Sample records for mycoplasma hominis strains

  1. Analysis of the Complete Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 Genome Sequence Reveals Strain-Variable Prophage Insertion and Distinctive Repeat-Containing Surface Protein Arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Foecking, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 has been determined and the gene content ascribed. The 715,165-bp chromosome contains 620 genes, including 14 carried by a strain-variable prophage genome related to Mycoplasma fermentans MFV-1 and Mycoplasma arthritidis MAV-1. Comparative analysis with the genome of M. hominis PG21T reveals distinctive arrangements of repeat-containing surface proteins. PMID:25720686

  2. Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection

    DOEpatents

    DelVecchio, Vito G. (Scranton, PA); Gallia, Gary L. (Philadelphia, PA); McCleskey, Ferne K. (San Antonio, TX)

    1997-01-21

    The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

  3. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhouane Gdoura; Wiem Kchaou; Chiraz Chaari; Abir Znazen; Leila Keskes; Tarek Rebai; Adnane Hammami

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen

  4. Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infection in unselected infertile men.

    PubMed

    Salmeri, Mario; Valenti, Daniela; La Vignera, Sandro; Bellanca, Salvatore; Morello, Angela; Toscano, M Antonietta; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Calogero, Aldo E

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infection among 250 unselected infertile men, the presence of urogenital symptoms in infected men and the effects of these microorganisms on the conventional sperm parameters. Urethral samples were obtained using a swab inserted 3-4 cm into the urethral meatus. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected by the kit Mycofast R evolution 3 Elitech Microbiology (Elitech Microbiology, Signes, France). Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 15.6% of the cases and Mycoplasma hominis in 3.6%. One patients had a co-infection with both pathogens. About 41% of the infertile patients with mycoplasma infection had urogenital symptoms. A lower number of patients with mycoplasma infection had normal sperm parameters compared with non-infected infertile men, but this frequency showed only a trend compared to non-infected patients (Chi-square=3.61; P=0.057), and a significantly higher percentage of patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (Chi-square=127.3; P<0.0001), or asthenozoospermia alone (Chi-square=5.74; P<0.05) compared to non-infected infertile patients. In conclusion, this study showed an elevated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infection in unselected men attending an infertility outpatient clinic and that the presence of these microorganisms is associated with a higher percentage of patients with abnormal sperm parameters. PMID:22546762

  5. Life on Arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: Clues from Its Minimal Genome and Comparison with Other Human Urogenital Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Pereyre, Sabine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Beven, Laure; Charron, Alain; Renaudin, Hélène; Barré, Aurélien; Avenaud, Philippe; Jacob, Daniel; Couloux, Arnaud; Barbe, Valérie; de Daruvar, Antoine; Blanchard, Alain; Bébéar, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs)). Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden–Meyerhoff–Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine) and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes), plus a set of genes required for providing energy. For M. hominis, this set would include 247+9 genes, resulting in a theoretical minimal genome of 256 genes. PMID:19816563

  6. Hematoma and abscess formation caused by Mycoplasma hominis following cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Hisato; Koshiba, Akemi; Daimon, Yasushi; Noguchi, Toshifumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species cannot be identified by routine bacteriological culture methods and are resistant to common antimicrobial agents. Mycoplasma hominis usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and causes pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, rupture of fetal membranes, preterm labor, postpartum fever, postabortal fever, and neonatal infection. This organism is highly prevalent in cervicovaginal cultures of sexually active women. M. hominis, M. genitalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and U. parvum may invade and infect placental and fetal tissues, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. M. hominis occasionally causes nongenitourinary infection of the blood, wounds, central nervous system, joints, or respiratory tract. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who developed abdominal wound hematoma and abscess after cesarean section. The wound was drained, but her high fever persisted, in spite of antibiotic treatment using flomoxef sodium and imipenem·cilastatin sodium. Because the exudate exhibited M. hominis growth in an anaerobic environment, we administered the quinolone ciprofloxacin. This therapy resolved her fever, and her white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level diminished to the normal ranges. To our knowledge, there are four published articles regarding the isolation of M. hominis from postcesarean incisions. Based on the current study and the literature, infection by this pathogen may cause hematoma formation with or without abscess after cesarean section or in immunosuppressed postoperative patients. In such cases, physicians may need to suspect Mycoplasma infection and initiate appropriate antibacterial treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid persistent fever. PMID:21339933

  7. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of this pestering pathogen. PMID:23326599

  8. Development of real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma hominis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agata Baczynska; Helle F Svenstrup; Jens Fedder; Svend Birkelund; Gunna Christiansen

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hominis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, post partum fever, sepsis and infections of the central nervous system often leading to serious conditions. Association with development of female infertility has also been suggested, but different publications present different results. We developed a sensitive and fast diagnostic real-time PCR to test clinical samples from women undergoing laparoscopic

  9. Cervical Cytopathological Findings in Korean Women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

    2014-01-01

    This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P < 0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections. PMID:24526918

  10. Autoinfection as a cause of postpartum subdural empyema due to Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Hos, N J; Bauer, C; Liebig, T; Plum, G; Seifert, H; Hampl, J

