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Sample records for mycobacterial virulence genes

  1. Non Mycobacterial Virulence Genes in the Genome of the Emerging Pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus

    PubMed Central

    Schenowitz, Chantal; Dossat, Carole; Barbe, Valérie; Rottman, Martin; Macheras, Edouard; Heym, Beate; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Daffé, Mamadou; Brosch, Roland; Risler, Jean-Loup; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) causing a pseudotuberculous lung disease to which patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are particularly susceptible. We report here its complete genome sequence. The genome of M. abscessus (CIP 104536T) consists of a 5,067,172-bp circular chromosome including 4920 predicted coding sequences (CDS), an 81-kb full-length prophage and 5 IS elements, and a 23-kb mercury resistance plasmid almost identical to pMM23 from Mycobacterium marinum. The chromosome encodes many virulence proteins and virulence protein families absent or present in only small numbers in the model RGM species Mycobacterium smegmatis. Many of these proteins are encoded by genes belonging to a “mycobacterial” gene pool (e.g. PE and PPE proteins, MCE and YrbE proteins, lipoprotein LpqH precursors). However, many others (e.g. phospholipase C, MgtC, MsrA, ABC Fe(3+) transporter) appear to have been horizontally acquired from distantly related environmental bacteria with a high G+C content, mostly actinobacteria (e.g. Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp.) and pseudomonads. We also identified several metabolic regions acquired from actinobacteria and pseudomonads (relating to phenazine biosynthesis, homogentisate catabolism, phenylacetic acid degradation, DNA degradation) not present in the M. smegmatis genome. Many of the “non mycobacterial” factors detected in M. abscessus are also present in two of the pathogens most frequently isolated from CF patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. This study elucidates the genetic basis of the unique pathogenicity of M. abscessus among RGM, and raises the question of similar mechanisms of pathogenicity shared by unrelated organisms in CF patients. PMID:19543527

  2. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lipner, Ettie M.; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects. PMID:26751573

  3. Mycobacterial truncated hemoglobins: from genes to functions.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Bolognesi, Martino; Milani, Mario; Guertin, Michel; Visca, Paolo

    2007-08-15

    Infections caused by bacteria belonging to genus Mycobacterium are among the most challenging threats for human health. The ability of mycobacteria to persist in vivo in the presence of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species implies the presence in these bacteria of effective detoxification mechanisms. Mycobacterial truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) have recently been implicated in scavenging of reactive nitrogen species. Individual members from each trHb family (N, O, and P) can be present in the same mycobacterial species. The distinct features of the heme active site structure combined with different ligand binding properties and in vivo expression patterns of mycobacterial trHbs suggest that these globins may accomplish diverse functions. Here, recent genomic, structural and biochemical information on mycobacterial trHbs is reviewed, with the aim of providing further insights into the role of these globins in mycobacterial physiology. PMID:17532149

  4. A potential target gene for the host-directed therapy of mycobacterial infection in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhang; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Pei; Lu, Shan; Chen, Xing; Yao, Yake; Jin, Xiaozheng; Sun, Yilan; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), one of the major bacterial pathogens for lethal infectious diseases, is capable of surviving within the phagosomes of host alveolar macrophages; therefore, host genetic variations may alter the susceptibility to MTB. In this study, to identify host genes exploited by MTB during infection, genes were non-selectively inactivated using lentivirus-based antisense RNA methods in Raw264.7 macrophages, and the cells that survived virulent MTB infection were then screened. Following DNA sequencing of the surviving cell clones, 26 host genes affecting susceptibility to MTB were identified and their pathways were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. In total, 9 of these genes were confirmed as positive regulators of collagen α-5(IV) chain (Col4a5) expression, a gene encoding a type IV collagen subunit present on the cell surface. The knockdown of Col4a5 consistently suppressed intracellular mycobacterial viability, promoting the survival of Raw264.7 macrophages following mycobacterial infection. Furthermore, Col4a5 deficiency lowered the pH levels of intracellular vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes and phagosomes in the Raw264.7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of Col4a5 post-translationally increased microsomal vacuolar-type H+-ATPase activity in macrophages, leading to the acidification of intracellular vesicles. Our findings reveal a novel role for Col4a5 in the regulation of macrophage responses to mycobacterial infection and identify Col4a5 as a potential target for the host-directed anti-mycobacterial therapy. PMID:27432120

  5. A potential target gene for the host-directed therapy of mycobacterial infection in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhang; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Pei; Lu, Shan; Chen, Xing; Yao, Yake; Jin, Xiaozheng; Sun, Yilan; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), one of the major bacterial pathogens for lethal infectious diseases, is capable of surviving within the phagosomes of host alveolar macrophages; therefore, host genetic variations may alter the susceptibility to MTB. In this study, to identify host genes exploited by MTB during infection, genes were non-selectively inactivated using lentivirus-based antisense RNA methods in RAW264.7 macrophages, and the cells that survived virulent MTB infection were then screened. Following DNA sequencing of the surviving cell clones, 26 host genes affecting susceptibility to MTB were identified and their pathways were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. In total, 9 of these genes were confirmed as positive regulators of collagen α-5(IV) chain (Col4a5) expression, a gene encoding a type IV collagen subunit present on the cell surface. The knockdown of Col4a5 consistently suppressed intracellular mycobacterial viability, promoting the survival of RAW264.7 macrophages following mycobacterial infection. Furthermore, Col4a5 deficiency lowered the pH levels of intracellular vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes and phagosomes in the RAW264.7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of Col4a5 post-translationally increased microsomal vacuolar-type H+-ATPase activity in macrophages, leading to the acidification of intracellular vesicles. Our findings reveal a novel role for Col4a5 in the regulation of macrophage responses to mycobacterial infection and identify Col4a5 as a potential target for the host-directed anti-mycobacterial therapy. PMID:27432120

  6. Identifying novel mycobacterial stress associated genes using a random mutagenesis screen in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Joshi, Shrilaxmi V; Sridhar, Aditi; Dutta, Sayantanee; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2015-12-10

    Cell envelope associated components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) have been implicated in stress response, immune modulation and in vivo survival of the pathogen. Although many such factors have been identified, there is a large disparity between the number of genes predicted to be involved in functions linked to the envelope and those described in the literature. To identify and characterise novel stress related factors associated with the mycobacterial cell envelope, we isolated colony morphotype mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis), based on the hypothesis that mutants with unusual colony morphology may have defects in the biosynthesis of cell envelope components. On testing their susceptibility to stress conditions relevant to M.tb physiology, multiple mutants were found to be sensitive to Isoniazid, Diamide and H2O2, indicative of altered permeability due to changes in cell envelope composition. Two mutants showed defects in biofilm formation implying possible roles for the target genes in antibiotic tolerance and/or virulence. These assays identified novel stress associated roles for several mycobacterial genes including sahH, tatB and aceE. Complementation analysis of selected mutants with the M. smegmatis genes and their M.tb homologues showed phenotypic restoration, validating their link to the observed phenotypes. A mutant carrying an insertion in fhaA encoding a forkhead associated domain containing protein, showed reduced survival in THP-1 macrophages, providing in vivo validation to this screen. Taken together, these results suggest that the M.tb homologues of a majority of the identified genes may play significant roles in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:26211627

  7. Specific recognition of mycobacterial protein and peptide antigens by gamma-delta T cell subsets following infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Promoting effective immunity to Mycobacterium bovis infection is a challenge that is of interest to the fields of human and animal medicine alike. We report that 'd T cells from virulent M. bovis infected cattle respond specifically and directly to complex, protein and non-protein mycobacterial anti...

  8. EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity plays a key role in mycobacterial cytosolic translocation and virulence: effects of single-residue mutations at glutamine 5

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Decheng; Jiang, Guozhong; Liu, Wei; Deng, Qing; Li, Xiujun; Qian, Wei; Ouellet, Hugues; Sun, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    EsxA is required for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and plays an essential role in phagosome rupture and translocation to the cytosol of macrophages. Recent biochemical studies have demonstrated that EsxA is a membrane-permeabilizing protein. However, evidence that link EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity to Mtb cytosolic translocation and virulence is lacking. Here we found that mutations at glutamine 5 (Q5) could up or down regulate EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity. The mutation Q5K significantly diminished the membrane-permeabilizing activity, while Q5V enhanced the activity. By taking advantage of the single-residue mutations, we tested the effects of EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity on mycobacterial virulence and cytosolic translocation using the esxA/esxB knockout strains of Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) and Mtb. Compared to wild type (WT), the Q5K mutant exhibited significantly attenuated virulence, evidenced by intracellular survival and cytotoxicity in mouse macrophages as well as infection of zebra fish embryos. The attenuated virulence of the Q5K mutant was correlated to the impaired cytosolic translocation. On the contrary, the Q5V mutant had a significantly increased cytosolic translocation and showed an overall increased virulence. This study provides convincing evidence that EsxA contributes to mycobacterial virulence with its membrane-permeabilizing activity that is required for cytosolic translocation. PMID:27600772

  9. EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity plays a key role in mycobacterial cytosolic translocation and virulence: effects of single-residue mutations at glutamine 5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Decheng; Jiang, Guozhong; Liu, Wei; Deng, Qing; Li, Xiujun; Qian, Wei; Ouellet, Hugues; Sun, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    EsxA is required for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and plays an essential role in phagosome rupture and translocation to the cytosol of macrophages. Recent biochemical studies have demonstrated that EsxA is a membrane-permeabilizing protein. However, evidence that link EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity to Mtb cytosolic translocation and virulence is lacking. Here we found that mutations at glutamine 5 (Q5) could up or down regulate EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity. The mutation Q5K significantly diminished the membrane-permeabilizing activity, while Q5V enhanced the activity. By taking advantage of the single-residue mutations, we tested the effects of EsxA membrane-permeabilizing activity on mycobacterial virulence and cytosolic translocation using the esxA/esxB knockout strains of Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) and Mtb. Compared to wild type (WT), the Q5K mutant exhibited significantly attenuated virulence, evidenced by intracellular survival and cytotoxicity in mouse macrophages as well as infection of zebra fish embryos. The attenuated virulence of the Q5K mutant was correlated to the impaired cytosolic translocation. On the contrary, the Q5V mutant had a significantly increased cytosolic translocation and showed an overall increased virulence. This study provides convincing evidence that EsxA contributes to mycobacterial virulence with its membrane-permeabilizing activity that is required for cytosolic translocation. PMID:27600772

  10. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION OF PUTATIVE VIRULENCE GENES IN Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shot-gun genomic library of the Flavobacterium columnare ALG-530 virulent strain has been constructed and more than 3,000 clones have been sequenced to date (800 contigs). Based on sequence identity with putative known virulence genes from related species, seven genes were selected for differentia...

  11. Virulence Gene Regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Jay L; Barron, Alex M S

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia colicauses three types of illnesses in humans: diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis in newborns. The acquisition of virulence-associated genes and the ability to properly regulate these, often horizontally transferred, loci distinguishes pathogens from the normally harmless commensal E. coli found within the human intestine. This review addresses our current understanding of virulence gene regulation in several important diarrhea-causing pathotypes, including enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic,enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregativeE. coli-EPEC, EHEC, ETEC and EAEC, respectively. The intensely studied regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of uropathogenicE. coli, or UPEC, is also reviewed, as is that of MNEC, a common cause of meningitis in neonates. Specific topics covered include the regulation of initial attachment events necessary for infection, environmental cues affecting virulence gene expression, control of attaching and effacing lesionformation, and control of effector molecule expression and secretion via the type III secretion systems by EPEC and EHEC. How phage control virulence and the expression of the Stx toxins of EHEC, phase variation, quorum sensing, and posttranscriptional regulation of virulence determinants are also addressed. A number of important virulence regulators are described, including the AraC-like molecules PerA of EPEC, CfaR and Rns of ETEC, and AggR of EAEC;the Ler protein of EPEC and EHEC;RfaH of UPEC;and the H-NS molecule that acts to silence gene expression. The regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of these greatly varied E. colipathotypes is complex, but common themes offerinsight into the signals and regulators necessary forE. coli disease progression. PMID:26443571

  12. Insights into horizontal acquisition patterns of dormancy and reactivation regulon genes in mycobacterial species using a partitioning-based framework.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Varun; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S

    2016-09-01

    Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events, initially thought to be rare in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have recently been shown to be involved in the acquisition of virulence operons in M. tuberculosis. We have developed a new partitioning framework based HGT prediction algorithm, called Grid3M, and applied the same for the prediction of HGTs in Mycobacteria. Validation and testing using simulated and real microbial genomes indicated better performance of Grid3M as compared with other widely used HGT prediction methods. Specific analysis of the genes belonging to dormancy/reactivation regulons across 14 mycobacterial genomes indicated that horizontal acquisition is specifically restricted to important accessory proteins. The results also revealed Burkholderia species to be a probable source of HGT genes belonging to these regulons. The current study provides a basis for similar analyses investigating the functional/evolutionary aspects of HGT genes in other pathogens. A database of Grid3M predicted HGTs in completely sequenced genomes is available at https://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/Grid3M/. PMID:27581938

  13. Virulence gene regulation inside and outside.

    PubMed

    DiRita, V J; Engleberg, N C; Heath, A; Miller, A; Crawford, J A; Yu, R

    2000-05-29

    Much knowledge about microbial gene regulation and virulence is derived from genetic and biochemical studies done outside of hosts. The aim of this review is to correlate observations made in vitro and in vivo with two different bacterial pathogens in which the nature of regulated gene expression leading to virulence is quite different. The first is Vibrio cholerae, in which the concerted action of a complicated regulatory cascade involving several transcription activators leads ultimately to expression of cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus. The regulatory cascade is active in vivo and is also required for maintenance of V. cholerae in the intestinal tract during experimental infection. Nevertheless, specific signals predicted to be generated in vivo, such as bile and a temperature of 37 degrees C, have a severe down-modulating effect on activation of toxin and pilus expression. Another unusual aspect of gene regulation in this system is the role played by inner membrane proteins that activate transcription. Although the topology of these proteins suggests an appealing model for signal transduction leading to virulence gene expression, experimental evidence suggests that such a model may be simplistic. In Streptococcus pyogenes, capsule production is critical for virulence in an animal model of necrotizing skin infection. Yet capsule is apparently produced to high levels only from mutation in a two-component regulatory system, CsrR and CsrS. Thus it seems that in V. cholerae a complex regulatory pathway has evolved to control virulence by induction of gene expression in vivo, whereas in S. pyogenes at least one mode of pathogenicity is potentiated by the absence of regulation. PMID:10874738

  14. Mycobacterial virulence. Virulent strains of Mycobacteria tuberculosis have faster in vivo doubling times and are better equipped to resist growth-inhibiting functions of macrophages in the presence and absence of specific immunity.

    PubMed

    North, R J; Izzo, A A

    1993-06-01

    The kinetics of growth of two virulent strains of mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis Erdman and M. tuberculosis H37Rv) and two attenuated strains (M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG]) were studied in the lungs, livers, spleens, and kidneys of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and of their coisogenic CB-17 immunocompetent counterparts. It was found, in keeping with the findings of earlier investigators (Pierce, C. H., R. J. Dubos, and W. B. Schaefer. 1953. J. Exp. Med. 97:189.), that in immunocompetent mice, virulent organisms grew progressively only in the lungs, whereas the growth of attenuated organisms was controlled in all organs. In SCID mice, in contrast, virulent mycobacteria grew rapidly and progressively in all organs, as did BCG, although at a slower rate. However, H37Ra failed to grow progressively in any organs of SCID mice, unless the mice were treated with hydrocortisone. In fact, hydrocortisone treatment enabled virulent, as well as attenuated, organisms to grow strikingly more rapidly in all organs of SCID mice and in all organs of CB-17 mice. A histological study showed that in SCID mice, multiplication of mycobacteria in the liver occurs in the cytoplasm of macrophages in granulomas and presumably in macrophages in other organs. It is suggested, therefore, that the macrophages of SCID mice possess a glucocorticoid-sensitive mycobacterial mechanism that prevents virulent and avirulent mycobacteria from expressing their true minimal doubling times. In the absence of this mechanism in the lungs of hydrocortisone-treated SCID mice, the doubling times of Erdman, H37Rv, BCG, and H37Ra were 17.7, 17.4, 44.6, and 98.6 h, respectively. The possible importance of a rapid multiplication rate for mycobacterial virulence is discussed. PMID:8496688

  15. Mycobacterial FurA is a negative regulator of catalase-peroxidase gene katG.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, T C; Song, J; Siple, J; Deretic, V

    2001-03-01

    In several bacteria, the catalase-peroxidase gene katG is under positive control by oxyR, a transcriptional regulator of the peroxide stress response. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome also contains sequences corresponding to oxyR, but this gene has been inactivated in the tubercle bacillus because of the presence of multiple mutations and deletions. Thus, M. tuberculosis katG and possibly other parts of the oxidative stress response in this organism are either not regulated or are controlled by a factor different from OxyR. The mycobacterial FurA is a homologue of the ferric uptake regulator Fur and is encoded by a gene located immediately upstream of katG. Here, we examine the possibility that FurA regulates katG expression. Inactivation of furA on the Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosome, a mycobacterial species that also lacks an oxyR homologue, resulted in derepression of katG, concomitant with increased resistance of the furA mutant to H2O2. In addition, M. smegmatis furA::Km(r) was more sensitive to the front-line antituberculosis agent isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) compared with the parental furA+ strain. The phenotypic manifestations were specific, as the mutant strain did not show altered sensitivity to organic peroxides, and both H2O2 and INH susceptibility profiles were complemented by the wild-type furA+ gene. We conclude that FurA is a second regulator of oxidative stress response in mycobacteria and that it negatively controls katG. In species lacking a functional oxyR, such as M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, FurA appears to be a dominant regulator affecting mycobacterial physiology and intracellular survival. PMID:11251835

  16. Development and application of unstable GFP variants to kinetic studies of mycobacterial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Blokpoel, Marian C J; O'Toole, Ronan; Smeulders, Marjan J; Williams, Huw D

    2003-08-01

    Unstable variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged with C-terminal extensions, which are targets for a tail specific protease, have been described in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida [Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 64 (1998) 2240]. We investigated whether similar modifications to flow cytometer optimised GFP (GFPmut2) could be used to generate unstable variants of GFP for gene expression studies in mycobacteria. We constructed GFP variants in a mycobacterial shuttle vector under the control of the regulatory region of the inducible Mycobacterium smegmatis acetamidase gene. GFP expression was induced by the addition of acetamide and the stability of the GFP variants in M. smegmatis, following the removal of the inducer to switch off their expression, was determined using spectrofluorometry and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that, compared to the GFPmut2 (half-lives>7 days), the modified GFP variants exhibit much lower half-lives (between 70 and 165 min) in M. smegmatis. To investigate their utility in the measurement of mycobacterial gene expression, we cloned the promoter region of a putative amino acid efflux pump gene, lysE (Rv1986), from Mycobacterium tuberculosis together with the divergently transcribed, putative lysR-type regulator gene (Rv1985c) upstream of one of the unstable GFP variants. We found that the expression kinetics of the lysRE-gfp fusion were identical throughout the M. smegmatis growth curve to those measured using a conventional lysRE-xylE reporter fusion, peaking upon entry into stationary phase. In addition, it was established that the tagged GFP variants were also unstable in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Thus, we have demonstrated that unstable GFP variants are suitable reporter genes for monitoring transient gene expression in fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. PMID:12782376

  17. Fungal virulence genes as targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Perfect, J R

    1996-01-01

    Fungal virulence genes have now met the age of molecular pathogenesis. The definition of virulence genes needs to be broad so that it encompasses the focus on molecular antifungal targets and vaccine epitopes. However, in the broad but simple definition of a virulence gene, there will be many complex genetic and host interactions which investigators will need to carefully define. Nevertheless, with the increasing numbers of serious fungal infections produced by old and newly reported organisms, the paucity of present antifungal drugs, and the likelihood of increasing drug resistance, the need for investigations into understanding fungal virulence at the molecular level has never been more important. PMID:8807043

  18. Mycobacterial tlyA gene product is localized to the cell-wall without signal sequence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Mittal, Ekansh; Deore, Sapna; Kumar, Anil; Rahman, Aejazur; Krishnasastry, Musti V

    2015-01-01

    The mycobacterial tlyA gene product, Rv1694 (MtbTlyA), has been annotated as "hemolysin" which was re-annotated as 2'-O rRNA methyl transferase. In order to function as a hemolysin, it must reach the extracellular milieu with the help of signal sequence(s) and/or transmembrane segment(s). However, the MtbTlyA neither has classical signals sequences that signify general/Sec/Tat pathways nor transmembrane segments. Interestingly, the tlyA gene appears to be restricted to pathogenic strains such as H37Rv, M. marinum, M. leprae, than M. smegmatis, M. vaccae, M. kansasii etc., which highlights the need for a detailed investigation to understand its functions. In this study, we have provided several evidences which highlight the presence of TlyA on the surface of M. marinum (native host) and upon expression in M. smegmatis (surrogate host) and E. coli (heterologous host). The TlyA was visualized at the bacterial-surface by confocal microscopy and accessible to Proteinase K. In addition, sub-cellular fractionation has revealed the presence of TlyA in the membrane fractions and this sequestration is not dependent on TatA, TatC or SecA2 pathways. As a consequence of expression, the recombinant bacteria exhibit distinct hemolysis. Interestingly, the MtbTlyA was also detected in both membrane vesicles secreted by M. smegmatis and outer membrane vesicles secreted by E. coli. Our experimental evidences unambiguously confirm that the mycobacterial TlyA can reach the extra cellular milieu without any signal sequence. Hence, the localization of TlyA class of proteins at the bacterial surface may highlight the existence of non-classical bacterial secretion mechanisms. PMID:26347855

  19. Key Hub and Bottleneck Genes Differentiate the Macrophage Response to Virulent and Attenuated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Killick, Kate E.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Taraktsoglou, Maria; Browne, John A.; Conlon, Kevin M.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Hokamp, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tuberculosis in cattle. Following infection, the pathogen resides and persists inside host macrophages by subverting host immune responses via a diverse range of mechanisms. Here, a high-density bovine microarray platform was used to examine the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome response to M. bovis infection relative to infection with the attenuated vaccine strain, M. bovis Bacille Calmette–Guérin. Differentially expressed genes were identified (adjusted P-value ≤0.01) and interaction networks generated across an infection time course of 2, 6, and 24 h. The largest number of biological interactions was observed in the 24-h network, which exhibited scale-free network properties. The 24-h network featured a small number of key hub and bottleneck gene nodes, including IKBKE, MYC, NFKB1, and EGR1 that differentiated the macrophage response to virulent and attenuated M. bovis strains, possibly via the modulation of host cell death mechanisms. These hub and bottleneck genes represent possible targets for immuno-modulation of host macrophages by virulent mycobacterial species that enable their survival within a hostile environment. PMID:25324841

  20. Large-Scale Identification of Virulence Genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Polissi, Alessandra; Pontiggia, Andrea; Feger, Georg; Altieri, Mario; Mottl, Harald; Ferrari, Livia; Simon, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of bacterial pneumonia, and it is also responsible for otitis media and meningitis in children. Apart from the capsule, the virulence factors of this pathogen are not completely understood. Recent technical advances in the field of bacterial pathogenesis (in vivo expression technology and signature-tagged mutagenesis [STM]) have allowed a large-scale identification of virulence genes. We have adapted to S. pneumoniae the STM technique, originally used for the discovery of Salmonella genes involved in pathogenicity. A library of pneumococcal chromosomal fragments (400 to 600 bp) was constructed in a suicide plasmid vector carrying unique DNA sequence tags and a chloramphenicol resistance marker. The recent clinical isolate G54 was transformed with this library. Chloramphenicol-resistant mutants were obtained by homologous recombination, resulting in genes inactivated by insertion of the suicide vector carrying a unique tag. In a mouse pneumonia model, 1.250 candidate clones were screened; 200 of these were not recovered from the lungs were therefore considered virulence-attenuated mutants. The regions flanking the chloramphenicol gene of the attenuated mutants were amplified by inverse PCR and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that the 200 mutants had insertions in 126 different genes that could be grouped in six classes: (i) known pneumococcal virulence genes; (ii) genes involved in metabolic pathways; (iii) genes encoding proteases; (iv) genes coding for ATP binding cassette transporters; (v) genes encoding proteins involved in DNA recombination/repair; and (vi) DNA sequences that showed similarity to hypothetical genes with unknown function. To evaluate the virulence attenuation for each mutant, all 126 clones were individually analyzed in a mouse septicemia model. Not all mutants selected in the pneumonia model were confirmed in septicemia, thus indicating the existence of virulence factors specific for pneumonia

  1. Pathogenomic Inference of Virulence-Associated Genes in Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Jason S.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Haft, Daniel H.; Cannella, Anthony P.; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Brinkac, Lauren; Harkins, Derek; Durkin, Scott; Sanka, Ravi; Sutton, Granger; Moreno, Angelo; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Matthias, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally important, neglected zoonotic infection caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Since genetic transformation remains technically limited for pathogenic Leptospira, a systems biology pathogenomic approach was used to infer leptospiral virulence genes by whole genome comparison of culture-attenuated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai with its virulent, isogenic parent. Among the 11 pathogen-specific protein-coding genes in which non-synonymous mutations were found, a putative soluble adenylate cyclase with host cell cAMP-elevating activity, and two members of a previously unstudied ∼15 member paralogous gene family of unknown function were identified. This gene family was also uniquely found in the alpha-proteobacteria Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella australis that are geographically restricted to the Andes and Australia, respectively. How the pathogenic Leptospira and these two Bartonella species came to share this expanded gene family remains an evolutionary mystery. In vivo expression analyses demonstrated up-regulation of 10/11 Leptospira genes identified in the attenuation screen, and profound in vivo, tissue-specific up-regulation by members of the paralogous gene family, suggesting a direct role in virulence and host-pathogen interactions. The pathogenomic experimental design here is generalizable as a functional systems biology approach to studying bacterial pathogenesis and virulence and should encourage similar experimental studies of other pathogens. PMID:24098822

  2. Attenuating Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Regulation: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly regulated by intricate networks of transcriptional regulators and two-component signal transduction systems. There is now an emerging body of evidence to suggest that the blockade of S. aureus virulence gene expression significantly attenuates infection in experimental models. In this Perspective, we will provide insights into medicinal chemistry strategies for the development of chemical reagents that have the capacity to inhibit staphylococcal virulence expression. These reagents can be broadly grouped into four categories: (1) competitive inhibitors of the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system, (2) inhibitors of AgrA–DNA interactions, (3) RNAIII transcription inhibitors, and (4) inhibitors of the SarA family of transcriptional regulators. We discuss the potential of specific examples of antivirulence agents for the management and treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:23294220

  3. Natural Selection in Virulence Genes of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Mark K; Robison, Richard A; Adams, Byron J

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental tenet of evolution is that alleles that are under negative selection are often deleterious and confer no evolutionary advantage. Negatively selected alleles are removed from the gene pool and are eventually extinguished from the population. Conversely, alleles under positive selection do confer an evolutionary advantage and lead to an increase in the overall fitness of the organism. These alleles increase in frequency until they eventually become fixed in the population. Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic pathogen and a potential biothreat agent. The most virulent type of F. tularensis, Type A, is distributed across North America with Type A.I occurring mainly in the east and Type A.II appearing mainly in the west. F. tularensis is thought to be a genome in decay (losing genes) because of the relatively large number of pseudogenes present in its genome. We hypothesized that the observed frequency of gene loss/pseudogenes may be an artifact of evolution in response to a changing environment, and that genes involved in virulence should be under strong positive selection. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced and compared whole genomes of Type A.I and A.II isolates. We analyzed a subset of virulence and housekeeping genes from several F. tularensis subspecies genomes to ascertain the presence and extent of positive selection. Eleven previously identified virulence genes were screened for positive selection along with 10 housekeeping genes. Analyses of selection yielded one housekeeping gene and 7 virulence genes which showed significant evidence of positive selection at loci implicated in cell surface structures and membrane proteins, metabolism and biosynthesis, transcription, translation and cell separation, and substrate binding and transport. Our results suggest that while the loss of functional genes through disuse could be accelerated by negative selection, the genome decay in Francisella could also be the byproduct of adaptive evolution

  4. Carbohydrate availability regulates virulence gene expression in Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, M Laura; van Baarlen, Peter; Orrù, Germano; Piga, Rosaria; Bongers, Roger S; Wels, Michiel; De Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde E; Wells, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary α-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed S. suis virulence genes that promote adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were expressed at higher levels when S. suis was supplied with the α-glucan starch/pullulan compared to glucose as the single carbon source. Additionally the production of suilysin, a toxin that damages epithelial cells, was increased more than ten-fold when glucose levels were low and S. suis was growing on pullulan. Based on biochemical, bioinformatics and in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies, we developed a biological model that postulates the effect of carbon catabolite repression on expression of virulence genes in the mucosa, organs and blood. This research increases our understanding of S. suis virulence mechanisms and has important implications for the design of future control strategies including the development of anti-infective strategies by modulating animal feed composition. PMID:24642967

  5. Carbohydrate Availability Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, M. Laura; van Baarlen, Peter; Orrù, Germano; Piga, Rosaria; Bongers, Roger S.; Wels, Michiel; De Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde E.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary α-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed S. suis virulence genes that promote adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were expressed at higher levels when S. suis was supplied with the α-glucan starch/pullulan compared to glucose as the single carbon source. Additionally the production of suilysin, a toxin that damages epithelial cells, was increased more than ten-fold when glucose levels were low and S. suis was growing on pullulan. Based on biochemical, bioinformatics and in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies, we developed a biological model that postulates the effect of carbon catabolite repression on expression of virulence genes in the mucosa, organs and blood. This research increases our understanding of S. suis virulence mechanisms and has important implications for the design of future control strategies including the development of anti-infective strategies by modulating animal feed composition. PMID:24642967

  6. A peptide fragment from the human COX3 protein disrupts association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence proteins ESAT-6 and CFP10, inhibits mycobacterial growth and mounts protective immune response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting millions worldwide. The currently available anti-TB drugs and vaccines have proved insufficient to contain this scourge, necessitating an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The disruption of crucial protein-protein interactions, especially those that are responsible for virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis – for example the ESAT-6:CFP10 complex – are a worthy pursuit in this direction. Methods We therefore sought to improvise a method to attenuate M. tuberculosis while retaining the latter’s antigenic properties. We screened peptide libraries for potent ESAT-6 binders capable of dissociating CFP10 from ESAT-6. We assessed the disruption by a peptide named HCL2, of the ESAT-6:CFP10 complex and studied its effects on mycobacterial survival and virulence. Results We found that HCL2, derived from the human cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3) protein, disrupts ESAT-6:CFP10 complex, binds ESAT-6 potently, disintegrates bacterial cell wall and inhibits extracellular as well as intracellular mycobacterial growth. In addition, an HCL2 expressing M. tuberculosis strain induces both Th1 and Th17 host protective responses. Conclusions Disruption of ESAT-6:CFP10 association could, therefore, be an alternate method for attenuating M. tuberculosis, and a possible route towards future vaccine generation. PMID:24985537

  7. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, C

    2007-11-01

    We report our development of the first of a series of microarrays designed to detect pathogens with known mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples. To validate our approach, we developed a first generation array targeting genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for microorganism detection and discrimination, measured the required target concentration, and assessed tolerance for mismatches between probe and target sequences. Mismatch tolerance is a priority for this application, due to DNA sequence variability among members of gene families. Arrays were created using the NimbleGen Maskless Array Synthesizer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Purified genomic DNA from combinations of one or more of the four target organisms, pure cultures of four related organisms, and environmental aerosol samples with spiked-in genomic DNA were hybridized to the arrays. Based on the success of this prototype, we plan to design further arrays in this series, with the goal of detecting all known virulence and antibiotic resistance gene families in a greatly expanded set of organisms.

