to the needs of different populations, enabling them to develop their own self-help/mutual aid groups to enhance their sense of mental well-being. PMID:23445336

  11. Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiyong

    This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the interferers, Doppler spread and convergence are investigated. The tracking mode is introduced to the adaptive array system, and it further improves the BER. The benefit of using faster data rate (wider bandwidth) is discussed. In order to have better performance in a 3D space, the geometries of uniform spherical array (USAs) are presented and different configurations of USAs are discussed. The LMS algorithm based on temporal a priori information is applied to UCAs and USAs to beamform the patterns. Their performances are compared based on simulation results. Based on the analytical and simulation results, it can be concluded that mutual coupling slightly influences the performance of the adaptive array in communication systems. In addition, arrays with curvilinear geometries perform well in AWGN and fading channels.

  12. Evolutionary origin of insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Obligate insect–bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host’s growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin–manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug–Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage. PMID:24982177

  13. Sex-oriented stable matchings of the marriage problem with correlated and incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo

    2001-10-01

    In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.

  14. The rules for symbiont community assembly change along a mutualism-parasitism continuum.

    PubMed

    Skelton, James; Doak, Sam; Leonard, Meredith; Creed, Robert P; Brown, Bryan L

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont community assembly is driven by host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions. The effects that symbionts exert on their hosts are often context-dependent, and existing theoretical frameworks of symbiont community assembly do not consider the implications of variable outcomes to assembly processes. We hypothesized that symbiont-symbiont interactions become increasingly important along a parasitism/mutualism continuum because; (i) negative outcomes favour host resistance which in turn reduces symbiont colonization and subsequently reduce symbiont-symbiont interactions, whereas (ii) positive host outcomes favour tolerance and consequently higher symbiont colonization rates, leading to stronger interactions among symbionts. We found support for this hypothesis in the cleaning symbiosis between crayfish and ectosymbiotic branchiobdellidan worms. The symbiosis between crayfish and their worms can shift from parasitism/commensalism to mutualism as crayfish age. Here, field surveys identified changes in worm density, diversity and composition that were concomitant to changing symbiosis outcomes. We conducted several laboratory experiments and behavioural assays to relate patterns from the field to their likely causal processes. Young crayfish typically hosted only two relatively small worm species. Older crayfish hosted two additional larger species. In laboratory experiments, young crayfish exhibited a directed grooming response to all worm species, but were unable to remove small species. Conversely, adult crayfish did not exhibit grooming responses to any worm species. Relaxed grooming allowed the colonization of large worm species and initiated symbiont-symbiont intraguild predation that reduced the abundance and altered the behaviour of small worm species. Thus, the dominant processes of symbiont community assembly shifted from host resistance to symbiont-symbiont interactions through host ontogeny and a concomitant transition towards mutualism. This work shows that host resistance can have a prevailing influence over symbiont community assembly when symbiosis is disadvantageous to the host. However, when symbiosis is advantageous and resistance is relaxed, symbiont colonization rate and consequently abundance and diversity increases and interactions among symbionts become increasingly important to symbiont community assembly. PMID:27111444

  15. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  16. Mutual coupling between parallel columns of periodic slots in a ground plane surrounded by dielectric slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. P.; Munk, Benedikt A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrays of slots with arbitrary orientation in a conducting plane which are infinitely periodic in one dimension and finitely periodic in another dimension are considered. The perfect conducting plane extends infinitely and is bounded on each side by dielectric slabs of finite thickness and infinite extent. Single columns of slots are represented by equivalent magnetic scattering currents, which are solved for via the moment method. The mutual coupling (admittance) between slot columns in the presence of the stratified media is found by the array scanning method (ASM), which expresses the admittance as the average of the scan admittance of an artificially constructed doubly infinite array of slots over all real scan angles. The technique avoids the use of Sommerfeld integrals, but still gives rise to singularities at scan angles corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface waves. An analytical approximation is made to remove these surface wave singularities, thus making numerical implementation of the method practical. The method is quite general and may be extended to thin slot elements of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  17. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  18. Altered orienting of attention in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Franchetti, Lorena; Carli, Lorenza; Todisco, Patrizia; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-09-30