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal of the genitourinary tract, which is infrequently associated with urogenital infections. Extra-urogenital infections due to M. hominis are rare. Here, we report an unusual case of M. hominis subdural empyema in a woman occurring shortly after delivery. The patient presented with symptoms suggestive of bacterial meningitis. Spinal imaging revealed a subdural empyema that required neurosurgical intervention. Cultures from intraoperatively obtained biopsies identified M. hominis as the causative pathogen. The patient was treated with oral moxifloxacin for 4 weeks resulting in the resolution of the spinal lesion. The subdural empyema was presumably caused by a contaminated epidural blood patch performed with the patient's own blood during an episode of transient M. hominis bacteremia after delivery. The blood patch was indicated for the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which had occurred after epidural anesthesia. Our findings highlight the significance of transient M. hominis bacteremia after delivery and implicate that M. hominis should be considered as a causative agent of extra-genitourinary tract infections particularly during the postpartum period or after genitourinary manipulation. PMID:25491170

  11. A case report of Mycoplasma hominis brain abscess identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pailhoriès, H; Rabier, V; Eveillard, M; Mahaza, C; Joly-Guillou, M-L; Chennebault, J-M; Kempf, M; Lemarié, C

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man with a Mycoplasma hominis brain abscess occurring after a cranial trauma, which was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The presence of colonies on classic blood agar plates and the use of MALDI-TOF MS, a valuable diagnostic tool that identified M. hominis due to its presence in the VITEK MS database, allowed the rapid diagnosis of this infection. PMID:25449252

  12. [A case of Mycoplasma hominis infection after bladder injury during cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Yagihashi, Yusuke; Kato, Keiji; Nagahama, Kanji; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Hiromi; Ueda, Souhei; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Iito, Gouichi

    2011-09-01

    A 21-year-old female patient underwent emergency cesarean section and a postoperative hematoma occurred at the site of the uterine incision. The patient underwent laparotomy for hemostasis. An 3 cm perforation at the posterior wall of the bladder was identified. The bladder was repaired in two layers with an absorbable suture. Three days later she developed a fever of over 38 degrees C. Despite therapy with several antimicrobial agents, her fever persisted and the wound was opened. Computed tomography scan revealed an abscess at the site where the hematoma had formed. We present a case of severe wound infection that was caused by Mycoplasma hominis infection after cesarean section. Bladder perforation associated with cesarean section is uncommon. Mycoplasma hominis should be considered as a causative organism if an antimicrobial resistant infection occurs at the surgical site after a cesarean section. PMID:22191281

  13. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Mycoplasma Hominis in Infertile Female and Male Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Jamalizadeh Bahaabadi, Samaneh; Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Farsinejad, Alireza; Habibzadeh, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infection of urogenital system with Mycoplasma potentially affect reproductive system and increases infants mortalities. Therefore, detection of these organisms is an important issue that should be considered and appropriate diagnostic methods should be used to identify these microorganisms. In the female reproductive system, infection can affect different parts of the cervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube. The extent of this infection in different diseases and its pathogenesis might be related to anatomic site of involvement. Some infections can lead to infertility in both males and females. Genital infection with Mycoplasmas have devastating effects on reproductive organs and cause fertility disorders and mortality in infants. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to isolate these pathogens; however, the isolates have not been identified so far. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular identity of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from infertile female and male reproductive system in the Infertility Center of Kerman. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed purposefully on 100 infertile females and 100 infertile males who were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman during a six-month period. The collected samples of semen and vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of M. hominis by PCR. The samples with positive results in PCR were selected for molecular identification. Alignment of samples sequence was performed using MEGA 5 software through Neighbor-joining method. Results: Among 100 samples from infertile males, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 45 cases of which 15 cases were infected with M. hominis. Among 100 samples from infertile female, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 43 cases of which 18 case were infected with M. hominis. The positive samples were sequenced and the phylogenetic tree was plotted. Conclusions: The results showed that 37.5% of infertile males and females were infected with M. hominis. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the study isolates indicates a particular variety among these isolates. In comparing the isolates in the study, a very little genotypic similarity was found among some of them. PMID:25738116

  14. The vaa locus of Mycoplasma hominis contains a divergent genetic islet encoding a putative membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe; Baczynska, Agata; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    2004-01-01

    Background The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene encodes a highly variable, surface antigen involved in the adhesion to host cells. We have analysed the structure of the vaa locus to elucidate the genetic basis for variation of vaa. Results Mapping of vaa on existing physical maps of five M. hominis isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that vaa is located in a genomic region containing the majority of other characterized membrane protein genes of M. hominis. Sequencing of an 11 kb region containing the vaa locus of M. hominis isolate 132 showed the presence of conserved housekeeping genes at the borders of the region, uvrA upstream and the hitABL operon downstream to vaa. Analysis of 20 M. hominis isolates revealed that the vaa upstream region was conserved whereas the downstream region was highly variable. In isolate 132 this region contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative 160 kDa membrane protein. Homologous ORFs were present in half of the isolates, whereas this ORF, termed vmp (variable membrane protein), was deleted from the locus in the remaining isolates. Compellingly, the conserved upstream region and variable downstream region of vaa correlates with the genetic structure of vaa itself which consists of a conserved 5' end and a variable 3' end containing a variable number of exchangeable sequence cassettes. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the vaa locus contains a divergent genetic islet, and indicate pronounced intraspecies recombination. The high variability level of the locus indicate that it is a chromosomal 'hot spot', presumably important for sustaining diversity and a high adaptation potential of M. hominis. PMID:15385054