  8. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  9. High abundance of virulence gene homologues in marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Olof P; Pinhassi, Jarone; Riemann, Lasse; Marklund, Britt-Inger; Rhen, Mikael; Normark, Staffan; González, José M; Hagström, Åke

    2009-01-01

    Marine bacteria can cause harm to single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes. However, relatively little is known about the underlying genetic basis for marine bacterial interactions with higher organisms. We examined whole-genome sequences from a large number of marine bacteria for the prevalence of homologues to virulence genes and pathogenicity islands known from bacteria that are pathogenic to terrestrial animals and plants. As many as 60 out of 119 genomes of marine bacteria, with no known association to infectious disease, harboured genes of virulence-associated types III, IV, V and VI protein secretion systems. Type III secretion was relatively uncommon, while type IV was widespread among alphaproteobacteria (particularly among roseobacters) and type VI was primarily found among gammaproteobacteria. Other examples included homologues of the Yersinia murine toxin and a phage-related ‘antifeeding’ island. Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic data indicated that virulence genes were present in up to 8% of the planktonic bacteria, with highest values in productive waters. From a marine ecology perspective, expression of these widely distributed genes would indicate that some bacteria infect or even consume live cells, that is, generate a previously unrecognized flow of organic matter and nutrients directly from eukaryotes to bacteria. PMID:19207573

  10. Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus Vaccine Strain S19 Compared to Virulent Strains Yields Candidate Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Crasta, Oswald R.; Folkerts, Otto; Fei, Zhangjun; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Evans, Clive; Martino-Catt, Susan; Bricker, Betsy; Yu, GongXin; Du, Lei; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain S19, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in vaccination of cattle against brucellosis for six decades. Despite many studies, the physiological and molecular mechanisms causing the attenuation are not known. We have applied pyrosequencing technology together with conventional sequencing to rapidly and comprehensively determine the complete genome sequence of the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19. The main goal of this study is to identify candidate virulence genes by systematic comparative analysis of the attenuated strain with the published genome sequences of two virulent and closely related strains of B. abortus, 9–941 and 2308. The two S19 chromosomes are 2,122,487 and 1,161,449 bp in length. A total of 3062 genes were identified and annotated. Pairwise and reciprocal genome comparisons resulted in a total of 263 genes that were non-identical between the S19 genome and any of the two virulent strains. Amongst these, 45 genes were consistently different between the attenuated strain and the two virulent strains but were identical amongst the virulent strains, which included only two of the 236 genes that have been implicated as virulence factors in literature. The functional analyses of the differences have revealed a total of 24 genes that may be associated with the loss of virulence in S19. Of particular relevance are four genes with more than 60bp consistent difference in S19 compared to both the virulent strains, which, in the virulent strains, encode an outer membrane protein and three proteins involved in erythritol uptake or metabolism. PMID:18478107

  11. Genome sequence of Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19 compared to virulent strains yields candidate virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Crasta, Oswald R; Folkerts, Otto; Fei, Zhangjun; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Evans, Clive; Martino-Catt, Susan; Bricker, Betsy; Yu, GongXin; Du, Lei; Sobral, Bruno W

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain S19, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in vaccination of cattle against brucellosis for six decades. Despite many studies, the physiological and molecular mechanisms causing the attenuation are not known. We have applied pyrosequencing technology together with conventional sequencing to rapidly and comprehensively determine the complete genome sequence of the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19. The main goal of this study is to identify candidate virulence genes by systematic comparative analysis of the attenuated strain with the published genome sequences of two virulent and closely related strains of B. abortus, 9-941 and 2308. The two S19 chromosomes are 2,122,487 and 1,161,449 bp in length. A total of 3062 genes were identified and annotated. Pairwise and reciprocal genome comparisons resulted in a total of 263 genes that were non-identical between the S19 genome and any of the two virulent strains. Amongst these, 45 genes were consistently different between the attenuated strain and the two virulent strains but were identical amongst the virulent strains, which included only two of the 236 genes that have been implicated as virulence factors in literature. The functional analyses of the differences have revealed a total of 24 genes that may be associated with the loss of virulence in S19. Of particular relevance are four genes with more than 60 bp consistent difference in S19 compared to both the virulent strains, which, in the virulent strains, encode an outer membrane protein and three proteins involved in erythritol uptake or metabolism. PMID:18478107

  12. Virulence and Immunity Orchestrated by the Global Gene Regulator sigL in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pallab; Steinberg, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in ruminants, a chronic enteric disease responsible for severe economic losses in the dairy industry. Global gene regulators, including sigma factors are important in regulating mycobacterial virulence. However, the biological significance of such regulators in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis rremains elusive. To better decipher the role of sigma factors in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we targeted a key sigma factor gene, sigL, activated in mycobacterium-infected macrophages. We interrogated an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ΔsigL mutant against a selected list of stressors that mimic the host microenvironments. Our data showed that sigL was important in maintaining bacterial survival under such stress conditions. Survival levels further reflected the inability of the ΔsigL mutant to persist inside the macrophage microenvironments. Additionally, mouse infection studies suggested a substantial role for sigL in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence, as indicated by the significant attenuation of the ΔsigL-deficient mutant compared to the parental strain. More importantly, when the sigL mutant was tested for its vaccine potential, protective immunity was generated in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. Overall, our study highlights critical role of sigL in the pathogenesis and immunity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, a potential role that could be shared by similar proteins in other intracellular pathogens. PMID:24799632

  13. Cryptococcus gattii Virulence Composite: Candidate Genes Revealed by Microarray Analysis of High and Less Virulent Vancouver Island Outbreak Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Price, Jennifer; Sorrell, Tania; Perfect, John R.; Meyer, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Human and animal cryptococcosis due to an unusual molecular type of Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) emerged recently on Vancouver Island, Canada. Unlike C. neoformans, C. gattii causes disease mainly in immunocompetent hosts, despite producing a similar suite of virulence determinants. To investigate a potential relationship between the regulation of expression of a virulence gene composite and virulence, we took advantage of two subtypes of VGII (a and b), one highly virulent (R265) and one less virulent (R272), that were identified from the Vancouver outbreak. By expression microarray analysis, 202 genes showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression with 108 being up- and 94 being down-regulated in strain R265 compared with strain R272. Specifically, expression levels of genes encoding putative virulence factors (e.g. LAC1, LAC2, CAS3 and MPK1) and genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall assembly, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were increased in strain R265, whereas genes involved in the regulation of mitosis and ergosterol biosynthesis were suppressed. In vitro phenotypic studies and transcription analysis confirmed the microarray results. Gene disruption of LAC1 and MPK1 revealed defects in melanin synthesis and cell wall integrity, respectively, where CAS3 was not essential for capsule production. Moreover, MPK1 also controls melanin and capsule production and causes a severe attenuation of the virulence in a murine inhalational model. Overall, this study provides the basis for further genetic studies to characterize the differences in the virulence composite of strains with minor evolutionary divergences in gene expression in the primary pathogen C. gattii, that have led to a major invasive fungal infection outbreak. PMID:21249145

  14. Gene encoded antimicrobial peptides, a template for the design of novel anti-mycobacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James; Field, Des; O'Connor, Paula M; Cotter, Paul D; Coffey, Aidan; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; O'Mahony, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Nisin A is the most widely characterized lantibiotic investigated to date. It represents one of the many antimicrobial peptides which have been the focus of much interest as potential therapeutic agents. This has resulted in the search for novel lantibiotics and more commonly, the engineering of novel variants from existing peptides with a view to increasing their activity, stability and solubility.The aim of this study was to compare the activities of nisin A and novel bioengineered hinge derivatives, nisin S, nisin T and nisin V. The microtitre alamar blue assay (MABA) was employed to identify the enhanced activity of these novel variants against M. tuberculosis (H37Ra), M. kansasii (CIT11/06), M. avium subsp. hominissuis (CIT05/03) and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (ATCC 19698). All variants displayed greater anti-mycobacterial activity than nisin A. Nisin S was the most potent variant against M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, retarding growth by a maximum of 29% when compared with nisin A. Sub-species variations of inhibition were also observed with nisin S reducing growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis by 28% and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by 19% and nisin T contrastingly reducing growth of MAP by 27% and MAC by 16%.Nisin S, nisin T and nisin V are potent novel anti-mycobacterial compounds, which have the capacity to be further modified, potentially generating compounds with additional beneficial characteristics. This is the first report to demonstrate an enhancement of efficacy by any bioengineered bacteriocin against mycobacteria. PMID:21468208

  15. Denitrification Genes Regulate Brucella Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Splitter, Gary A.; Shapleigh, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Genome sequencing of B. suis and B. melitensis revealed that both are complete denitrifiers. To learn more about the role of denitrification in these animal pathogens, a study of the role of denitrification in the closely related B. neotomae was undertaken. In contrast to B. suis and B. melitensis, it was found that B. neotomae is a partial denitrifier that can reduce nitrate to nitrite but no further. Examination of the B. neotomae genome showed that a deletion in the denitrification gene cluster resulted in complete loss of nirV and the partial deletion of nirK and nnrA. Even though the nor operon is intact, a norC-lacZ promoter fusion was not expressed in B. neotomae. However, the norC-lacZ fusion was expressed in the related denitrifier Agrobacterium tumefaciens, suggesting that the lack of expression in B. neotomae is due to inactivation of NnrA. A narK-lacZ promoter fusion was found to exhibit nitrate-dependent expression consistent with the partial denitrifier phenotype. Complementation of the deleted region in B. neotomae by using nirK, nirV, and nnrA from B. melitensis restored the ability of B. neotomae to reduce nitrite. There was a significant difference in the death of IRF-1−/− mice when infected with B. neotomae containing nirK, nirV, and nnrA and those infected with wild-type B. neotomae. The wild-type strain killed all the infected mice, whereas most of the mice infected with B. neotomae containing nirK, nirV, and nnrA survived. PMID:15342571

  16. Staphylococcus aureus CodY Negatively Regulates Virulence Gene Expression▿

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Luong, Thanh T.; Lee, Chia; Somerville, Greg A.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a global regulatory protein that was first discovered in Bacillus subtilis, where it couples gene expression to changes in the pools of critical metabolites through its activation by GTP and branched-chain amino acids. Homologs of CodY can be found encoded in the genomes of nearly all low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. The introduction of a codY-null mutation into two S. aureus clinical isolates, SA564 and UAMS-1, through allelic replacement, resulted in the overexpression of several virulence genes. The mutant strains had higher levels of hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes in their culture fluid, produced more polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and formed more robust biofilms than did their isogenic parent strains. These phenotypes were associated with derepressed levels of RNA for the hemolytic alpha-toxin (hla), the accessory gene regulator (agr) (RNAII and RNAIII/hld), and the operon responsible for the production of PIA (icaADBC). These data suggest that CodY represses, either directly or indirectly, the synthesis of a number of virulence factors of S. aureus. PMID:18156263

  17. DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene prevented insulitis in MLD-STZ diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rubens R; Sartori, Alexandrina; Lima, Deison S; Souza, Patrícia RM; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete AM; Bonato, Vânia LD; Silva, Célio L

    2009-01-01

    Background Our group previously demonstrated that a DNA plasmid encoding the mycobacterial 65-kDa heat shock protein (DNA-HSP65) displayed prophylactic and therapeutic effect in a mice model for tuberculosis. This protection was attributed to induction of a strong cellular immunity against HSP65. As specific immunity to HSP60 family has been detected in arthritis, multiple sclerosis and diabetes, the vaccination procedure with DNA-HSP65 could induce a cross-reactive immune response that could trigger or worsen these autoimmune diseases. Methods In this investigation was evaluated the effect of a previous vaccination with DNA-HSP65 on diabetes development induced by Streptozotocin (STZ). C57BL/6 mice received three vaccine doses or the corresponding empty vector and were then injected with multiple low doses of STZ. Results DNA-HSP65 vaccination protected mice from STZ induced insulitis and this was associated with higher production of IL-10 in spleen and also in the islets. This protective effect was also concomitant with the appearance of a regulatory cell population in the spleen and a decreased infiltration of the islets by T CD8+ lymphocytes. The vector (DNAv) also determined immunomodulation but its protective effect against insulitis was very discrete. Conclusion The data presented in this study encourages a further investigation in the regulatory potential of the DNA-HSP65 construct. Our findings have important implications for the development of new immune therapy strategies to combat autoimmune diseases. PMID:19754943

  18. Investigation of Specific Substitutions in Virulence Genes Characterizing Phenotypic Groups of Low-Virulence Field Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Roche, S. M.; Gracieux, P.; Milohanic, E.; Albert, I.; Virlogeux-Payant, I.; Témoin, S.; Grépinet, O.; Kerouanton, A.; Jacquet, C.; Cossart, P.; Velge, P.

    2005-01-01

    Several models have shown that virulence varies from one strain of Listeria monocytogenes to another, but little is known about the cause of low virulence. Twenty-six field L. monocytogenes strains were shown to be of low virulence in a plaque-forming assay and in a subcutaneous inoculation test in mice. Using the results of cell infection assays and phospholipase activities, the low-virulence strains were assigned to one of four groups by cluster analysis and then virulence-related genes were sequenced. Group I included 11 strains that did not enter cells and had no phospholipase activity. These strains exhibited a mutated PrfA; eight strains had a single amino acid substitution, PrfAK220T, and the other three had a truncated PrfA, PrfAΔ174-237. These genetic modifications could explain the low virulence of group I strains, since mutated PrfA proteins were inactive. Group II and III strains entered cells but did not form plaques. Group II strains had low phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C activity, whereas group III strains had low phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C activity. Several substitutions were observed for five out of six group III strains in the plcA gene and for one out of three group II strains in the plcB gene. Group IV strains poorly colonized spleens of mice and were practically indistinguishable from fully virulent strains on the basis of the above-mentioned in vitro criteria. These results demonstrate a relationship between the phenotypic classification and the genotypic modifications for at least group I and III strains and suggest a common evolution of these strains within a group. PMID:16204519

  19. Identification of novel virulence-associated genes via genome analysis of hypothetical genes.

    PubMed

    Garbom, Sara; Forsberg, Ake; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Kihlberg, Britt-Marie

    2004-03-01

    The sequencing of bacterial genomes has opened new perspectives for identification of targets for treatment of infectious diseases. We have identified a set of novel virulence-associated genes (vag genes) by comparing the genome sequences of six human pathogens that are known to cause persistent or chronic infections in humans: Yersinia pestis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Treponema pallidum. This comparison was limited to genes annotated as hypothetical in the T. pallidum genome project. Seventeen genes with unknown functions were found to be conserved among these pathogens. Insertional inactivation of 14 of these genes generated nine mutants that were attenuated for virulence in a mouse infection model. Out of these nine genes, five were found to be specifically associated with virulence in mice as demonstrated by infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in-frame deletion mutants. In addition, these five vag genes were essential only in vivo, since all the mutants were able to grow in vitro. These genes are broadly conserved among bacteria. Therefore, we propose that the corresponding vag gene products may constitute novel targets for antimicrobial therapy and that some vag mutants could serve as carrier strains for live vaccines. PMID:14977936

  20. In Silico Detection of Virulence Gene Homologues in the Human Pathogen Sphingomonas Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Amr TM; David, Satish Kumar; Al-Brahim, Hissa

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the clinical significance of Sphingomonas paucimobilis as a virulent bacterial pathogen. In the present study, we investigated the presence of different virulence factors and genes in Sphingomonas bacteria. We utilized phylogenetic, comparative genomics and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the potentiality of Sphingomonas bacteria as virulent pathogenic bacteria. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) phylogenetic tree showed that the closest bacterial taxon to Sphingomonas is Brucella with a bootstrap value of 87 followed by Helicobacter, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, and then Legionella. Sphingomonas shared no virulence factors with Helicobacter or Campylobacter, despite their close phylogenic relationship. In spite of the phylogenetic divergence between Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas, they shared many major virulence factors, such as adherence, antiphagocytosis, iron uptake, proteases, and quorum sensing. In conclusion, Sphingomonas spp. contains several major virulence factors resembling Pseudomonas sp., Legionella sp., Brucella sp., and Bordetella sp. virulence factors. Similarity of virulence factors did not match phylogenetic relationships. These findings suggest horizontal gene transfer of virulence factors rather than sharing a common pathogenic ancestor. Sphingomonas spp. is potential virulent bacterial pathogen. PMID:25574122

  1. Dual control of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid virulence genes.

    PubMed Central

    Close, T J; Rogowsky, P M; Kado, C I; Winans, S C; Yanofsky, M F; Nester, E W

    1987-01-01

    The virulence genes of nopaline (pTiC58) and octopine (pTiA6NC) Ti plasmids are similarly affected by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens ros mutation. Of six vir region complementation groups (virA, virB, virG, virC, virD, and virE) examined by using fusions to reporter genes, the promoters of only two (virC and virD) responded to the ros mutation. For each promoter that was affected by ros, the level of expression of its associated genes was substantially elevated in the mutant. This increase was not influenced by Ti plasmid-encoded factors, and the mutation did not interfere with the induction of pTiC58 vir genes by phenolic compounds via the VirA/VirG regulatory control mechanism. The effects of the ros mutation and acetosyringone were cumulative for all vir promoters examined. The pleiotropic characteristics of the ros mutant include the complete absence of the major acidic capsular polysaccharide. Images PMID:3667525

  2. The enhancin gene: One of the genetic determinants of population variation in baculoviral virulence.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, V V; Kabilov, M R; Tupikin, A E; Baturina, O A; Belousova, I A; Podgwaite, J D; Ilynykh, A V; Vlassov, V V

    2015-01-01

    It was established that the virulence of the North American baculovirus strain LdMNPV-45 is almost two orders of magnitude higher than the virulence of the Asian strain LdMNPV-27 and does not depend on the test host population (gypsy moth). The Asian strain carries deletions in bro-p and vef-1 genes (82 and 91%, respectively). In accordance with the published data, the product of the latter can greatly increase the virulence of the virus. This result indicates that the population polymorphism of the virulence of baculoviruses can be explained by the vef-1 gene deletion. PMID:26728722

  3. Post-transcriptional gene regulation in the biology and virulence of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Verma-Gaur, Jiyoti; Traven, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, remodelling of gene expression drives host adaptation and virulence. Recent studies revealed that in addition to transcription, post-transcriptional mRNA control plays important roles in virulence-related pathways. Hyphal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, stress responses, antifungal drug susceptibility and virulence in animal models require post-transcriptional regulators. This includes RNA binding proteins that control mRNA localization, decay and translation, as well as the cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathway. Comprehensive understanding of how modulation of gene expression networks drives C. albicans virulence will necessitate integration of our knowledge on transcriptional and post-transcriptional mRNA control. PMID:26999710

  4. Ape parasite origins of human malaria virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Larremore, Daniel B; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Liu, Weimin; Proto, William R; Clauset, Aaron; Loy, Dorothy E; Speede, Sheri; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Sharp, Paul M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Rayner, Julian C; Buckee, Caroline O

    2015-01-01

    Antigens encoded by the var gene family are major virulence factors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, exhibiting enormous intra- and interstrain diversity. Here we use network analysis to show that var architecture and mosaicism are conserved at multiple levels across the Laverania subgenus, based on var-like sequences from eight single-species and three multi-species Plasmodium infections of wild-living or sanctuary African apes. Using select whole-genome amplification, we also find evidence of multi-domain var structure and synteny in Plasmodium gaboni, one of the ape Laverania species most distantly related to P. falciparum, as well as a new class of Duffy-binding-like domains. These findings indicate that the modular genetic architecture and sequence diversity underlying var-mediated host-parasite interactions evolved before the radiation of the Laverania subgenus, long before the emergence of P. falciparum. PMID:26456841

  5. Ape parasite origins of human malaria virulence genes

    PubMed Central

    Larremore, Daniel B.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Liu, Weimin; Proto, William R.; Clauset, Aaron; Loy, Dorothy E.; Speede, Sheri; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Rayner, Julian C.; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2015-01-01

    Antigens encoded by the var gene family are major virulence factors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, exhibiting enormous intra- and interstrain diversity. Here we use network analysis to show that var architecture and mosaicism are conserved at multiple levels across the Laverania subgenus, based on var-like sequences from eight single-species and three multi-species Plasmodium infections of wild-living or sanctuary African apes. Using select whole-genome amplification, we also find evidence of multi-domain var structure and synteny in Plasmodium gaboni, one of the ape Laverania species most distantly related to P. falciparum, as well as a new class of Duffy-binding-like domains. These findings indicate that the modular genetic architecture and sequence diversity underlying var-mediated host-parasite interactions evolved before the radiation of the Laverania subgenus, long before the emergence of P. falciparum. PMID:26456841

  6. Epigenetic Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression in Parasitic Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Horn, David

    2016-05-11

    Protozoan parasites colonize numerous metazoan hosts and insect vectors through their life cycles, with the need to respond quickly and reversibly while encountering diverse and often hostile ecological niches. To succeed, parasites must also persist within individuals until transmission between hosts is achieved. Several parasitic protozoa cause a huge burden of disease in humans and livestock, and here we focus on the parasites that cause malaria and African trypanosomiasis. Efforts to understand how these pathogens adapt to survive in varied host environments, cause disease, and transmit between hosts have revealed a wealth of epigenetic phenomena. Epigenetic switching mechanisms appear to be ideally suited for the regulation of clonal antigenic variation underlying successful parasitism. We review the molecular players and complex mechanistic layers that mediate the epigenetic regulation of virulence gene expression. Understanding epigenetic processes will aid the development of antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:27173931

  7. Specific recognition of mycobacterial protein and peptide antigens by gamma-delta T cell subsets following infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Promoting effective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogens is a challenge that is of interest to the fields of human and veterinary medicine alike. We report that gamma delta T cells from virulent Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle respond specifically and directly to complex, pro...

  8. Salmonella plasmid virulence gene spvB enhances bacterial virulence by inhibiting autophagy in a zebrafish infection model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ting; Gao, Song; Xu, Guang-Mei; Niu, Hua; Huang, Rui; Wu, Shu-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can cause gastroenteritis and systemic infection in a wide range of hosts. Salmonella plasmid virulence gene spvB is closely related to bacterial virulence in different cells and animal models, and the encoded protein acts as an intracellular toxin required for ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. However, until now there is no report about the pathogenecity of spvB gene on zebrafish. Due to the outstanding advantages of zebrafish in analyzing bacteria-host interactions, a S. typhimurium infected zebrafish model was set up here to study the effect of spvB on autophagy and intestinal pathogenesis in vivo. We found that spvB gene could decrease the LD50 of S. typhimurium, and the strain carrying spvB promoted bacterial proliferation and aggravated the intestinal damage manifested by the narrowed intestines, fallen microvilli, blurred epithelium cell structure and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Results demonstrated the enhanced virulence induced by spvB in zebrafish. In spvB-mutant strain infected zebrafish, the levels of Lc3 turnover and Beclin1 expression increased, and the double-membraned autophagosome structures were observed, suggesting that spvB can inhibit autophagy activity. In summary, our results indicate that S. typhimurium strain containing spvB displays more virulence, triggering an increase in bacterial survival and intestine injuries by suppressing autophagy for the first time. This model provides novel insights into the role of Salmonella plasmid virulence gene in bacterial pathogenesis, and can help to further elucidate the relationship between bacteria and host immune response. PMID:26723267

  9. Detection of virulence genes of Clostridium difficile by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Antikainen, Jenni; Pasanen, Tanja; Mero, Sointu; Tarkka, Eveliina; Kirveskari, Juha; Kotila, Saara; Mentula, Silja; Könönen, Eija; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni-Riitta; Vaara, Martti; Tissari, Päivi

    2009-08-01

    Clostridium difficile strains belonging to the PCR ribotype 027, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type NAP1, toxinotype III and restriction endonuclease analysis group BI harbouring mutations in the tcdC gene and possessing binary toxin components A and B have been described to cause epidemics with increased morbidity and mortality. In the present study we developed a conventional multiplex PCR designed to detect selected virulence associated markers of the hypervirulent C. difficile PCR ribotype 027. The multiplex PCR assay detected the major toxins A and B, binary toxin components A and B as well as a possible deletion in the tcdC gene: a characteristic pattern of amplification products for the PCR ribotype 027 strains was detected. This rather simple method was specific for the screening of this hypervirulent C. difficile strain. The correlation between the multiplex PCR and PCR ribotyping methods was excellent. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% in our epidemiological situation. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR was found useful in the preliminary screening for the hypervirulent C. difficile PCR ribotype 027. PMID:19664132

  10. Regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by cell envelope stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cytoplasm lies within a multilayered envelope that must be protected from internal and external hazards. This protection is provided by cell envelope stress responses (ESRs), which detect threats and reprogram gene expression to ensure survival. Pathogens frequently need these ESRs to survive inside the host, where their envelopes face dangerous environmental changes and attack from antimicrobial molecules. In addition, some virulence genes have become integrated into ESR regulons. This might be because these genes can protect the cell envelope from damage by host molecules, or it might help ESRs to reduce stress by moderating the assembly of virulence factors within the envelope. Alternatively, it could simply be a mechanism to coordinate the induction of virulence gene expression with entry into the host. Here, we briefly describe some of the bacterial ESRs, followed by examples where they control virulence gene expression in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25603429

  11. Mutation analysis of mycobacterial rpoB genes and rifampin resistance using recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Noboru; Kai, Masanori; Makino, Masahiko

    2012-04-01

    Rifampin is a major drug used to treat leprosy and tuberculosis. The rifampin resistance of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from a mutation in the rpoB gene, encoding the β subunit of RNA polymerase. A method for the molecular determination of rifampin resistance in these two mycobacteria would be clinically valuable, but the relationship between the mutations and susceptibility to rifampin must be clarified before its use. Analyses of mutations responsible for rifampin resistance using clinical isolates present some limitations. Each clinical isolate has its own genetic variations in some loci other than rpoB, which might affect rifampin susceptibility. For this study, we constructed recombinant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis carrying the M. leprae or M. tuberculosis rpoB gene with or without mutation and disrupted their own rpoB genes on the chromosome. The rifampin and rifabutin susceptibilities of the recombinant bacteria were measured to examine the influence of the mutations. The results confirmed that several mutations detected in clinical isolates of these two pathogenic mycobacteria can confer rifampin resistance, but they also suggested that some mutations detected in M. leprae isolates or rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates are not involved in rifampin resistance. PMID:22252831

  12. Diverse Virulence Gene Content of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Finishing Swine

    PubMed Central

    Fratamico, Pina M.; Bagi, Lori; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Manning, Shannon D.; Funk, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a critical public health concern because they can cause severe clinical outcomes, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, in humans. Determining the presence or absence of virulence genes is essential in assessing the potential pathogenicity of STEC strains. Currently, there is limited information about the virulence genes carried by swine STEC strains; therefore, this study was conducted to examine the presence and absence of 69 virulence genes in STEC strains recovered previously from finishing swine in a longitudinal study. A subset of STEC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine their genetic relatedness. Swine STEC strains (n = 150) were analyzed by the use of a high-throughput real-time PCR array system, which included 69 virulence gene targets. Three major pathotypes consisted of 16 different combinations of virulence gene profiles, and serotypes were determined in the swine STEC strains. The majority of the swine STEC strains (n = 120) belonged to serotype O59:H21 and carried the same virulence gene profile, which consisted of 9 virulence genes: stx2e, iha, ecs1763, lpfAO113, estIa (STa), ehaA, paa, terE, and ureD. The eae, nleF, and nleH1-2 genes were detected in one swine STEC strain (O49:H21). Other genes encoding adhesins, including iha, were identified (n = 149). The PFGE results demonstrated that swine STEC strains from pigs raised in the same finishing barn were closely related. Our results revealed diverse virulence gene contents among the members of the swine STEC population and enhance understanding of the dynamics of transmission of STEC strains among pigs housed in the same barn. PMID:25107960

  13. Mutations in the control of virulence sensor gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after infection in mice lead to clonal bacterial variants with altered gene regulatory activity and virulence.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W; Donahue, Deborah L; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS)/responder (CovR) two-component operon (CovRS) regulates ∼15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS) genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448), containing wild-type (WT) CovRS (5448/CovR+S+), or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS- was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection. PMID:24968349

  14. Mutations in the Control of Virulence Sensor Gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after Infection in Mice Lead to Clonal Bacterial Variants with Altered Gene Regulatory Activity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W.; Donahue, Deborah L.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS)/responder (CovR) two-component operon (CovRS) regulates ∼15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS) genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448), containing wild-type (WT) CovRS (5448/CovR+S+), or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS− was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection. PMID:24968349

  15. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence genes: invaluable approaches for designing DNA microarray probes

    PubMed Central

    Jahandeh, Nadia; Ranjbar, Reza; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause different types of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The presence of a wide range of virulence genes in UPEC enables us to design appropriate DNA microarray probes. These probes, which are used in DNA microarray technology, provide us with an accurate and rapid diagnosis and definitive treatment in association with UTIs caused by UPEC pathotypes. The main goal of this article is to introduce the UPEC virulence genes as invaluable approaches for designing DNA microarray probes. Material and methods Main search engines such as Google Scholar and databases like NCBI were searched to find and study several original pieces of literature, review articles, and DNA gene sequences. In parallel with in silico studies, the experiences of the authors were helpful for selecting appropriate sources and writing this review article. Results There is a significant variety of virulence genes among UPEC strains. The DNA sequences of virulence genes are fabulous patterns for designing microarray probes. The location of virulence genes and their sequence lengths influence the quality of probes. Conclusions The use of selected virulence genes for designing microarray probes gives us a wide range of choices from which the best probe candidates can be chosen. DNA microarray technology provides us with an accurate, rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic method which is facilitated by designing microarray probes. Via these tools, we are able to have an accurate diagnosis and a definitive treatment regarding UTIs caused by UPEC pathotypes. PMID:26855801

  16. Analysis of the Flavobacterium columnare transcriptome reveals gene expression signatures mediating virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater cultured fish species. Despite its importance, a broader understanding of the genes and their protein products that mediate virulence is urgently needed. Therefore, in t...

  17. Loss of Virulence Genes in Escherichia coli Populations during Manure Storage on a Commercial Swine Farm▿

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Zexun; Scott, Andrew; Topp, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Confined livestock production farms typically store their wastes prior to land application. Here, we employed three complementary approaches to evaluate changes in the population structure and stability of virulence genes in Escherichia coli during manure storage on a commercial farm that housed healthy swine. Isolates were genotyped by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR using the BOXA1R primer and evaluated for the presence of selected virulence genes by PCR. Isolates obtained from the manure holding tank (n = 392) carried estB, fedA, stx2e, astA, paa, aida-I, and sepA at lower frequencies than isolates obtained from fresh feces (n = 412). Fresh fecal material from the barn was added into diffusion chambers and immersed in the manure holding tank for 7 weeks. The fecal E. coli population was initially dominated by a single genotype, all isolates of which carried fedA and aida-I. After 7 weeks, a genotype that did not carry any virulence genes dominated the surviving population. In a second experiment, 48 fecal isolates of E. coli that varied in their genotypes and virulence gene complement were incubated in diffusion chambers in the manure holding tank for 3 weeks. Over 95% of the inoculum population carried at least one virulence gene, whereas after 3 weeks 90% of the recovered isolates carried no virulence genes. Taken together, these results indicate that during commercial manure storage, there was a significant reduction in the carriage of these virulence genes by E. coli. We propose that loss of virulence genes from enteric pathogens in the farm and in natural environments may, if generalized, contribute to the attenuation of a public health risk from contamination with agricultural wastes. PMID:18441108

  18. Loss of virulence genes in Escherichia coli populations during manure storage on a commercial swine farm.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Zexun; Scott, Andrew; Topp, Edward

    2008-07-01

    Confined livestock production farms typically store their wastes prior to land application. Here, we employed three complementary approaches to evaluate changes in the population structure and stability of virulence genes in Escherichia coli during manure storage on a commercial farm that housed healthy swine. Isolates were genotyped by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR using the BOXA1R primer and evaluated for the presence of selected virulence genes by PCR. Isolates obtained from the manure holding tank (n = 392) carried estB, fedA, stx(2e), astA, paa, aida-I, and sepA at lower frequencies than isolates obtained from fresh feces (n = 412). Fresh fecal material from the barn was added into diffusion chambers and immersed in the manure holding tank for 7 weeks. The fecal E. coli population was initially dominated by a single genotype, all isolates of which carried fedA and aida-I. After 7 weeks, a genotype that did not carry any virulence genes dominated the surviving population. In a second experiment, 48 fecal isolates of E. coli that varied in their genotypes and virulence gene complement were incubated in diffusion chambers in the manure holding tank for 3 weeks. Over 95% of the inoculum population carried at least one virulence gene, whereas after 3 weeks 90% of the recovered isolates carried no virulence genes. Taken together, these results indicate that during commercial manure storage, there was a significant reduction in the carriage of these virulence genes by E. coli. We propose that loss of virulence genes from enteric pathogens in the farm and in natural environments may, if generalized, contribute to the attenuation of a public health risk from contamination with agricultural wastes. PMID:18441108

  19. The Mycobacterial LysR-Type Regulator OxyS Responds to Oxidative Stress and Negatively Regulates Expression of the Catalase-Peroxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuqing; He, Zheng-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Protection against oxidative stress is one of the primary defense mechanisms contributing to the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the host. In this study, we provide evidence that OxyS, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator functions as an oxidative stress response regulator in mycobacteria. Overexpression of OxyS lowers expression of the catalase-peroxidase (KatG) gene in M. smegmatis. OxyS binds directly with the katG promoter region and a conserved, GC-rich T-N11-A motif for OxyS binding was successfully characterized in the core binding site. Interestingly, the DNA-binding activity of OxyS was inhibited by H2O2, but not by dithiothreitol. Cys25, which is situated at the DNA-binding domain of OxyS, was found to have a regulatory role for the DNA-binding ability of OxyS in response to oxidative stress. In contrast, the other three cysteine residues in OxyS do not appear to have this function. Furthermore, the mycobacterial strain over-expressing OxyS had a higher sensitivity to H2O2.Thus, OxyS responds to oxidative stress through a unique cysteine residue situated in its DNA-binding domain and negatively regulates expression of the katG gene. These findings uncover a specific regulatory mechanism for mycobacterial adaptation to oxidative stress. PMID:22272299

  20. Detection of Bacterial Virulence Genes by Subtractive Hybridization: Identification of Capsular Polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a Major Virulence Determinant

    PubMed Central

    Reckseidler, Shauna L.; DeShazer, David; Sokol, Pamela A.; Woods, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is responsible for a broad spectrum of illnesses in humans and animals particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, where it is endemic. Burkholderia thailandensis is a nonpathogenic environmental organism closely related to B. pseudomallei. Subtractive hybridization was carried out between these two species to identify genes encoding virulence determinants in B. pseudomallei. Screening of the subtraction library revealed A-T-rich DNA sequences unique to B. pseudomallei, suggesting they may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. One of the subtraction clones, pDD1015, encoded a protein with homology to a glycosyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This gene was insertionally inactivated in wild-type B. pseudomallei to create SR1015. It was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoelectron microscopy that the inactivated gene was involved in the production of a major surface polysaccharide. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) for wild-type B. pseudomallei is <10 CFU; the LD50 for SR1015 was determined to be 3.5 × 105 CFU, similar to that of B. thailandensis (6.8 × 105 CFU). DNA sequencing of the region flanking the glycosyltransferase gene revealed open reading frames similar to capsular polysaccharide genes in Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Neisseria meningitidis. In addition, DNA from Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia stabilis hybridized to a glycosyltransferase fragment probe, and a capsular structure was identified on the surface of B. stabilis via immunoelectron microscopy. Thus, the combination of PCR-based subtractive hybridization, insertional inactivation, and animal virulence studies has facilitated the identification of an important virulence determinant in B. pseudomallei. PMID:11119486

  1. Chamaecyparis obtusa Suppresses Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Park, Bog-Im; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Young-Rae; Hoe, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Ra, Ji-Young; An, So-Youn; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is known to have antimicrobial effects and has been used as a medicinal plant and in forest bathing. This study aimed to evaluate the anticariogenic activity of essential oil of C. obtusa on Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the most important bacterial causes of dental caries and dental biofilm formation. Essential oil from C. obtusa was extracted, and its effect on bacterial growth, acid production, and biofilm formation was evaluated. C. obtusa essential oil exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth over 0.025 mg/mL, with 99% inhibition at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The bacterial biofilm formation and acid production were also significantly inhibited at the concentration greater than 0.025 mg/mL. The result of LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit showed a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect on S. mutans and almost all bacteria were dead over 0.8 mg/mL. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression of some virulence factors such as brpA, gbpB, gtfC, and gtfD was also inhibited. In GC and GC-MS analysis, the major components were found to be α-terpinene (40.60%), bornyl acetate (12.45%), α-pinene (11.38%), β-pinene (7.22%), β-phellandrene (3.45%), and α-terpinolene (3.40%). These results show that C. obtusa essential oil has anticariogenic effect on S. mutans. PMID:27293453