    The study of cognitive processes in anorexia nervosa (AN) is largely unexplored, although recent evidence suggests the presence of impairments in both social cognition and attention processing. Here we investigated AN patients' ability to orient attention in response to social and symbolic visual stimuli. AN patients and matched controls performed a task in which gaze and pointing gestures acted as social directional cues for spatial attention. Arrows were also included as symbolic cue. On each trial, a centrally-placed cue appeared oriented rightwards or leftwards. After either 200 or 700ms, a lateralized neutral target (a letter) requiring a discrimination response appeared in a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with the directional cue. Controls showed a reliable orienting irrespective of both temporal interval and cue type. AN patients showed a reliable orienting at both temporal intervals only in response to pointing gestures. Both gaze and arrow cues failed to orient attention at the short temporal interval, that is when attention is under reflexive control, whereas a reliable orienting emerged at the long temporal interval. These results provide preliminary evidence of altered reflexive orienting of attention in AN patients that does not extend to body-related cues such as pointing gestures. PMID:26184992

  19. Gyroscopic orientation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhteenko, Evgenii R.

    Engineering methods for the design and analysis of gyroscopic orientation systems used in aviation and rocketry are presented. The following commonly used functional-kinematic schemes of orientation systems are examined: a gyroscopic system with two three-degrees-of-freedom gyroscopes in a gimbal suspension, a triaxial stabilizer, and systems without a gimbal. Particular attention is given to the physical meaning of the processes taking place in orientation systems.

  20. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  1. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-10-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48-96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  2. Coupled channels description of single and mutual excitation in the scattering of 7Li from 12C and 24, 26Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Clarice, N. M.; Coopersmith, J.; Griffiths, R. J.

    1982-09-01

    Coupled channels calculations have been made for the scattering of 7Li from 12C at 63 and 79 MeV and from 24,26Mg at 88 MeV. The calculations describe, simultaneously, the elastic scattering, excitation of 7Li to the 478 keV {1}/{2}- state, excitation of the target to its first 2 + state, and the mutual excitation of both projectile and target to their {1}/{2}- and 2 + states respectively. The potentials have been calculated by a double folding model using the M3Y effective interaction for the real part, and a gaussian effective interaction for the imaginary part. Realistic densities have been used for the ground states of 7Li, 12C and 24, 26Mg and also the transition densities to the excited states using a microscopic plus macroscopic prescription. For the mutual excitation, both one-step processes with l = 0, 2 and 4 and two-step processes were included. The calculations show that the two-step processes are the dominant contribution to the mutual excitation, but at forward angles, the oscillations in the data are only reproduced with the coherent addition of the one-step processes, which are dominated by the l = 4 contribution. Even when coupling to all single and mutual excitations are included the real potential still requires a normalization of about 0.6. The addition of the quadrupole re-orientation matrix element for the ground state does not significantly change this value. These calculations confirm that the coupling to the first excited inelastic levels of target and ejectile is not the source of the anomalous M3Y normalization, and that the dominant mode for mutual excitation is a two-step process. However, direct one-step mutual excitation is important for small angles (θ ≲ 20°).

  3. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  4. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  5. Mutual diffusion coefficients in systems containing the nickel ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Veríssimo, Luis V. M. M.; Gomes, Joselaine C. S.; Santos, Cecilia I. A. V.; Barros, Marisa C. F.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Esteso, Miguel A.; Leaist, Derek G.

    2013-04-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in water have been measured at 293.15 K and 303.15 K and at concentrations between 0.020 mol dm-3 and 0.100 mol dm-3, using a conductimetric cell. The experimental mutual diffusion coefficients are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss model. The equivalent conductances at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at those temperatures have been estimated using these results. In addition, from these data, we have estimated some transport and structural parameters, such as limiting diffusion coefficient, ionic conductance at infinitesimal concentration, hydrodynamic radii and activation energy, contributing this way to a better understanding of the structure of these systems and of their thermodynamic behavior in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  6. Control of mutual phase locking of monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.; Katz, J.

    1983-01-01

    The degree of phase locking between the individual laser apertures is the major issue in phase-locked laser arrays. A description is presented of a series of experiments in which the mutual coherence of two laser apertures is characterized by measuring the visibility of the far-field interference fringes. Attention is given to an approach which makes it possible to control continuously the degree of coherence by means of a separate contact configuration. An investigation was conducted of the far-field radiation patterns of pairs of lasers obtained under various conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of controlling the mutual phase locking between semiconductor lasers by varying the gain distribution between their pumped stripes.

  7. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.; Swift, Catherine E.