  15. Genome-wide Analysis of Mycoplasma hominis for the Identification of Putative Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing propensity of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria raises the demand for the development of novel therapeutic agents to control this grave problem. Advances in the field of bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics have greatly facilitated the discovery of alternative drugs by swift identification of new drug targets. In the present study, we employed comparative genomics and metabolic pathway analysis with an aim of identifying therapeutic targets in Mycoplasma hominis. Our study has revealed 40 annotated metabolic pathways, including five unique pathways of M. hominis. Our study also identified 179 essential proteins, including 59 proteins having no similarity with human proteins. Further filtering by molecular weight, subcellular localization, functional analysis, and protein network interaction, we identified 57 putative candidates for which new drugs can be developed. Druggability analysis for each of the identified targets has prioritized 16 proteins as suitable for potential drug development. PMID:25574133

  16. Comparison of commercially available media for detection and isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Broitman, N L; Floyd, C M; Johnson, C A; de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M

    1992-01-01

    The Mycotrim Triphasic flask system (Irvine Scientific, Irvine, Calif.) was compared with a system composed of Mycotrim GU broth (Irvine Scientific) and A7 or A8 agar (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.) for the ability to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis from 129 genital specimens. Of the 64 specimens positive for U. urealyticum, 25, 98, and 100% were detected on Mycotrim Triphasic agar and A7 and A8 agars, respectively. All 18 specimens that grew M. hominis were detected by A7 and A8 agars, and 94% grew on Mycotrim Triphasic agar. Mycotrim GU broth detected all of the positive specimens, and Mycotrim Triphasic broth detected all but one. Mycotrim GU broth inoculated simultaneously with either A7 or A8 agar was found to be more sensitive and cost-effective than the Mycotrim Triphasic flask system. PMID:1583143

  17. Sequencing analysis reveals a unique gene organization in the gyrB region of Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, S A; Christiansen, G

    1994-01-01

    The homolog of the gyrB gene, which has been reported to be present in the vicinity of the initiation site of replication in bacteria, was mapped on the Mycoplasma hominis genome, and the region was subsequently sequenced. Five open reading frames were identified flanking the gyrB gene, one of which showed similarity to that which encodes the LicA protein of Haemophilus influenzae. The organization of the genes in the region showed no resemblance to that in the corresponding regions of other bacteria sequenced so far. The gyrA gene was mapped 35 kb downstream from the gyrB gene. PMID:7521872

  18. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by Multiplex PCR in Semen Sample of Infertile Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Golshani; G Eslami; Sh Mohhammadzadeh Ghobadloo; F Fallah; H Goudarzi; AA Soleimani Rahbar; F Fayaz

    Background: The aim of this study was to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyti- cum from semen samples of infertile men by Multiplex PCR and investigation of influence of bacteriospermia on semen parameters. Methods: Semen samples of 200 infertile men were evaluated by Multiplex PCR. In addition, analysis of semen parameters was performed according to the WHO guidelines.

  19. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-02-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  20. In Mycoplasma hominis the OppA-mediated cytoadhesion depends on its ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Mycoplasma hominis, a facultative human pathogen of the human genital tract, OppA, the substrate-binding domain of the oligopeptide permease, is a multifunctional protein involved in nutrition uptake, cytoadhesion and hydrolysis of extracellular ATP. Results To map the function-related protein regions the ATPase activity and adhesive behavior of OppA mutants were analyzed. Mutations of the Walker BA motifs resulted in an inhibition of up to 8% of the OppA ATPase activity, whereas deletion of the N-terminal CS1 or the CS2 region, structural motifs that are conserved in bacterial OppA proteins, reduced ATPase activity to 60% and deletion of CS3, the third conserved region adjacent to the Walker B motif led to a reduction to 42% ATPase activity. Interestingly, adhesion of the OppA mutants to immobilized HeLa cells demonstrated that two distal regions are mainly involved in adherence of OppA: the CS1 region, deletion of which led to 35% of the cytoadhesion, and the Walker BA with the adjacent upstream region CS3, deletion of which led to 25% of the cytoadhesion. The influence of the ATPase activity on the adherence of M. hominis to HeLa cells was confirmed by the use of ATPase inhibitors which reduced mycoplasmal cytoadhesion to 50%. Conclusions These findings suggest that the OppA-mediated cytoadherence of Mycoplasma hominis depends on both, the topology of the neighbouring CS1 and ATPase domain regions and the functionality of the ecto-ATPase activity in addition. PMID:21854595

  1. Alterations in Topoisomerase IV and DNA Gyrase in Quinolone- Resistant Mutants of Mycoplasma hominis Obtained In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CECILE M. BEBEAR; H ELENE RENAUDIN; ALAIN CHARRON; JOSEPH M. BOVE; CHRISTIANE BEBEAR; JOEL RENAUDIN

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis mutants were selected stepwise for resistance to ofloxacin and sparfloxacin, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. For ofloxacin, four rounds of selection yielded six first-, six second-, five third-, and two fourth-step mutants. The first-step mu- tants harbored a single Asp4263Asn substitution in ParE. GyrA changes (Ser833Leu or Trp) were found only