  2. Virulence gene profiles of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mbanga, Joshua; Nyararai, Yvonne O

    2015-01-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), is one of the main causes of economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. This study was carried out in order to determine the APEC-associated virulence genes contained by E. coli isolates causing colibacillosis in chickens. A total of 45 E. coli isolates were obtained from the diagnostics and research branch of the Central Veterinary Laboratories, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. These isolates were obtained from chickens with confirmed cases of colibacillosis after postmortem examination. The presence of the iutA, hlyF, ompT, frz, sitD, fimH, kpsM, sitA, sopB, uvrY, pstB and vat genes were investigated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Of the 45 isolates, 93% were positive for the presence of at least one virulence gene. The three most prevalent virulence genes were iutA (80%), fimH (33.3%) and hlyF (24.4%). The kpsM, pstB and ompT genes had the lowest prevalence, having been detected in only 2.2% of the isolates. All 12 virulence genes studied were detected in the 45 APEC isolates. Virulence gene profiles were constructed for each APEC isolate from the multiplex data. The APEC isolates were profiled as 62.2% fitting profile A, 31.1% profile B and 6.7% profile C. None of the isolates had more than seven virulence genes. Virulence profiles of Zimbabwean APEC isolates are different from those previously reported. Zimbabwean APEC isolates appear to be less pathogenic and may rely on environmental factors and stress in hosts to establish infection. PMID:26017325

  3. Virulence Gene Pool Detected in Bovine Group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae Isolates by Use of a Group A S. pyogenes Virulence Microarray ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rato, Márcia G.; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, René; Bexiga, Ricardo; Nunes, Sandro F.; Vilela, Cristina L.; Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2011-01-01

    A custom-designed microarray containing 220 virulence genes of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) was used to test group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCS) field strains causing bovine mastitis and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (GCS/GGS) isolates from human infections, with the latter being used for comparative purposes, for the presence of virulence genes. All bovine and all human isolates carried a fraction of the 220 genes (23% and 39%, respectively). The virulence genes encoding streptolysin S, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the plasminogen-binding M-like protein PAM, and the collagen-like protein SclB were detected in the majority of both bovine and human isolates (94 to 100%). Virulence factors, usually carried by human beta-hemolytic streptococcal pathogens, such as streptokinase, laminin-binding protein, and the C5a peptidase precursor, were detected in all human isolates but not in bovine isolates. Additionally, GAS bacteriophage-associated virulence genes encoding superantigens, DNase, and/or streptodornase were detected in bovine isolates (72%) but not in the human isolates. Determinants located in non-bacteriophage-related mobile elements, such as the gene encoding R28, were detected in all bovine and human isolates. Several virulence genes, including genes of bacteriophage origin, were shown to be expressed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of superantigen gene sequences revealed a high level (>98%) of identity among genes of bovine GCS, of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and of the human pathogen GAS. Our findings indicate that alpha-hemolytic bovine GCS, an important mastitis pathogen and considered to be a nonhuman pathogen, carries important virulence factors responsible for virulence and pathogenesis in humans. PMID:21525223

  4. Virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry with colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Delicato, Elaine R; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Gaziri, Luis Carlos J; Vidotto, Marilda C

    2003-07-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli, the causative agent of colibacillosis, harbors several putative virulence genes. In this study we examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the presence of 16 of those genes in 200 colibacillosis isolates from our region. The seven virulence genes iutA, iss, cvaC, tsh, papC, papG and felA were detected significantly more often amongst colibacillosis isolates than in fecal isolates from healthy birds, thereby confirming their worldwide occurrence and possible pathogenic role in colibacillosis. However, several of those genes were not detected in many colibacillosis isolates, and none of them were detected in 27.5% of those isolates, which suggests that variants of those genes and yet undetected virulence factors should be searched for. PMID:12781478

  5. A novel homozygous p.R1105X mutation of the AP4E1 gene in twins with hereditary spastic paraplegia and mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao-Fei; Bousfiha, Aziz; Rouissi, Abdelfettah; Itan, Yuval; Abhyankar, Avinash; Bryant, Vanessa; Okada, Satoshi; Ailal, Fatima; Bustamante, Jacinta; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Hirst, Jennifer; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    We report identical twins with intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia and short stature, born to a consanguineous family. Intriguingly, both children presented with lymphadenitis caused by the live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Two syndromes - hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and mycobacterial disease - thus occurred simultaneously. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.R1105X) of the AP4E1 gene, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The p.R1105X mutation has no effect on AP4E1 mRNA levels, but results in lower levels of AP-4ε protein and of the other components of the AP-4 complex, as shown by western blotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Thus, the C-terminal part of the AP-4ε subunit plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the AP-4 complex. No abnormalities of the IL-12/IFN-γ axis or oxidative burst pathways were identified. In conclusion, we identified twins with autosomal recessive AP-4 deficiency associated with HSP and mycobacterial disease, suggesting that AP-4 may play important role in the neurological and immunological systems. PMID:23472171

  6. A DinB Ortholog Enables Mycobacterial Growth under dTTP-Limiting Conditions Induced by the Expression of a Mycobacteriophage-Derived Ribonucleotide Reductase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shreya; Samaddar, Sourabh; Kirtania, Prithwiraj

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium species such as M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis encode at least two translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases, DinB1 and DinB2, respectively. Although predicted to be linked to DNA repair, their role in vivo remains enigmatic. M. smegmatis mc2155, a strain commonly used to investigate mycobacterial genetics, has two copies of dinB2, the gene that codes for DinB2, by virtue of a 56-kb chromosomal duplication. Expression of a mycobacteriophage D29 gene (gene 50) encoding a class II ribonucleotide reductase in M. smegmatis ΔDRKIN, a strain derived from mc2155 in which one copy of the duplication is lost, resulted in DNA replication defects and growth inhibition. The inhibitory effect could be linked to the deficiency of dTTP that resulted under these circumstances. The selective inhibition observed in the ΔDRKIN strain was found to be due solely to a reduced dosage of dinB2 in this strain. Mycobacterium bovis, which is closely related to M. tuberculosis, the tuberculosis pathogen, was found to be highly susceptible to gene 50 overexpression. Incidentally, these slow-growing pathogens harbor one copy of dinB2. The results indicate that the induction of a dTTP-limiting state can lead to growth inhibition in mycobacteria, with the effect being maximum in cells deficient in DinB2. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium species, such as M. tuberculosis, the tuberculosis pathogen, are known to encode several Y family DNA polymerases, one of which is DinB2, an ortholog of the DNA repair-related protein DinP of Escherichia coli. Although this protein has been biochemically characterized previously and found to be capable of translesion synthesis in vitro, its in vivo function remains unknown. Using a novel method to induce dTTP deficiency in mycobacteria, we demonstrate that DinB2 can aid mycobacterial survival under such conditions. Apart from unraveling a specific role for the mycobacterial Y family DNA polymerase DinB2 for the first time, this study also paves

  7. Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coady, A.M.; Murray, A.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Rhodes, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. Copyright ?? 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Coady, Alison M; Murray, Anthony L; Elliott, Diane G; Rhodes, Linda D

    2006-04-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. PMID:16597972

  9. Both msa Genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum Are Needed for Full Virulence in Bacterial Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Alison M.; Murray, Anthony L.; Elliott, Diane G.; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. PMID:16597972

  10. The FTF gene family regulates virulence and expression of SIX effectors in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Casado-Del Castillo, Virginia; Tello, Vega; De Vega-Bartol, José J; Ramos, Brisa; Sukno, Serenella A; Díaz Mínguez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The FTF (Fusarium transcription factor) gene family comprises a single copy gene, FTF2, which is present in all the filamentous ascomycetes analysed, and several copies of a close relative, FTF1, which is exclusive to Fusarium oxysporum. An RNA-mediated gene silencing system was developed to target mRNA produced by all the FTF genes, and tested in two formae speciales: F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (whose host is common bean) and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (whose host is tomato). Quantification of the mRNA levels showed knockdown of FTF1 and FTF2 in randomly isolated transformants of both formae speciales. The attenuation of FTF expression resulted in a marked reduction in virulence, a reduced expression of several SIX (Secreted In Xylem) genes, the best studied family of effectors in F. oxysporum, and lower levels of SGE1 (Six Gene Expression 1) mRNA, the presumptive regulator of SIX expression. Moreover, the knockdown mutants showed a pattern of colonization of the host plant similar to that displayed by strains devoid of FTF1 copies (weakly virulent strains). Gene knockout of FTF2 also resulted in a reduction in virulence, but to a lesser extent. These results demonstrate the role of the FTF gene expansion, mostly the FTF1 paralogues, as a regulator of virulence in F. oxysporum and suggest that the control of effector expression is the mechanism involved. PMID:26817616

  11. Implication of an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene and a Phosphinothricin N-Acetyltransferase Gene in the Diversity of Pseudomonas cichorii Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Wali, Ullah Md; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii harbors the hrp genes. hrp-mutants lose their virulence on eggplant but not on lettuce. A phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene (pat) is located between hrpL and an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldH) in the genome of P. cichorii. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and composition of the genes among pseudomonads suggests a common ancestor of hrp and pat between P. cichorii strains and P. viridiflava strains harboring the single hrp pathogenicity island. In contrast, phylogenetic diversification of aldH corresponded to species diversification amongst pseudomonads. In this study, the involvement of aldH and pat in P. cichorii virulence was analyzed. An aldH-deleted mutant (ΔaldH) and a pat-deleted mutant (Δpat) lost their virulence on eggplant but not on lettuce. P. cichorii expressed both genes in eggplant leaves, independent of HrpL, the transcriptional activator for the hrp. Inoculation into Asteraceae species susceptible to P. cichorii showed that the involvement of hrp, pat and aldH in P. cichorii virulence is independent of each other and has no relationship with the phylogeny of Asteraceae species based on the nucleotide sequences of ndhF and rbcL. It is thus thought that not only the hrp genes but also pat and aldH are implicated in the diversity of P. cichorii virulence on susceptible host plant species. PMID:24704843

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium. PMID:25417557

  13. Host–Pathogen Coevolution: The Selective Advantage of Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence and Its Cry Toxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Papkou, Andrei; Laehnemann, David; Guenther, Patrick S.; Prahl, Swantje; Saebelfeld, Manja; Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Liesegang, Heiko; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Daniel, Rolf; Michiels, Nicolaas K.; Schulte, Rebecca D.; Kurtz, Joachim; Rosenstiel, Philip; Telschow, Arndt; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal coevolution between host and pathogen is widely seen as a major driver of evolution and biological innovation. Yet, to date, the underlying genetic mechanisms and associated trait functions that are unique to rapid coevolutionary change are generally unknown. We here combined experimental evolution of the bacterial biocontrol agent Bacillus thuringiensis and its nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans with large-scale phenotyping, whole genome analysis, and functional genetics to demonstrate the selective benefit of pathogen virulence and the underlying toxin genes during the adaptation process. We show that: (i) high virulence was specifically favoured during pathogen–host coevolution rather than pathogen one-sided adaptation to a nonchanging host or to an environment without host; (ii) the pathogen genotype BT-679 with known nematocidal toxin genes and high virulence specifically swept to fixation in all of the independent replicate populations under coevolution but only some under one-sided adaptation; (iii) high virulence in the BT-679-dominated populations correlated with elevated copy numbers of the plasmid containing the nematocidal toxin genes; (iv) loss of virulence in a toxin-plasmid lacking BT-679 isolate was reconstituted by genetic reintroduction or external addition of the toxins. We conclude that sustained coevolution is distinct from unidirectional selection in shaping the pathogen's genome and life history characteristics. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the pathogen genes involved in coevolutionary adaptation in an animal host–pathogen interaction system. PMID:26042786

  14. Temperature-dependent expression of virulence genes in fish-pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, José A.; Cascales, Desirée; García-Torrico, Ana I.; García-Domínguez, Mario; Méndez, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in pathogenic bacteria is modulated by environmental parameters. A key factor in this expression is temperature. Its effect on virulence gene expression in bacteria infecting warm-blooded hosts is well documented. Transcription of virulence genes in these bacteria is induced upon a shift from low environmental to a higher host temperature (37°C). Interestingly, host temperatures usually correspond to the optimum for growth of these pathogenic bacteria. On the contrary, in ectothermic hosts such as fish, molluscs, and amphibians, infection processes generally occur at a temperature lower than that for the optimal growth of the bacteria. Therefore, regulation of virulence gene expression in response to temperature shift has to be modulated in a different way to that which is found in bacteria infecting warm-blooded hosts. The current understanding of virulence gene expression and its regulation in response to temperature in fish-pathogenic bacteria is limited, but constant extension of our knowledge base is essential to enable a rational approach to the problem of the bacterial fish diseases affecting the aquaculture industry. This is an interesting issue and progress needs to be made in order to diminish the economic losses caused by these diseases. The intention of this review is, for the first time, to compile the scattered results existing in the field in order to lay the groundwork for future research. This article is an overview of those relevant virulence genes that are expressed at temperatures lower than that for optimal bacterial growth in different fish-pathogenic bacteria as well as the principal mechanisms that could be involved in their regulation. PMID:26217329

  15. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Detection of S. aureus Contamination and a High Prevalence of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52) of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5%) and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines. PMID:26861367

  16. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Detection of S. aureus Contamination and a High Prevalence of Virulence Genes.

    PubMed

    Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52) of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5%) and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines. PMID:26861367

  17. The genome of a pathogenic rhodococcus: cooptive virulence underpinned by key gene acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Letek, Michal; González, Patricia; Macarthur, Iain; Rodríguez, Héctor; Freeman, Tom C; Valero-Rello, Ana; Blanco, Mónica; Buckley, Tom; Cherevach, Inna; Fahey, Ruth; Hapeshi, Alexia; Holdstock, Jolyon; Leadon, Desmond; Navas, Jesús; Ocampo, Alain; Quail, Michael A; Sanders, Mandy; Scortti, Mariela M; Prescott, John F; Fogarty, Ursula; Meijer, Wim G; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Vázquez-Boland, José A

    2010-09-01

    We report the genome of the facultative intracellular parasite Rhodococcus equi, the only animal pathogen within the biotechnologically important actinobacterial genus Rhodococcus. The 5.0-Mb R. equi 103S genome is significantly smaller than those of environmental rhodococci. This is due to genome expansion in nonpathogenic species, via a linear gain of paralogous genes and an accelerated genetic flux, rather than reductive evolution in R. equi. The 103S genome lacks the extensive catabolic and secondary metabolic complement of environmental rhodococci, and it displays unique adaptations for host colonization and competition in the short-chain fatty acid-rich intestine and manure of herbivores--two main R. equi reservoirs. Except for a few horizontally acquired (HGT) pathogenicity loci, including a cytoadhesive pilus determinant (rpl) and the virulence plasmid vap pathogenicity island (PAI) required for intramacrophage survival, most of the potential virulence-associated genes identified in R. equi are conserved in environmental rhodococci or have homologs in nonpathogenic Actinobacteria. This suggests a mechanism of virulence evolution based on the cooption of existing core actinobacterial traits, triggered by key host niche-adaptive HGT events. We tested this hypothesis by investigating R. equi virulence plasmid-chromosome crosstalk, by global transcription profiling and expression network analysis. Two chromosomal genes conserved in environmental rhodococci, encoding putative chorismate mutase and anthranilate synthase enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly coregulated with vap PAI virulence genes and required for optimal proliferation in macrophages. The regulatory integration of chromosomal metabolic genes under the control of the HGT-acquired plasmid PAI is thus an important element in the cooptive virulence of R. equi. PMID:20941392

  18. The Genome of a Pathogenic Rhodococcus: Cooptive Virulence Underpinned by Key Gene Acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Letek, Michal; González, Patricia; MacArthur, Iain; Rodríguez, Héctor; Freeman, Tom C.; Valero-Rello, Ana; Blanco, Mónica; Buckley, Tom; Cherevach, Inna; Fahey, Ruth; Hapeshi, Alexia; Holdstock, Jolyon; Leadon, Desmond; Navas, Jesús; Ocampo, Alain; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Scortti, Mariela M.; Prescott, John F.; Fogarty, Ursula; Meijer, Wim G.; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D.; Vázquez-Boland, José A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the genome of the facultative intracellular parasite Rhodococcus equi, the only animal pathogen within the biotechnologically important actinobacterial genus Rhodococcus. The 5.0-Mb R. equi 103S genome is significantly smaller than those of environmental rhodococci. This is due to genome expansion in nonpathogenic species, via a linear gain of paralogous genes and an accelerated genetic flux, rather than reductive evolution in R. equi. The 103S genome lacks the extensive catabolic and secondary metabolic complement of environmental rhodococci, and it displays unique adaptations for host colonization and competition in the short-chain fatty acid–rich intestine and manure of herbivores—two main R. equi reservoirs. Except for a few horizontally acquired (HGT) pathogenicity loci, including a cytoadhesive pilus determinant (rpl) and the virulence plasmid vap pathogenicity island (PAI) required for intramacrophage survival, most of the potential virulence-associated genes identified in R. equi are conserved in environmental rhodococci or have homologs in nonpathogenic Actinobacteria. This suggests a mechanism of virulence evolution based on the cooption of existing core actinobacterial traits, triggered by key host niche–adaptive HGT events. We tested this hypothesis by investigating R. equi virulence plasmid-chromosome crosstalk, by global transcription profiling and expression network analysis. Two chromosomal genes conserved in environmental rhodococci, encoding putative chorismate mutase and anthranilate synthase enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly coregulated with vap PAI virulence genes and required for optimal proliferation in macrophages. The regulatory integration of chromosomal metabolic genes under the control of the HGT–acquired plasmid PAI is thus an important element in the cooptive virulence of R. equi. PMID:20941392

  19. Steps toward broad-spectrum therapeutics: discovering virulence-associated genes present in diverse human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stubben, Chris J; Duffield, Melanie L; Cooper, Ian A; Ford, Donna C; Gans, Jason D; Karlyshev, Andrey V; Lingard, Bryan; Oyston, Petra CF; de Rochefort, Anna; Song, Jian; Wren, Brendan W; Titball, Rick W; Wolinsky, Murray

    2009-01-01

    Background New and improved antimicrobial countermeasures are urgently needed to counteract increased resistance to existing antimicrobial treatments and to combat currently untreatable or new emerging infectious diseases. We demonstrate that computational comparative genomics, together with experimental screening, can identify potential generic (i.e., conserved across multiple pathogen species) and novel virulence-associated genes that may serve as targets for broad-spectrum countermeasures. Results Using phylogenetic profiles of protein clusters from completed microbial genome sequences, we identified seventeen protein candidates that are common to diverse human pathogens and absent or uncommon in non-pathogens. Mutants of 13 of these candidates were successfully generated in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the potential role of the proteins in virulence was assayed in an animal model. Six candidate proteins are suggested to be involved in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis, none of which have previously been implicated in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis and three have no record of involvement in the virulence of any bacteria. Conclusion This work demonstrates a strategy for the identification of potential virulence factors that are conserved across a number of human pathogenic bacterial species, confirming the usefulness of this tool. PMID:19874620

  20. The metabolic regulator CodY links Listeria monocytogenes metabolism to virulence by directly activating the virulence regulatory gene prfA.

    PubMed

    Lobel, Lior; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Belitsky, Boris R; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Herskovits, Anat A

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic adaptations are critical to the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow within host cells and are normally preceded by sensing of host-specific metabolic signals, which in turn can influence the pathogen's virulence state. Previously, we reported that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes responds to low availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) within mammalian cells by up-regulating both BCAA biosynthesis and virulence genes. The induction of virulence genes required the BCAA-responsive transcription regulator, CodY, but the molecular mechanism governing this mode of regulation was unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that CodY directly binds the coding sequence of the L. monocytogenes master virulence activator gene, prfA, 15 nt downstream of its start codon, and that this binding results in up-regulation of prfA transcription specifically under low concentrations of BCAA. Mutating this site abolished CodY binding and reduced prfA transcription in macrophages, and attenuated bacterial virulence in mice. Notably, the mutated binding site did not alter prfA transcription or PrfA activity under other conditions that are known to activate PrfA, such as during growth in the presence of glucose-1-phosphate. This study highlights the tight crosstalk between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence, while revealing novel features of CodY-mediated regulation. PMID:25430920

  1. The metabolic regulator CodY links L. monocytogenes metabolism to virulence by directly activating the virulence regulatory gene, prfA

    PubMed Central

    Lobel, Lior; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Belitsky, Boris R.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metabolic adaptations are critical to the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow within host cells and are normally preceded by sensing of host-specific metabolic signals, which in turn can influence the pathogen's virulence state. Previously, we reported that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes responds to low availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) within mammalian cells by up-regulating both BCAA biosynthesis and virulence genes. The induction of virulence genes required the BCAA-responsive transcription regulator, CodY, but the molecular mechanism governing this mode of regulation was unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that CodY directly binds the coding sequence of the L. monocytogenes master virulence activator gene, prfA, 15 nt downstream of its start codon, and that this binding results in up-regulation of prfA transcription specifically under low concentrations of BCAA. Mutating this site abolished CodY binding and reduced prfA transcription in macrophages, and attenuated bacterial virulence in mice. Notably, the mutated binding site did not alter prfA transcription or PrfA activity under other conditions that are known to activate PrfA, such as during growth in the presence of glucose-1-phosphate. This study highlights the tight crosstalk between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence' while revealing novel features of CodY-mediated regulation. PMID:25430920

  2. Bicarbonate Induces Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression by Enhancing ToxT Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal illness. The two biotypes of V. cholerae O1 capable of causing cholera, classical and El Tor, require different in vitro growth conditions for induction of virulence gene expression. Growth under the inducing conditions or infection of a host initiates a complex regulatory cascade that results in production of ToxT, a regulatory protein that directly activates transcription of the genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and other virulence genes. Previous studies have shown that sodium bicarbonate induces CT expression in the V. cholerae El Tor biotype. However, the mechanism for bicarbonate-mediated CT induction has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that bicarbonate stimulates virulence gene expression by enhancing ToxT activity. Both the classical and El Tor biotypes produce inactive ToxT protein when they are cultured statically in the absence of bicarbonate. Addition of bicarbonate to the culture medium does not affect ToxT production but causes a significant increase in CT and TCP expression in both biotypes. Ethoxyzolamide, a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, inhibits bicarbonate-mediated virulence induction, suggesting that conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by carbonic anhydrase plays a role in virulence induction. Thus, bicarbonate is the first positive effector for ToxT activity to be identified. Given that bicarbonate is present at high concentration in the upper small intestine where V. cholerae colonizes, bicarbonate is likely an important chemical stimulus that V. cholerae senses and that induces virulence during the natural course of infection. PMID:19564378

  3. Comparative Pathogenomics Reveals Horizontally Acquired Novel Virulence Genes in Fungi Infecting Cereal Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Donald M.; McDonald, Megan C.; Covarelli, Lorenzo; Solomon, Peter S.; Rusu, Anca G.; Marshall, Mhairi; Kazan, Kemal; Chakraborty, Sukumar; McDonald, Bruce A.; Manners, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analyses of pathogen genomes provide new insights into how pathogens have evolved common and divergent virulence strategies to invade related plant species. Fusarium crown and root rots are important diseases of wheat and barley world-wide. In Australia, these diseases are primarily caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum. Comparative genomic analyses showed that the F. pseudograminearum genome encodes proteins that are present in other fungal pathogens of cereals but absent in non-cereal pathogens. In some cases, these cereal pathogen specific genes were also found in bacteria associated with plants. Phylogenetic analysis of selected F. pseudograminearum genes supported the hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer into diverse cereal pathogens. Two horizontally acquired genes with no previously known role in fungal pathogenesis were studied functionally via gene knockout methods and shown to significantly affect virulence of F. pseudograminearum on the cereal hosts wheat and barley. Our results indicate using comparative genomics to identify genes specific to pathogens of related hosts reveals novel virulence genes and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of plant infecting fungal pathogens. PMID:23028337

  4. Detection of influent virulence and resistance genes in microarray data through quasi likelihood modeling.

    PubMed

    Romeo, José S; Torres-Avilés, Francisco; López-Kleine, Liliana

    2013-02-01

    Publicly available genomic data are a great source of biological knowledge that can be extracted when appropriate data analysis is used. Predicting the biological function of genes is of interest to understand molecular mechanisms of virulence and resistance in pathogens and hosts and is important for drug discovery and disease control. This is commonly done by searching for similar gene expression behavior. Here, we used publicly available Streptococcus pyogenes microarray data obtained during primate infection to identify genes that have a potential influence on virulence and Phytophtora infestance inoculated tomato microarray data to identify genes potentially implicated in resistance processes. This approach goes beyond co-expression analysis. We employed a quasi-likelihood model separated by primate gender/inoculation condition to model median gene expression of known virulence/resistance factors. Based on this model, an influence analysis considering time course measurement was performed to detect genes with atypical expression. This procedure allowed for the detection of genes potentially implicated in the infection process. Finally, we discuss the biological meaning of these results, showing that influence analysis is an efficient and useful alternative for functional gene prediction. PMID:23296985

  5. Co-Detection of Virulent Escherichia coli Genes in Surface Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ndlovu, Thando; Le Roux, Marcellous; Khan, Wesaal; Khan, Sehaam

    2015-01-01

    McNemar’s test and the Pearson Chi-square were used to assess the co-detection and observed frequency, respectively, for potentially virulent E. coli genes in river water. Conventional multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays confirmed the presence of the aggR gene (69%), ipaH gene (23%) and the stx gene (15%) carried by Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Enterohermorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), respectively, in river water samples collected from the Berg River (Paarl, South Africa). Only the aggR gene was present in 23% of samples collected from the Plankenburg River system (Stellenbosch, South Africa). In a comparative study, real-time multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of aggR (EAEC) in 69%, stx (EHEC) in 15%, ipaH (EIEC) in 31% and eae (EPEC) in 8% of the river water samples collected from the Berg River. In the Plankenburg River, aggR (EAEC) was detected in 46% of the samples, while eae (EPEC) was present in 15% of the water samples analyzed using real-time multiplex PCR in the Plankenburg River. Pearson Chi-square showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the conventional and real-time multiplex PCRs for the detection of virulent E. coli genes in water samples. However, the McNemar’s test showed some variation in the co-detection of virulent E. coli genes, for example, there was no statistical difference in the misclassification of the discordant results for stx versus ipaH, which implies that the ipaH gene was frequently detected with the stx gene. This study thus highlights the presence of virulent E. coli genes in river water and while early detection is crucial, quantitative microbial risk analysis has to be performed to identify and estimate the risk to human health. PMID:25659126

  6. A combination of independent transcriptional regulators shapes bacterial virulence gene expression during infection.

    PubMed

    Shelburne, Samuel A; Olsen, Randall J; Suber, Bryce; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Sumby, Paul; Brennan, Richard G; Musser, James M

    2010-03-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks are fundamental to how microbes alter gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, thereby playing a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis. However, understanding how bacterial transcriptional regulatory networks function during host-pathogen interaction is limited. Recent studies in group A Streptococcus (GAS) suggested that the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) influences many of the same genes as the control of virulence (CovRS) two-component gene regulatory system. To provide new information about the CcpA and CovRS networks, we compared the CcpA and CovR transcriptomes in a serotype M1 GAS strain. The transcript levels of several of the same genes encoding virulence factors and proteins involved in basic metabolic processes were affected in both DeltaccpA and DeltacovR isogenic mutant strains. Recombinant CcpA and CovR bound with high-affinity to the promoter regions of several co-regulated genes, including those encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Compared to the wild-type parental strain, DeltaccpA and DeltacovRDeltaccpA isogenic mutant strains were significantly less virulent in a mouse myositis model. Inactivation of CcpA and CovR alone and in combination led to significant alterations in the transcript levels of several key GAS virulence factor encoding genes during infection. Importantly, the transcript level alterations in the DeltaccpA and DeltacovRDeltaccpA isogenic mutant strains observed during infection were distinct from those occurring during growth in laboratory medium. These data provide new knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria respond to environmental signals to regulate virulence factor production and basic metabolic processes during infection. PMID:20333240

  7. Effects of the HN gene c-terminal extensions on the Newcastle disease virus virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a multifunctional protein that has receptor recognition, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activities. Sequence analysis revealed that the HN gene of many extremely low virulence NDV strains encodes a larger open reading frame...

  8. Antibiogram characterization and putative virulence genes in Aeromonas species isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas species are broadly distributed in nature and agricultural environments and have been isolated from feces, bedding, and drinking water of healthy pigs. We assessed the incidence, virulence properties, and antimicrobial resistance profile of Aeromonas spp., isolated from pig feces. Antibiogram was done using the disc diffusion methods, and polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of putative virulence genes. Identification of isolates revealed three phenotypic species with percentage distribution as follows: Aeromonas hydrophila 23 (45.1 %), Aeromonas caviae 16 (31.4 %), and Aeromonas sobria 12 (23.5 %). All Aeromonas isolates in the study were absolutely susceptible to cefotaxime and resistant to penicillin. A. cavaie and A. sobria demonstrated absolute susceptibility against ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. Aeromonas species showed varied susceptibility to cephalothin as follows: A. hydrophila 78.3 %, A. cavaie 93.7 %, and A. sobria 91.7 %. The percentage distribution of virulence genes among Aeromonas isolates were as follows: Aerolysin (aer) 74.5 %, flagellin gene (fla) 68.6 %, cytotoxin (hly A) 43.1 %, lipase (lip) 39.2 %, enterotoxic activities (ast) 31.3 %, and cytotonic gene (alt) 13.7 %. Reports from this study shows that Aeromonas species isolated from pig fecal samples are multi-drug resistant and possess virulence potential which may result to possible risk of human or animal infection and likely contamination of food and water from this sources. PMID:26971520

  9. Sheeppox virus kelch-like gene SPPV-019 affects virus virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of a significant disease of sheep in the developing world. Genomic analysis of pathogenic and vaccine capripoxviruses identified genes with potential roles in virulence and host-range, including thr...