    1987-01-01

    Circumstances are tabulated for 88 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1987 opposition. Charon is predicted to be completely obscured either by Pluto or Pluto's shadow during each passage behind Pluto during this opposition, providing several opportunities to study Pluto uncontaminated by the light of Charon. The duration of these total events is predicted to be from 32 to 79 min. The mutual-event season is now expected to conclude during the 1990 opposition. Two new stars have been selected as comparison stars for events occurring prior to opposition in 1987. Standardization of the primary comparison stars used in 1985 and 1986 has yielded the following magnitudes: B = 12.6044 + or - 0.0015 and V = 11.7956 + or - 0.0017 (1985 Primary); B = 13.1238 + or 0.0008 and V = 12.3885 + or - 0.0014 (1986 Primary).

  8. Entanglement entropy and mutual information in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Wenxin; Yang Kun

    2009-07-15

    In this paper we study the entanglement properties of free nonrelativistic Bose gases. At zero temperature, we calculate the bipartite block entanglement entropy of the system and find that it diverges logarithmically with the particle number in the subsystem. For finite temperatures, we study the mutual information between the two blocks. We first analytically study an infinite-range hopping model, then numerically study a set of long-range hopping models in one dimension that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. In both cases we find that a Bose-Einstein condensate, if present, makes a divergent contribution to the mutual information which is proportional to the logarithm of the number of particles in the condensate in the subsystem. The prefactor of the logarithmic divergent term is model dependent.

  9. Abiotic mediation of a mutualism drives herbivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Emily H; Phillips, Joseph S; Tillberg, Chadwick V; Sandrow, Cheryl; Nelson, Annika S; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Species abundance is typically determined by the abiotic environment, but the extent to which such effects occur through the mediation of biotic interactions, including mutualisms, is unknown. We explored how light environment (open meadow vs. shaded understory) mediates the abundance and ant tending of the aphid Aphis helianthi feeding on the herb Ligusticum porteri. Yearly surveys consistently found aphids to be more than 17-fold more abundant on open meadow plants than on shaded understory plants. Manipulations demonstrated that this abundance pattern was not due to the direct effects of light environment on aphid performance, or indirectly through host plant quality or the effects of predators. Instead, open meadows had higher ant abundance and per capita rates of aphid tending and, accordingly, ants increased aphid population growth in meadow but not understory environments. The abiotic environment thus drives the abundance of this herbivore exclusively through the mediation of a protection mutualism. PMID:26563752

  10. Mutual information as an order parameter for quantum synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameri, V.; Eghbali-Arani, M.; Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Kheirandish, F.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon, important in many theoretical studies and applications. Recently, this effect has been analyzed and observed in a number of physical systems close to the quantum-mechanical regime. In this work we propose mutual information as a useful order parameter which can capture the emergence of synchronization in very different contexts, ranging from semiclassical to intrinsically quantum-mechanical systems. Specifically, we first study the synchronization of two coupled Van der Pol oscillators in both classical and quantum regimes and later we consider the synchronization of two qubits inside two coupled optical cavities. In all these contexts, we find that mutual information can be used as an appropriate figure of merit for determining the synchronization phases independently of the specific details of the system.

  11. Kepler-108: A Mutually Inclined Giant Planet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Sean M.; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of well studied giant-planet systems, including the Solar System, are nearly coplanar which implies dissipation within a primordial gas disk. However, intrinsic instability may lead to planet-planet scattering, which often produces non-coplanar, eccentric orbits. Planet scattering theories have been developed to explain observed high eccentricity systems and possibly hot Jupiters; thus far their predictions for mutual inclination (I) have barely been tested. Here we characterize a highly mutually-inclined (I ~ 15-60 degrees), moderately eccentric (e > 0.1) giant planet system: Kepler-108. This system consists of two Saturn mass planets with periods of ~49 and ~190 days around a star with a wide (~300 AU) binary companion in an orbital configuration inconsistent with a purely disk migration origin.

  12. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

  13. Scale-Space Mutual Information for Textural-Patterns Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Seedahmed, Gamal H.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-08-22

    The essence of image texture is typically understood by two aspects. First, within a texture-pattern there is a significant variation in intensity values between nearby pixels. Second, texture is a homogeneous property at some spatial scale larger than the spatial resolution of the image. Motivated by the essential aspects of image texture, this paper proposes a novel methodology that combines the use of scale-space and mutual information to characterize textural-patterns. Scale-space offers the mechanism for a multi-scale representation of the image, which will be used to address the scale aspect of texture. On the other hand, mutual information provides a measure to quantify the dependency relationship across the scale-space. It has been found that the proposed methodology has the potential to capture different properties of texture such as periodicity, scale, fineness, coarseness, and spatial extent or size. Practical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.