  2. Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. R. Vasconcelos; H. B. Ferreira; C. V. Bizarro; S. L. Bonatto; M. O. Carvalho; P. M. Pinto; D. F. Almeida; L. G. P. Almeida; R. Almeida; L. Alves-Filho; E. N. Assuncao; V. A. C. Azevedo; M. R. Bogo; M. M. Brigido; M. Brocchi; H. A. Burity; A. A. Camargo; S. S. Camargo; M. S. Carepo; D. M. Carraro; J. C. de Mattos Cascardo; L. A. Castro; G. Cavalcanti; G. Chemale; R. G. Collevatti; C. W. Cunha; B. Dallagiovanna; B. P. Dambros; Odir A. Dellagostin; C. Falcao; F. Fantinatti-Garboggini; M. S. S. Felipe; L. Fiorentin; G. R. Franco; N. S. A. Freitas; D. Frias; T. B. Grangeiro; E. C. Grisard; C. T. Guimaraes; M. Hungria; S. N. Jardim; M. A. Krieger; J. P. Laurino; L. F. A. Lima; M. I. Lopes; E. L. S. Loreto; H. M. F. Madeira; G. P. Manfio; A. Q. Maranhao; C. T. Martinkovics; S. R. B. Medeiros; M. A. M. Moreira; M. Neiva; C. E. Ramalho-Neto; M. F. Nicolas; S. C. Oliveira; R. F. C. Paixao; F. O. Pedrosa; S. D. J. Pena; M. Pereira; L. Pereira-Ferrari; I. Piffer; L. S. Pinto; D. P. Potrich; A. C. M. Salim; F. R. Santos; R. Schmitt; M. P. C. Schneider; A. Schrank; I. S. Schrank; A. F. Schuck; H. N. Seuanez; D. W. Silva; R. Silva; S. C. Silva; C. M. A. Soares; K. R. L. Souza; R. C. Souza; C. C. Staats; M. B. R. Steffens; S. M. R. Teixeira; T. P. Urmenyi; M. H. Vainstein; L. W. Zuccherato; A. J. G. Simpson; A. Zaha

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes

  3. Proposal for Classifying Human Strain Navel and Related Simian Mycoplasmas as Mycoplasma primatum sp. n

    PubMed Central

    DelGiudice, Richard A.; Carski, Theodore R.; Barile, Michael F.; Lemcke, Ruth M.; Tully, Joseph G.

    1971-01-01

    Mycoplasmas isolated from simian (Cercopithecus aethiops) tissues were shown to have biological, biochemical, and serological properties and electrophoretic cell protein patterns similar to strain Navel isolated from man 15 years ago. The simian and human Navel strains comprised a single serogroup, distinct from the established Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species of the class Mollicutes. It is proposed that strains with the properties described be named Mycoplasma primatum. Images PMID:5001200

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum Isolated During a Population-Based Study Concerning Women Infertility in Northeast Romania

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Mare?; Valentin, N?stas?; Bogdan, Doroftei; Carmen, Chifiriuc Mariana; Coralia, Bleotu; Demetra, Socolov

    2011-01-01

    The study was carried out on 1068 infertile women under initial evaluation. For Mycoplasma hominis, the highest resistance rates were registered for ciprofloxacin (72.22%), followed by macrolides and ofloxacin. For Ureaplasma urealyticum, the ciprofloxacin resistance was also high (51.72%), while the resistance rates to other tested antibiotics were significantly lower. PMID:24031629

  5. OppA, the Substrate-Binding Subunit of the Oligopeptide Permease, Is the Major Ecto-ATPase of Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Henrich, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    Most ATPases, involved in energy-driven processes, act in the cytoplasm. However, external membrane-bound ATPases have also been described in parasites and eukaryotic cells. In Mycoplasma hominis, a bacterium lacking a cell wall, the surface-exposed substrate-binding protein OppA of an oligopeptide permease (Opp) contains an ATP binding P-loop structure in the C-terminal region. With ATP affinity chromatography and tryptic digestion in the presence or absence of ATP, the functionality of the Mg2+-dependent ATP binding site is demonstrated. In addition to ATP, ADP also could bind to OppA. The presence of an ATPase activity on the surface of M. hominis is indicated by the inactivation of ATP hydrolyzing activity of intact mycoplasma cells by the impermeable ATPase inhibitor 4?,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2?,2?-disulfonic acid and influenced by the ATP analog 5?-fluorosulfonyl-benzoyladenosine. Comparing equimolar amounts of OppA in intact mycoplasma cells and in the purified form indicated that more than 80% of the surface-localized ATPase activity is derived from OppA, implying that OppA is the main ATPase on the surface of mycoplasma cells. Together, these data present the first evidence that the cytoadhesive substrate binding protein OppA of the oligopeptide permease also functions as an ecto-ATPase in Mycoplasma hominis. PMID:14761996

  6. [Analysis of regions determining resistence to fluoroquinolones in genes gyrA and parC in clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis].