  10. Identification and functional analysis of Penicillium digitatum genes putatively involved in virulence towards citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The fungus Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould rot, is the most destructive post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruit in Mediterranean regions. In order to identify P. digitatum genes up-regulated during the infection of oranges that may constitute putative virulence factors, we followed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray hybridization approach. The origin of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was determined by comparison against the available genome sequences of both organisms. Genes coding for fungal proteases and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes represent the largest categories in the subtracted cDNA library. Northern blot analysis of a selection of P. digitatum genes, including those coding for proteases, cell wall-related enzymes, redox homoeostasis and detoxification processes, confirmed their up-regulation at varying time points during the infection process. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate knockout mutants for two genes encoding a pectin lyase (Pnl1) and a naphthalene dioxygenase (Ndo1). Two independent P. digitatum Δndo1 mutants were as virulent as the wild-type. However, the two Δpnl1 mutants analysed were less virulent than the parental strain or an ectopic transformant. Together, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the putative determinants of the virulence mechanisms of P. digitatum. PMID:25099378

  11. Virulence of a Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 mutant defective in the prtH gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, H M; Schenkein, H A; Morgan, R M; Bailey, K A; Berry, C R; Macrina, F L

    1995-01-01

    In a previous study we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the prtH gene from Porphyromonas gingivalis W83. This gene specifies a 97-kDa protease which is normally found in the membrane vesicles produced by P. gingivalis and which cleaves the C3 complement protein under defined conditions. We developed a novel ermF-ermAM antibiotic resistance gene cassette, which was used with the cloned prtH gene to prepare an insertionally inactivated allele of this gene. This genetic construct was introduced by electroporation into P. gingivalis W83 in order to create a protease-deficient mutant by recombinational allelic exchange. The mutant strain, designated V2296, was compared with the parent strain W83 for proteolytic activity and virulence. Extracellular protein preparations from V2296 showed decreased proteolytic activity compared with preparations from W83. Casein substrate zymography revealed that the 97-kDa proteolytic component as well as a 45-kDa protease was missing in the mutant. In in vivo experiments using a mouse model, V2296 was dramatically reduced in virulence compared with the wild-type W83 strain. A molecular survey of several clinical isolates of P. gingivalis using the prtH gene as a probe suggested that prtH gene sequences were conserved and that they may have been present in multiple copies. Two of 10 isolates did not hybridize with the prtH gene probe. These strains, like the V2296 mutant, also displayed decreased virulence in the mouse model. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for P. gingivalis proteases in soft tissue infections and specifically indicate that the prtH gene product is a virulence factor. PMID:7890419

  12. Analysis of subtelomeric virulence gene families in Plasmodium falciparum by comparative transcriptional profiling

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph D; Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Luah, Yen-Hoon; Preiser, Peter R; Bozdech, Zbynek; Voss, Till S

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Plasmodium falciparum genome is equipped with several subtelomeric gene families that are implicated in parasite virulence and immune evasion. Members of these families are uniformly positioned within heterochromatic domains and are thus subject to variegated expression. The best-studied example is that of the var family encoding the major parasite virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 undergoes antigenic variation through switches in mutually exclusive var gene transcription. var promoters function as crucial regulatory elements in the underlying epigenetic control strategy. Here, we analysed promoters of upsA, upsB and upsC var, rifA1-type rif, stevor, phist and pfmc-2tm genes and investigated their role in endogenous gene transcription by comparative genome-wide expression profiling of transgenic parasite lines. We find that the three major var promoter types are functionally equal and play an essential role in singular gene choice. Unlike var promoters, promoters of non-var families are not silenced by default, and transcription of non-var families is not subject to the same mode of mutually exclusive transcription as has been observed for var genes. Our findings identified a differential logic in the regulation of var and other subtelomeric virulence gene families, which will have important implications for our understanding and future analyses of phenotypic variation in malaria parasites. PMID:22435676

  13. Analysis of subtelomeric virulence gene families in Plasmodium falciparum by comparative transcriptional profiling.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph D; Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Luah, Yen-Hoon; Preiser, Peter R; Bozdech, Zbynek; Voss, Till S

    2012-04-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum genome is equipped with several subtelomeric gene families that are implicated in parasite virulence and immune evasion. Members of these families are uniformly positioned within heterochromatic domains and are thus subject to variegated expression. The best-studied example is that of the var family encoding the major parasite virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 undergoes antigenic variation through switches in mutually exclusive var gene transcription. var promoters function as crucial regulatory elements in the underlying epigenetic control strategy. Here, we analysed promoters of upsA, upsB and upsC var, rifA1-type rif, stevor, phist and pfmc-2tm genes and investigated their role in endogenous gene transcription by comparative genome-wide expression profiling of transgenic parasite lines. We find that the three major var promoter types are functionally equal and play an essential role in singular gene choice. Unlike var promoters, promoters of non-var families are not silenced by default, and transcription of non-var families is not subject to the same mode of mutually exclusive transcription as has been observed for var genes. Our findings identified a differential logic in the regulation of var and other subtelomeric virulence gene families, which will have important implications for our understanding and future analyses of phenotypic variation in malaria parasites. PMID:22435676

  14. Gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Tello, Vega; Casado-del Castillo, Virginia; Thon, Michael R.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. The growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was quantitatively similar although the highly virulent (HV) strain was more efficient reaching the central root cylinder. The main differences between both strains were found in the temporal and spatial dynamics of crown root and hypocotyl colonization. The increase of fungal biomass in the crown root was considerably larger for the HV strain, which, after an initial stage of global colonization of both the vascular cylinder and the parenchymal cells, restricted its growth to the newly differentiated xylem vessels. The weakly virulent (WV) strain was a much slower and less efficient colonizer of the xylem vessels, showing also growth in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma. Most of the virulence genes analyzed showed similar expression patterns in both strains, except SIX1, SIX6 and the gene encoding the transcription factor FTF1, which were highly upregulated in root crown and hypocotyl. The response induced in the infected plant showed interesting differences for both strains. The WV strain induced an early and strong transcription of the PR1 gene, involved in SAR response, while the HV strain preferentially induced the early expression of the ethylene responsive factor ERF2. PMID:25883592

  15. Distinct Expression Levels of ALS, LIP, and SAP Genes in Candida tropicalis with Diverse Virulent Activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuanbao; Li, Wenge; Liu, Xiaoshu; Che, Jie; Wu, Yuan; Lu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Candia tropicalis is an increasingly important human pathogen, causing nosocomial fungemia among patients with neutropenia or malignancy. However, limited research has been published concerning its pathogenicity. Based on the phenotypes of C. tropicalis in our previous study, we selected nine representative strains with different activities of virulence factors (adhesion, biofilm formation, secreted aspartic proteinases, and hemolysins), and one reference strain, ATCC750. The present study aimed to investigate the filamentation ability, the expression of virulence genes (ALST1-3, LIP1, LIP4, and SAPT1-4) and the cell damage of C. tropicalis strains with diverse virulences. C. tropicalis exhibited strain-dependent filamentation ability, which was positively correlated with biofilm formation. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the ALST3 and SAPT3 genes had the highest expression in their corresponding genes for most C. tropicalis. The expressions of virulence genes, except ALST3 on polystyrene, were upregulated compared with growth in the planktonic and on human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) surface. Clustering analysis of virulence genes showed that isolates had a high biofilm forming ability on polystyrene formed a group. Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the cell damage induced by C. tropicalis markedly increased with longer infection time (24 and 48 h). Strain FXCT01, isolated from blood, caused the most serious cell damage; while ZRCT52, which had no filamentation ability, caused the least cell damage. Correlation analysis demonstrated significant correlation existed between adhesion on epithelial cells or the expression of ALST2-3 and cell damage. Overall, our results supported the view that adhesion and filamentation may play significant roles in the cell damage caused by C. tropicalis. PMID:27524980

  16. Distinct Expression Levels of ALS, LIP, and SAP Genes in Candida tropicalis with Diverse Virulent Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuanbao; Li, Wenge; Liu, Xiaoshu; Che, Jie; Wu, Yuan; Lu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Candia tropicalis is an increasingly important human pathogen, causing nosocomial fungemia among patients with neutropenia or malignancy. However, limited research has been published concerning its pathogenicity. Based on the phenotypes of C. tropicalis in our previous study, we selected nine representative strains with different activities of virulence factors (adhesion, biofilm formation, secreted aspartic proteinases, and hemolysins), and one reference strain, ATCC750. The present study aimed to investigate the filamentation ability, the expression of virulence genes (ALST1-3, LIP1, LIP4, and SAPT1-4) and the cell damage of C. tropicalis strains with diverse virulences. C. tropicalis exhibited strain-dependent filamentation ability, which was positively correlated with biofilm formation. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the ALST3 and SAPT3 genes had the highest expression in their corresponding genes for most C. tropicalis. The expressions of virulence genes, except ALST3 on polystyrene, were upregulated compared with growth in the planktonic and on human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) surface. Clustering analysis of virulence genes showed that isolates had a high biofilm forming ability on polystyrene formed a group. Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the cell damage induced by C. tropicalis markedly increased with longer infection time (24 and 48 h). Strain FXCT01, isolated from blood, caused the most serious cell damage; while ZRCT52, which had no filamentation ability, caused the least cell damage. Correlation analysis demonstrated significant correlation existed between adhesion on epithelial cells or the expression of ALST2-3 and cell damage. Overall, our results supported the view that adhesion and filamentation may play significant roles in the cell damage caused by C. tropicalis. PMID:27524980

  17. Burkholderia cenocepacia ShvR-regulated genes that influence colony morphology, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Nguyen, David T; Sokol, Pamela A

    2011-08-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that primarily infects cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Previously, we reported that ShvR, a LysR regulator, influences colony morphology, virulence, and biofilm formation and regulates the expression of an adjacent 24-kb genomic region encoding 24 genes. In this study, we report the functional characterization of selected genes in this region. A Tn5 mutant with shiny colony morphology was identified with a polar mutation in BCAS0208, predicted to encode an acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. Mutagenesis of BCAS0208 and complementation analyses revealed that BCAS0208 is required for rough colony morphology, biofilm formation, and virulence on alfalfa seedlings. It was not possible to complement with BCAS0208 containing a mutation in the catalytic site. BCAS0201, encoding a putative flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidoreductase, and BCAS0207, encoding a putative citrate synthase, do not influence colony morphology but are required for optimum levels of biofilm formation and virulence. Both BCAS0208 and BCAS0201 contribute to pellicle formation, although individual mutations in each of these genes had no appreciable effect on pellicle formation. A mutant with a polar insertion in BCAS0208 was significantly less virulent in a rat model of chronic lung infection as well as in the alfalfa model. Genes in this region were shown to influence utilization of branched-chain fatty acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates, l-arabinose, and branched-chain amino acids. Together, our data show that the ShvR-regulated genes BCAS0208 to BCAS0201 are required for the rough colony morphotype, biofilm and pellicle formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. PMID:21690240

  18. Host stress hormone norepinephrine stimulates pneumococcal growth, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Host signals are being shown to have a major impact on the bacterial phenotype. One of them is the endogenously produced catecholamine stress hormones, which are also used therapeutically as inotropes. Recent work form our laboratories have found that stress hormones can markedly increase bacterial growth and virulence. This report reveals that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a commensal that can also be a major cause of community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, is highly inotrope responsive. Therapeutic levels of the stress hormone norepinephrine increased pneumococcal growth via a mechanism involving provision of iron from serum-transferrin and inotrope uptake, as well as enhancing expression of key genes in central metabolism and virulence. Collectively, our data suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae recognises host stress as an environmental cue to initiate growth and pathogenic processes. Results Effects of a clinically attainable concentration of norepinephrine on S. pneumoniae pathogenicity were explored using in vitro growth and virulence assays, and RT-PCR gene expression profiling of genes involved in metabolism and virulence. We found that norepinephrine was a potent stimulator of growth, via a mechanism involving norepinephrine-delivery of transferrin-iron and internalisation of the inotrope. Stress hormone exposure also markedly increased biofilm formation. Importantly, gene profiling showed that norepinephrine significantly enhanced expression of genes involved in central metabolism and host colonisation. Analysis of the response of the pneumococcal pspA and pspC mutants to the stress hormone showed them to have a central involvement in the catecholamine response mechanism. Conclusions Collectively, our evidence suggests that the pneumococcus has mechanisms to recognise and process host stress hormones to augment its virulence properties. The ability to respond to host stress signals may be important for the pneumococcal transition from

  19. Virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry with colibacillosis: correction.

    PubMed

    Vidotto, Marilda C; Gaziri, Luis Carlos J; Delicato, Elaine R

    2004-08-19

    Several virulence genes of avian Escherichia coli were detected in 200 colibacillosis isolates from our region by PCR. However, the genes sfaDE and facA were not detected in that study. In this work we correct those data, showing by colony hybridization that sfaDE and facA are present in 40% and 30% of those isolates, respectively. PMID:15288931

  20. Genome sequencing of a virulent avian Pasteurella multocida strain GX-Pm reveals the candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengjie; Sizhu, Suolang; Luo, Qingping; Xu, Xuewen; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Anding

    2016-04-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. First genomic study was performed on an avirulent avian strain Pm70, and until 2013, two genomes of virulent avian strains X73 and P1059 were sequenced. Comparative genome study supplied important information for further study on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In the previous study, a capsular serotype A strain GX-Pm was isolated from the liver of a chicken, which died during an outbreak of fowl cholera in 2011. The strain showed multiple drug resistance and was highly virulent to chickens. Therefore, the present study performed the genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis to reveal the candidate genes involved in virulence of P. multocida. Sequenced draft genome sequence of GX-Pm was 2,292,886 bp, contained 2941 protein-coding genes, 5 genomic islands, 4 IS elements and 2 prophage regions. Notability, all the predicted drug-resistance genes were included in predicted genomic islands. A comparative genome study on virulent avian strains P1059, X73 and GX-Pm with the avirulent avian strain Pm 70 indicated that 475 unique genes were only identified in either of virulent strains but absent in the avirulent strain. Among these genes, 20 genes were contained within genomes of all three virulent strains, including a few of putative virulence genes. Further characterization of the pathogenic functions of these genes would benefit the understanding of pathogenesis of fowl cholera. PMID:27033902

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Based Virulence Determinant Mapping of the HSV-1 Genome in Murine Ocular Infection: Genes Involved in Viral Regulatory and Innate Immune Networks Contribute to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Inna; Craven, Mark; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes mucocutaneous lesions, and is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the United States. Animal studies have shown that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors; innate immunity, host immune response and viral strain. We previously showed that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994) resulted in recombinants that exhibit a range of disease phenotypes from severe to avirulent, suggesting epistatic interactions were involved. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of HSV-1 ocular virulence determinants and to identify virulence associated SNPs. Blepharitis and stromal keratitis quantitative scores were characterized for 40 OD4:CJ994 recombinants. Viral titers in the eye were also measured. Virulence quantitative trait locus mapping (vQTLmap) was performed using the Lasso, Random Forest, and Ridge regression methods to identify significant phenotypically meaningful regions for each ocular disease parameter. The most predictive Ridge regression model identified several phenotypically meaningful SNPs for blepharitis and stromal keratitis. Notably, phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous variations were detected in the UL24, UL29 (ICP8), UL41 (VHS), UL53 (gK), UL54 (ICP27), UL56, ICP4, US1 (ICP22), US3 and gG genes. Network analysis revealed that many of these variations were in HSV-1 regulatory networks and viral genes that affect innate immunity. Several genes previously implicated in virulence were identified, validating this approach, while other genes were novel. Several novel polymorphisms were also identified in these genes. This approach provides a framework that will be useful for identifying virulence genes in other pathogenic viruses, as well as epistatic effects that affect HSV-1 ocular virulence. PMID:26962864

  2. Quantitative Trait Locus Based Virulence Determinant Mapping of the HSV-1 Genome in Murine Ocular Infection: Genes Involved in Viral Regulatory and Innate Immune Networks Contribute to Virulence.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Aaron W; Lee, Kyubin; Larsen, Inna; Craven, Mark; Brandt, Curtis R

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes mucocutaneous lesions, and is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the United States. Animal studies have shown that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors; innate immunity, host immune response and viral strain. We previously showed that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994) resulted in recombinants that exhibit a range of disease phenotypes from severe to avirulent, suggesting epistatic interactions were involved. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of HSV-1 ocular virulence determinants and to identify virulence associated SNPs. Blepharitis and stromal keratitis quantitative scores were characterized for 40 OD4:CJ994 recombinants. Viral titers in the eye were also measured. Virulence quantitative trait locus mapping (vQTLmap) was performed using the Lasso, Random Forest, and Ridge regression methods to identify significant phenotypically meaningful regions for each ocular disease parameter. The most predictive Ridge regression model identified several phenotypically meaningful SNPs for blepharitis and stromal keratitis. Notably, phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous variations were detected in the UL24, UL29 (ICP8), UL41 (VHS), UL53 (gK), UL54 (ICP27), UL56, ICP4, US1 (ICP22), US3 and gG genes. Network analysis revealed that many of these variations were in HSV-1 regulatory networks and viral genes that affect innate immunity. Several genes previously implicated in virulence were identified, validating this approach, while other genes were novel. Several novel polymorphisms were also identified in these genes. This approach provides a framework that will be useful for identifying virulence genes in other pathogenic viruses, as well as epistatic effects that affect HSV-1 ocular virulence. PMID:26962864

  3. Mechanistic insight into mycobacterial MmpL protein function.

    PubMed

    Székely, R; Cole, S T

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterial cell walls are complex structures containing a broad range of unusual lipids, glycolipids and other polymers, some of which act as immunomodulators or virulence determinants. Better understanding of the enzymes involved in export processes would enlighten cell wall biogenesis. Bernut et al. () present the findings of a structural and functional investigation of one of the most important transporter families, the MmpL proteins, members of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily. A Tyr842His missense mutation in the mmpL4a gene was shown to be responsible for the smooth-to-rough morphotype change of the near untreatable opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium bolletii due to its failure to export a glycopeptidolipid (GPL). This mutation was pleiotropic and markedly increased virulence in infection models. Tyr842 is well conserved in all actinobacterial MmpL proteins suggesting that it is functionally important and this was confirmed by several approaches including replacing the corresponding residue in MmpL3 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Structural modelling combined with experimental results showed Tyr842 to be a critical residue for mediating the proton motive force required for GPL export. This mechanistic insight applies to all MmpL proteins and probably to all RND transporters. PMID:26710752

  4. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism during Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian J.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes to virulence in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Furthermore, analyses of omics data in the context of the metabolic model indicated rewiring of the metabolic network to support pathways associated with virulence. For example, cellular concentrations of polyamines were perturbed, as well as the predicted capacity for secretion and uptake. PMID:23559334

  5. Identification of virulence genes in a pathogenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by representational difference analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Sifri, Costi D; Goumnerov, Boyan C; Rahme, Laurence G; Ausubel, Frederick M; Calderwood, Stephen B

    2002-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that may cause severe infections in humans and other vertebrates. In addition, a human clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa, strain PA14, also causes disease in a variety of nonvertebrate hosts, including plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. This has led to the development of a multihost pathogenesis system in which plants, nematodes, and insects have been used as adjuncts to animal models for the identification of P. aeruginosa virulence factors. Another approach to identifying virulence genes in bacteria is to take advantage of the natural differences in pathogenicity between isolates of the same species and to use a subtractive hybridization technique to recover relevant genomic differences. The sequenced strain of P. aeruginosa, strain PAO1, has substantial differences in virulence from strain PA14 in several of the multihost models of pathogenicity, and we have utilized the technique of representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly identify genomic differences between P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and PAO1. We have found that the pilC, pilA, and uvrD genes in strain PA14 differ substantially from their counterparts in strain PAO1. In addition, we have recovered a gene homologous to the ybtQ gene from Yersinia, which is specifically present in strain PA14 but absent in strain PAO1. Mutation of the ybtQ homolog in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 significantly attenuates the virulence of this strain in both G. mellonella and a burned mouse model of sepsis to levels comparable to those seen with PAO1. This suggests that the increased virulence of P. aeruginosa strain PA14 compared to PAO1 may relate to specific genomic differences identifiable by RDA. PMID:11807055

  6. Novel virulence gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000.

    PubMed

    Preiter, Karen; Brooks, David M; Penaloza-Vazquez, Alejandro; Sreedharan, Aswathy; Bender, Carol L; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2005-11-01

    Previously, we conducted a mutant screen of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 to identify genes that contribute to virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Here we describe the characterization of one mutant strain, DB4H2, which contains a single Tn5 insertion in PSPTO3576, an open reading frame that is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. We demonstrate that PSPTO3576 is necessary for virulence in DC3000 and designate the encoded protein TvrR (TetR-like virulence regulator). TvrR, like many other TetR-like transcriptional regulators, negatively regulates its own expression. Despite the presence of a putative HrpL binding site in the tvrR promoter region, tvrR is not regulated by HrpL, an alternative sigma factor that regulates the expression of many known DC3000 virulence genes. tvrR mutant strains grow comparably to wild-type DC3000 in culture and possess an intact type III secretion system. However, tvrR mutants do not cause disease symptoms on inoculated A. thaliana and tomato plants, and their growth within plant tissue is significantly impaired. We demonstrate that tvrR mutant strains are able to synthesize coronatine (COR), a phytotoxin required for virulence of DC3000 on A. thaliana. Given that tvrR mutant strains are not defective for type III secretion or COR production, tvrR appears to be a novel virulence factor required for a previously unexplored process that is necessary for pathogenesis. PMID:16267304

  7. Large-scale isolation of candidate virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by in vivo selection.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Mushegian, A; Lory, S; Jin, S

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, is a major causative agent of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients and those with cystic fibrosis genetic disease. To identify new virulence genes of P. aeruginosa, a selection system was developed based on the in vivo expression technology (IVET) that was first reported in Salmonella system. An adenine-requiring auxotrophic mutant strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated and found avirulent on neutropenic mice. A DNA fragment that can complement the mutant strain, containing purEK operon that is required for de novo biosynthesis of purine, was sequenced and used in the IVET vector construction. By applying the IVET selection system to a neutropenic mouse infection model, genetic loci that are specifically induced in vivo were identified. Twenty-two such loci were partially sequenced and analyzed. One of them was a well-studied virulence factor, pyochelin receptor (FptA), that is involved in iron acquisition. Fifteen showed significant homology to reported sequences in GenBank, while the remaining six did not. One locus, designated np20, encodes an open reading frame that shares amino acid sequence homology to transcriptional regulators, especially to the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) proteins of other bacteria. An insertional np20 null mutant strain of P. aeruginosa did not show a growth defect on laboratory media; however, its virulence on neutropenic mice was significantly reduced compared with that of a wild-type parent strain, demonstrating the importance of the np20 locus in the bacterial virulence. The successful isolation of genetic loci that affect bacterial virulence demonstrates the utility of the IVET system in identification of new virulence genes of P. aeruginosa. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8816818

  8. A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Alex T.; Dolganov, Nadia A.; Rasmussen, Thomas; Otto, Glen; Miller, Michael C.; Felt, Stephen A.; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Schoolnik, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT) were powerfully expressed early in the infectious process in bacteria adjacent to epithelial surfaces. Increased growth was found to co-localize with virulence gene expression. Significant heterogeneity in the expression of tcpA, the repeating subunit of TCP, was observed late in the infectious process. The expression of tcpA, studied in single cells in a homogeneous medium, demonstrated unimodal induction of tcpA after addition of bicarbonate, a chemical inducer of virulence gene expression. Striking bifurcation of the population occurred during entry into stationary phase: one subpopulation continued to express tcpA, whereas the expression declined in the other subpopulation. ctxA, encoding the A subunit of CT, and toxT, encoding the proximal master regulator of virulence gene expression also exhibited the bifurcation phenotype. The bifurcation phenotype was found to be reversible, epigenetic and to persist after removal of bicarbonate, features consistent with bistable switches. The bistable switch requires the positive-feedback circuit controlling ToxT expression and formation of the CRP-cAMP complex during entry into stationary phase. Key features of this bistable switch also were demonstrated in vivo, where striking heterogeneity in tcpA expression was observed in luminal fluid in later stages of the infection. When this fluid was diluted into artificial seawater, bacterial aggregates continued to express tcpA for prolonged periods of time. The bistable control of virulence gene expression points to a mechanism that could

  9. cj0371: A Novel Virulence-Associated Gene of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xueqing; Wang, Nan; Ren, Fangzhe; Tang, Hong; Jiao, Xinan; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of human bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. cj0371 is a novel gene that was uncovered using immunoscreening. There have been no previous reports regarding its function. In this study, we constructed an insertion mutant and complement of this gene in C. jejuni and examined changes in virulence. We observed that the cj0371 mutant showed significantly increased invasion and colonization ability. We also investigated the role of cj0371 in motility, chemotaxis, and growth kinetics to further study its function. We found that the cj0371 mutant displays hypermotility, enhanced chemotaxis, and enhanced growth kinetics. In addition, we localized the Cj0371 protein at the poles of C. jejuni by fluorescence microscopy. We present data that collectively significantly proves our hypothesis that cj0371 is a new virulence-associated gene and through the influence of chemotaxis plays a negative role in C. jejuni pathogenicity. PMID:27471500

  10. cj0371: A Novel Virulence-Associated Gene of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Du, Xueqing; Wang, Nan; Ren, Fangzhe; Tang, Hong; Jiao, Xinan; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of human bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. cj0371 is a novel gene that was uncovered using immunoscreening. There have been no previous reports regarding its function. In this study, we constructed an insertion mutant and complement of this gene in C. jejuni and examined changes in virulence. We observed that the cj0371 mutant showed significantly increased invasion and colonization ability. We also investigated the role of cj0371 in motility, chemotaxis, and growth kinetics to further study its function. We found that the cj0371 mutant displays hypermotility, enhanced chemotaxis, and enhanced growth kinetics. In addition, we localized the Cj0371 protein at the poles of C. jejuni by fluorescence microscopy. We present data that collectively significantly proves our hypothesis that cj0371 is a new virulence-associated gene and through the influence of chemotaxis plays a negative role in C. jejuni pathogenicity. PMID:27471500

  11. Targeted gene deletion in Candida parapsilosis demonstrates the role of secreted lipase in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gácser, Attila; Trofa, David; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2007-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of human disease, yet little is known about the pathogen’s virulence. We have developed an efficient gene deletion system for C. parapsilosis based on the repeated use of the dominant nourseothricin resistance marker (caSAT1) and its subsequent deletion by FLP-mediated, site-specific recombination. Using this technique, we deleted the lipase locus in the C. parapsilosis genome consisting of adjacent genes CpLIP1 and CpLIP2. Additionally we reconstructed the CpLIP2 gene, which restored lipase activity. Lipolytic activity was absent in the null mutants, whereas the WT, heterozygous, and reconstructed mutants showed similar lipase production. Biofilm formation was inhibited with lipase-negative mutants and their growth was significantly reduced in lipid-rich media. The knockout mutants were more efficiently ingested and killed by J774.16 and RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Additionally, the lipase-negative mutants were significantly less virulent in infection models that involve inoculation of reconstituted human oral epithelium or murine intraperitoneal challenge. These studies represent what we believe to be the first targeted disruption of a gene in C. parapsilosis and show that C. parapsilosis–secreted lipase is involved in disease pathogenesis. This efficient system for targeted gene deletion holds great promise for rapidly enhancing our knowledge of the biology and virulence of this increasingly common invasive fungal pathogen. PMID:17853941

  12. Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes among Enterococcus spp. isolated from a hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxiang; Li, Jing; Wei, Quhao; Hu, Qingfeng; Lin, Xiaowei; Chen, Mengquan; Ye, Renji; Lv, Huoyang

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. A total of 160 enterococcal isolates from various clinical samples collected from September 2013 to July 2014 were identified to the species level using the VITEK-2 COMPACT system. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the identified Enterococcus strains were determined by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disc diffusion method. PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. Of 160 Enterococcus isolates, 105 were identified as E. faecium, 35 as E. faecalis, and 20 isolates were classified as "other" Enterococcus species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) for gentamicin, streptomycin, and both antibiotics was identified in 58.8, 50, and 34.4% of strains, respectively. The most common virulence gene (50.6% of isolates) was efaA, followed by asa1 (28.8%). The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia, present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. Overall, E. faecium and E. faecalis were most frequently associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Zhejiang Province. All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph(2'')-Id, were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp, therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species. PMID:25768240

  13. Erythromycin resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis from swine in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Kou; Wang, Hong-Ning; Zeng, Bo; Li, Jin-Niang; Li, Xu-Ting; Zhang, An-Yun; Zhou, Ying-Shun; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to describe the erythromycin resistance phenotypes and genotypes, and the prevalence of virulence genes of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from swine in China. A total of 117 nonreplicate E. faecalis isolates, obtained from 502 clinical samples taken from different pig farms between 2007 and 2009 were included in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method. All of the isolates were screened for the presence of seven virulence genes (ace, asa1, cylA, efaA, esp, gelE, and hyl). In addition, the DNA from rythromycin-resistant isolates were amplified with primers specific for erythromycin resistance erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mef(A/E), and msr(C) genes. Results show that erythromycin, tylosin, and ciprofloxacin resistance rates in E. faecalis were 66.67% (n=78), 66.67% (n=78), and 64.10% (n=75), respectively. About 69.23% of isolates (n=81) were positive for gelE, 48.72% (n=57) for ace, 15.38% (n=18) for efa, 7.69% (n=9) for asa1, and 6.84% (n=8) for esp. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, erm(B) (n=54) was the most prevalent resistance gene, followed by erm(A) (n=37). A significant correlation was found between the presence of the gelE virulence gene and erythromycin resistance (P<0.05). These findings suggest that enterococci from swine should be regarded with caution because they can be reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. PMID:21344149

  14. Microevolution of Virulence-Related Genes in Helicobacter pylori Familial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Yoshikazu; Konno, Mutsuko; Osaki, Takako; Yonezawa, Hideo; Ishige, Taichiro; Imai, Misaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that can infect human stomach causing gastritis, ulcers and cancer, is known to have a high degree of genome/epigenome diversity as the result of mutation and recombination. The bacteria often infect in childhood and persist for the life of the host. One of the reasons of the rapid evolution of H. pylori is that it changes its genome drastically for adaptation to a new host. To investigate microevolution and adaptation of the H. pylori genome, we undertook whole genome sequencing of the same or very similar sequence type in multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with seven genes in members of the same family consisting of parents and children in Japan. Detection of nucleotide substitutions revealed likely transmission pathways involving children. Nonsynonymous (amino acid changing) mutations were found in virulence-related genes (cag genes, vacA, hcpDX, tnfα, ggt, htrA and the collagenase gene), outer membrane protein (OMP) genes and other cell surface-related protein genes, signal transduction genes and restriction-modification genes. We reconstructed various pathways by which H. pylori can adapt to a new human host, and our results raised the possibility that the mutational changes in virulence-related genes have a role in adaptation to a child host. Changes in restriction-modification genes might remodel the methylome and transcriptome to help adaptation. This study has provided insights into H. pylori transmission and virulence and has implications for basic research as well as clinical practice. PMID:25978460

  15. Virulence gene profiles in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kot, Barbara; Szweda, Piotr; Frankowska-Maciejewska, Aneta; Piechota, Małgorzata; Wolska, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is arguably the most important pathogen involved in bovine mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the virulence gene profiles of 124 Staph. aureus isolates from subclinical mastitis in cows in eastern Poland. The presence of 30 virulence genes encoding adhesins, proteases and superantigenic toxins was investigated by PCR. The 17 different combinations of adhesin genes were identified. Occurrence of eno (91·1%) and fib (82·3%) genes was found to be common. The frequency of other adhesion genes fnbA, fnbB, ebps were 14·5, 50, 25%, respectively, and for cna and bbp were 1·6%. The etA and etD genes, encoding exfoliative toxins, were present in genomes of 5·6 and 8·9% isolates, respectively. The splA and sspA, encoding serine protease, were detected in above 90% isolates. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sei (21%), sem (19·4%), sen (19·4%), seg (18·5%) and seo (13·7%). The tst gene was harboured by 2·4% isolates. The 19 combinations of the superantigenic toxin genes were obtained and found in 35·5% of isolates. Three of them (seg, sei, sem, sen, seo; sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo and seg, sei, sem, sen) were the most frequent and found in 16·1% of the isolates. The most common virulotype, present in 17·7% of the isolates, was fib, eno, fnbB, splA, splE, sspA. The results indicate the variation in the presence of virulence genes in Staph. aureus isolates and considerable diversity of isolates that are able to cause mastitis in cows. PMID:27032339

  16. Virulence Plasmid of Rhodococcus equi Contains Inducible Gene Family Encoding Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Barbara A.; Prescott, John F.; Palmer, Guy H.; Takai, Shinji; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra C.; Hines, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi causes severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals. This facultative intracellular pathogen produces similar lesions in immunocompromised humans, particularly in AIDS patients. Virulent strains of R. equi bear a large plasmid that is required for intracellular survival within macrophages and for virulence in foals and mice. Only two plasmid-encoded proteins have been described previously; a 15- to 17-kDa surface protein designated virulence-associated protein A (VapA) and an antigenically related 20-kDa protein (herein designated VapB). These two proteins are not expressed by the same R. equi isolate. We describe here the substantial similarity between VapA and VapB. Moreover, we identify three additional genes carried on the virulence plasmid, vapC, -D, and -E, that are tandemly arranged downstream of vapA. These new genes are members of a gene family and encode proteins that are approximately 50% homologous to VapA, VapB, and each other. vapC, -D, and -E are found only in R. equi strains that express VapA and are highly conserved in VapA-positive isolates from both horses and humans. VapC, -D, and -E are secreted proteins coordinately regulated by temperature with VapA; the proteins are expressed when R. equi is cultured at 37°C but not at 30°C, a finding that is compatible with a role in virulence. As secreted proteins, VapC, -D, and -E may represent targets for the prevention of rhodococcal pneumonia. An immunologic study using VapA-specific antibodies and recombinant Vap proteins revealed no evidence of cross-reactivity despite extensive sequence similarity over the carboxy terminus of all four proteins. PMID:11159951

  17. Molecular Characterization of Virulence Genes in Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Sensitive Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Priyanka Paul; Dey, Sangeeta; Sen, Aninda; Adhikari, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to find out the correlation between presence of virulence (gelatinase [gel E], enterococcal surface protein [esp], cytolysin A [cyl A], hyaluronidase [hyl], and aggregation substance [asa1]) and vancomycin-resistant genes (van A and van B) in enterococci, with their phenotypic expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 isolates (250 each clinical and fecal) were processed. Enterococci were isolated from various clinical samples and from fecal specimens of colonized patients. Various virulence determinants namely asa1, esp, hyl, gel E, and cyl were detected by phenotypic methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined by agar dilution method. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of virulence and van genes. Results: Out of all the samples processed, 12.0% (60/500) isolates carried van A or van B genes as confirmed by MIC test and PCR methods. Genes responsible for virulence were detected by multiplex PCR and at least one of the five was detected in all the clinical vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive enterococci (VSE). gel E, esp, and hyl genes were found to be significantly higher in clinical VRE. Of the fecal isolates, presence of gel E, esp, and asa1 was significantly higher in VRE as compared to VSE. The presence of hyl gene in the clinical VRE was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.043) as against the fecal VRE. Correlation between the presence of virulence genes and their expression as detected by phenotypic tests showed that while biofilm production was seen in 61.1% (22/36) of clinical VRE, the corresponding genes, i.e., asa1 and esp were detected in 30.5% (11/36) and 27.8% (10/36) of strains only. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecium isolates were found to carry esp gene, a phenomenon that has been described previously only for Enterococcus faecalis, but we were unable to correlate the presence of esp with their

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci from wild game meat in Spain.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Cordero, Jorge; Molina-González, Diana; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    A total of 55 enterococci (45 Enterococcus faecium, 7 Enterococcus faecalis, and three Enterococcus durans) isolated from the meat of wild game animals (roe deer, boar, rabbit, pheasant, and pigeon) in North-Western Spain were tested for susceptibility to 14 antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method. All strains showed a multi-resistant phenotype (resistance to between three and 10 antimicrobials). The strains exhibited high percentages of resistance to erythromycin (89.1%), tetracycline (67.3%), ciprofloxacin (92.7%), nitrofurantoin (67.3%), and quinupristin-dalfopristin (81.8%). The lowest values (9.1%) were observed for high-level resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The average number of resistances per strain was 5.8 for E. faecium isolates, 7.9 for E. faecalis, and 5.7 for E. durans. Genes encoding antimicrobial resistance and virulence were studied by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 (57.7%) of the 26 vancomycin-resistant isolates harboured the vanA gene. Other resistance genes detected included vanB, erm(B) and/or erm(C), tet(L) and/or tet(M), acc(6')-aph(2″), and aph(3')-IIIa in strains resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and kanamycin, respectively. Specific genes of the Tn5397 transposon were detected in 54.8% of the tet(M)-positive enterococci. Nine virulence factors (gelE, agg, ace, cpd, frs, esp, hyl, efaAfs and efaAfm) were studied. All virulence genes, with the exception of the frs gene, were found to be present in the enterococcal isolates. At least one virulence gene was detected in 20.0% of E. faecium, 71.4% of E. faecalis and 33.3% of E. durans isolates, with ace and cpd being the most frequently detected genes (6 isolates each). This suggests that wild game meat might play a role in the spreading through the food chain of enterococci with antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants to humans. PMID:26678143

  19. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. PMID:26026835

  20. Virulence Gene Regulation by l-Arabinose in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Cota, Ignacio; Casadesús, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of the intestinal epithelium is a critical step in Salmonella enterica infection and requires functions encoded in the gene cluster known as Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1). Expression of SPI-1 genes is repressed by l-arabinose, and not by other pentoses. Transport of l-arabinose is necessary to repress SPI-1; however, repression is independent of l-arabinose metabolism and of the l-arabinose-responsive regulator AraC. SPI-1 repression by l-arabinose is exerted at a single target, HilD, and the mechanism appears to be post-translational. As a consequence of SPI-1 repression, l-arabinose reduces translocation of SPI-1 effectors to epithelial cells and decreases Salmonella invasion in vitro. These observations reveal a hitherto unknown role of l-arabinose in gene expression control and raise the possibility that Salmonella may use L-arabinose as an environmental signal. PMID:25991823

  1. Expression of a Wheat Gene Encoding a Type-1 Lipid Transfer Protein is Suppressed by Virulent Hessian Fly Larval Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of wheat to attack by the Hessian fly is mediated by a gene-for-gene recognition involving wheat R genes and Hessian fly avr genes. Interactions are characterized as compatible when virulent Hessian fly larvae establish feeding sites and survive on wheat plants and incompatible when avi...