  14. Role of mutual punishment in the snowdrift game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of punishment on cooperation have drawn increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism of punishment, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. We incorporate the mutual punishment into the snowdrift game. Results for well-mixed and structured populations have shown that, for no punishment or small values of punishment fine, the fraction of cooperators continuously decreases with the temptation to defect. However, for large values of punishment fine, there exists an abrupt transition point, at which the fraction of cooperators suddenly drops from 1 to 0. Compared to no punishment, mutual punishment promotes cooperation when the temptation to defect is small but inhibits cooperation when the temptation to defect is large. For weak (strong) temptation to defect, the cooperation level increases (decreases) with the punishment fine. For moderate temptation to defect, there exists an optimal value of the punishment fine that leads to the highest cooperation level.

  15. Complete chaotic synchronization in mutually coupled time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Landsman, Alexandra S; Schwartz, Ira B

    2007-02-01

    Complete chaotic synchronization of end lasers has been observed in a line of mutually coupled, time-delayed system of three lasers, with no direct communication between the end lasers. The present paper uses ideas from generalized synchronization to explain the complete synchronization in the presence of long coupling delays, applied to a model of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers in a line. These ideas significantly simplify the analysis by casting the stability in terms of the local dynamics of each laser. The variational equations near the synchronization manifold are analyzed, and used to derive the synchronization condition that is a function of parameters. The results explain and predict the dependence of synchronization on various parameters, such as time delays, strength of coupling and dissipation. The ideas can be applied to understand complete synchronization in other chaotic systems with coupling delays and no direct communication between synchronized subsystems. PMID:17358399

  16. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  17. An Efficient Algorithm for Direction Finding against Unknown Mutual Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijiang; Ren, Shiwei; Ding, Yingtao; Wang, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs) with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively. PMID:25347587

  18. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate.

    PubMed

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs. PMID:25353838

  19. 78 FR 4145 - Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Proposed Recommendations Regarding Money Market Mutual Fund Reform AGENCY: Financial... Register proposed recommendations regarding money market mutual funds (``MMFs'') pursuant to Section 120 of... method. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amias Gerety, Deputy Assistant Secretary for the...

  20. Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique was applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been exclusively applied to antennas. Here, calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained during the method of moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

  1. Finite difference time domain calculations of antenna mutual coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique has been applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic analysis problems, including shielding and scattering. However, the method has not been extensively applied to antennas. In this short paper calculations of self and mutual admittances between wire antennas are made using FDTD and compared with results obtained using the Method of Moments. The agreement is quite good, indicating the possibilities for FDTD application to antenna impedance and coupling.

  2. Jupiter's Galilean satellites mutual events as a teaching tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, J. F.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a set of observations of the mutual phenomena (occultations and eclipses) between Jupiter's Galilean satellites in 2014 and 2015 obtained with a Celestron 11 telescope from the Aula EspaZio Gela at E.T.S.I. - UPV/EHU. These observations are used as a practical teaching tool for photometry and astrodynamics in different matters of the Master in Space Science and Technology UPV/EHU.

  3. Pluto-Charon mutual event predictions for 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Circumstances are tabulated for 81-Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1986 opposition. The deepest and longest events will occur in February and reach a depth of about 0.15 mag. Observations of these events will lead to an accurate determination of the satellite's orbit, the diameters of the two bodies, the mean density of the system, and crude albedo maps of one hemisphere on each object.

  4. Extracting an entanglement signature from only classical mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Starling, David J.; Howell, John C.; Broadbent, Curtis J.

    2011-09-15

    We introduce a quantity which is formed using classical notions of mutual information and which is computed using the results of projective measurements. This quantity constitutes a sufficient condition for entanglement and represents the amount of information that can be extracted from a bipartite system for spacelike separated observers. In addition to discussion, we provide simulations as well as experimental results for the singlet and maximally correlated mixed states.