    PubMed

    Gushchin, A E; Ladygina, V G; Govorun, V M; Taraskina, A M; Savicheva, A M

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen strains of M. hominis isolated from patients with urogenital inflammations were analyzed. Variations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) have been found in fluoroquinolone-resistant M. hominis clinical isolates in comparison with the reference PG21 strain. In one isolate, parC had Asn substitute at position 91. PMID:11186458

  7. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, M. pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to GAR936, Dalfopristin, Dirithromycin, Evernimicin, Gatifloxacin, Linezolid, Moxifloxacin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Telithromycin Compared to Their Susceptibilities to Reference Macrolides, Tetracyclines, and Quinolones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE E. KENNY; FRANK D. CARTWRIGHT

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to eight new antimicrobial agents were determined by agar dilution. M. pneumoniae was susceptible to the new glycylcycline GAR-936 at 0.12 mg\\/ml and evernimicin at 4 mg\\/ml, but it was resistant to linezolid. It was most susceptible to dirithromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, telithromycin, reference macrolides, and josamycin. M. hominis was susceptible to

  8. Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Strain DBS 1050

    PubMed Central

    Soika, Valerii; Volokhov, Dmitriy; Simonyan, Vahan; Chizhikov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis is known as one of the most prevalent contaminants of mammalian cell and tissue cultures worldwide. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the fastidious M. hyorhinis strain DBS 1050. PMID:24604646

  9. Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Carvalho, Marcos O.; Pinto, Paulo M.; Almeida, Darcy F.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assunção, Enedina N.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.; Bogo, Maurício R.; Brigido, Marcelo M.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Camargo, Sandro S.; Carepo, Marta S.; Carraro, Dirce M.; de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C.; Castro, Luiza A.; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambrós, Bibiana P.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Falcão, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R.; Freitas, Nara S. A.; Frías, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Guimarães, Claudia T.; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Sílvia N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Laurino, Jomar P.; Lima, Lucymara F. A.; Lopes, Maryellen I.; Loreto, Élgion L. S.; Madeira, Humberto M. F.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Maranhão, Andrea Q.; Martinkovics, Christyanne T.; Medeiros, Sílvia R. B.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Neiva, Márcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Paixão, Roger F. C.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S.; Potrich, Deise P.; Salim, Anna C. M.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S.; Schuck, Adriana F.; Seuanez, Hector N.; Silva, Denise W.; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sérgio C.; Soares, Célia M. A.; Souza, Kelly R. L.; Souza, Rangel C.; Staats, Charley C.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

  10. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAIN F

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in layer chickens. There are currently three MG vaccine strains approved and commercially available for use in layer chickens, and they include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The F-strain was the first developed and today is t...

  11. Utility of Amsel Criteria, Nugent Score, and Quantitative PCR for Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Lactobacillus spp. for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly E. Sha; Hua Y. Chen; Qiong J. Wang; M. Reza Zariffard; Mardge H. Cohen

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a clinical syndrome presenting with a malodorous vaginal discharge and increased vaginal pH. Diagnosis has been based on clinical Amsel criteria and direct Gram stain of vaginal secretions. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study contributed cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples. Lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Mycoplasma hominis in cervicovaginal lavage samples were quantified

  12. Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium strains from the male urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, J S; Hansen, H T; Lind, K

    1996-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human mycoplasma species which, on the basis of detection by PCR, has been incriminated as a cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Previously, only two strains from the urogenital tract and five strains from extragenital sites have been isolated. We have developed a method for the isolation of this fastidious microbe. M. genitalium from PCR-positive urethral specimens was initially propagated in Vero cell cultures grown in serum-free medium supplemented with Ultroser HY serum substitute. Growth was monitored by PCR. The M. genitalium strains grown in cell cultures could subsequently be subcultured in modified Friis's FF broth medium. Several passages in broth medium were required before growth on agar medium was attained. A total of 11 urethral specimens positive for M. genitalium by PCR from male patients with urethritis were investigated. Six strains were adapted to growth in broth medium, and four of these strains were cloned. Three specimens were overgrown by other mycoplasmas during propagation in the cell cultures. In only two PCR-positive specimens was propagation of M. genitalium unsuccessful. The use of cell culture combined with PCR monitoring of mycoplasmal growth may prove to be more widely applicable for the isolation of other fastidious mollicutes. PMID:8789002

  13. Highly specific and efficient primers for in-house multiplex PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although sophisticated methodologies are available, the use of endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect 16S rDNA genes remains a good approach for estimating the incidence and prevalence of specific infections and for monitoring infections. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the development of a sensitive and affordable method for identifying pathogens in clinical samples is needed. Highly specific and efficient primers for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) system were designed in silico to detect the 16S rDNA genes of four bacteria that cause genital infections, and the PCR method was developed. Methods The Genosensor Probe Designer (GPD) (version 1.0a) software was initially used to design highly specific and efficient primers for in-house m-PCR. Single-locus PCR reactions were performed and standardised, and then primers for each locus in turn were added individually in subsequent amplifications until m-PCR was achieved. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained from each of the four bacterial gene fragments. Finally, the analytical specificity and limits of detection were tested. Results Because they did not amplify any product from non-STI tested species, the primers were specific. The detection limits for the Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum primer sets were 5.12?×?105, 3.9?×?103, 61.19?×?106 and 6.37?×?105 copies of a DNA template, respectively. Conclusions The methodology designed and standardised here could be applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous or individual detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. This method is at least as efficient as other previously described methods; however, this method is more affordable for low-income countries. PMID:24997675