  2. First Detection of Puccinia hordei virulence to barley leaf rust resistance gene Rph3 and combination with virulence to Rph7 in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei Otth., has been problematic in United States barley, Hordeum vulgare L., production in the Mid-Atlantic coast region and California. During the early 1990’s P. hordei pathoytpes with virulence to resistance gene Rph7 caused average yield losses from 6-16%....

  3. Phosphorylation events in the multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly influence global gene expression and virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J; Musser, James M; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2015-06-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga and altered metabolic capabilities conferred by Mga-regulated genes. We assessed the phosphorylation status of Mga in GAS cell lysates with Phos-tag gels. The results revealed that Mga is phosphorylated at histidines in vivo. Using phosphomimetic and nonphosphomimetic substitutions at conserved phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase regulation domain (PRD) histidines of Mga, we demonstrated that phosphorylation-mimicking aspartate replacements at H207 and H273 of PRD-1 and at H327 of PRD-2 are inhibitory to Mga-dependent gene expression. Conversely, non-phosphorylation-mimicking alanine substitutions at H273 and H327 relieved inhibition, and the mutant strains exhibited a wild-type phenotype. The opposing regulatory profiles observed for phosphorylation- and non-phosphorylation-mimicking substitutions at H273 extended to global gene regulation by Mga. Consistent with these observations, the H273D mutant strain attenuated GAS virulence, whereas the H273A strain exhibited a wild-type virulence phenotype in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. Together, our results demonstrate phosphoregulation of Mga and its direct link to virulence in M59 GAS strains. These data also lay a foundation toward understanding how naturally occurring gain-of-function variations in mga, such as H201R, may confer an advantage to the pathogen and contribute to M59 GAS pathogenesis. PMID:25824840

  4. Phosphorylation Events in the Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Influence Global Gene Expression and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J.; Musser, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga and altered metabolic capabilities conferred by Mga-regulated genes. We assessed the phosphorylation status of Mga in GAS cell lysates with Phos-tag gels. The results revealed that Mga is phosphorylated at histidines in vivo. Using phosphomimetic and nonphosphomimetic substitutions at conserved phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase regulation domain (PRD) histidines of Mga, we demonstrated that phosphorylation-mimicking aspartate replacements at H207 and H273 of PRD-1 and at H327 of PRD-2 are inhibitory to Mga-dependent gene expression. Conversely, non-phosphorylation-mimicking alanine substitutions at H273 and H327 relieved inhibition, and the mutant strains exhibited a wild-type phenotype. The opposing regulatory profiles observed for phosphorylation- and non-phosphorylation-mimicking substitutions at H273 extended to global gene regulation by Mga. Consistent with these observations, the H273D mutant strain attenuated GAS virulence, whereas the H273A strain exhibited a wild-type virulence phenotype in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. Together, our results demonstrate phosphoregulation of Mga and its direct link to virulence in M59 GAS strains. These data also lay a foundation toward understanding how naturally occurring gain-of-function variations in mga, such as H201R, may confer an advantage to the pathogen and contribute to M59 GAS pathogenesis. PMID:25824840

  5. A Nonessential African Swine Fever Virus Gene UK Is a Significant Virulence Determinant in Domestic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zsak, L.; Caler, E.; Lu, Z.; Kutish, G. F.; Neilan, J. G.; Rock, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the right variable genomic region of the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate E70 revealed a novel gene, UK, that is immediately upstream from the previously described ASFV virulence-associated gene NL-S (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, G. F. Kutish, J. G. Neilan, and D. L. Rock, J. Virol. 70:8865–8871, 1996). UK, transcriptionally oriented toward the right end of the genome, predicts a protein of 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa. Searches of genetic databases did not find significant similarity between UK and other known genes. Sequence analysis of the UK genes from several pathogenic ASFVs from Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa demonstrated that this gene was highly conserved among diverse pathogenic isolates, including those from both tick and pig sources. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the UK protein specifically precipitated a 15-kDa protein from ASFV-infected macrophage cell cultures as early as 2 h postinfection. A recombinant UK gene deletion mutant, ΔUK, and its revertant, UK-R, were constructed from the E70 isolate to study gene function. Although deletion of UK did not affect the growth characteristics of the virus in macrophage cell cultures, ΔUK exhibited reduced virulence in infected pigs. While mortality among parental E70- or UK-R-infected animals was 100%, all ΔUK-infected pigs survived infection. Fever responses were comparable in E70-, UK-R-, and ΔUK-infected groups; however, ΔUK-infected animals exhibited significant, 100- to 1,000-fold, reductions in viremia titers. These data indicate that the highly conserved UK gene of ASFV, while being nonessential for growth in macrophages in vitro, is an important viral virulence determinant for domestic pigs. PMID:9444996

  6. A nonessential African swine fever virus gene UK is a significant virulence determinant in domestic swine.

    PubMed

    Zsak, L; Caler, E; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Neilan, J G; Rock, D L

    1998-02-01

    Sequence analysis of the right variable genomic region of the pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate E70 revealed a novel gene, UK, that is immediately upstream from the previously described ASFV virulence-associated gene NL-S (L. Zsak, Z. Lu, G. F. Kutish, J. G. Neilan, and D. L. Rock, J. Virol. 70:8865-8871, 1996). UK, transcriptionally oriented toward the right end of the genome, predicts a protein of 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.7 kDa. Searches of genetic databases did not find significant similarity between UK and other known genes. Sequence analysis of the UK genes from several pathogenic ASFVs from Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa demonstrated that this gene was highly conserved among diverse pathogenic isolates, including those from both tick and pig sources. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the UK protein specifically precipitated a 15-kDa protein from ASFV-infected macrophage cell cultures as early as 2 h postinfection. A recombinant UK gene deletion mutant, deltaUK, and its revertant, UK-R, were constructed from the E70 isolate to study gene function. Although deletion of UK did not affect the growth characteristics of the virus in macrophage cell cultures, deltaUK exhibited reduced virulence in infected pigs. While mortality among parental E70- or UK-R-infected animals was 100%, all deltaUK-infected pigs survived infection. Fever responses were comparable in E70-, UK-R-, and deltaUK-infected groups; however, deltaUK-infected animals exhibited significant, 100- to 1,000-fold, reductions in viremia titers. These data indicate that the highly conserved UK gene of ASFV, while being nonessential for growth in macrophages in vitro, is an important viral virulence determinant for domestic pigs. PMID:9444996

  7. Differential activation of a Candida albicans virulence gene family during infection

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Peter; Kretschmar, Marianne; Nichterlein, Thomas; Hof, Herbert; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is a harmless commensal in most healthy people, but it causes superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans can colonize or infect virtually all body sites because of its high adaptability to different host niches, which involves the activation of appropriate sets of genes in response to complex environmental signals. We have used an in vivo expression technology that is based on genetic recombination as a reporter of gene expression to monitor the differential activation of individual members of a gene family encoding secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps), which have been implicated in C. albicans virulence, at various stages of the infection process. Our results demonstrate that SAP expression depends on the type of infection, with different SAP isogenes being activated during systemic disease as compared with mucosal infection. In addition, the activation of individual SAP genes depends on the progress of the infection, some members of the gene family being induced immediately after contact with the host, whereas others are expressed only after dissemination into deep organs. In the latter case, the number of invading organisms determines whether induction of a virulence gene is necessary for successful infection. The in vivo expression technology allows the elucidation of gene expression patterns at different stages of the fungus–host interaction, thereby revealing regulatory adaptation mechanisms that make C. albicans the most successful fungal pathogen of humans and, at the same time, identifying the stage of an infection at which certain virulence genes may play a role. PMID:10811913

  8. Intracellular and Interstitial Expression of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Precancerous Intestinal Metaplasia and Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Semino-Mora, Cristina; Doi, Sonia Q.; Marty, Aileen; Simko, Vlado; Carlstedt, Ingemar; Dubois, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer are associated with Helicobacter pylori, but the bacterium often is undetectable in these lesions. To unravel this apparent paradox, IM, H. pylori presence, and the expression of H. pylori virulence genes were quantified concurrently using histologic testing, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. H. pylori was detected inside metaplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic epithelial cells, and cagA and babA2 expression was colocalized. Importantly, expression of cagA was significantly higher in patients with IM and adenocarcinoma than in control subjects. The preneoplastic “acidic” MUC2 mucin was detected only in the presence of H. pylori, and MUC2 expression was higher in patients with IM, dysplasia, and cancer. These novel findings are compatible with the hypothesis that all stages of gastric carcinogenesis are fostered by persistent intracellular expression of H. pylori virulence genes, especially cagA inside MUC2-producing precancerous gastric cells and pleomorphic cancer cells. PMID:12695995

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Virulent and Nonvirulent Entamoeba Species: Potential Implications for Amebic Pathogenesis †

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ryan C.; Singh, Upinder

    2006-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes colitis and liver abscesses. Several Entamoeba species and strains with differing levels of virulence have been identified. E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS is a virulent strain, E. histolytica Rahman is a nonvirulent strain, and Entamoeba dispar is a nonvirulent species. We used an E. histolytica DNA microarray consisting of 2,110 genes to assess the transcriptional differences between these species/strains with the goal of identifying genes whose expression correlated with a virulence phenotype. We found 415 genes expressed at lower levels in E. dispar and 32 genes with lower expression in E. histolytica Rahman than in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Overall, 29 genes had decreased expression in both the nonvirulent species/strains than the virulent E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Interestingly, a number of genes with potential roles in stress response and virulence had decreased expression in either one or both nonvirulent Entamoeba species/strains. These included genes encoding Fe hydrogenase (9.m00419), peroxiredoxin (176.m00112), type A flavoprotein (6.m00467), lysozyme (6.m00454), sphingomyelinase C (29.m00231), and a hypothetical protein with homology to both a Plasmodium sporozoite threonine-asparagine-rich protein (STARP) and a streptococcal hemagglutinin (238.m00054). The function of these genes in Entamoeba and their specific roles in parasite virulence need to be determined. We also found that a number of the non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons (EhLINEs and EhSINEs), which have been shown to modulate gene expression and genomic evolution, had lower expression in the nonvirulent species/strains than in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Our results, identifying expression profiles and patterns indicative of a virulence phenotype, may be useful in characterizing the transcriptional framework of virulence. PMID:16368989

  10. Diagnostic Strategy for Identifying Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Based on Four Patterns of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Brigitte; Brée, Annie; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Biet, François; Oswald, Eric; Mainil, Jacques; Blanco, Jorge; Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the identification of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains, an extensive characterization of 1,491 E. coli isolates was conducted, based on serotyping, virulence genotyping, and experimental pathogenicity for chickens. The isolates originated from lesions of avian colibacillosis (n = 1,307) or from the intestines of healthy animals (n = 184) from France, Spain, and Belgium. A subset (460 isolates) of this collection was defined according to their virulence for chicks. Six serogroups (O1, O2, O5, O8, O18, and O78) accounted for 56.5% of the APEC isolates and 22.5% of the nonpathogenic isolates. Thirteen virulence genes were more frequently present in APEC isolates than in nonpathogenic isolates but, individually, none of them could allow the identification of an isolate as an APEC strain. In order to take into account the diversity of APEC strains, a statistical analysis based on a tree-modeling method was therefore conducted on the sample of 460 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. This resulted in the identification of four different associations of virulence genes that enables the identification of 70.2% of the pathogenic strains. Pathogenic strains were identified with an error margin of 4.3%. The reliability of the link between these four virulence patterns and pathogenicity for chickens was validated on a sample of 395 E. coli isolates from the collection. The genotyping method described here allowed the identification of more APEC isolates with greater reliability than the classical serotyping methods currently used in veterinary laboratories. PMID:22378905

  11. Gene deletion strategy to examine the involvement of the two chondroitin lyases in Flavobacterium columnare virulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Zhang, Xiao Lin; Huang, Bei; Liu, Zhi Xin; Xie, Hai Xia; Zhang, Jin; McBride, Mark J; Nie, Pin

    2015-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is an important bacterial pathogen of freshwater fish that causes high mortality of infected fish and heavy economic losses in aquaculture. The pathogenesis of this bacterium is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of efficient methods for genetic manipulation. In this study, a gene deletion strategy was developed and used to determine the relationship between the production of chondroitin lyases and virulence. The F. johnsoniae ompA promoter (PompA) was fused to sacB to construct a counterselectable marker for F. columnare. F. columnare carrying PompA-sacB failed to grow on media containing 10% sucrose. A suicide vector carrying PompA-sacB was constructed, and a gene deletion strategy was developed. Using this approach, the chondroitin lyase-encoding genes, cslA and cslB, were deleted. The ΔcslA and ΔcslB mutants were both partially deficient in digestion of chondroitin sulfate A, whereas a double mutant (ΔcslA ΔcslB) was completely deficient in chondroitin lyase activity. Cells of F. columnare wild-type strain G4 and of the chondroitin lyase-deficient ΔcslA ΔcslB mutant exhibited similar levels of virulence toward grass carp in single-strain infections. Coinfections, however, revealed a competitive advantage for the wild type over the chondroitin lyase mutant. The results indicate that chondroitin lyases are not essential virulence factors of F. columnare but may contribute to the ability of the pathogen to compete and cause disease in natural infections. The gene deletion method developed in this study may be employed to investigate the virulence factors of this bacterium and may have wide application in many other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. PMID:26253667

  12. Monstrous Mycobacterial Lipids.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Jessica; Moody, D Branch

    2016-02-18

    When it comes to lipid diversity, no bacterial genus approaches Mycobacterium. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Burbaud et al. (2016) provide a multi-genic working model for the biosynthesis of trehalose polyphleate (TPP), one of the largest known lipids in mycobacteria. They demonstrate that this lipid is made by diverse mycobacterial species, including those of medical importance. PMID:26971870

  13. Reduced diversity and increased virulence-gene carriage in intestinal enterobacteria of coeliac children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Nadal, Inmaculada; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Calabuig, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathology triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the composition of the gut microbiota that could be involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether intestinal Enterobacteriaceae populations of active and non-active coeliac patients and healthy children differ in diversity and virulence-gene carriage, so as to establish a possible link between the pathogenic potential of enterobacteria and the disease. Methods Enterobacteriaceae clones were isolated on VRBD agar from faecal samples of 31 subjects (10 active coeliac patients, 10 symptom-free coeliac patients and 11 healthy controls) and identified at species level by the API 20E system. Escherichia coli clones were classified into four phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D and the prevalence of eight virulence-associated genes (type-1 fimbriae [fimA], P fimbriae [papC], S fimbriae [sfaD/E], Dr haemagglutinin [draA], haemolysin [hlyA], capsule K1 [neuB], capsule K5 [KfiC] and aerobactin [iutA]) was determined by multiplex PCR. Results A total of 155 Enterobacteriaceae clones were isolated. Non-E. coli clones were more commonly isolated in healthy children than in coeliac patients. The four phylogenetic E. coli groups were equally distributed in healthy children, while in both coeliac patients most commensal isolates belonged to group A. Within the virulent groups, B2 was the most prevalent in active coeliac disease children, while D was the most prevalent in non-active coeliac patients. E coli clones of the virulent phylogenetic groups (B2+D) from active and non-active coeliac patients carried a higher number of virulence genes than those from healthy individuals. Prevalence of P fimbriae (papC), capsule K5 (sfaD/E) and haemolysin (hlyA) genes was higher in E. coli isolated from active and non-active coeliac children than in those from control subjects. Conclusion This

  14. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  15. Growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in human plasma: impacts on virulence and metabolic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marie-Laure; Chauvaux, Sylvie; Dessein, Rodrigue; Laurans, Caroline; Frangeul, Lionel; Lacroix, Céline; Schiavo, Angèle; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Foulon, Jeannine; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Médigue, Claudine; Carniel, Elisabeth; Simonet, Michel; Marceau, Michaël

    2008-01-01

    Background In man, infection by the Gram-negative enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is usually limited to the terminal ileum. However, in immunocompromised patients, the microorganism may disseminate from the digestive tract and thus cause a systemic infection with septicemia. Results To gain insight into the metabolic pathways and virulence factors expressed by the bacterium at the blood stage of pseudotuberculosis, we compared the overall gene transcription patterns (the transcriptome) of bacterial cells cultured in either human plasma or Luria-Bertani medium. The most marked plasma-triggered metabolic consequence in Y. pseudotuberculosis was the switch to high glucose consumption, which is reminiscent of the acetogenic pathway (known as "glucose overflow") in Escherichia coli. However, upregulation of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes suggests that (in contrast to E. coli) acetate may be further metabolized in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our data also indicate that the bloodstream environment can regulate major virulence genes (positively or negatively); the yadA adhesin gene and most of the transcriptional units of the pYV-encoded type III secretion apparatus were found to be upregulated, whereas transcription of the pH6 antigen locus was strongly repressed. Conclusion Our results suggest that plasma growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis is responsible for major transcriptional regulatory events and prompts key metabolic reorientations within the bacterium, which may in turn have an impact on virulence. PMID:19055764

  16. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry and swine

    PubMed Central

    Furian, Thales Quedi; Borges, Karen Apellanis; Laviniki, Vanessa; da Silveira Rocha, Silvio Luis; de Almeida, Camila Neves; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; de Souza Moraes, Hamilton Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida. PMID:26887247

  17. Expression of the Salmonella virulence plasmid gene spvB in cultured macrophages and nonphagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Fierer, J; Eckmann, L; Fang, F; Pfeifer, C; Finlay, B B; Guiney, D

    1993-12-01

    Certain serotypes of salmonellae carry virulence plasmids that greatly enhance the pathogenicity of these bacteria in experimentally infected mice. This phenotype is largely attributable to the 8-kb spv regulon. However, spv genes are not expressed while bacteria grow in vitro. We now show that spvB, which is required for virulence, is expressed rapidly after Salmonella dublin is ingested by cultured J774 and murine peritoneal macrophages and that expression is not affected by the alkalinization of intracellular vesicles. The level of induction of spvB is reduced when macrophages are pretreated with gamma interferon. spvB is also expressed in human and canine epithelial cell lines and a human hepatoma cell line. In all cases, spvB expression is dependent on the spvR gene, just as it is in stationary-phase cultures in vitro. These data suggest that spv virulence genes are expressed by intracellular salmonellae in vivo in response to a signal that is common to the intracellular compartments of cells that are invaded by salmonellae. PMID:8225598

  18. Virulence genes in a probiotic E. coli product with a recorded long history of safe use

    PubMed Central

    Zschüttig, Anke; Beimfohr, Claudia; Geske, Thomas; Auerbach, Christian; Cook, Helen; Zimmermann, Kurt; Gunzer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes, whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years. The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed. A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli. PMID:25883796

  19. Relationship of biofilm formation and different virulence genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Sargol; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Nahai, Mohammad Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Nori, Roghaya; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium is one of the main causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTI) worldwide. The ability of this bacterium to form biofilms on medical devices such as catheters plays an important role in the development of UTI. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between virulence factors and biofilm formation of E. coli isolates responsible for urinary tract infection. Materials and methods: A total of 100 E. coli isolates isolated from patients with UTI were collected and characterized by routine bacteriological methods. In vitro biofilm formation by these isolates was determined using the 96-well microtiter-plate test, and the presence of fimA, papC, and hly virulence genes was examined by PCR assay. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software. Results: From 100 E. coli isolates isolated from UTIs, 92% were shown to be biofilm positive. The genes papC, fimA, and hly were detected in 43%, 94% and 26% of isolates, respectively. Biofilm formation in isolates that expressed papC, fimA, and hly genes was 100%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. A significant relationship was found between presence of the papC gene and biofilm formation in E. coli isolates isolated from UTI (P<0.01), but there was no statistically significant correlation between presence of fimA and hly genes with biofilm formation (P<0.072, P<0.104). Conclusion: Results showed that fimA and hly genes do not seem to be necessary or sufficient for the production of biofilm in E. coli, but the presence of papC correlates with increased biofilm formation of urinary tract isolates. Overall, the presence of fimA, papC, and hly virulence genes coincides with in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic E. coli isolates. PMID:26213679

  20. Patterns of virulence gene expression differ between biofilm and tissue communities of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu Hong; Caparon, Michael G

    2005-09-01

    The ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to form biofilm-like bacterial communities during infection of soft tissue has suggested that the capacity to produce biofilm may be important for pathogenesis. To examine this relationship, a panel of mutants was evaluated for their ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces in several assays. Several established virulence factors were crucial for biofilm formation, including the M protein, required for initial cell-surface interactions, and the hyaluronic acid capsule, required for subsequent maturation into a three-dimensional structure. Mutants lacking the transcription regulators Mga and CovR (CsrR) also failed to form biofilm. Comparison of transcriptional profiles revealed differential regulation of approximately 25% of the genome upon adaptation to biofilm. During infection of zebrafish, several virulence factors (notably cysteine protease and streptokinase) were regulated in a biofilm-like manner. However, the overall profile of virulence factor expression indicated that tissue communities have a pattern of gene expression different from biofilm. Taken together, these data show that while biofilm and tissue communities have many characteristics in common, that biofilm reproduces only a subset of the myriad cues used by tissue communities for regulation of virulence. PMID:16135223

  1. Mutually Exclusive Expression of Virulence Genes by Malaria Parasites Is Regulated Independently of Antigen Production

    PubMed Central

    Dzikowski, Ron; Frank, Matthias; Deitsch, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The primary virulence determinant of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite–infected cells is a family of heterogeneous surface receptors collectively referred to as PfEMP1. These proteins are encoded by a large, polymorphic gene family called var. The family contains approximately 60 individual genes, which are subject to strict, mutually exclusive expression, with the single expressed var gene determining the antigenic, cytoadherent, and virulence phenotype of the infected cell. The mutually exclusive expression pattern of var genes is imperative for the parasite's ability to evade the host's immune response and is similar to the process of “allelic exclusion” described for mammalian Ig and odorant receptor genes. In mammalian systems, mutually exclusive expression is ensured by negative feedback inhibition mediated by production of a functional protein. To investigate how expression of the var gene family is regulated, we have created transgenic lines of parasites in which expression of individual var loci can be manipulated. Here we show that no such negative feedback system exists in P. falciparum and that this process is dependent solely on the transcriptional regulatory elements immediately adjacent to each gene. Transgenic parasites that are selected to express a var gene in which the PfEMP1 coding region has been replaced by a drug-selectable marker silence all other var genes in the genome, thus effectively knocking out all PfEMP1 expression and indicating that the modified gene is still recognized as a member of the var gene family. Mutually exclusive expression in P. falciparum is therefore regulated exclusively at the level of transcription, and a functional PfEMP1 protein is not necessary for viability or for proper gene regulation in cultured parasites. PMID:16518466

  2. Network analysis of S. aureus response to ramoplanin reveals modules for virulence factors and resistance mechanisms and characteristic novel genes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Devika; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2015-12-10

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and ramoplanin is an antimicrobial attributed for effective treatment. The goal of this study was to examine the transcriptomic profiles of ramoplanin sensitive and resistant S. aureus to identify putative modules responsible for virulence and resistance-mechanisms and its characteristic novel genes. The dysregulated genes were used to reconstruct protein functional association networks for virulence-factors and resistance-mechanisms individually. Strong link between metabolic-pathways and development of virulence/resistance is suggested. We identified 15 putative modules of virulence factors. Six hypothetical genes were annotated with novel virulence activity among which SACOL0281 was discovered to be an essential virulence factor EsaD. The roles of MazEF toxin-antitoxin system, SACOL0202/SACOL0201 two-component system and that of amino-sugar and nucleotide-sugar metabolism in virulence are also suggested. In addition, 14 putative modules of resistance mechanisms including modules of ribosomal protein-coding genes and metabolic pathways such as biotin-synthesis, TCA-cycle, riboflavin-biosynthesis, peptidoglycan-biosynthesis etc. are also indicated. PMID:26255091

  3. Integrated whole-genome screening for Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes using multiple disease models reveals that pathogenicity is host specific.

    PubMed

    Dubern, Jean-Frédéric; Cigana, Cristina; De Simone, Maura; Lazenby, James; Juhas, Mario; Schwager, Stephan; Bianconi, Irene; Döring, Gerd; Eberl, Leo; Williams, Paul; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Cámara, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multi-host opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of diseases because of the armoury of virulence factors it produces, and it is difficult to eradicate because of its intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Using an integrated whole-genome approach, we searched for P. aeruginosa virulence genes with multi-host relevance. We constructed a random library of 57 360 Tn5 mutants in P. aeruginosa PAO1-L and screened it in vitro for those showing pleiotropic effects in virulence phenotypes (reduced swarming, exo-protease and pyocyanin production). A set of these pleiotropic mutants were assayed for reduced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, human cell lines and mice. Surprisingly, the screening revealed that the virulence of the majority of P. aeruginosa mutants varied between disease models, suggesting that virulence is dependent on the disease model used and hence the host environment. Genomic analysis revealed that these virulence-related genes encoded proteins from almost all functional classes, which were conserved among P. aeruginosa strains. Thus, we provide strong evidence that although P. aeruginosa is capable of infecting a wide range of hosts, many of its virulence determinants are host specific. These findings have important implication when searching for novel anti-virulence targets to develop new treatments against P. aeruginosa. PMID:25845292

  4. Molecular analysis of Helicobacter pylori virulent-associated genes in hepatobiliary patients

    PubMed Central

    Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Chomvarin, Chariya; Sripa, Banchob; Chau-in, Siri; Pugkhem, Ake; Namwat, Wises; Wongboot, Warawan; Khampoosa, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Helicobacter pylori virulence-associated genes in hepatobiliary patients, including vacA, iceA, babA2, cagA and cagE, have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate these genes and the association of those and the clinical outcomes in hepatobiliary diseases. Methods Eighty H. pylori-PCR-positive cases were obtained from hepatobiliary patients, representing both cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (n = 58) and cholelithiasis (n = 22). The diversity of virulence genes was examined by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of cagA was determined using the maximum parsimony method. Results The vacAs1a + c/m1, iceA1 and babA2 genes were the most predominant genotypes in both CCA and cholelithiasis patients. The cagA and cagE genes were found significantly more frequently in patients with CCA than those with cholelithiasis (P < 0.05). The cagA positive samples were the Western-type cagA and showed that almost all of the detected sequences in Thai hepatobiliary and Thai gastric cancer patients were classified in the same cluster but separated from the cluster of Japan and other countries. Conclusions The cagA and cagE genes may be associated in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary diseases, especially of CCA. Besides the bacterial variation, other host factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary cancer. PMID:23043664

  5. Prevalence of ten putative virulence genes in the emerging foodborne pathogen Arcobacter isolated from food products.

    PubMed

    Girbau, Cecilia; Guerra, Cristian; Martínez-Malaxetxebarria, Irati; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2015-12-01

    Arcobacter spp. are considered to be emerging food- and waterborne pathogens for both humans and animals. However, their virulence mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study the presence of ten virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, mviN, pldA, irgA, tlyA and iroE) was assessed in a set of 47 strains of Arcobacter butzleri, 10 of Arcobacter cryaerophilus and 1 Arcobacter skirrowii strain recovered from different food products (pork, chicken, beef, milk, clams and mussels). Overall, the genes cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA and tlyA were detected in all A. butzleri and A. skirrowii strains. Lower detection rates were observed for irgA, iroE, hecA and hecB. The genes hecB and iroE were detected neither in A. cryaerophilus nor in A. skirrowii. The genes hecA and irgA were not detected in A. skirrowii. It was noteworthy that the genes hecA and hecB were significantly (P < 0.05) highly detected in A. butzleri strains isolated from clams compared with strains isolated from milk and chicken. Therefore, our findings underline clams as a source of A. butzleri strains with high prevalence of putative virulence genes. This could be hazardous to human health, especially because these bivalves are usually consumed raw or undercooked. PMID:26338128

  6. Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

  7. Human Serum Promotes Candida albicans Biofilm Growth and Virulence Gene Expression on Silicone Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Yuthika Hemamala; Cheung, Becky P. K.; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.; Yeung, Shadow K. W.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. Methods We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum. The growth of planktonic and biofilm cells of both strains was monitored at three time points by a tetrazolium salt reduction assay and by scanning electron microscopy. We also analyzed by RT-PCR its expression of the virulence-related genes ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2, PLC and PLD. Results At each time point, planktonic cells of WT strain cultured in yeast nitrogen base displayed a much higher expression of EAP1 and HWP1, and a moderately higher ALS3 expression, than HM cells. In planktonic cells, expression of the ten SAP genes was higher in the WT strain initially, but were highly expressed in the HM strain by 48 h. Biofilm growth of both strains on SB was promoted in the presence of human serum than in its absence. Significant upregulation of ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1, SAP4, SAP6 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2 and PLC was observed for WT biofilms grown on serum-treated SB discs for at least one time point, compared with biofilms on serum-free SB discs. Conclusions Human serum stimulates C. albicans biofilm growth on SB discs and upregulates the expression of virulence genes, particularly adhesion genes ALS3 and HWP1, and hydrolase-encoding genes SAP, PLB1 and PLB2. This response is likely to promote the colonization of this versatile pathogen within the human host. PMID:23704884

  8. Identification of virulence genes in the crucifer anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum by insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Zhao, Dian; Zheng, Lu; Hsiang, Tom; Wei, Yangdou; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Junbin

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying virulence of Colletotrichum higginsianum on Arabidopsis thaliana, a T-DNA insertion mutant library of C. higginsianum, the causal agent of crucifer anthracnose, was established using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among 875 transformants tested for virulence on Arabidopsis, six mutants with altered virulence, including an appressorial melanin-deficient mutant T734, two mutants defective in penetration, T45 and B30, and three mutants, T679, T732 and T801, that cause hypersensitive reactions on host Arabidopsis, were obtained. Southern blot analysis indicated that the mutants T732 and T734 harbored single-site T-DNA integrations, while B30 harbored two T-DNA insertions. Border flanking sequences of T-DNAs from these mutants were recovered by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Sequence analyses revealed that single T-DNA insertions in mutant T734 targeted the coding region of a gene with unknown function, and in mutant T732 targeted a gene encoding a copper amine oxidase. The two T-DNA insertion sites in mutant B30 were found in the coding region of a gene encoding an exosome component and in the upstream region of a DUF221-domain gene. None of these genes have previously been implicated in virulence of the phytopathogenic fungi. Among these avirulent mutants, T734 showed altered color in colony growth and produced melanin-deficient, albino appressoria. The T-DNA insert in T734 was detected in the coding region of a gene named C. higginsianum melanin-deficiency gene (Ch-MEL1), which is highly similar to a gene encoding a hypothetical protein in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (GenBank ELA33048). To validate whether the Ch-MEL1 gene was associated with virulence of the mutant T734, a targeted gene disruption and complementation approach was used. The appressoria of ▵Ch-mel1 null mutants were defective in melanization and failed to penetrate

  9. Virulence Genes in Expanded-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant and -Susceptible Escherichia coli Isolates from Treated and Untreated Chickens.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Delannoy, S; Bougeard, S; Larvor, E; Jouy, E; Balan, O; Fach, P; Kempf, I

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated antimicrobial resistance, screened for the presence of virulence genes involved in intestinal infections, and determined phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolates from untreated poultry and poultry treated with ceftiofur, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin. Results show that none of the 76 isolates appeared to be Shiga toxin-producing E. coli or enteropathogenic E. coli. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors/toxins tested (ehxA, cdt, heat-stable enterotoxin [ST], and heat-labile enterotoxin [LT]). The few virulence genes harbored in isolates generally did not correlate with isolate antimicrobial resistance or treatment status. However, some of the virulence genes were significantly associated with certain phylogenetic groups. PMID:26666927

  10. Virulence genes regulated at the transcriptional level by Ca2+ in Yersinia pestis include structural genes for outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Straley, S C; Bowmer, W S

    1986-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has a virulence determinant called the low-Ca2+ response (Lcr+ phenotype) that confers on the bacterium Ca2+ dependence for growth at 37 degrees C and expression of V antigen. This virulence determinant is common to the three species of Yersinia and is mediated by Lcr plasmids (called pCD in Y. pestis). In this study, we generated insertions of Mu dI1(Ap lac) in pCD1 of Y. pestis KIM, screened for cells showing transcriptional regulation by Ca2+, and obtained inserts that define at least four pCD1 genes. Their patterns of transcription under different growth conditions closely paralleled the pattern of expression of the V antigen. We tested for expression of Lcr-specific yersinial outer membrane proteins (Yops) by the pCD1::Mu dI1(Ap lac) plasmids. Four of the inserts each eliminated expression of a different Yop; one of these Yops was unique to Y. pestis. Two of the insertions affecting Yops caused avirulence, and one caused strongly decreased virulence of Y. pestis in mice. These data indicate that Yops, like the V antigen, are virulence attributes regulated in the low-Ca2+ response. Images PMID:3002984

  11. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water. PMID:26757724

  12. Porcine E. coli: Virulence-Associated Genes, Resistance Genes and Adhesion and Probiotic Activity Tested by a New Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jörg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K.; Nicholson, Bryon; Römer, Antje; Frömmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H.; Schröder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars. PMID:23658605

  13. Impact of Hfq on Global Gene Expression and Virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Ko; Lu, Min-Chi; Liu, Li-Cheng; Lin, Ching-Ting; Lai, Yi-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for a wide range of clinical symptoms. How this bacterium adapts itself to ever-changing host milieu is still a mystery. Recently, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have received considerable attention for their functions in fine-tuning gene expression at a post-transcriptional level to promote bacterial adaptation. Here we demonstrate that Hfq, an RNA-binding protein, which facilitates interactions between sRNAs and their mRNA targets, is critical for K. pneumoniae virulence. A K. pneumoniae mutant lacking hfq (Δhfq) failed to disseminate into extra-intestinal organs and was attenuated on induction of a systemic infection in a mouse model. The absence of Hfq was associated with alteration in composition of envelope proteins, increased production of capsular polysaccharides, and decreased resistance to H2O2, heat shock, and UV irradiation. Microarray-based transcriptome analyses revealed that 897 genes involved in numerous cellular processes were deregulated in the Δhfq strain. Interestingly, Hfq appeared to govern expression of many genes indirectly by affecting sigma factor RpoS and RpoE, since 19.5% (175/897) and 17.3% (155/897) of Hfq-dependent genes belong to the RpoE- and RpoS-regulon, respectively. These results indicate that Hfq regulates global gene expression at multiple levels to modulate the physiological fitness and virulence potential of K. pneumoniae. PMID:21779404

  14. Use of a Continuous-Flow Anaerobic Culture To Characterize Enteric Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Sheikh, Jalaluddin; Davis, Suzanne; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Nataro, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We developed an in vitro culture method to characterize the expression of bacterial genes under conditions mimicking the colonic environment. Our culture system (the intestinal simulator) comprised a continuous-flow anaerobic culture which was inoculated with fecal samples from healthy volunteers. As a test organism, we employed enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an emerging diarrheal pathogen that is thought to cause infection in both the small and large intestines. After the simulator culture achieved equilibrium conditions, we inoculated the system with prototype EAEC strain 042 and assessed the expression of three EAEC virulence-related genes. We focused particularly on expression of aggR, which encodes a global transcriptional regulator of EAEC virulence factors, and two AggR-regulated genes. By using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we showed that aggR expression in the simulator is increased 3- to 10-fold when 042 is grown under low-pH (5.5 to 6.0) conditions, compared with results with neutral pH (7.0). Interestingly, however, this effect was seen only when the strain was grown in the presence of commensal bacteria. We also found that expression of aggR is 10- to 20-fold higher at low NaCl concentrations, and this effect was also observed only in the presence of commensal bacteria. Using coculture and conditioned-media experiments, we identified specific strains of Enterococcus and Clostridium that upregulated aggR expression; in contrast, strains of Lactobacillus and Veillonella downregulated aggR expression. Our data provide new insights into regulation of virulence genes in EAEC and suggest the utility of intestinal simulation cultures in characterizing enteric gene regulation. PMID:15213120

  15. Virulence Gene Profiles of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From Iranian Hospital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Nastaran; Momtaz, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The most common hospital-acquired pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a multidrug resistant bacterium causing systemic infections. Objectives: The present study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various types of hospital infections in Iran. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred and seventeen human infection specimens were collected from Baqiyatallah and Payambaran hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The clinical samples were cultured immediately and samples positive for P. aeruginosa were analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence genes using PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion methodology with Müeller–Hinton agar. Results: Fifty-eight out of 127 (45.66%) male infection specimens and 44 out of 90 (48.88%) female infection specimens harbored P. aeruginosa. Also, 65% (in male specimens) and 21% (in female specimens) of respiratory system infections were positive for P. aeruginosa, which was a high rate. The genes encoding exoenzyme S (67.64%) and phospholipases C (45.09%) were the most common virulence genes found among the strains. The incidences of various β-lactams encoding genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaDHA, and blaVEB were 94.11%, 16.66%, 15.68%, 18.62%, 21.56%, and 17.64%, respectively. The most commonly detected fluoroquinolones encoding gene was gyrA (15. 68%). High resistance levels to penicillin (100%), tetracycline (90.19%), streptomycin (64.70%), and erythromycin (43.13%) were observed too. Conclusions: Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized patients in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of human infections. PMID:25763199

  16. Detection of multiple virulence-associated genes in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from bovine mastitis cases.