  5. Second Law of Thermodynamics with Qc-Mutual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    I'd like to discuss generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics in the presence of quantum information processing such as quantum measurement and quantum feedback control. A quantum information content, referred to as QC-mutual information, is shown to play a crucial role. We also discuss the generalization of a quantum generalization of the Hatano- Sasa inequality for transitions between nonequilibrium steady states with quantum feedback control. Note from Publisher: This article contains only abstract.

  6. Quantum Conditional Mutual Information and Approximate Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzi, Omar; Renner, Renato

    2015-12-01

    A state on a tripartite quantum system forms a Markov chain if it can be reconstructed from its marginal on by a quantum operation from B to . We show that the quantum conditional mutual information I( A : C| B) of an arbitrary state is an upper bound on its distance to the closest reconstructed state. It thus quantifies how well the Markov chain property is approximated.

  7. Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2013-01-01

    1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

  8. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person’s interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks. PMID:25114228

  9. Rethinking "mutualism" in diverse host-symbiont communities.

    PubMed

    Mushegian, Alexandra A; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    While examples of bacteria benefiting eukaryotes are increasingly documented, studies examining effects of eukaryote hosts on microbial fitness are rare. Beneficial bacteria are often called "mutualistic" even if mutual reciprocity of benefits has not been demonstrated and despite the plausibility of other explanations for these microbes' beneficial effects on host fitness. Furthermore, beneficial bacteria often occur in diverse communities, making mutualism both empirically and conceptually difficult to demonstrate. We suggest reserving the terms "mutualism" and "parasitism" for pairwise interactions where the relationship is largely independent of other species and can be verified by measuring the fitness effect experienced by both partners. In hosts with diverse microbial communities, we propose re-formulating some of the essential questions of symbiosis research - e.g. concerning specificity, transmission mode, and common evolutionary fates - as questions of community ecology and ecosystem function, allowing important biological interactions to be investigated without making assumptions about reciprocity. Understanding the fitness of host-associated bacteria is a crucial component of investigations into the role of microbes in eukaryote evolution. PMID:26568407

  10. Multiclass Microarray Gene Expression Analysis Based on Mutual Dependency Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, Girija; Chetty, Madhu

    In this paper a novel feature selection technique based on mutual dependency modelling between genes is proposed for multiclass microarray gene expression classification. Several studies on analysis of gene expression data has shown that the genes (whether or not they belong to the same gene group) get co-expressed via a variety of pathways. Further, a gene may participate in multiple pathways that may or may not be co-active for all samples. It is therefore biologically meaningful to simultaneously divide genes into functional groups and samples into co-active categories. This can be done by modeling gene profiles for multiclass microarray gene data sets based on mutual dependency models, which model complex gene interactions. Most of the current works in multiclass microarray gene expression studies are based on statistical models with little or no consideration of gene interactions. This has led to lack of robustness and overly optimistic estimates of accuracy and noise reduction. In this paper, we propose multivariate analysis techniques which model the mutual dependency between the features and take into account complex interactions for extracting a subset of genes. The two techniques, the cross modal factor analysis (CFA) and canonical correlation analysis(CCA) show a significant reduction in dimensionality and class-prediction error, and improvement in classification accuracy for multiclass microarray gene expression datasets.

  11. Mutual information-based analysis of JPEG2000 contexts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Karam, Lina J

    2005-04-01

    Context-based arithmetic coding has been widely adopted in image and video compression and is a key component of the new JPEG2000 image compression standard. In this paper, the contexts used in JPEG2000 are analyzed using the mutual information, which is closely related to the compression performance. We first show that, when combining the contexts, the mutual information between the contexts and the encoded data will decrease unless the conditional probability distributions of the combined contexts are the same. Given I, the initial number of contexts, and F, the final desired number of contexts, there are S(I, F) possible context classification schemes where S(I, F) is called the Stirling number of the second kind. The optimal classification scheme is the one that gives the maximum mutual information. Instead of using an exhaustive search, the optimal classification scheme can be obtained through a modified generalized Lloyd algorithm with the relative entropy as the distortion metric. For binary arithmetic coding, the search complexity can be reduced by using dynamic programming. Our experimental results show that the JPEG2000 contexts capture the correlations among the wavelet coefficients very well. At the same time, the number of contexts used as part of the standard can be reduced without loss in the coding performance. PMID:15825477

  12. Part mutual information for quantifying direct associations in networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Zhou, Yiwei; Zhang, Xiujun; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-01