  14. The complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis strain Hubei-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yanwei; Xin, Jiuqing; Chen, Wei; Song, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Infection by Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) can induce diseases, such as pneumonia and otitis media in young calves and mastitis and arthritis in older animals. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of M. bovis strain Hubei-1, a strain isolated in 2008 that caused calf pneumonia on a Chinese farm. The genome of M. bovis strain Hubei-1 contains a single circular chromosome of 953,114 bp with a 29.37% GC content. We identified 803 open reading frames (ORFs) that occupy 89.5% of the genome. While 34 ORFs were Hubei-1 specific, 662 ORFs had orthologs in the M. bovis type strain PG45 genome. Genome analysis validated lateral gene transfer between M. bovis and the Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, while phylogenetic analysis found that the closest M. bovis neighbor is Mycoplasma agalactiae. Glycerol may be the main carbon and energy source of M. bovis, and most of the biosynthesis pathways were incomplete. We report that 47 lipoproteins, 12 extracellular proteins and 18 transmembrane proteins are phase-variable and may help M. bovis escape the immune response. Besides lipoproteins and phase-variable proteins, genomic analysis found two possible pathogenicity islands, which consist of four genes and 11 genes each, and several other virulence factors including hemolysin, lipoate protein ligase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, extracellular cysteine protease and 5'-nucleotidase. PMID:21731639

  15. The Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovis Strain Hubei-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yanwei; Xin, Jiuqing; Chen, Wei; Song, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Infection by Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) can induce diseases, such as pneumonia and otitis media in young calves and mastitis and arthritis in older animals. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of M. bovis strain Hubei-1, a strain isolated in 2008 that caused calf pneumonia on a Chinese farm. The genome of M. bovis strain Hubei-1 contains a single circular chromosome of 953,114 bp with a 29.37% GC content. We identified 803 open reading frames (ORFs) that occupy 89.5% of the genome. While 34 ORFs were Hubei-1 specific, 662 ORFs had orthologs in the M. bovis type strain PG45 genome. Genome analysis validated lateral gene transfer between M. bovis and the Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, while phylogenetic analysis found that the closest M. bovis neighbor is Mycoplasma agalactiae. Glycerol may be the main carbon and energy source of M. bovis, and most of the biosynthesis pathways were incomplete. We report that 47 lipoproteins, 12 extracellular proteins and 18 transmembrane proteins are phase-variable and may help M. bovis escape the immune response. Besides lipoproteins and phase-variable proteins, genomic analysis found two possible pathogenicity islands, which consist of four genes and 11 genes each, and several other virulence factors including hemolysin, lipoate protein ligase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, extracellular cysteine protease and 5?-nucleotidase. PMID:21731639

  16. Susceptibility of Genital Mycoplasmas to Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Peter; Klein, Jerome O.; Kass, Edward H.

    1970-01-01

    The susceptibility of 11 T-strains, 12 strains of Mycoplasma hominis, and a single strain of M. fermentans to 15 antimicrobial agents was determined by study of inhibition of metabolic activity in a broth dilution system. All three species were inhibited by tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin, and were relatively resistant to cephalothin, cephaloridine, polymyxin, vancomycin, and ampicillin. Three antimicrobial agents had significant differential effects on these species. Erythromycin was more active against T-strains than against M. hominis or M. fermentans. Lincomycin, clindamycin, and nitrofurantoin had greater activity against M. hominis and M. fermentans than against T-strains. The activity of the drugs tested was generally uniform over a wide range of inocula. The effect of pH and the difference between minimal inhibiting and minimal mycoplasmacidal concentrations of the drugs tested were consistent with expectations based on the effects of these drugs on bacteria. PMID:4313312

  17. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Kusiluka, L J; Kokotovic, B; Ojeniyi, B; Friis, N F; Ahrens, P

    2000-11-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type strain of M. bovis (PG45(T)) were assayed for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites in the chromosomal DNA by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technique. The obtained genomic fingerprints consisted of 62-68 AFLP fragments in the size range of 50-500 bp. Among the analyzed strains, 18 different AFLP profiles were detected. The similarity between individual fingerprints, calculated by Dice similarity coefficient, ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Twenty-five strains, including 23 which were isolated during two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis which occurred 2 years apart, showed indistinguishable AFLP patterns. More genetic diversity was observed among the recent strains. The similarity of the genotypes of the field strains to that of the M. bovis type strain (PG45(T)) was 97.7%. The results of this study have demonstrated a remarkable genomic homogeneity of Danish strains of M. bovis that were probably epidemiologically related and which have remained stable for a considerable length of time. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated that AFLP can be used for genomic fingerprinting and discrimination of M. bovis strains. PMID:11040438

  18. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64 for turkey embryos.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Deppenmeier, S; Gruber, A D; Brokat, S; Hafez, H M

    2007-10-01

    Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), has been found to be pathogenic for chicken embryos causing mortality during the first 2 weeks of incubation. The same strain was inoculated in turkey embryos to evaluate its pathogenicity and its ability to be transmitted laterally in the hatchery. The strain was found to be pathogenic for turkey embryos, causing a high mortality (88.9%) during late incubation as well as haemorrhages of the legs, dwarfing, curled toes and a severe, multifocal, purulent to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. In addition, lateral transmission between turkey poults hatched from infected eggs and poults from non-infected controls was observed in the incubator. PMID:17899463