    PubMed

    Rawool, D B; Malik, S V S; Shakuntala, I; Sahare, A M; Barbuddhe, S B

    2007-01-25

    Clinical samples (n=725) were collected from bovines (n=243) which were positive for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The clinical samples comprising blood (n=239), milk (n=243), and faecal swabs (n=243) were examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp. Isolation of the pathogen was done using selective enrichment in University of Vermont Medium and plating onto Dominguez-Rodriguez isolation agar. Confirmation of the isolates was based on biochemical tests and Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen (CAMP) test followed by pathogenicity testing. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) assay as well as in vivo tests namely, chick embryo and mice inoculation tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for five virulence-associated genes, plcA, prfA, hlyA, actA and iap. Listeria spp. were isolated from 12 (1.66%) samples. Of these 4 (0.55%) and 1 (0.14%) were confirmed as Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were recovered from milk samples (2) and faecal (3) of mastitic cattle (3) and buffaloes (2). L. monocytogenes recovered from the milk of mastitic cattle and L. ivanovii from the faecal swab of buffalo turned out to be pathogenic. However, the remaining three hemolytic isolates exhibiting positive CAMP test turned out to be negative in PI-PLC assay, chick embryo and mice inoculation. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii isolates characterized as pathogenic by PI-PLC assay and in vivo pathogenicity tests were found to possess all the five virulence-associated genes and three genes, plcA, prfA and actA respectively. The remaining three hemolytic but non-pathogenic L. monocytogenes isolates were negative for plcA by PCR. It seems that the plcA gene and its expression (in the PI-PLC assay) have an important role as virulence determinants in pathogenic Listeria spp. In conclusion, the PI-PLC assay and

  17. Detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Sung, Kidon; Tran, Quynhtien; Kerdahi, Khalil; Steele, Roger

    2010-05-01

    The presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of Aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aerA), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), serine protease (ser), DNases (exu), elastase (ahyB) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template DNA. Oligonucleotide primers amplified a 231-bp region of the act gene from the template DNA of 97.0% of the isolates. Primers specific for the amplification of the aerA gene amplified a 431-bp region of the aerA gene from the template DNA of 96.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained ast or alt genes. Oligonucleotide primers specific for the amplification of lip, gcaT, ser and fla genes, amplified their respective amplicons from 85.0, 78.0, 82.0 and 80.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained exu or the elastase genes. Several of the isolates (48.0%) contained class I integrons that confer resistance to multiple antibiotics; various sizes between 0.6 and 3.1 kb were found. None of the isolates contained Class II integrons. Our results indicate that farm-raised catfish may be a source of pathogenic A. veronii and that the potential health risks posed by virulent strains of A. veronii should not be underestimated. PMID:20227596

  18. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  19. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  20. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Varenhorst, Adam J.; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America. PMID:26372106

  1. Characterization of Shiga Toxin Subtypes and Virulence Genes in Porcine Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Bagi, Lori K; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Boccia, Federica; Anastasio, Aniello; Pepe, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using a Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx 2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx 1a (14%), stx 2d (3%), and stx 1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx 2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx 2a and stx 2c, the stx 2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. The present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections. PMID:27148249

  2. Characterization of Shiga toxin subtypes and virulence genes in porcine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Bagi, Lori K.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Boccia, Federica; Anastasio, Aniello; Pepe, Tiziana

    2016-04-21

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using amore » Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx1a (14%), stx2d (3%), and stx1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx2a and stx2c, the stx2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. Furthermore, the present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections.« less

  3. Characterization of Shiga Toxin Subtypes and Virulence Genes in Porcine Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Bagi, Lori K.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Boccia, Federica; Anastasio, Aniello; Pepe, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using a Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx1a (14%), stx2d (3%), and stx1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx2a and stx2c, the stx2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. The present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections. PMID:27148249

  4. The role of the st313-td gene in virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in virulence of a gene with a yet unknown function, st313-td, detected in ST313 through comparative genomics. Additionally, the structure of the genomic island ST313-GI, harbouring the gene was determined. The gene st313-td was cloned into wild type S. Typhimurium 4/74 (4/74-C) as well as knocked out in S. Typhimurium ST313 02-03/002 (Δst313-td) followed by complementation (02-03/002-C). Δst313-td was less virulent in mice following i.p. challenge than the wild type and this phenotype could be partly complemented in trans, indicating that st313-td plays a role during systemic infection. The gene st313-td was shown not to affect invasion of cultured epithelial cells, while the absence of the gene significantly affects uptake and intracellular survival within macrophages. The gene st313-td was proven to be strongly associated to invasiveness, harboured by 92.5% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates (n = 82) and 100% of S. Dublin strains (n = 50) analysed. On the contrary, S. Typhimurium isolates of animal and food origin (n = 82) did not carry st313-td. Six human, non-blood isolates of S. Typhimurium from Belarus, China and Nepal harboured the gene and belonged to sequence types ST398 and ST19. Our data showed a global presence of the st313-td gene and in other sequence types than ST313. The gene st313-td was shown to be expressed during logarithmic phase of growth in 14 selected Salmonella strains carrying the gene. This study reveals that st313-td plays a role in S. Typhimurium ST313 pathogenesis and adds another chapter to understanding of the virulence of S. Typhimurium and in particular of the emerging sequence type ST313. PMID:24404174

  5. The Role of the st313-td Gene in Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in virulence of a gene with a yet unknown function, st313-td, detected in ST313 through comparative genomics. Additionally, the structure of the genomic island ST313-GI, harbouring the gene was determined. The gene st313-td was cloned into wild type S. Typhimurium 4/74 (4/74-C) as well as knocked out in S. Typhimurium ST313 02–03/002 (Δst313-td) followed by complementation (02-03/002-C). Δst313-td was less virulent in mice following i.p. challenge than the wild type and this phenotype could be partly complemented in trans, indicating that st313-td plays a role during systemic infection. The gene st313-td was shown not to affect invasion of cultured epithelial cells, while the absence of the gene significantly affects uptake and intracellular survival within macrophages. The gene st313-td was proven to be strongly associated to invasiveness, harboured by 92.5% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates (n = 82) and 100% of S. Dublin strains (n = 50) analysed. On the contrary, S. Typhimurium isolates of animal and food origin (n = 82) did not carry st313-td. Six human, non-blood isolates of S. Typhimurium from Belarus, China and Nepal harboured the gene and belonged to sequence types ST398 and ST19. Our data showed a global presence of the st313-td gene and in other sequence types than ST313. The gene st313-td was shown to be expressed during logarithmic phase of growth in 14 selected Salmonella strains carrying the gene. This study reveals that st313-td plays a role in S. Typhimurium ST313 pathogenesis and adds another chapter to understanding of the virulence of S. Typhimurium and in particular of the emerging sequence type ST313. PMID:24404174

  6. Differential expression of the virulence-associated protein p57 and characterization of its duplicated gene rosa in virulent and attenuated strains of Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Farrell, C. L.; Strom, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Virulence mechanisms utilized by the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum are poorly understood. One potential virulence factor is p57 (also designated MSA for major soluble antigen), an abundant 57 kDa soluble protein that is predominately localized on the bacterial cell surface with significant levels released into the extracellular milieu. Previous studies of an attenuated strain, MT 239, indicated that it differs from virulent strains in the amount of surface-associated p57. In this report, we show overall expression of p57 in R. salmoninarum MT 239 is considerably reduced as compared to a virulent strain, ATCC 33209. The amount of cell-associated p57 is decreased while the level of p57 in the culture supernatant is nearly equivalent between the strains. To determine if lowered amount of cell-associated p57 was due to a sequence defect in p57, a genetic comparison was performed. Two copies of the gene encoding p57 (msa1 and msa2) were found in 33209 and MT 239, as well as in several other virulent isolates. Both copies from 33209 and MT 239 were cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to each other, and identical between the 2 strains. A comparison of msa1 and msa2 within each strain showed that their sequences diverge 40 base pairs 5, to the open reading frame, while sequences 3' to the open reading frame are essentially identical for at least 225 base pairs. Northern blot analysis showed no difference in steady state levels of rosa mRNA between the 2 strains. These data suggest that while cell-surface localization of p57 may be important for R. salmoninarum virulence, the differences in localization, and total p57 expression between 33209 anti MT 239 are not due to differences in rosa sequence or differences in steady state transcript levels.

  7. Differential expression of the virulence-associated protein p57 and characterization of its duplicated gene msa in virulent and attenuated strains of Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, C L; Strom, M S

    1999-11-01

    Virulence mechanisms utilized by the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum are poorly understood. One potential virulence factor is p57 (also designated MSA for major soluble antigen), an abundant 57 kDa soluble protein that is predominately localized on the bacterial cell surface with significant levels released into the extracellular milieu. Previous studies of an attenuated strain, MT 239, indicated that it differs from virulent strains in the amount of surface-associated p57. In this report, we show overall expression of p57 in R. salmoninarum MT 239 is considerably reduced as compared to a virulent strain, ATCC 33209. The amount of cell-associated p57 is decreased while the level of p57 in the culture supernatant is nearly equivalent between the strains. To determine if the lowered amount of cell-associated p57 was due to a sequence defect in p57, a genetic comparison was performed. Two copies of the gene encoding p57 (msa1 and msa2) were found in 33209 and MT 239, as well as in several other virulent isolates. Both copies from 33209 and MT 239 were cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to each other, and identical between the 2 strains. A comparison of msa1 and msa2 within each strain showed that their sequences diverge 40 base pairs 5' to the open reading frame, while sequences 3' to the open reading frame are essentially identical for at least 225 base pairs. Northern blot analysis showed no difference in steady state levels of msa mRNA between the 2 strains. These data suggest that while cell-surface localization of p57 may be important for R. salmoninarum virulence, the differences in localization and total p57 expression between 33209 and MT 239 are not due to differences in msa sequence or differences in steady state transcript levels. PMID:10598282

  8. Sternal mycobacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Sternal mycobacterial infections are rare. Due to the rarity, its clinical characteristics, diagnoses, and regular management strategies are still scanty. A total of 76 articles on this topic were obtained by a comprehensive literature collection. The clinical features, diagnosis, management strategies and prognosis were carefully analyzed. There were totally 159 patients including 152 (95%) cases of tuberculosis (TB) and seven (5%) cases of non-TB sternal infections. Sternal mycobacterial infections can be categorized into three types: Primary, secondary, and postoperative, according to the pathogenesis; and categorized into isolated, peristernal, and multifocal, according to the extent of the lesions. Microbiological investigation is more sensitive than medical imaging and Mantoux tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of sternal infections. Most patients show good responses to the standard four-drug regimen and a surgical intervention was necessary in 28.3% patients. The prognoses of the patients are good with a very low mortality. A delayed diagnosis of sternal mycobacterial infections may bring about recurrent sternal infections and sustained incurability. An early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic regimens may significantly improve the patients' outcomes. PMID:27168857

  9. Large scale analysis of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Avalon Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Hadi, Asbah Z; Griffith, John F; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Contamination of recreational waters with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. is a widespread problem resulting in beach closures and loss of recreational activity. While E. coli is frequently used as an indicator of fecal contamination, and has been extensively measured in waterways, few studies have examined the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in beach waters. In this study, a combination of high-throughput, robot-assisted colony hybridization and PCR-based analyses were used to determine the genomic composition and frequency of virulence genes present in E. coli isolated from beach water in Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, CA. A total of 24,493 E. coli isolates were collected from two sites at a popular swimming beach between August through September 2007 and from July through August 2008. All isolates were examined for the presence of shiga-like toxins (stx1/stx2), intimin (eaeA), and enterotoxins (ST/LT). Of the 24,493 isolates examined, 3.6% contained the eaeA gene, indicating that these isolates were potential EPEC strains. On five dates, however, greater than 10% of the strains were potential EPEC, suggesting that incidence of virulence genes at this beach has a strong temporal component. No STEC or ETEC isolates were detected, and only eight (<1.0%) of the potential EPEC isolates were found to carry the EAF plasmid. The potential EPEC isolates mainly belonged to E. coli phylogenetic groups B1 or B2, and carried the β intimin subtype. DNA fingerprint analyses of the potential EPEC strains indicated that the isolates belonged to several genetically diverse groups, although clonal isolates were frequently detected. While the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potential EPEC strains can be found in marine beach water and their presence needs to be considered as one of the factors used in decisions concerning beach closures. PMID:20643468

  10. The role of regulator Eha in Edwardsiella tarda pathogenesis and virulence gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Gao, Daqing; Li, Yuhong; Xu, Zeyan; Sheng, Ankang; Zheng, Enjin; Shao, Zeye; Liu, Nian; Lu, Chengping

    2016-06-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a pathogen with a broad host range that infects both animals and humans. Eha is a new transcriptional regulator identified in ET13, which is involved in the bacterial hemolytic activity. This study explored the effect of the Eha in the pathogenesis of E. tarda and the transcriptional regulation of the bacterial virulence genes (eseC, fliC, pagC and fimA). Our results found that the virulence of the eha mutant was 2.5-fold less than the one of its wild ET13 by LD50 in a murine model of i.p. infection, and the bacterial loads of the mutant displayed a different profile from the one of the wild strain. Most significantly, the mice infected with the mutant have greatly reduced acute inflammation in the liver, spleen and kidney compared to the ones infected with the wild. We further demonstrated that eseC, fliC and pagC were regulated directly by the Eha with qRT-PCR and β-Galactosidase assay, but fimA wasn't done. The promoter regions of the genes modulated and the cly gene reported before had been found to contain a common conserved motif by using software. In addition, we found that the wild strain was more toxic to RAW264.7 macrophages, and induced less the host cell apoptotic responses than the eha mutant did. Altogether, these data suggested that the Eha was required for the bacterial infection and the transcriptive regulation of the important virulence genes of E. tarda. PMID:27038844

  11. Current European Labyrinthula zosterae are not virulent and modulate seagrass (Zostera marina) defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Brakel, Janina; Werner, Franziska Julie; Tams, Verena; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Pro- and eukaryotic microbes associated with multi-cellular organisms are receiving increasing attention as a driving factor in ecosystems. Endophytes in plants can change host performance by altering nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite production or defense mechanisms. Recent studies detected widespread prevalence of Labyrinthula zosterae in European Zostera marina meadows, a protist that allegedly caused a massive amphi-Atlantic seagrass die-off event in the 1930's, while showing only limited virulence today. As a limiting factor for pathogenicity, we investigated genotype × genotype interactions of host and pathogen from different regions (10-100 km-scale) through reciprocal infection. Although the endophyte rapidly infected Z. marina, we found little evidence that Z. marina was negatively impacted by L. zosterae. Instead Z. marina showed enhanced leaf growth and kept endophyte abundance low. Moreover, we found almost no interaction of protist × eelgrass-origin on different parameters of L. zosterae virulence/Z. marina performance, and also no increase in mortality after experimental infection. In a target gene approach, we identified a significant down-regulation in the expression of 6/11 genes from the defense cascade of Z. marina after real-time quantitative PCR, revealing strong immune modulation of the host's defense by a potential parasite for the first time in a marine plant. Nevertheless, one gene involved in phenol synthesis was strongly up-regulated, indicating that Z. marina plants were probably able to control the level of infection. There was no change in expression in a general stress indicator gene (HSP70). Mean L. zosterae abundances decreased below 10% after 16 days of experimental runtime. We conclude that under non-stress conditions L. zosterae infection in the study region is not associated with substantial virulence. PMID:24691450

  12. Virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli strains isolated from synanthropic birds from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, C; Esperón, F; Herrera-León, S; Iglesias, I; Neves, E; Nogal, V; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons. PMID:24689431

  13. Detection of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene determinants and biofilm formation in Aeromonas species isolated from cattle.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibiogram of Aeromonas strains recovered from cattle faeces and the potential pathogenic status of the isolates. The antibiogram of the Aeromonas isolates demonstrated total resistance to clindamycin oxacillin, trimethoprim, novobiocin and ticarcillin. However, Aeromonas strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxytetracycline and tobramycin. The Aeromonas strains from Lovedale and Fort Cox farms were found to possess some virulence genes. The percentage distribution was aer 71.4%, ast 35.7%, fla 60.7%, lip 35.7% and hlyA 25% for Lovedale farm and aer 63.1%, alt 10.5%, ast 55.2%, fla 78.9%, lip 21% and hlyA 35.9% for Fort Cox farm. Class 1 integron was present in 27% of Aeromonas isolates; the bla TEM gene was present in 34.8%, while the blaP1 class A β-lactamase gene was detected in 12.1% of the isolates. Approximately 86% of the isolates formed a biofilm on microtitre plates. The presence of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Aeromonas isolates from cattle faeces reveals the pathogenic and infectious importance of these isolates and is of great significance to public health. The possession of a biofilm-forming capability by such isolates may lead to difficulty during the management of infection related to Aeromonas species. PMID:26143545

  14. Transcriptional regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jeffrey; Rolfe, Matthew D; Smith, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO) are diatomic gases that play major roles in infection. The host innate immune system generates reactive oxygen species and NO as bacteriocidal agents and both require O2 for their production. Furthermore, the ability to adapt to changes in O2 availability is crucial for many bacterial pathogens, as many niches within a host are hypoxic. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved transcriptional regulatory systems that perceive these gases and respond by reprogramming gene expression. Direct sensors possess iron-containing co-factors (iron–sulfur clusters, mononuclear iron, heme) or reactive cysteine thiols that react with O2 and/or NO. Indirect sensors perceive the physiological effects of O2 starvation. Thus, O2 and NO act as environmental cues that trigger the coordinated expression of virulence genes and metabolic adaptations necessary for survival within a host. Here, the mechanisms of signal perception by key O2- and NO-responsive bacterial transcription factors and the effects on virulence gene expression are reviewed, followed by consideration of these aspects of gene regulation in two major pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25603427

  15. Detection of virulence-associated genes in pathogenic and commensal avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Paixão, A C; Ferreira, A C; Fontes, M; Themudo, P; Albuquerque, T; Soares, M C; Fevereiro, M; Martins, L; Corrêa de Sá, M I

    2016-07-01

    Poultry colibacillosis due to Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for several extra-intestinal pathological conditions, leading to serious economic damage in poultry production. The most commonly associated pathologies are airsacculitis, colisepticemia, and cellulitis in broiler chickens, and salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. In this work a total of 66 strains isolated from dead broiler breeders affected with colibacillosis and 61 strains from healthy broilers were studied. Strains from broiler breeders were typified with serogroups O2, O18, and O78, which are mainly associated with disease. The serogroup O78 was the most prevalent (58%). All the strains were checked for the presence of 11 virulence genes: 1) arginine succinyltransferase A (astA); ii) E.coli hemeutilization protein A (chuA); iii) colicin V A/B (cvaA/B); iv) fimbriae mannose-binding type 1 (fimC); v) ferric yersiniabactin uptake A (fyuA); vi) iron-repressible high-molecular-weight proteins 2 (irp2); vii) increased serum survival (iss); viii) iron-uptake systems of E.coli D (iucD); ix) pielonefritis associated to pili C (papC); x) temperature sensitive haemaglutinin (tsh), and xi) vacuolating autotransporter toxin (vat), by Multiplex-PCR. The results showed that all genes are present in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. The iron uptake-related genes and the serum survival gene were more prevalent among APEC. The adhesin genes, except tsh, and the toxin genes, except astA, were also more prevalent among APEC isolates. Except for astA and tsh, APEC strains harbored the majority of the virulence-associated genes studied and fimC was the most prevalent gene, detected in 96.97 and 88.52% of APEC and AFEC strains, respectively. Possession of more than one iron transport system seems to play an important role on APEC survival. PMID:26976911

  16. Magnaporthe Grisea Genes for Pathogenicity and Virulence Identified through a Series of Backcrosses

    PubMed Central

    Valent, B.; Farrall, L.; Chumley, F. G.

    1991-01-01

    We have identified genes for pathogenicity toward rice (Oryza sativa) and genes for virulence toward specific rice cultivars in the plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. A genetic cross was conducted between the weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) pathogen 4091-5-8, a highly fertile, hermaphroditic laboratory strain, and the rice pathogen O-135, a poorly fertile, female-sterile field isolate that infects weeping lovegrass as well as rice. A six-generation backcrossing scheme was then undertaken with the rice pathogen as the recurrent parent. One goal of these crosses was to generate rice pathogenic progeny with the high fertility characteristic of strain 4091-5-8, which would permit rigorous genetic analysis of rice pathogens. Therefore, progeny strains to be used as parents for backcross generations were chosen only on the basis of fertility. The ratios of pathogenic to nonpathogenic (and virulent to avirulent) progeny through the backcross generations suggested that the starting parent strains differ in two types of genes that control the ability to infect rice. First, they differ by polygenic factors that determine the extent of lesion development achieved by those progeny that infect rice. These genes do not appear to play a role in infection of weeping lovegrass because both parents and all progeny infect weeping lovegrass. Second, the parents differ by simple Mendelian determinants, ``avirulence genes,'' that govern virulence toward specific rice cultivars in all-or-none fashion. Several crosses confirm the segregation of three unlinked avirulence genes, Avr1-CO39, Avr1-M201 and Avr1-YAMO, alleles of which determine avirulence on rice cultivars CO39, M201, and Yashiro-mochi, respectively. Interestingly, avirulence alleles of Avr1-CO39, Avr1-M201 and Avr1-YAMO were inherited from the parent strain 4091-5-8, which is a nonpathogen of rice. Middle repetitive DNA sequences (``MGR sequences''), present in approximately 40-50 copies in the genome of the

  17. Frequency of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea in the North Parana State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vidotto, Marilda C.; de Lima, Natália C.S.; Fritzen, Juliana T.T.; de Freitas, Júlio C.; Venâncio, merson J.; Ono, Mario A.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of Escherichia coli causing porcine postweaning diarrhea requires knowledge regarding the prevalent pathotypes within a given region. A total of 100 Escherichia coli isolates from piglets with diarrhea in Londrina city, Parana State, South Brazil, were screened for the presence of genes for F4, F5, F6, F18, F41 fimbrial antigens by specific probes and for enterotoxins (STa, STb, LT and STx2e) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that 60% of the isolates were positive for one or more of the fimbrial antigens and 92% were positive at least for one of the virulence factors examined. Virulence factor genes detected were F4 (44%), F18 (38%), F5 (30%), F41 (32%), F6 (25%), LTp-I (71%), STa (40%), STb (47%) and STx2e (3%). Twenty four patterns of virulence factor according to the different virulence genes form were found and the most frequent virulence gene pattern was F4, F18, F41, STa, STb and LT. Most of the isolates that carried genes for adhesins also harboured genes for toxins. PMID:24031344

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Different Expression Patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains with Putative Virulence-Relevant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

  19. Development of a DNA Microarray for Enterococcal Species, Virulence, and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Determinations among Isolates from Poultry▿

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, J.; Diarra, M. S.; Rempel, H.; Topp, E.; Greer, C. W.; Harel, J.; Masson, L.

    2011-01-01

    A DNA microarray (Enteroarray) was designed with probes targeting four species-specific taxonomic identifiers to discriminate among 18 different enterococcal species, while other probes were designed to identify 18 virulence factors and 174 antibiotic resistance genes. In total, 262 genes were utilized for rapid species identification of enterococcal isolates, while characterizing their virulence potential through the simultaneous identification of endogenous antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Enterococcal isolates from broiler chicken farms were initially identified by using the API 20 Strep system, and the results were compared to those obtained with the taxonomic genes atpA, recA, pheS, and ddl represented on our microarray. Among the 171 isolates studied, five different enterococcal species were identified by using the API 20 Strep system: Enterococcus faecium, E. faecalis, E. durans, E. gallinarum, and E. avium. The Enteroarray detected the same species as API 20 Strep, as well as two more: E. casseliflavus and E. hirae. Species comparisons resulted in 15% (27 isolates) disagreement between the two methods among the five API 20 Strep identifiable species and 24% (42 isolates) disagreement when considering the seven Enteroarray identified species. The species specificity of key antibiotic and virulence genes identified by the Enteroarray were consistent with the literature adding further robustness to the redundant taxonomic probe data. Sequencing of the cpn60 gene further confirmed the complete accuracy of the microarray results. The new Enteroarray should prove to be a useful tool to accurately genotype strains of enterococci and assess their virulence potential. PMID:21335389

  20. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism During Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-04-05

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Excitingly, we observed possible sequestration of metabolites recently suggested to have immune modulating roles. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Model-guided analysis suggested that alterations in metabolism prioritized other activities necessary for pathogenesis instead, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  1. Insight into the specific virulence related genes and toxin-antitoxin virulent pathogenicity islands in swine streptococcosis pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC35246

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen causing swine streptococcosis in China. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) of S. zooepidemicus have been transferred among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and play important roles in the adaptation and increased virulence of S. zooepidemicus. The present study used comparative genomics to examine the different pathogenicities of S. zooepidemicus. Results Genome of S. zooepidemicus ATCC35246 (Sz35246) comprises 2,167,264-bp of a single circular chromosome, with a GC content of 41.65%. Comparative genome analysis of Sz35246, S. zooepidemicus MGCS10565 (Sz10565), Streptococcus equi. ssp. equi. 4047 (Se4047) and S. zooepidemicus H70 (Sz70) identified 320 Sz35246-specific genes, clustered into three toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems PAIs and one restriction modification system (RM system) PAI. These four acquired PAIs encode proteins that may contribute to the overall pathogenic capacity and fitness of this bacterium to adapt to different hosts. Analysis of the in vivo and in vitro transcriptomes of this bacterium revealed differentially expressed PAI genes and non-PAI genes, suggesting that Sz35246 possess mechanisms for infecting animals and adapting to a wide range of host environments. Analysis of the genome identified potential Sz35246 virulence genes. Genes of the Fim III operon were presumed to be involved in breaking the host-restriction of Sz35246. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of Sz35246 with three other strains and transcriptome analysis revealed novel genes related to bacterial virulence and breaking the host-restriction. Four specific PAIs, which were judged to have been transferred into Sz35246 genome through HGT, were identified for the first time. Further analysis of the TA and RM systems in the PAIs will improve our understanding of the pathogenicity of this bacterium and could lead to the development of diagnostics and vaccines. PMID:23742619

  2. Sub-lethal stress effects on virulence gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Christian A; Hew Ferstl, Carrie M; Vogel, Rudi F

    2010-05-01

    Enterococci are ubiquitous lactic acid bacteria commonly associated with the human digestive tract as commensal organisms. Additionally, these organisms have a long history of use in foods improving flavor as well as providing protective mechanisms as either a probiotic or antimicrobial additive. However, Enterococcus faecalis accounts for up to 10% of all nosocomial infections of the bloodstream, wounds, urinary tract and heart. Knowledge about the regulation of virulence factors is limited and the involvement of environmental signals contributing to E. faecalis pathogenicity is poorly documented. In this study, two clinical E. faecalis isolates, TMW 2.63 and OG1RF, as well as one food isolate, TMW 2.629, were subjected to six sub-lethal food- and host-related stresses including 6.8% NaCl, 200 ppm nitrite, 51 degrees C, 80 MPa, pH 4.1 and 0.08% bile salts (cholic acid:chenodeoxycholic acid 1:1), respectively, reducing their growth rate to 10%. Relative gene expression of 15 stress and virulence-associated genes including dnaK, groEL, ctsR, clpPBCEX, gls24, efaAfs, ace, fsrB, gelE, sprE and cylB, was quantified by using real time PCR and Lightcycler((R)) technology (reference conditions: BHI broth, 37 degrees C, pH = 7.4). Apart from strain-dependent differences, sub-lethal environmental stress was capable of provoking significant alterations in the expression of virulence-associated genes in E. faecalis from clinical as well as food origins of isolation. These results help to avoid preconditioning enterococci in food production processes and to understand the complex mechanisms in E. faecalis' switch to pathogenicity. PMID:20227595

  3. Molecular Screening of Virulence Genes in Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Human Blood Culture in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Vanessa L.; Cyoia, Paula S.; Neves, Meiriele S.; Vidotto, Marilda C.; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is one of the main etiological agents of bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. In the present study, 20 E. coli isolates from human hemocultures were characterized to identify genetic features associated with virulence (pathogenicity islands markers, phylogenetic group, virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and conjugative plasmids) and these results were compared with commensal isolates. The most prevalent pathogenicity island, in strains from hemoculture, were PAI IV536, described by many researchers as a stable island in enterobacteria. Among virulence genes, iutA gene was found more frequently and this gene enconding the aerobactin siderophore receptor. According to the phylogenetic classification, group B2 was the most commonly found. Additionally, through plasmid analysis, 14 isolates showed plasmids and 3 of these were shown to be conjugative. Although in stool samples of healthy people the presence of commensal strains is common, human intestinal tract may serve as a reservoir for ExPEC. PMID:24822211

  4. Virulent Shigella flexneri subverts the host innate immune response through manipulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Brice; Regnault, Béatrice; Guo, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhi; Stanley, Samuel L.; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Pédron, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial factors are efficient defense components of the innate immunity, playing a crucial role in the intestinal homeostasis and protection against pathogens. In this study, we report that upon infection of polarized human intestinal cells in vitro, virulent Shigella flexneri suppress transcription of several genes encoding antimicrobial cationic peptides, particularly the human β-defensin hBD-3, which we show to be especially active against S. flexneri. This is an example of targeted survival strategy. We also identify the MxiE bacterial regulator, which controls a regulon encompassing a set of virulence plasmid-encoded effectors injected into host cells and regulating innate signaling, as being responsible for this dedicated regulatory process. In vivo, in a model of human intestinal xenotransplant, we confirm at the transcriptional and translational level, the presence of a dedicated MxiE-dependent system allowing S. flexneri to suppress expression of antimicrobial cationic peptides and promoting its deeper progression toward intestinal crypts. We demonstrate that this system is also able to down-regulate additional innate immunity genes, such as the chemokine CCL20 gene, leading to compromised recruitment of dendritic cells to the lamina propria of infected tissues. Thus, S. flexneri has developed a dedicated strategy to weaken the innate immunity to manage its survival and colonization ability in the intestine. PMID:18426984

  5. Inactivation of thyA in Staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Andre; Block, Desiree; Drescher, Mike; Windmüller, Nadine; Mellmann, Alexander; Baum, Cathrin; Neumann, Claudia; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Liebau, Eva; Hertel, Patrick; Seggewiss, Jochen; Becker, Karsten; Proctor, Richard A; Peters, Georg; Kahl, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are frequently isolated from patients with chronic S. aureus infections after long-term treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). While it has been shown that TD-SCVs were associated with mutations in thymidylate synthase (TS; thyA), the impact of such mutations on protein function is lacking. In this study, we showed that mutations in thyA were leading to inactivity of TS proteins, and TS inactivity led to tremendous impact on S. aureus physiology and virulence. Whole DNA microarray analysis of the constructed ΔthyA mutant identified severe alterations compared to the wild type. Important virulence regulators (agr, arlRS, sarA) and major virulence determinants (hla, hlb, sspAB, and geh) were downregulated, while genes important for colonization (fnbA, fnbB, spa, clfB, sdrC, and sdrD) were upregulated. The expression of genes involved in pyrimidine and purine metabolism and nucleotide interconversion changed significantly. NupC was identified as a major nucleoside transporter, which supported growth of the mutant during TMP-SMX exposure by uptake of extracellular thymidine. The ΔthyA mutant was strongly attenuated in virulence models, including a Caenorhabditis elegans killing model and an acute pneumonia mouse model. This study identified inactivation of TS as the molecular basis of clinical TD-SCV and showed that thyA activity has a major role for S. aureus virulence and physiology. Importance: Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus carry mutations in the thymidylate synthase (TS) gene (thyA) responsible for de novo synthesis of thymidylate, which is essential for DNA synthesis. TD-SCVs have been isolated from patients treated for long periods with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and are associated with chronic and recurrent infections. In the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus, the therapeutic use of TMP

  6. Development and Validation of an Oligonucleotide Microarray for Detection of Multiple Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli†

    PubMed Central

    Bruant, Guillaume; Maynard, Christine; Bekal, Sadjia; Gaucher, Isabelle; Masson, Luke; Brousseau, Roland; Harel, Josée

    2006-01-01

    An oligonucleotide microarray detecting 189 Escherichia coli virulence genes or markers and 30 antimicrobial resistance genes was designed and validated using DNA from known reference strains. This microarray was confirmed to be a powerful diagnostic tool for monitoring emerging E. coli pathotypes and antimicrobial resistance, as well as for environmental, epidemiological, and phylogenetic studies including the evaluation of genome plasticity. PMID:16672535

  7. Detection of Virulence to Resistance Gene Sr36 within Race TTKS Lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem rust resistance gene Sr36 is highly effective against race TTKS (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, conferring near immunity to TTKS that possesses unusually broad virulence combinations. Because of this gene is widely spread in the adapted US soft winter wheat breeding germpla...