    Quantitatively identifying direct dependencies between variables is an important task in data analysis, in particular for reconstructing various types of networks and causal relations in science and engineering. One of the most widely used criteria is partial correlation, but it can only measure linearly direct association and miss nonlinear associations. However, based on conditional independence, conditional mutual information (CMI) is able to quantify nonlinearly direct relationships among variables from the observed data, superior to linear measures, but suffers from a serious problem of underestimation, in particular for those variables with tight associations in a network, which severely limits its applications. In this work, we propose a new concept, "partial independence," with a new measure, "part mutual information" (PMI), which not only can overcome the problem of CMI but also retains the quantification properties of both mutual information (MI) and CMI. Specifically, we first defined PMI to measure nonlinearly direct dependencies between variables and then derived its relations with MI and CMI. Finally, we used a number of simulated data as benchmark examples to numerically demonstrate PMI features and further real gene expression data from Escherichia coli and yeast to reconstruct gene regulatory networks, which all validated the advantages of PMI for accurately quantifying nonlinearly direct associations in networks. PMID:27092000

  13. Stability of an intraguild predation system with mutual predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanshi; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2016-04-01

    We examine intraguild predation (IGP), in which species both compete for resources or space and prey on each other. The IGP system is modeled here by a lattice gas model of the mean-field theory. First, we consider the IGP system of one species in which individuals of the same species cannibalize each other. The dynamical behavior of the model demonstrates a mechanism by which the intraspecific predation promotes persistence of the species. Then we consider the IGP system of two species with mutual predation. Global dynamics of the model exhibit basic properties of IGP: (i) When both species' efficiencies in converting the consumptions into fitness are large, the outcome of their interaction is mutualistic in form and the IGP promotes persistence of both species. (ii) When one species' efficiency is large but the other's is small, the interaction outcomes become parasitic in nature, in which an obligate species can survive through the mutual predation with a facultative one. (iii) When both species' efficiencies are small, the interaction outcomes are competitive in nature and the IGP leads to extinction of one of the species. A novel result of this work is that varying one parameter or population density of the species can lead to transition of interaction outcomes between mutualism, parasitism and competition. On the other hand, dynamics of the models demonstrate that over-predation or under-predation will result in extinction of one/both species, while intermediate predation is favorable under certain parameter ranges.

  14. Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single ancestral species diversifies into many descendants adapted to exploit a wide range of habitats. The appearance of ecological opportunities, or the colonisation or adaptation to novel ecological resources, has been documented to promote adaptive radiation in many classic examples. Mutualistic interactions allow species to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species diversification can greatly vary among mutualistic systems. Here, we test whether the development of obligate mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western Pacific oceans reef habitats. Results We show that clownfishes morphological characters are linked with ecological niches associated with the sea anemones. This pattern is consistent with the ecological speciation hypothesis. Furthermore, the clownfishes show an increase in the rate of species diversification as well as rate of morphological evolution compared to their closest relatives without anemone mutualistic associations. Conclusions The effect of mutualism on species diversification has only been studied in a limited number of groups. We present a case of adaptive radiation where mutualistic interaction is the likely key innovation, providing new insights into the mechanisms involved in the buildup of biodiversity. Due to a lack of barriers to dispersal, ecological speciation is rare in marine environments. Particular life-history characteristics of clownfishes likely reinforced reproductive isolation between populations, allowing rapid species diversification. PMID:23122007

  15. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-01

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks. PMID:25114228

  16. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  17. Variation between self- and mutual assessment in animal contests.

    PubMed

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Heap, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Limited resources lead animals into conflicts of interest, which are resolved when an individual withdraws from a direct contest. Current theory suggests that the decision to withdraw can be based on a threshold derived from an individual's own state (self-assessment) or on a comparison between their own state and their opponent's (mutual assessment). The observed variation between these assessment strategies in nature does not conform to theory. Thus, we require theoretical developments that explain the functional significance of different assessment strategies. We consider a hawk-dove game with two discrete classes that differ in fighting ability, in which the players strategically decide on their investment toward mutual assessment. Analysis of the model indicates that there are simultaneous trade-offs relating to assessment strategies. First, weak individuals in a population must decide on whether to acquire information about their opponents at the cost of providing opponents with information about themselves. Secondly, all individuals must decide between investing in mutual assessment and being persistent in contests. Our analysis suggests that the potential for individuals to make errors during contests and differences in the consequences of sharing information within a population may serve as fundamental concepts for explaining variation in assessment strategy. PMID:24464195

  18. Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.