  19. Comparative Genomic Analyses of Attenuated Strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum? †

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek, S. M.; Tulman, E. R.; Gorton, T. S.; Liao, X.; Lu, Z.; Zinski, J.; Aziz, F.; Frasca, S.; Kutish, G. F.; Geary, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry. While the complete genomic sequence of the virulent, low-passage M. gallisepticum strain R (Rlow) has been reported, genomic determinants responsible for differences in virulence and host range remain to be completely identified. Here, we utilize genome sequencing and microarray-based comparative genomic data to identify these genomic determinants of virulence and to elucidate genomic variability among strains of M. gallisepticum. Analysis of the high-passage, attenuated derivative of Rlow, Rhigh, indicated that relatively few total genomic changes (64 loci) occurred, yet they are potentially responsible for the observed attenuation of this strain. In addition to previously characterized mutations in cytadherence-related proteins, changes included those in coding sequences of genes involved in sugar metabolism. Analyses of the genome of the M. gallisepticum vaccine strain F revealed numerous differences relative to strain R, including a highly divergent complement of vlhA surface lipoprotein genes, and at least 16 genes absent or significantly fragmented relative to strain R. Notably, an Rlow isogenic mutant in one of these genes (MGA_1107) caused significantly fewer severe tracheal lesions in the natural host compared to virulent M. gallisepticum Rlow. Comparative genomic hybridizations indicated few genetic loci commonly affected in F and vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, which would correlate with proteins affecting strain R virulence. Together, these data provide novel insights into inter- and intrastrain M. gallisepticum genomic variability and the genetic basis of M. gallisepticum virulence. PMID:20123709

  20. Efficiency of Plating on Chick Embryo Cells and Kinetic Neutralization of Herpesvirus hominis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, Berttina B.; Zablotney, Sharon L.

    1972-01-01

    Since it appeared that plaque formation in monolayers of primary chick embryo cells might provide a simple technique for the typing of Herpesvirus hominis strains, 100 isolates were tested for their efficiency of plating (EOP) on chick embryo cells versus plating on human embryonic fibroblasts. EOP values varied from 100 to 10?6: 88% of the strains of genital origin had an EOP equal to or greater than 10?2, and 82% of the oral isolates had an EOP equal to or less than 10?3. Kinetic neutralizations were done with 53 strains, including those 12 with an EOP of 10?2 or 10?3. An estimate of antigenic relatedness (Ra) between strains was calculated from the neutralization results. Although the site of recovery, EOP, and Ra generally correlated, the EOP of some oral strains did not agree with the neutralization results, and some genital strains showed type 1 EOP and Ra values. Selection of variants with increased EOP values did not result in accompanying changes in Ra. Thus, the two markers appeared to vary independently. These data support other findings which suggest that there may be no absolute correlation between biological and antigenic markers in herpesviruses and that a larger number with more diversity of strains should be examined for more markers before a typing system is established. PMID:4344219

  1. Isolation and identification of mycoplasma strains from various species of wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, K; Saito, T; Shinozuka, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Cerda, R O

    1993-04-01

    Attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas from respiratory and urogenital tracts of 35 apparently healthy wild rodents comprising 7 species under 4 genera. Mycoplasmas were isolated from nasal and oral cavities, tracheas, vaginas and penises of the wild rats: ricefield rats (Rattus argentiventer), roof rats (R. rattus) and Polynesian rats (R. exulans), but none was isolated from brown rats (R. norvegicus), house mice (Mus musculus), smithi's voles (Eothenomys smithi) and soft-furred field rats (Millardia meltada). These mycoplasma strains were identified as Mycoplasma pulmonis and M. arthritidis on the basis of their biological and serological properties. PMID:8513017

  2. Cytopathic Effects and Ultrastructure of Mycoplasma agalactiae var. bovis (Donetta strain) 1

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, R. S.; Tourtellotte, M. E.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1970-01-01

    An electron microscopic examination of the pathogenic Donetta strain mycoplasma (tentatively Mycoplasma agalactiae var. bovis), in broth and cell cultures, revealed that this organism possessed considerable pleomorphism. A membranelined space occurred in a number of the organisms, and some of these were considered to represent deep, cuplike invaginations of the outer limiting membrane. In cell cultures, the mycoplasmas were located almost exclusively in extracellular locations but often in close association to the host-cell membrane. The cytopathic effects (CPE) were not considered to be caused primarily by cytoplasmic invasion. Serum was necessary for the development of the CPE and multiplication of the mycoplasmas in cell cultures. An effort to determine the basic cause of the CPE was unsuccessful but did eliminate causes previously reported for other strains of mycoplasma. Images PMID:16557787

  3. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lierz; R. Stark; S. Brokat; H. M. Hafez

    2007-01-01

    Some Mycoplasma species are well-known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey, and a strain of Mycoplasma lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen free chicken embryos since

  4. Comparative genomic analyses of attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek, S M; Tulman, E R; Gorton, T S; Liao, X; Lu, Z; Zinski, J; Aziz, F; Frasca, S; Kutish, G F; Geary, S J

    2010-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry. While the complete genomic sequence of the virulent, low-passage M. gallisepticum strain R (R(low)) has been reported, genomic determinants responsible for differences in virulence and host range remain to be completely identified. Here, we utilize genome sequencing and microarray-based comparative genomic data to identify these genomic determinants of virulence and to elucidate genomic variability among strains of M. gallisepticum. Analysis of the high-passage, attenuated derivative of R(low), R(high), indicated that relatively few total genomic changes (64 loci) occurred, yet they are potentially responsible for the observed attenuation of this strain. In addition to previously characterized mutations in cytadherence-related proteins, changes included those in coding sequences of genes involved in sugar metabolism. Analyses of the genome of the M. gallisepticum vaccine strain F revealed numerous differences relative to strain R, including a highly divergent complement of vlhA surface lipoprotein genes, and at least 16 genes absent or significantly fragmented relative to strain R. Notably, an R(low) isogenic mutant in one of these genes (MGA_1107) caused significantly fewer severe tracheal lesions in the natural host compared to virulent M. gallisepticum R(low). Comparative genomic hybridizations indicated few genetic loci commonly affected in F and vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, which would correlate with proteins affecting strain R virulence. Together, these data provide novel insights into inter- and intrastrain M. gallisepticum genomic variability and the genetic basis of M. gallisepticum virulence. PMID:20123709

  5. Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) at 22 or 45 weeks of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85 strain MG at 10 weeks of age. The treatment groups include unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens r...