  8. Deletion of AS87_03730 gene changed the bacterial virulence and gene expression of Riemerella anatipestifer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolan; Yue, Jiaping; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Beibei; Tian, Mingxing; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogen of waterfowl, which causes septicemia anserum exsudativa in ducks. In this study, an AS87_03730 gene deletion R. anatipestifer mutant Yb2ΔAS87_03730 was constructed to investigate the role of AS87_03730 on R. anatipestifer virulence and gene regulation. By deleting a 708-bp fragment from AS87_03730, the mutant Yb2ΔAS87_03730 showed a significant decreased growth rate in TSB and invasion capacity in Vero cells, compared to wild-type strain Yb2. Moreover, the median lethal dose (LD50) of Yb2ΔAS87_03730 was 1.24 × 107 colony forming units (CFU), which is about 80-fold attenuated than that of Yb2 (LD50 = 1.53 × 105 CFU). Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis and Real-time PCR indicated 19 up-regulated and two down-regulated genes in Yb2ΔAS87_03730. Functional analysis revealed that 12 up-regulated genes were related to “Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis”, two were classified into “Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane”, one was involved in “Amino acid transport and metabolism”, and the other four had unknown functions. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis indicated that the AS87_03730 gene is highly conserved among R. anatipestifer strains, as the percent sequence identity was over 93.5%. This study presents evidence that AS87_03730 gene is involved in bacterial virulence and gene regulation of R. anatipestifer. PMID:26928424

  9. Virulence genes detection of Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and slaughterhouse environment in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, J. H.; Nayak, J. B.; Brahmbhatt, M. N.; Makwana, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to detect virulence gene associated with the Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and Slaughterhouse environment. Materials and Methods: Salmonella isolates (n=37) used in this study were isolated from 270 pork and slaughter house environmental samples collected from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Slaughter House, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Salmonella serovars were isolated and identified as per BAM USFDA method and serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh, India). Polymerase chain reaction technique was used for detection of five genes, namely invA, spvR, spvC, fimA and stn among different serovars of Salmonella. Results: Out of a total of 270 samples, 37 (13.70%) Salmonella were isolated with two serovars, namely Enteritidis and Typhimurium. All Salmonella serovars produced 284 bp invA gene, 84 bp fimA and 260 bp amplicon for enterotoxin (stn) gene whereas 30 isolates possessed 310 bp spvR gene, but no isolate possessed spvC gene. Conclusion: Presence of invA, fimA and stn gene in all isolates shows that they are the specific targets for Salmonella identification and are capable of producing gastroenteric illness to humans, whereas 20 Typhimurium serovars and 10 Enteritidis serovars can able to produce systemic infection. PMID:27047008

  10. Structure of Rot, a global regulator of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuwei; Fan, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Xuguang; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile pathogen that can infect human tissue by producing a large arsenal of virulence factors that are tightly regulated by a complex regulatory network. Rot, which shares sequence similarity with SarA homologues, is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes. However, the recognition model of Rot for the promoter region of target genes and the putative regulation mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the 1.77 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rot is reported. The structure reveals that two Rot molecules form a compact homodimer, each of which contains a typical helix-turn-helix module and a β-hairpin motif connected by a flexible loop. Fluorescence polarization results indicate that Rot preferentially recognizes AT-rich dsDNA with ~30-base-pair nucleotides and that the conserved positively charged residues on the winged-helix motif are vital for binding to the AT-rich dsDNA. It is proposed that the DNA-recognition model of Rot may be similar to that of SarA, SarR and SarS, in which the helix-turn-helix motifs of each monomer interact with the major grooves of target dsDNA and the winged motifs contact the minor grooves. Interestingly, the structure shows that Rot adopts a novel dimerization model that differs from that of other SarA homologues. As expected, perturbation of the dimer interface abolishes the dsDNA-binding ability of Rot, suggesting that Rot functions as a dimer. In addition, the results have been further confirmed in vivo by measuring the transcriptional regulation of α-toxin, a major virulence factor produced by most S. aureus strains. PMID:25195759

  11. Occurrence of virulent genes among environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from various parts of peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arushothy, Revathy; Ahmad, Norazah

    2008-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila are intracellular pathogens, associated with human disease, attributed to the presence and absence of certain virulent genes. In this study, virulent gene loci (lvh and rtxA regions) associated with human disease were determined. Thirty-three cooling tower water isolates, isolated between 2004 to 2006, were analyzed for the presence of these genes by PCR method. Results showed that 19 of 33 (57.5%) of the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates have both the genes. Six (18.2%) of the isolates have only the lvh gene and 2 (6.1%) of the isolates have only the rtxA gene. However, both genes were absent in 6 (18.2%) of the L. pneumophila isolates. The result of our study provides some insight into the presence of the disease causing L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in the environment. Molecular epidemiological studies will provide better understanding of the prevalence of the disease in Malaysia. PMID:19287368

  12. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and genetic lineages of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in healthy dogs in tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharsa, Haythem; Ben Slama, Karim; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Lozano, Carmen; Klibi, Naouel; Jouini, Ahlem; Messadi, Lilia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Nasal swabs of 100 healthy dogs were obtained in 2011 in Tunisia and tested for Staphylococcus pseudintermedius recovery. Antimicrobial resistance profile and virulence gene content were determined. Multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST) and SmaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were investigated. S. pseudintermedius was recovered in 55 of the 100 tested samples (55 %), and one isolate per sample was further studied. All 55 S. pseudintermedius isolates were susceptible to methicillin (MSSP) but showed resistance to the following antimicrobials (% resistant isolates/resistance gene): penicillin (56.4/blaZ), tetracycline (40/tetM), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (23.7), fusidic acid (9), kanamycin (3.7/aph(3´)-Ia), erythromycin-clindamycin (1.8/erm(B)), streptomycin (1.8/ant(6)-Ia), chloramphenicol (1.8) and ciprofloxacin (1.8). The following toxin genes were identified (% of isolates): lukS/F-I (98.2), expA (5.5), se-int (98.2), sec canine (1.8), siet (100), sea (5.5), seb (3.6), sec (10.9), sed (54.5), sei (5.5), sej (29.1), sek (3.6), ser (9.1), and hlg v (38.2). Ten different sequence-types were detected among 11 representative MSSP isolates: ST20, ST44, ST69, ST70, ST78, ST100, ST108, ST160, ST161, and ST162, the last three ones revealing novel alleles or allele combinations. Eleven different PFGE-patterns were identified in these isolates. The nares of healthy dogs could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant and virulent MSSP, highlighting the presence of the recently described exfoliating gene expA and several enterotoxin genes. PMID:23686400

  13. Diversity of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci from veal calves.

    PubMed

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In this study we determined whether methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus (MRNAS) from veal calves may be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistance and virulence genes. Fifty-eight MRNAS were studied by means of DNA-microarray and PCR for detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. The isolates carried a variety of antimicrobial-resistance genes [aacA-aphD, aadD, aph3, aadE, sat, spc, ampA, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(T), lnu(A), msr(A)-msr(B), vga(A), mph(C), tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), cat, fexA, dfrA, dfrD, dfrG, dfrK, cfr, fusB, fosB, qacA, qacC, merA-merB]. Some isolates carried resistance genes without showing the corresponding resistance phenotype. Most MRNAS carried typical S. aureus virulence factors like proteases (sspP) and enterotoxins (seg) genes. Most Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates carried the arginine catabolic element, and nearly 40% of the Staphylococcus sciuri isolates carried leukocidins, and/or fibronectin-binding protein genes. MRNAS were highly multi-resistant and represent an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. PMID:25637268

  14. Genes Similar to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence-Related Genes tdh, tlh, and vscC2 Occur in Other Vibrionaceae Species Isolated from a Pristine Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Savannah L.; Gutierrez West, Casandra K.; Mejia, Diana M.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus often relies on molecular biological analysis of species-specific virulence factor genes. These genes have been employed in determinations of V. parahaemolyticus population numbers and the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains. Strains of the Vibrionaceae species Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio diabolicus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio natriegens, as well as strains similar to Vibrio tubiashii, were isolated from a pristine salt marsh estuary. These strains were examined for the V. parahaemolyticus hemolysin genes tdh, trh, and tlh and for the V. parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2α gene vscC2 using established PCR primers and protocols. Virulence-related genes occurred at high frequencies in non-V. parahaemolyticus Vibrionaceae species. V. diabolicus was of particular interest, as several strains were recovered, and the large majority (>83%) contained virulence-related genes. It is clear that detection of these genes does not ensure correct identification of virulent V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus-like virulence factors in other vibrios potentially complicates tracking of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus infections. PMID:24212573

  15. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M.; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis. PMID:27258021

  16. Identification of seven novel virulence genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri by Tn5-based random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Wen-xiu; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Zou, Li-fang; Chen, Gong-you; Zou, Hua-song

    2015-05-01

    To identify novel virulence genes, a mutant library of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 29-1 was produced using EZ-Tn5 transposon and the mutants were inoculated into susceptible grapefruit. Forty mutants with altered virulence phenotypes were identified. Nine of the mutants showed a complete loss of citrus canker induction, and the other 31 mutants resulted in attenuated canker symptoms. Southern blot analysis revealed that each of the mutants carried a single copy of Tn5. The flanking sequence was identified by plasmid rescue and 18 different ORFs were identified in the genome sequence. Of these 18 ORFs, seven had not been previously associated with the virulence of X. citri subsp. citri and were therefore confirmed by complementation analysis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the seven genes were upregulated when the bacteria were grown in citrus plants, suggesting that the expression of these genes was essential for canker development. PMID:25935304

  17. Spatial Segregation of Virulence Gene Expression during Acute Enteric Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Richard C.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Barhoumi, Roula; Payne, H. Ross; Wu, Jing; Gomez, Gabriel; Pugh, Roberta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Adams, L. Garry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish a replicative niche during its infectious cycle between the intestinal lumen and tissue, the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires numerous virulence genes, including genes for two type III secretion systems (T3SS) and their cognate effectors. To better understand the host-pathogen relationship, including early infection dynamics and induction kinetics of the bacterial virulence program in the context of a natural host, we monitored the subcellular localization and temporal expression of T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 using fluorescent single-cell reporters in a bovine, ligated ileal loop model of infection. We observed that the majority of bacteria at 2 h postinfection are flagellated, express T3SS-1 but not T3SS-2, and are associated with the epithelium or with extruding enterocytes. In epithelial cells, S. Typhimurium cells were surrounded by intact vacuolar membranes or present within membrane-compromised vacuoles that typically contained numerous vesicular structures. By 8 h postinfection, T3SS-2-expressing bacteria were detected in the lamina propria and in the underlying mucosa, while T3SS-1-expressing bacteria were in the lumen. Our work identifies for the first time the temporal and spatial regulation of T3SS-1 and -2 expression during an enteric infection in a natural host and provides further support for the concept of cytosolic S. Typhimurium in extruding epithelium as a mechanism for reseeding the lumen. PMID:24496791

  18. Virulence genes and genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maneerat, K; Yongkiettrakul, S; Kramomtong, I; Tongtawe, P; Tapchaisri, P; Luangsuk, P; Chaicumpa, W; Gottschalk, M; Srimanote, P

    2013-11-01

    Isolates of Streptococcus suis from different Western countries as well as those from China and Vietnam have been previously well characterized. So far, the genetic characteristics and relationship between S. suis strains isolated from both humans and pigs in Thailand are unknown. In this study, a total of 245 S. suis isolates were collected from both human cases (epidemic and sporadic) and pigs (diseased and asymptomatic) in Thailand. Bacterial strains were identified by biochemical tests and PCR targeting both, the 16S rRNA and gdh genes. Thirty-six isolates were identified as serotype 2 based on serotyping and the cps2-PCR. These isolates were tested for the presence of six virulence-associated genes: an arginine deiminase (arcA), a 38-kDa protein and protective antigen (bay046), an extracellular factor (epf), an hyaluronidase (hyl), a muramidase-released protein (mrp) and a suilysin (sly). In addition, the genetic diversities of these isolates were studied by RAPD PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Four virulence-associated gene patterns (VAGP 1 to 4) were obtained, and the majority of isolates (32/36) carried all genes tested (VAGP1). Each of the three OPB primers used provided 4 patterns designated RAPD-A to RAPD-D. Furthermore, MLST analysis could also distinguish the 36 isolates into four sequence types (STs): ST1 (n = 32), ST104 (n = 2), ST233 (n = 1) and a newly identified ST, ST336 (n = 1). Dendrogram constructions based on RAPD patterns indicated that S. suis serotype 2 isolates from Thailand could be divided into four groups and that the characteristics of the individual groups were in complete agreement with the virulence gene profiles and STs. The majority (32/36) of isolates recovered from diseased pigs, slaughterhouse pigs or human patients could be classified into a single group (VAGP1, RAPD-A and ST1). This genetic information strongly suggests the transmission of S. suis isolates from pigs to humans in Thailand. Our findings are

  19. Distribution of genes encoding virulence factors and molecular analysis of Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Emaneini, Mohammad; Moradi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Shigella is one of the important causes of diarrhea worldwide. Shigella has several virulence factors contributing in colonization and invasion of epithelial cells and eventually death of host cells. The present study was performed in order to investigate the distribution of virulence factors genes in Shigella spp. isolated from patients with acute diarrhea in Kerman, Iran as well as the genetic relationship of these isolates. A total of 56 isolates including 31 S. flexneri, 18 S. sonnei and 7 S. boydii were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of 11 virulence genes (ipaH, ial, set1A, set1B, sen, virF, invE, sat, sigA, pic and sepA). Then, the clonal relationship of these strains was analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. All isolates were positive for ipaH gene. The other genes include ial, invE and virF were found in 80.4%, 60.7% and 67.9% of the isolates, respectively. Both set1A and set1B were detected in 32.3% of S. flexneri isolates, whereas 66.1% of the isolates belonging to different serogroup carried sen gene. The sat gene was present in all S. flexneri isolates, but not in the S. sonnei and S. boydii isolates. The result showed, 30.4% of isolates were simultaneously positive and the rest of the isolates were negative for sepA and pic genes. The Shigella isolates were divided into 29 MLVA types. This study, for the first time, investigated distribution of 11 virulence genes in Shigella spp. Our results revealed heterogeneity of virulence genes in different Shigella serogroups. Furthermore, the strains belonging to the same species had little diversity. PMID:26654792

  20. Occurrence of virulence-associated genes in Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from different hosts.

    PubMed

    Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tabatabaei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pasteurella multocida infects a wide range of animals and the infection may spread to human through animal bites and scratches. Pasteurella multocida isolates, obtained from several clinically healthy and diseased animals (bovine, sheep, goat, poultry, dog and cat), were investigated for capsule biosynthesis (capA, B, D, E and F) and expression of 22 virulence-associated genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Multiplex PCR results revealed expression of capA, capD and capB genes in 81 (61.83%), 30 (22.90%) and 10 isolates (7.29%), respectively. However, neither of the isolates harbored capE or capF genes and ten isolates (7.29%) were negative for all cap genes. The expression of the capB gene was observed in small ruminant isolates. The occurrence of the ompA, ompH, oma87, sodA and sodC genes was noticed in all of the samples. More than 90% of the isolates harbored hgbA (96.18%), ptfA (95.41%), exbBD-tonB (93.12%), nanB (93.12%) and plbB genes (90.83%). The transferrin binding protein encoding gene tbpA was exclusively detected in the ruminant isolates. The limited number of isolates (25.95%) harbored dermonecrotoxin gene (toxA) and the highest occurrence was noted in the small ruminants, and the capsular type D isolates. This study highlights that the toxA, tbpA, and pfhA genes can be considered as important epidemiological markers for the characterization of P. multocida isolates. PMID:27057674

  1. Nontuberculous mycobacterial osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Yu, Hai-Ying; Xu, Kai-Jin; Zheng, Bei-Wen; Ji, Zhong-Kang; Li, Jun-Jie; Deng, Mei; Hu, Hai-Yang; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteomyelitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can have severe consequences and a poor prognosis. Physicians therefore need to be alert to this condition, especially in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis of NTM osteomyelitis is still unclear, studies in immunodeficient individuals have revealed close relationships between NTM osteomyelitis and defects associated with the interleukin-12–interferon-γ–tumor necrosis factor-α axis, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infection, various immunosuppressive conditions, and diabetes mellitus. Culture and species identification from tissue biopsies or surgical debridement tissue play crucial roles in diagnosing NTM osteomyelitis. Suitable imaging examinations are also important. Adequate surgical debridement and the choice of appropriate, combined antibiotics for long-term anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy, based on in vitro drug susceptibility tests, are the main therapies for these bone infections. Bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccination might have limited prophylactic value. The use of multiple drugs and long duration of treatment mean that the therapeutic process needs to be monitored closely to detect potential side effects. Adequate duration of anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy together with regular monitoring with blood and imaging tests are key factors determining the recovery outcome in patients with NTM osteomyelitis. PMID:25915177

  2. Drug Targets in Mycobacterial Sulfur Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Devayani P.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial targets is urgently needed to address multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis infection. Sulfur metabolic pathways are essential for survival and the expression of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, microbial sulfur metabolic pathways are largely absent in humans and therefore, represent unique targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the enzymes associated with the production of sulfated and reduced sulfur-containing metabolites in Mycobacteria. Small molecule inhibitors of these catalysts represent valuable chemical tools that can be used to investigate the role of sulfur metabolism throughout the Mycobacterial lifecycle and may also represent new leads for drug development. In this light, we also summarize recent progress in the development of inhibitors of sulfur metabolism enzymes. PMID:17970225

  3. Clinical Escherichia coli Strains Carrying stx Genes: stx Variants and stx-Positive Virulence Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Marjut; Leino, Kirsikka; Siitonen, Anja

    2002-01-01

    Altogether, 173 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157 (n = 111) and non-O157 (n = 62) isolates from 170 subjects were screened by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for eight different stx genes. The results were compiled according to serotypes, phage types of O157, production of Stx toxin and enterohemolysin, and the presence of eae. The stx genes occurred in 11 combinations; the most common were stx2 with stx2c (42%), stx2 alone (21%), and stx1 alone (16%). Of the O157 strains, 64% carried stx2 with stx2c versus 2% of the non-O157 strains (P < 0.001). In the non-O157 strains, the prevailing gene was stx1 (99% versus 1% in O157 strains; P < 0.001). In addition, one strain (O Rough:H4:stx2c) which has not previously been described as associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) was found. Ten stx-positive virulence profiles were responsible for 71% of all STEC infections. Of these profiles, five accounted for 71% of the 21 strains isolated from 20 patients with HUS or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The strains having the virulence profile that caused mainly HUS or TTP or bloody diarrhea produced Stx with titers of ≥1:128 (90%) more commonly than did other strains (51%; P < 0.001). These strains were also more commonly enterohemolytic (98% versus 68% for other strains; P < 0.001) and possessed the eae gene (100%) more commonly than did other strains (74%; P < 0.001). A particular virulence profile, O157:H7:PT2:stx2:stx2c:eae:Ehly, was significantly more frequently associated with HUS and bloody diarrhea than were other profiles (P = 0.02) and also caused the deaths of two children. In this study, the risk factors for severe symptoms were an age of <5 years and infection by the strain of O157:H7:PT2 mentioned above. PMID:12454157

  4. A Naturally Occurring Single Amino Acid Replacement in Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Increases Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C.; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M.; Olsen, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype–patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  5. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  6. Loss of σI affects heat-shock response and virulence gene expression in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jenny Gi Yae; Wilson, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis depends on several virulence factors, including the anthrax toxin. Loss of the alternative sigma factor σI results in a coordinate decrease in expression of all three toxin subunits. Our observations suggest that loss of σI alters the activity of the master virulence regulator AtxA, but atxA transcription is unaffected by loss of σI. σI-containing RNA polymerase does not appear to directly transcribe either atxA or the toxin gene pagA. As in Bacillus subtilis, loss of σI in B. anthracis results in increased sensitivity to heat shock and transcription of sigI, encoding σI, is induced by elevated temperature. Encoded immediately downstream of and part of a bicistronic message with sigI is an anti-sigma factor, RsgI, which controls σI activity. Loss of RsgI has no direct effect on virulence gene expression. sigI appears to be expressed from both the σI and σA promoters, and transcription from the σA promoter is likely more significant to virulence regulation. We propose a model in which σI can be induced in response to heat shock, whilst, independently, σI is produced under non-heat-shock, toxin-inducing conditions to indirectly regulate virulence gene expression. PMID:26744224

  7. Multilocus analysis of extracellular putative virulence proteins made by group A Streptococcus: population genetics, human serologic response, and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Reid, S D; Green, N M; Buss, J K; Lei, B; Musser, J M

    2001-06-19

    Species of pathogenic microbes are composed of an array of evolutionarily distinct chromosomal genotypes characterized by diversity in gene content and sequence (allelic variation). The occurrence of substantial genetic diversity has hindered progress in developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of virulence and new therapeutics such as vaccines. To provide new information that bears on these issues, 11 genes encoding extracellular proteins in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus identified by analysis of four genomes were studied. Eight of the 11 genes encode proteins with a LPXTG(L) motif that covalently links Gram-positive virulence factors to the bacterial cell surface. Sequence analysis of the 11 genes in 37 geographically and phylogenetically diverse group A Streptococcus strains cultured from patients with different infection types found that recent horizontal gene transfer has contributed substantially to chromosomal diversity. Regions of the inferred proteins likely to interact with the host were identified by molecular population genetic analysis, and Western immunoblot analysis with sera from infected patients confirmed that they were antigenic. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (TaqMan) assays found that transcription of six of the 11 genes was substantially up-regulated in the stationary phase. In addition, transcription of many genes was influenced by the covR and mga trans-acting gene regulatory loci. Multilocus investigation of putative virulence genes by the integrated approach described herein provides an important strategy to aid microbial pathogenesis research and rapidly identify new targets for therapeutics research. PMID:11416223

  8. Metabolomics: Applications and Promise in Mycobacterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Winston, Brent W; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, the study of mycobacterial diseases was trapped in culture-based technology that is more than a century old. The use of nucleic acid amplification is changing this, and powerful new technologies are on the horizon. Metabolomics, which is the study of sets of metabolites of both the bacteria and host, is being used to clarify mechanisms of disease, and can identify changes leading to better diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of mycobacterial diseases. Metabolomic profiles are arrays of biochemical products of genes in their environment. These complex patterns are biomarkers that can allow a more complete understanding of cell function, dysfunction, and perturbation than genomics or proteomics. Metabolomics could herald sweeping advances in personalized medicine and clinical trial design, but the challenges in metabolomics are also great. Measured metabolite concentrations vary with the timing within a condition, the intrinsic biology, the instruments, and the sample preparation. Metabolism profoundly changes with age, sex, variations in gut microbial flora, and lifestyle. Validation of biomarkers is complicated by measurement accuracy, selectivity, linearity, reproducibility, robustness, and limits of detection. The statistical challenges include analysis, interpretation, and description of the vast amount of data generated. Despite these drawbacks, metabolomics provides great opportunity and the potential to understand and manage mycobacterial diseases. PMID:26196272

  9. Analysis of Core Housekeeping and Virulence Genes Reveals Cryptic Lineages of Clostridium perfringens That Are Associated With Distinct Disease Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Alejandro P.; Swezey, James L.; Friedman, Robert; Hecht, David W.; Maddox, Carol W.

    2006-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important human and animal pathogen that causes a number of diseases that vary in their etiology and severity. Differences between strains regarding toxin gene composition and toxin production partly explain why some strains cause radically different diseases than others. However, they do not provide a complete explanation. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a phylogenetic component that explains the variance in C. perfringens strain virulence by assessing patterns of genetic polymorphism in genes (colA gyrA, plc, pfoS, and rplL) that form part of the core genome in 248 type A strains. We found that purifying selection plays a central role in shaping the patterns of nucleotide substitution and polymorphism in both housekeeping and virulence genes. In contrast, recombination was found to be a significant factor only for the virulence genes plc and colA and the housekeeping gene gyrA. Finally, we found that the strains grouped into five distinct evolutionary lineages that show evidence of host adaptation and the early stages of speciation. The discovery of these previously unknown lineages and their association with distinct disease presentations carries important implications for human and veterinary clostridial disease epidemiology and provides important insights into the pathways through which virulence has evolved in C. perfringens. PMID:16489222

  10. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors. PMID:27093436

  11. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors. PMID:27093436

  12. Reciprocal interaction between dental alloy biocorrosion and Streptococcus mutans virulent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songmei; Qiu, Jing; Ren, Yanfang; Yu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of dental alloys is a major concern in dental restorations. Streptococcus mutans reduces the pH in oral cavity and induces demineralization of the enamel as well as corrosion of restorative dental materials. The rough surfaces of dental alloys induced by corrosion enhance the subsequent accumulation of plaque. In this study, the corrosion process of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in a nutrient-rich medium containing S. mutans was studied using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical corrosion test. Our results showed that the release of Ni and Co ions increased, particularly after incubation for 3 days. The electrochemical corrosion results showed a significant decrease in the corrosion resistance (Rp) value after the alloys were immersed in the media containing S. mutans for 3 days. Correspondingly, XPS revealed a reduction in the relative dominance of Ni, Co, and Cr in the surface oxides after the alloys were immersed in the S. mutans culture. After removal of the biofilm, the pre-corroded alloys were re-incubated in S. mutans medium, and the expressions of genes associated with the adhesion and acidogenesis of S. mutans, including gtfBCD, gbpB, fif and ldh, were evaluated by detecting the mRNA levels using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the gtfBCD, gbpB, ftf and Idh expression of S. mutans were noticeably increased after incubation with pre-corroded alloys for 24 h. This study demonstrated that S. mutans enhanced the corrosion behavior of the dental alloys, on the other hand, the presence of corroded alloy surfaces up-regulated the virulent gene expression in S. mutans. Compared with smooth surfaces, the rough corroded surfaces of dental alloys accelerated the bacteria-adhesion and corrosion process by changing the virulence gene expression of S. mutans. PMID:26896953

  13. Virulence genes and cytokine profile in systemic murine Campylobacter coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Klančnik, Anja; Pogačar, Maja Šikić; Raspor, Peter; Abram, Maja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Vučković, Darinka

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter coli are one of the most common bacteria in bacterial gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis and host response to C. coli infections. To investigate the influence of genetic changes, we first used PCR to demonstrate the presence of the known virulence genes cadF, virB11, cdtB, cdtC and ceuE in the clinical isolate C. coli 26536, which was isolated from the liver of infected BALB/c mice. Sequence analyses of the cadF, virB11, cdtB and ceuE genes in C. coli 26536 confirmed the stability in these virulence genes during their transmission through the host. We further investigated C. coli infection for the bacterial clearance from the liver and spleen of infected mice, and for their immune response. C. coli persisted well in both organs, with better survival in the liver. We also determined the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin [IL]-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in plasma and in liver homogenates from the infected mice, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The lowest levels among these cytokines were for tumor necrosis factor-α in the plasma and IL-6 in the liver on days 1, 3 and 8 post-infection. The most pronounced production was for IL-10, in both plasma (days 1 and 8 post-infection) and liver (day 8 post-infection), which suggests that it has a role in healing of the organ inflammation. Our findings showed dynamic relationships between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and thus contribute toward clarification of the healing processes involved in the resolution of C. coli infections. PMID:26039573

  14. Characterization of DNase activity and gene in Streptococcus suis and evidence for a role as virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent. Multilocus sequence typing allowed dividing S. suis serotype 2 into sequence types (STs). The three major STs of S. suis serotype 2 from North America are 1 (most virulent), 25 (intermediate virulence) and 28 (less virulent). Although the presence of DNase activity in S. suis has been previously reported, little data is available. The aim of this study was to investigate DNase activity in S. suis according to STs, to characterize the activity and gene, and to provide evidence for a potential role in virulence. Results We showed that ST1 and ST28 strains exhibited DNase activity that was absent in ST25 strains. The lack of activity in ST25 isolates was associated with a 14-bp deletion resulting in a shifted reading frame and a premature stop codon. The DNase of S. suis P1/7 (ST1) was cell-associated and active on linear DNA. A DNase-deficient mutant of S. suis P1/7 was found to be less virulent in an amoeba model. Stimulation of macrophages with the DNase mutant showed a decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared to the parental strain. Conclusions This study further expands our knowledge of S. suis DNase and its potential role in virulence. PMID:24996230

  15. Shigella in Brazilian children with acute diarrhoea: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mireille Ângela Bernardes; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira; Collares, Guilherme Birchal; Péret-Filho, Luciano Amedée; Penna, Francisco José; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Among diarrhoeagenic agents, Shigella should be highlighted due to its prevalence and the severity of the associated disease. Here, we assessed Shigella prevalence, drug susceptibility and virulence factors. Faeces from 157 children with diarrhoea who sought treatment at the Children's Hospital João Paulo II, a reference children´s hospital in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were cultured and drug susceptibility of the Shigella isolates was determined by the disk diffusion technique. Shigella virulence markers were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The bacterium was recovered from 10.8% of the children (88.2% Shigella sonnei). The ipaH, iuc, sen and ial genes were detected in strains isolated from all shigellosis patients; set1A was only detected in Shigella flexneri. Additionally, patients were infected by Shigella strains of different ial, sat, sen and set1A genotypes. Compared to previous studies, we observed a marked shift in the distribution of species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei and high rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. PMID:23440111

  16. Identification of Genes Contributing to the Virulence of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 in a Mouse Intradermal Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Golovliov, Igor; Bolanowski, Mark; Shen, Hua; Conlan, Wayne; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Background Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent human pathogen. The most virulent strains belong to subspecies tularensis and these strains cause a sometimes fatal disease. Despite an intense recent research effort, there is very limited information available that explains the unique features of subspecies tularensis strains that distinguish them from other F. tularensis strains and that explain their high virulence. Here we report the use of targeted mutagenesis to investigate the roles of various genes or pathways for the virulence of strain SCHU S4, the type strain of subspecies tularensis. Methodology/Principal Findings The virulence of SCHU S4 mutants was assessed by following the outcome of infection after intradermal administration of graded doses of bacteria. By this route, the LD50 of the SCHU S4 strain is one CFU. The virulence of 20 in-frame deletion mutants and 37 transposon mutants was assessed. A majority of the mutants did not show increased prolonged time to death, among them notably ΔpyrB and ΔrecA. Of the remaining, mutations in six unique targets, tolC, rep, FTT0609, FTT1149c, ahpC, and hfq resulted in significantly prolonged time to death and mutations in nine targets, rplA, wbtI, iglB, iglD, purL, purF, ggt, kdtA, and glpX, led to marked attenuation with an LD50 of >103 CFU. In fact, the latter seven mutants showed very marked attenuation with an LD50 of ≥107 CFU. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that the characterization of targeted mutants yielded important information about essential virulence determinants that will help to identify the so far little understood extreme virulence of F. tularensis subspecies tularensis. PMID:19424499

  17. The SloR/Dlg Metalloregulator Modulates Streptococcus mutans Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rolerson, Elizabeth; Swick, Adam; Newlon, Lindsay; Palmer, Cameron; Pan, Yong; Keeshan, Britton; Spatafora, Grace

    2006-01-01

    Metal ion availability in the human oral cavity plays a putative role in Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and in appropriate formation of the plaque biofilm. In this report, we present evidence that supports such a role for the DtxR-like SloR metalloregulator (called Dlg in our previous publications) in this oral pathogen. Specifically, the results of gel mobility shift assays revealed the sloABC, sloR, comDE, ropA, sod, and spaP promoters as targets of SloR binding. We confirmed differential expression of these genes in a GMS584 SloR-deficient mutant versus the UA159 wild-type progenitor by real-time semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR experiments. The results of additional expression studies support a role for SloR in S. mutans control of glucosyltransferases, glucan binding proteins, and genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. Phenotypic analysis of GMS584 revealed that it forms aberrant biofilms on an abiotic surface, is compromised for genetic competence, and demonstrates heightened incorporation of iron and manganese as well as resistance to oxidative stress compared to the wild type. Taken together, these findings support a role for SloR in S. mutans adherence, biofilm formation, genetic competence, metal ion homeostasis, oxidative stress tolerance, and antibiotic gene regulation, all of which contribute to S. mutans-induced disease. PMID:16816176

  18. The SloR/Dlg metalloregulator modulates Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rolerson, Elizabeth; Swick, Adam; Newlon, Lindsay; Palmer, Cameron; Pan, Yong; Keeshan, Britton; Spatafora, Grace