    2011-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars, focusing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearize the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two-fluid components corotate and are in β-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time-evolutions of the linearized dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, that is, without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti & Andersson. In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

  19. Dispersal Mutualism Incorporated into Large-Scale, Infrequent Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Parker, V. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Because of their influence on succession and other community interactions, large-scale, infrequent natural disturbances also should play a major role in mutualistic interactions. Using field data and experiments, I test whether mutualisms have been incorporated into large-scale wildfire by whether the outcomes of a mutualism depend on disturbance. In this study a seed dispersal mutualism is shown to depend on infrequent, large-scale disturbances. A dominant shrubland plant (Arctostaphylos species) produces seeds that make up a persistent soil seed bank and requires fire to germinate. In post-fire stands, I show that seedlings emerging from rodent caches dominate sites experiencing higher fire intensity. Field experiments show that rodents (Perimyscus californicus, P. boylii) do cache Arctostaphylos fruit and bury most seed caches to a sufficient depth to survive a killing heat pulse that a fire might drive into the soil. While the rodent dispersal and caching behavior itself has not changed compared to other habitats, the environmental transformation caused by wildfire converts the caching burial of seed from a dispersal process to a plant fire adaptive trait, and provides the context for stimulating subsequent life history evolution in the plant host. PMID:26151560

  20. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  1. Object oriented programming

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory.

  2. Object oriented programming

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1991-08-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming. The object oriented approach is very powerful and not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory. 8 refs., 18 figs.

  3. Object oriented programming

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-04-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach is not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the skills and…

  5. 12 CFR >appendix A to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Charter A >Appendix A to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. A >Appendix A to Part 239—Mutual Holding Company Model...

  6. 12 CFR 143.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for conversion to Federal mutual... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 143.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1) Filing. Any depository institution that...

  7. 12 CFR 143.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for conversion to Federal mutual... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 143.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1) Filing. Any depository institution that...

  8. 31 CFR 1024.220 - Customer identification programs for mutual funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information available, and the mutual fund's customer base. At a minimum, these procedures must contain the... mutual fund must retain the information in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section for five years after the date the account is closed. The mutual fund must retain the information in paragraphs...

  9. 31 CFR 1024.220 - Customer identification programs for mutual funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information available, and the mutual fund's customer base. At a minimum, these procedures must contain the... mutual fund must retain the information in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section for five years after the date the account is closed. The mutual fund must retain the information in paragraphs...

  10. 12 CFR 544.8 - Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mutual savings association. 544.8 Section 544.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Availability § 544.8 Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association. (a) Right of communication with...

  11. 31 CFR 1024.220 - Customer identification programs for mutual funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information available, and the mutual fund's customer base. At a minimum, these procedures must contain the... mutual fund must retain the information in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section for five years after the date the account is closed. The mutual fund must retain the information in paragraphs...

  12. 12 CFR 144.8 - Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mutual savings association. 144.8 Section 144.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Availability § 144.8 Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association. (a) Right of communication with...

  13. 12 CFR 144.8 - Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mutual savings association. 144.8 Section 144.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Availability § 144.8 Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association. (a) Right of communication with...

  14. 12 CFR 143.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for conversion to Federal mutual... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 143.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1) Filing. Any depository institution that...

  15. 31 CFR 1024.220 - Customer identification programs for mutual funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information available, and the mutual fund's customer base. At a minimum, these procedures must contain the... mutual fund must retain the information in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section for five years after the date the account is closed. The mutual fund must retain the information in paragraphs...

  16. 12 CFR 12.101 - National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by § 12.4, for mutual fund transactions by providing this information to the customer in a current... mutual fund transactions. 12.101 Section 12.101 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT... Interpretations § 12.101 National bank disclosure of remuneration for mutual fund transactions. A national...

  17. 12 CFR 544.8 - Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mutual savings association. 544.8 Section 544.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Availability § 544.8 Communication between members of a Federal mutual savings association. (a) Right of communication with...

  18. 12 CFR 543.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Application for conversion to Federal mutual... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 543.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1) Filing. Any depository institution that...

  19. 12 CFR 543.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for conversion to Federal mutual... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 543.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1) Filing. Any depository institution that...

  20. 12 CFR 543.9 - Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for conversion to Federal mutual... FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION Conversion § 543.9 Application for conversion to Federal mutual charter. (a)(1) Filing. Any depository institution that...