    2006-07-01

    Metal ion availability in the human oral cavity plays a putative role in Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and in appropriate formation of the plaque biofilm. In this report, we present evidence that supports such a role for the DtxR-like SloR metalloregulator (called Dlg in our previous publications) in this oral pathogen. Specifically, the results of gel mobility shift assays revealed the sloABC, sloR, comDE, ropA, sod, and spaP promoters as targets of SloR binding. We confirmed differential expression of these genes in a GMS584 SloR-deficient mutant versus the UA159 wild-type progenitor by real-time semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR experiments. The results of additional expression studies support a role for SloR in S. mutans control of glucosyltransferases, glucan binding proteins, and genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. Phenotypic analysis of GMS584 revealed that it forms aberrant biofilms on an abiotic surface, is compromised for genetic competence, and demonstrates heightened incorporation of iron and manganese as well as resistance to oxidative stress compared to the wild type. Taken together, these findings support a role for SloR in S. mutans adherence, biofilm formation, genetic competence, metal ion homeostasis, oxidative stress tolerance, and antibiotic gene regulation, all of which contribute to S. mutans-induced disease. PMID:16816176

  19. Genetic dissection of mycobacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Anil K; Jacobs, William R; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the biological principles of mycobacterial tolerance to antibiotics is crucial for developing shorter anti-tuberculosis regimens. Various in vitro approaches have been developed to identify the conditions that promote mycobacterial persistence against antibiotics. In our laboratories, we have developed a detergent-free in vitro growth model, in which mycobacteria spontaneously grow at the air-medium interface as self-organized multicellular structures, called biofilms. Mycobacterial biofilms harbor a subpopulation of drug tolerant persisters at a greater frequency than their planktonic counterpart. Importantly, development of these structures is genetically programmed, and defective biofilms of isogenic mutants harbor fewer persisters. Thus, genetic analysis of mycobacterial biofilms in vitro could potentially be a powerful tool to unravel the biology of drug tolerance in mycobacteria. In this chapter we describe a method for screening biofilm-defective mutants of mycobacteria in a 96-well format, which readily yields a clonally pure mutant for further studies. PMID:25779318

  20. Detection of type III secretion system genes in Aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with virulence in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Castro, G A; Lopes, C O; Leal, C A G; Cardoso, P G; Leite, R C; Figueiredo, H C P

    2010-08-26

    The goals of this study were to develop a PCR technique to detect ascV and aopB genes from the type III secretion system (T3SS), to evaluate the frequency of these genes in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from diseased fish and from aquaculture environments, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of A. hydrophila in Nile tilapia. The PCR assay developed here successfully detected the target genes, showing three different profiles for the strains ascV+/aopB+, ascV+/aopB-, and ascV-/aopB-. A higher frequency of ascV+/aopB+ was verified in isolates from diseased fish compared to those from aquaculture environments (P<0.05). Among 64 isolates from diseased fish, ascV+/aopB+ (62.5%) was the most frequent profile (P<0.05) and caused more intensive mortality rates. Environmental strains containing the ascV+/aopB+ profile were less virulent than isolates from clinical cases. These results suggest that the presence of a functional T3SS probably increases the virulence of A. hydrophila. The PCR technique was shown to be a specific and efficient tool for detection of T3SS, and this technique can be used for virulence typing of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:20185253

  1. A Genome-Wide Screen Reveals that the Vibrio cholerae Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphotransferase System Modulates Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Chao, Michael C.; Sasabe, Jumpei; Davis, Brigid M.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental stimuli and a complex network of regulatory factors are known to modulate expression of Vibrio cholerae's principal virulence factors. However, there is relatively little known about how metabolic factors impinge upon the pathogen's well-characterized cascade of transcription factors that induce expression of cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Here, we used a transposon insertion site (TIS) sequencing-based strategy to identify new factors required for expression of tcpA, which encodes the major subunit of TCP, the organism's chief intestinal colonization factor. Besides identifying most of the genes known to modulate tcpA expression, the screen yielded ptsI and ptsH, which encode the enzyme I (EI) and Hpr components of the V. cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). In addition to reduced expression of TcpA, strains lacking EI, Hpr, or the associated EIIAGlc protein produced less cholera toxin (CT) and had a diminished capacity to colonize the infant mouse intestine. The PTS modulates virulence gene expression by regulating expression of tcpPH and aphAB, which themselves control expression of toxT, the central activator of virulence gene expression. One mechanism by which PTS promotes virulence gene expression appears to be by modulating the amounts of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our findings reveal that the V. cholerae PTS is an additional modulator of the ToxT regulon and demonstrate the potency of loss-of-function TIS sequencing screens for defining regulatory networks. PMID:26056384

  2. A spectrum of CodY activities drives metabolic reorganization and virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Waters, Nicholas R; Samuels, David J; Behera, Ranjan K; Livny, Jonathan; Rhee, Kyu Y; Sadykov, Marat R; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2016-08-01

    The global regulator CodY controls the expression of dozens of metabolism and virulence genes in the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in response to the availability of isoleucine, leucine and valine (ILV), and GTP. Using RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling and partial activity variants, we reveal that S. aureus CodY activity grades metabolic and virulence gene expression as a function of ILV availability, mediating metabolic reorganization and controlling virulence factor production in vitro. Strains lacking CodY regulatory activity produce a PIA-dependent biofilm, but development is restricted under conditions that confer partial CodY activity. CodY regulates the expression of thermonuclease (nuc) via the Sae two-component system, revealing cascading virulence regulation and factor production as CodY activity is reduced. Proteins that mediate the host-pathogen interaction and subvert the immune response are shut off at intermediate levels of CodY activity, while genes coding for enzymes and proteins that extract nutrients from tissue, that kill host cells, and that synthesize amino acids are among the last genes to be derepressed. We conclude that S. aureus uses CodY to limit host damage to only the most severe starvation conditions, providing insight into one potential mechanism by which S. aureus transitions from a commensal bacterium to an invasive pathogen. PMID:27116338

  3. Frequency of virulence genes of Escherichia coli among newborn piglets from an intensive pig farm in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Picco, Natalia Y; Bellingeri, Romina V; Terzolo, Horacio R; Vivas, Adriana B

    2012-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic and porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EtEc and PEPEc) strains are agents associated with swine neonatal diarrhea, causing economic losses in swine production. The main goal of this study was to identify virulence genes of EtEc, verotoxigenic (VtEc) and PEPEc in intestinal strains responsible for swine diseases, by molecular typing using Pcr in newborn piglets from an intensive farm system. Two hundred and sixty seven rectal swabbings from 7-15 days- old landrace x large White crossbred piglets were taken, and 123 randomly selected samples, biochemically compatible with E. coli, were tested for E. coli virulence genes by Pcr. A frequency (%) compatible with: 68 EtEc, 24 VtEc, and 8 EPEc were found. of all E. coli strains studied, 19.51 % carried at least one virulence gene. These data showed conclusively that, in spite of the application of strict sanitary measures in the intensive farm, genes encoding virulence factors of intestinal pathogens compatible with EtEc are still detected; therefore these strains will probably keep circulating among animals. PMID:23267620

  4. Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (≥4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (≥4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

  5. Frequency, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Iran. Listeria spp. were detected in 21/207 bovine mastitic milk samples from dairy farms in Iran, comprising L. monocytogenes (n=17), L. innocua (n=3) and L. ivanovii (n=1). L. monocytogenes isolates were grouped into serogroups '4b, 4d, 4e', '1/2a, 3a', '1/2b, 3b, 7' and '1/2c, 3c'; all harboured inlA, inlC and inlJ virulence genes. Listeria spp. were most frequently resistant to penicillin G (14/21 isolates, 66.7%) and tetracyclines (11/21 isolates, 52.4%). PMID:23880504

  6. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase, Tryptophan Catabolism, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a Model for Chronic Mycobacterial Infections ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Plain, Karren M.; de Silva, Kumudika; Earl, John; Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Virulent mycobacterial infections progress slowly, with a latent period that leads to clinical disease in a proportion of cases. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that causes paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD), a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that regulates tryptophan metabolism, was originally reported to have a role in intracellular pathogen killing and has since been shown to have an important immunoregulatory role in chronic immune diseases. Here we demonstrate an association between increased IDO levels and progression to clinical mycobacterial disease in a natural host, characterizing gene expression, protein localization, and functional effects. IDO mRNA levels were significantly increased in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytic cells. Levels of both IDO gene and protein expression were significantly upregulated within the affected tissues of sheep with JD, particularly at the site of primary infection, the ileum, of animals with severe multibacillary disease. Lesion severity was correlated with the level of IDO gene expression. IDO gene expression was also increased in the peripheral blood cells of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed sheep and cattle. IDO breaks down tryptophan, and systemic increases were functional, as shown by decreased plasma tryptophan levels, which correlated with the onset of clinical signs, a stage well known to be associated with Th1 immunosuppression. IDO may be involved in downregulating immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other virulent mycobacteria, which may be an example of the pathogen harnessing host immunoregulatory pathways to aid survival. These findings raise new questions about the host-mycobacterium interactions in the progression from latent to clinical disease. PMID:21730087

  7. Virulence gene content in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry flocks with clinical signs of colibacillosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Silvia; Ikuta, Nilo; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling Moreira; da Silveira, Vinicius Proença; de Melo Predebon, Gabriela; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the bird's intestinal tract, but it can invade different tissues resulting in systemic symptoms (colibacillosis). This disease occurs only when the E. coli infecting strain presents virulence factors (encoded by specific genes) that enable the adhesion and proliferation in the host organism. Thus, it is important to differentiate pathogenic (APEC, avian pathogenic E. coli) and non-pathogenic or fecal (AFEC, avian fecal E. coli) isolates. Previous studies analyzed the occurrence of virulence factors in E. coli strains isolated from birds with colibacillosis, demonstrating a high frequency of the bacterial genes cvaC, iroN, iss, iutA, sitA, tsh, fyuA, irp-2, ompT and hlyF in pathogenic strains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence and frequency of these virulence genes in E. coli isolated from poultry flocks in Brazil. A total of 138 isolates of E. coli was obtained from samples of different tissues and/or organs (spleen, liver, kidney, trachea, lungs, skin, ovary, oviduct, intestine, cloaca) and environmental swabs collected from chicken and turkey flocks suspected to have colibacillosis in farms from the main Brazilian producing regions. Total DNA was extracted and the 10 virulence genes were detected by traditional and/or real-time PCR. At least 11 samples of each gene were sequenced and compared to reference strains. All 10 virulence factors were detected in Brazilian E. coli isolates, with frequencies ranging from 39.9% (irp-2) to 68.8% (hlyF and sitA). Moreover, a high nucleotide similarity (over 99%) was observed between gene sequences of Brazilian isolates and reference strains. Seventy-nine isolates were defined as pathogenic (APEC) and 59 as fecal (AFEC) based on previously described criteria. In conclusion, the main virulence genes of the reference E. coli strains are also present in isolates associated with colibacillosis in Brazil. The analysis of this set of virulence factors can be

  8. The effect of γ radiation on the expression of the virulence genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Dongho

    2007-11-01

    The principle benefit of food irradiation is the reduction of food-borne bacteria in food products. However, the microbiological safety with respect to increased virulence of surviving pathogens after irradiation remains an important issue with regard to the effectiveness of food irradiation. In this study, the transcriptional changes of virulence genes of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. after γ radiation were investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Samonella typhimurium is dependent upon the products of a large number of genes located within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) on the chromosome. The expressions of seven genes including four SPI genes, hilD, ssrB, pipB, and sopD, were measured at 1 h after 1 kGy irradiation. Compared with non-irradiated controls, the expression of hilD encoded within SPI1 and sopD encoding SPI1-related effector proteins was reduced about 4- and 16-fold, respectively. The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes, vvhA, ctxA, and tdh, were also monitored during the course of a growth cycle after re-inoculation of irradiated Vibrio spp. (0.5 and 1.0 kGy). The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes tested did not increase compared with non-irradiated counterparts. Results from this study indicate that γ radiation is much more likely to reduce the virulence gene expression of surviving pathogens.

  9. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s(-1), respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  10. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s−1, respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  11. Sir2 Paralogues Cooperate to Regulate Virulence Genes and Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Voss, Till S; Ralph, Stuart A; Hommel, Mirja; Duffy, Michael F; da Silva, Liliana Mancio; Scherf, Artur; Ivens, Alasdair; Speed, Terence P; Beeson, James G; Cowman, Alan F

    2009-01-01

    Cytoadherance of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the brain, organs and peripheral microvasculature is linked to morbidity and mortality associated with severe malaria. Parasite-derived P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) molecules displayed on the erythrocyte surface are responsible for cytoadherance and undergo antigenic variation in the course of an infection. Antigenic variation of PfEMP1 is achieved by in situ switching and mutually exclusive transcription of the var gene family, a process that is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we report characterisation of the P. falciparum silent information regulator's A and B (PfSir2A and PfSir2B) and their involvement in mutual exclusion and silencing of the var gene repertoire. Analysis of P. falciparum parasites lacking either PfSir2A or PfSir2B shows that these NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases are required for silencing of different var gene subsets classified by their conserved promoter type. We also demonstrate that in the absence of either of these molecules mutually exclusive expression of var genes breaks down. We show that var gene silencing originates within the promoter and PfSir2 paralogues are involved in cis spreading of silenced chromatin into adjacent regions. Furthermore, parasites lacking PfSir2A but not PfSir2B have considerably longer telomeric repeats, demonstrating a role for this molecule in telomeric end protection. This work highlights the pivotal but distinct role for both PfSir2 paralogues in epigenetic silencing of P. falciparum virulence genes and the control of pathogenicity of malaria infection. PMID:19402747

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Brucella abortus vaccine strain 104M reveals a set of candidate genes associated with its virulence attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dong; Hui, Yiming; Zai, Xiaodong; Xu, Junjie; Liang, Long; Wang, Bingxiang; Yue, Junjie; Li, Shanhu

    2015-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain 104M, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in humans against brucellosis for 6 decades in China. Despite many studies, the molecular mechanisms that cause the attenuation are still unclear. Here, we determined the whole-genome sequence of 104M and conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis against the whole genome sequences of the virulent strain, A13334, and other reference strains. This analysis revealed a highly similar genome structure between 104M and A13334. The further comparative genomic analysis between 104M and A13334 revealed a set of genes missing in 104M. Some of these genes were identified to be directly or indirectly associated with virulence. Similarly, a set of mutations in the virulence-related genes was also identified, which may be related to virulence alteration. This study provides a set of candidate genes associated with virulence attenuation in B.abortus vaccine strain 104M. PMID:26039674

  13. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy products - Genetic diversity and virulence gene profiles.

    PubMed

    Douëllou, T; Delannoy, S; Ganet, S; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Fach, P; Loukiadis, E; Montel, Mc; Thevenot-Sergentet, D

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are widely recognized as pathogens causing food borne disease. Here we evaluate the genetic diversity of 197 strains, mainly STEC, from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8 and O145:28 and compared strains recovered in dairy products against strains from human, meat and environment cases. For this purpose, we characterized a set of reference-collection STEC isolates from dairy products by PFGE DNA fingerprinting and a subset of these by virulence-gene profiling. PFGE profiles of restricted STEC total DNA showed high genomic variability (0.9976 on Simpson's discriminatory index), enabling all dairy isolates to be differentiated. High-throughput real-time PCR screening of STEC virulence genes were applied on the O157:H7 and O26:H11 STEC isolates from dairy products and human cases. The virulence gene profiles of dairy and human STEC strains were similar. Nevertheless, frequency-wise, stx1 was more prevalent among dairy O26:H11 isolates than in human cases ones (87% vs. 44%) while stx2 was more prevalent among O26:H11 human isolates (23% vs. 81%). For O157:H7 isolates, stx1 (0% vs. 39%), nleF (40% vs 94%) and Z6065 (40% vs 100%) were more prevalent among human than dairy strains. Our data point to differences between human and dairy strains but these differences were not sufficient to associate PFGE and virulence gene profiles to a putative lower pathogenicity of dairy strains based on their lower incidence in disease. Further comparison of whole-genome expression and virulence gene profiles should be investigated in cheese and intestinal tract samples. PMID:27257743

  14. Highlight on Advances in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Farshidpour, Maham; Allen, Mary Beth; Ebrahimi, Golnaz; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2014-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and exist as an important cause of pulmonary infections in humans. Pulmonary involvement is the most common disease manifestation of NTM and the incidence of NTM is growing in North America. Susceptibility to NTM infection is incompletely understood; therefore preventative tools are not well defined. Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is difficult and entails multiple antibiotics and an extended treatment course. Also, there is a considerable variation in treatment management that should be considered before initiating treatment. We highlight the new findings in the epidemiology diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infections. We debate new advances regarding NTM infection in cystic fibrosis patients and solid organ transplant recipients. Finally, we introduce a new epidemiologic model for NTM disease based on virulence-exposure-host factors. PMID:25574470

  15. Targeting the mycobacterial envelope for tuberculosis drug development

    PubMed Central

    Favrot, Lorenza; Ronning, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium that causes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, possesses a rather unique outer membrane composed largely of lipids that possess long-chain and branched fatty acids, called mycolic acids. These lipids form a permeability barrier that prevents entry of many environmental solutes, thereby making these bacteria acid-fast and able to survive extremely hostile surroundings. Antitubercular drugs must penetrate this layer to reach their target. This review highlights drug development efforts that have added to the slowly growing tuberculosis drug pipeline, identified new enzyme activities to target with drugs and increased the understanding of important biosynthetic pathways for mycobacterial outer membrane and cell wall core assembly. In addition, a portion of this review looks at discovery efforts aimed at weakening this barrier to decrease mycobacterial virulence, decrease fitness in the host or enhance the efficacy of the current drug repertoire by disrupting the permeability barrier. PMID:23106277

  16. Transcriptional modulation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in response to epithelial cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Rita; Rasko, David A; Sahl, Jason W; Munson, George P; Roy, Koushik; Luo, Qingwei; Sheikh, Alaullah; Kuhne, Kurt J; Fleckenstein, James M

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal illness in developing countries. There is currently no effective vaccine against these important pathogens. Because genes modulated by pathogen-host interactions potentially encode putative vaccine targets, we investigated changes in gene expression and surface morphology of ETEC upon interaction with intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Pan-genome microarrays, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), and transcriptional reporter fusions of selected promoters were used to study changes in ETEC transcriptomes. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate alterations in surface antigen expression and morphology following pathogen-host interactions. Following host cell contact, genes for motility, adhesion, toxin production, immunodominant peptides, and key regulatory molecules, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and c-di-GMP, were substantially modulated. These changes were accompanied by visible changes in both ETEC architecture and the expression of surface antigens, including a novel highly conserved adhesin molecule, EaeH. The studies reported here suggest that pathogen-host interactions are finely orchestrated by ETEC and are characterized by coordinated responses involving the sequential deployment of multiple virulence molecules. Elucidation of the molecular details of these interactions could highlight novel strategies for development of vaccines for these important pathogens. PMID:23115039

  17. Gain of Virulence Caused by Loss of a Gene in Murine Cytomegalovirus‡

    PubMed Central

    Bubić, Ivan; Wagner, Markus; Krmpotić, Astrid; Saulig, Tanja; Kim, Sungjin; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Jonjić, Stipan; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2004-01-01

    Mouse strains are either resistant or susceptible to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Resistance is determined by the Cmv1r (Ly49h) gene, which encodes the Ly49H NK cell activation receptor. The protein encoded by the m157 gene of MCMV has been defined as a ligand for Ly49H. To find out whether the m157 protein is the only Ly49H ligand encoded by MCMV, we constructed the m157 deletion mutant and a revertant virus. Viruses were tested for susceptibility to NK cell control in Ly49H+ and Ly49H− mouse strains. Deletion of the m157 gene abolished the viral activation of Ly49H+ NK cells, resulting in higher virus virulence in vivo. Thus, in the absence of m157, Ly49H+ mice react like susceptible strains. 129/SvJ mice lack the Ly49H activation NK cell receptor but express the inhibitory Ly49I NK cell receptor that binds to the m157 protein. The Δm157 inhibitory phenotype was weak because MCMV encodes a number of proteins that mediate NK inhibition, whose contribution could be shown by another mutant. PMID:15220428

  18. Transcriptional Modulation of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Response to Epithelial Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Rita; Rasko, David A.; Sahl, Jason W.; Munson, George P.; Roy, Koushik; Luo, Qingwei; Sheikh, Alaullah; Kuhne, Kurt J.

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal illness in developing countries. There is currently no effective vaccine against these important pathogens. Because genes modulated by pathogen-host interactions potentially encode putative vaccine targets, we investigated changes in gene expression and surface morphology of ETEC upon interaction with intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Pan-genome microarrays, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), and transcriptional reporter fusions of selected promoters were used to study changes in ETEC transcriptomes. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate alterations in surface antigen expression and morphology following pathogen-host interactions. Following host cell contact, genes for motility, adhesion, toxin production, immunodominant peptides, and key regulatory molecules, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and c-di-GMP, were substantially modulated. These changes were accompanied by visible changes in both ETEC architecture and the expression of surface antigens, including a novel highly conserved adhesin molecule, EaeH. The studies reported here suggest that pathogen-host interactions are finely orchestrated by ETEC and are characterized by coordinated responses involving the sequential deployment of multiple virulence molecules. Elucidation of the molecular details of these interactions could highlight novel strategies for development of vaccines for these important pathogens. PMID:23115039

  19. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from rabbits in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Sena de Gobbi, Débora Dirani; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Nogueira Filsner, Pedro Henrique de Lima; Moreno, Marina; Paixão, Renata; Pereira, Jucélia de Jesus; Micke Moreno, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. PMID:22919347

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles in P. multocida strains isolated from cats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; de Gobbi, Debora Dirani Sena; Moreno, Marina; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-01-01

    Cats are often described as carriers of Pasteurella multocida in their oral microbiota. This agent is thought to cause pneumonia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, gingivostomatitis, abscess and osteonecrosis in cats. Human infection with P. multocida has been described in several cases affecting cat owners or after cat bites. In Brazil, the cat population is approximately 21 million animals and is increasing, but there are no studies of the presence of P. multocida in the feline population or of human cases of infection associated with cats. In this study, one hundred and ninety-one healthy cats from owners and shelters in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for the presence of P. multocida in their oral cavities. Twenty animals were positive for P. multocida , and forty-one strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. The P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes and resistance profile. A total of 75.6% (31/41) of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 24.4% (10/41) of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA, tbpA or pfhA genes. The frequencies of the other genes tested were variable, and the data generated were used to build a dendrogram showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. The most common resistance profile observed was against sulfizoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:26221117

  1. Distribution and sequence variations of selected virulence genes among group A streptococcal isolates from western Norway.

    PubMed

    Mylvaganam, H; Bjorvatn, B; Osland, A

    2000-11-01

    In order to compare the distribution of selected virulence genes among group A streptococci recovered from invasive disease and superficial infections, 42 isolates were screened for mga, speB, speA, ssa and ska, by PCR. The isolates were predominantly of the sequence types emm1, emm3 and emm6, but also included a few of the types emm22, emm28, emm75 and emm78. The phage-mediated speA seemed to be prevalent in emm types 1 and 3, and its distribution was not related to disease severity. The other genes were present in all isolates. The mga, speB and speA were further studied by sequence analysis. Although allotypic associations with invasiveness were not found, allelic specificity to the emm sequence type was observed. In addition, the mga sequences indicated two lineages, related to opacity factor production. A possible recombination between these two main divergent mga genes was observed in isolates of the types emm22 and emm75. A logical nomenclature of the alleles of mga and speB is suggested. PMID:11211972

  2. Variable switching rates of malaria virulence genes are associated with chromosomal position and gene subclass

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Matthias; Dzikowski, Ron; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is mediated by transcriptional switches between different members of the multicopy var gene family. Each var gene encodes a member of a group of heterogeneous surface proteins collectively referred to as PfEMP1. Mutually exclusive expression ensures that an individual parasite only transcribes a single var gene at a time. In this work we studied var gene switching to determine if transcriptional switches favor expression of particular subgroups of var genes and if var gene activation within a clonal population of parasites follows a predetermined order. We show that in clonal parasite populations, expression of var genes located in the central regions of chromosomes is remarkably stable and that they rarely undergo transcriptional switches in the absence of selection. In contrast, parasites expressing subtelomerically located var genes readily switched to alternative var loci. We confirmed these observations by generating transgenic parasites carrying drug selectable markers in subtelomeric and central var loci and monitoring switching after release from selection. Our data show that different var genes have different intrinsic switching rates that correlate with var gene subtype, and that there is no pre-determined order of expression. PMID:17555435

  3. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  4. PCR detection, characterization, and distribution of virulence genes in Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Kingombe, C I; Huys, G; Tonolla, M; Albert, M J; Swings, J; Peduzzi, R; Jemmi, T

    1999-12-01

    We found 73.1 to 96.9% similarity by aligning the cytolytic enterotoxin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila SSU (AHCYTOEN; GenBank accession no. M84709) against aerolysin genes of Aeromonas spp., suggesting the possibility of selecting common primers. Identities of 90 to 100% were found among the eight selected primers from those genes. Amplicons obtained from Aeromonas sp. reference strains by using specific primers for each gene or a cocktail of primers were 232 bp long. Of hybridization group 4/5A/5B (HG4/5A/5B), HG9, and HG12 or non-Aeromonas reference strains, none were positive. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with HpaII yielded three types of patterns. PCR-RFLP 1 contained two fragments (66 and 166 bp) found in HG6, HG7, HG8, HG10, and HG11. PCR-RFLP 2 contained three fragments (18, 66, and 148 bp) found in HG1, HG2, HG3, and HG11. PCR-RFLP 3, with four fragments (7, 20, 66, and 139 bp), was observed only in HG13. PCR-amplicon sequence analysis (PCR-ASA) revealed three main types. PCR-ASA 1 had 76 to 78% homology with AHCYTOEN and included strains in HG6, HG7, HG8, HG10, and HG11. PCR-ASA 2, with 82% homology, was found only in HG13. PCR-ASA 3, with 91 to 99% homology, contained the strains in HG1, HG2, HG3, and HG11. This method indicated that 37 (61%) of the 61 reference strains were positive with the primer cocktail master mixture, and 34 (58%) of 59 environmental isolates, 93 (66%) of 141 food isolates, and 100 (67%) of 150 clinical isolates from around the world carried a virulence factor when primers AHCF1 and AHCR1 were used. In conclusion, this PCR-based method is rapid, sensitive, and specific for the detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. It overcomes the handicap of time-consuming biochemical and other DNA-based methods. PMID:10583979

  5. Effects of partial deletion of the wzm and wzt genes on lipopolysaccharide synthesis and virulence of Brucella abortus S19.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuran; Wang, Lin; Lu, Tiancheng; Yang, Yanling; Chen, Si; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Xulong; Yan, Guangmou; Qian, Jing; Wang, Xiaoxu; Meng, Lingyi; Wang, Xinglong

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide human and animal infectious disease, and the effective methods of its control are immunisation of animals by vaccination and elimination. Brucella abortus S19 is one of the popular vaccines with virulence in the control of cattle Brucellosis. In the present study, allelic exchange plasmids of wzm and wzt genes and partial knockout mutants of wzm and wzt were constructed to evaluate the resulting difference in virulence of B. abortus S19. PCR analysis revealed that the target genes were knocked out. The mutants were rough mutants and they could be differentiated from natural infection by the Rose Bengal plate and standard agglutination tests. The molecular weights of lipopolysaccharides of the Δwzm and Δwzt mutants were clustered between 25 and 40 kDa, and 30 and 35 kDa separately, and were markedly different from those in B. abortus S19. The virulence of B. abortus Δwzm and Δwzt was decreased compared with that of B. abortus S19 in mice. All these results identified that there were several differences between the wzm and wzt genes on lipopolysaccharide synthesis and on the virulence of B. abortus. PMID:24718931

  6. Characterization of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in River Water by Simultaneous Detection and Sequencing of 14 Virulence Genes.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Fujimori, Yuji; Harada, Hidenori; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli in environmental waters increases the risk of waterborne disease. In this study, 14 virulence genes in 669 E. coli isolates (549 isolates from the Yamato River in Japan, and 30 isolates from each of the following hosts: humans, cows, pigs, and chickens) were simultaneously quantified by multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing to determine the prevalence of potentially pathogenic E. coli. Among the 549 environmental isolates, 64 (12%) were classified as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) while eight (1.5%) were classified as intestinal pathogenic E. coli (InPEC). Only ExPEC-associated genes were detected in human isolates and pig isolates, and 11 (37%) and five (17%) isolates were classified as ExPEC, respectively. A high proportion (63%) of cow isolates possessed Shiga-toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) and they were classified as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the chicken isolates, 14 (47%) possessed iutA, which is an ExPEC-associated gene. This method can determine the sequences as well as the presence/absence of virulence genes. By comparing the sequences of virulence genes, we determined that sequences of iutA were different among sources and may be useful for discriminating isolates, although further studies including larger numbers of isolates are needed. Results indicate that humans are a likely source of ExPEC strains in the river. PMID:25919763

  7. Predicted highly expressed genes in Nocardia farcinica and the implication to its primary metabolism and nocardial virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-02-23

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram positive, filamentous bacterium, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, the highly expressed genes in N. farcinica were predicted using the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a numerical estimator of gene expressivity. Using ribosomal protein (RP) genes as references, the top {approx}10% of the genes were predicted to be the predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in N. farcinica using a CAI cutoff of greater than 0.73. Consistent with early analysis in Streptomyces genomes, most of the PHX genes in N. farcinica were involved in various ''house-keeping'' functions important for cell growth. However, fifteen genes putatively involved in no cardial virulence were predicted as PHX in N. farcinica, which included genes encoding four Mce virulence proteins, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase which is involved in the modification of cell wall important for nocardia virulence, polyketide synthase PKS13 for mycolic acid synthesis and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase involved in biosynthesis of a mycobactin-related siderophore. In addition, multiple genes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the phagocyte were predicted with high expressivity, which included alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpC), catalase (katG), superoxide dismutase (sodF), thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that combating against ROS was essential for survival of N. farcinica in host cells. The study also showed that the distribution of PHX genes in the N. farcinica circular chromosome was uneven, with more PHX genes located in the regions close to replication initiation site. The results provided the first approximates of global gene expression patterns in N. farcinica, which will be useful in guiding experimental design for further investigation.

  8. Impact of virulence genes on sepsis severity and survival in Escherichia coli bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Rillo, Marta; Fernández-Romero, Natalia; Francisco, Carolina Navarro-San; Díez-Sebastián, Jesús; Romero-Gómez, Maria Pilar; Fernández, Francisco Arnalich; López, Jose Ramon Arribas; Mingorance, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are a frequent cause of bacteremia and sepsis, but the role of ExPEC genetic virulence factors (VFs) in sepsis development and outcome is ill-defined. Prospective study including 120 adult patients with E. coli bacteremia to investigate the impact of bacterial and host factors on sepsis severity and mortality. Patients' clinical and demographic data were registered. Phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates was analyzed by SNP pyrosequencing and VFs by PCR. The E. coli isolates presented an epidemic population structure with 6 dominant clones making up to half of the isolates. VF gene profiles were highly diverse. Multivariate analysis for sepsis severity showed that the presence of cnf and blaTEM genes increased the risk of severe illness by 6.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.79–24.71) and 2.59 (95% CI 1.04–6.43) times respectively, while each point in the Pitt score increased the risk by 1.34 (95% CI 1.02–1.76) times. Multivariate analysis for mortality showed that active chemotherapy (OR 17.87, 95% CI 3.35–95.45), McCabe-Jackson Index (OR for rapidly fatal category 120.15, 95% CI 4.19–3446.23), Pitt index (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.25–2.56) and presence of fyuA gene (OR 8.05, 95% CI 1.37–47.12) were associated to increased mortality while the presence of P fimbriae genes had a protective role (OR 0.094, 95%IC 0.018–0.494). Bacteremic E. coli had a high diversity of genetic backgrounds and VF gene profiles. Bacterial VFs and host determinants had an impact on disease evolution and mortality. PMID:25654604

  9. Identification of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus genes involved in pathogenicity and virulence.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Amaya; Pijlman, Gorben P; Vlak, Just M; Muñoz, Delia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2015-03-01

    Genome sequence analysis of seven different Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) isolates that differed in insecticidal phenotype permitted the identification of genes likely to be involved in pathogenicity of occlusion bodies (OBs) and speed of kill (virulence) of this virus: se4 (hoar), se5 (unknown function), se28 (unknown function), se76 (cg30), se87 (p26) and se129 (p26). To study the role of these genes experimentally on the insecticidal phenotype, a bacmid-based recombination system was constructed to delete selected genes from a SeMNPV isolate, VT-SeAL1, designated as SeBacAL1. All of the knockout viruses were viable and the repair viruses behaved like the wild-type control, vSeBacAL1. Deletion of se4, se5, se76 and se129 resulted in decreased OB pathogenicity compared to vSeBacAL1 OBs. In contrast, deletion of se87 did not significantly affect OB pathogenicity, whereas deletion of se28 resulted in significantly increased OB pathogenicity. Deletion of se4, se28, se76, se87 and se129 did not affect speed of kill compared to the bacmid vSeBacAL1, whereas speed of kill was significantly extended following deletion of se5 and in the wild-type isolate (SeAL1), compared to that of the bacmid. Therefore, biological assays confirmed that several genes had effects on virus insecticidal phenotype. Se5 is an attractive candidate gene for further studies, as it affects both biological parameters of this important biocontrol virus. PMID:25644432

  10. Molecular Analysis of Virulence Profiles and Shiga Toxin Genes in Food-Borne Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Slanec, T.; Fruth, A.; Creuzburg, K.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 75 Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains originating from foods (n = 73) and drinking water (n = 2) were analyzed for their stx genotype, as well as for further chromosome-, phage-, and plasmid-encoded virulence factors. A broad spectrum of stx genes was detected. Fifty-three strains (70.7%) contained stx2 or stx2 variants, including stx2d, mucus-activatable stx2d, stx2e, and stx2g. Seven strains (9.3%) harbored stx1 or stx1c, and 15 strains (20.0%) carried both stx2 and/or stx2 variants and stx1 or stx1c. Beside stx, the most abundant accessory virulence markers in STEC food isolates were iha (57.3%), ehxA (40.0%), espP (28.0%), and subAB (25.3%). Only four strains were eae positive; three of these belonged to the serogroups O26, O103, and O157 and contained a typical enterohemorrhagic E. coli virulence spectrum. The results of this study show that a number of STEC strains that occur in foods appear to be pathogenic for humans, based on their virulence profiles. Analysis of stx subtypes and detection of additional virulence factors in eae-negative strains may help to better assess the risk of such strains for causing human infection. PMID:19684176