  6. Decontamination of mycoplasma-contaminated Orientia tsutsugamushi strains by repeating passages through cell cultures with antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmas-contamination of Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the obligated intracellular bacteria, is a very serious problem in in vitro studies using cell cultures because mycoplasmas have significant influence on the results of scientific studies. Only a recommended decontamination method is to passage the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains through mice to eliminate only mycoplasmas under influence of their immunity. However, this method sometimes does not work especially for low virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi which are difficult to propagate in mice. In this study, we tried to eliminate mycoplasmas contaminants from both high virulent and low virulent strains of the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi by repeating passage through cell cultures with antibiotics in vitro. Results We cultured a contaminated, high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi using a mouse lung fibroblasts cell line, L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lincomycin at various concentrations and repeated passages about every seven days. At the passage 5 only with 10 ?g/ml of lincomycin, we did not detect mycoplasmas by two PCR based methods whereas O. tsutsugamushi continued good growth. During following four passages without lincomycin, mycoplasmas did not recover. These results suggested that mycoplasmas were completely eliminated from the high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Furthermore, by the same procedures with 10 ?g/ml of lincomycin, we also eliminated mycoplasmas from a contaminated, low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Our additional assay showed that 50 ?g/ml of lyncomycin did not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, although MICs of many mycoplasmas contaminants were less than 6 ?g/ml as shown previously. Conclusion Our results showed an alternative method to eliminate mycoplasmas from the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains in place of in vivo passage through mice. Especially this notable method works for the decontamination not only from the high virulent strain also from the low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. For further elimination, lincomycin at the limit concentration, which does not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, can possibly eliminate most mycoplasmas from contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains. PMID:23394970

  7. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of two Mycoplasma agalactiae strains: clues to the macro- and micro-events that are shaping mycoplasma diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent X Nouvel; Pascal Sirand-Pugnet; Marc S Marenda; Eveline Sagné; Valérie Barbe; Sophie Mangenot; Chantal Schenowitz; Daniel Jacob; Aurélien Barré; Stéphane Claverol; Alain Blanchard; Christine Citti

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the genomic era is accumulating a tremendous amount of data, the question of how genomics can describe a bacterial species remains to be fully addressed. The recent sequencing of the genome of the Mycoplasma agalactiae type strain has challenged our general view on mycoplasmas by suggesting that these simple bacteria are able to exchange significant amount of genetic

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Bumgardner, Eric A; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E; Lawrence, Paulraj K

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae can result in debilitating arthritis in pigs, particularly those aged 10 weeks or older. Strategies for controlling this pathogen are becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of cases of arthritis that have been attributed to infection in recent years. In order to begin to develop interventions to prevent arthritis caused by M. hyosynoviae, more information regarding the specific proteins and potential virulence factors that its genome encodes was needed. However, the genome of this emerging swine pathogen had not been sequenced previously. In this report, we present a comparative analysis of the genomes of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae isolated from different locations in North America during the years 2010 to 2013. We identified several putative virulence factors that may contribute to the ability of this pathogen to adhere to host cells. Additionally, we discovered several prophage genes present within the genomes of three strains that show significant similarity to MAV1, a phage isolated from the related species, M. arthritidis. We also identified CRISPR-Cas and type III restriction and modification systems present in two strains that may contribute to their ability to defend against phage infection. PMID:25693846

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma flocculare Strain Ms42T (ATCC 27399T).

    PubMed

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Heidari, Manijeh B; McIntosh, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma flocculare is a commensal or low-virulence pathogen of swine. The complete 778,866-bp genome sequence of M. flocculare strain Ms42(T) has been determined, enabling further comparison to genomes of the closely related pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The absence of the p97 and glpD genes may contribute to the attenuated virulence of M. flocculare. PMID:25767245

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma flocculare Strain Ms42T (ATCC 27399T)

    PubMed Central

    Foecking, Mark F.; Heidari, Manijeh B.; McIntosh, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma flocculare is a commensal or low-virulence pathogen of swine. The complete 778,866-bp genome sequence of M. flocculare strain Ms42T has been determined, enabling further comparison to genomes of the closely related pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The absence of the p97 and glpD genes may contribute to the attenuated virulence of M. flocculare. PMID:25767245

  11. The Adherence-Associated Lipoprotein P100, Encoded by an opp Operon Structure, Functions as the Oligopeptide-Binding Domain OppA of a Putative Oligopeptide Transport System in Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Birgit; Hopfe, Miriam; Kitzerow, Annette; Hadding, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis, a cell-wall-less prokaryote, was shown to be cytoadherent by the participation of a 100-kDa membrane protein (P100). To identify the gene encoding P100, peptides of P100 were partially sequenced to enable the synthesis of P100-specific oligonucleotides suitable as probes for the detection of the P100 gene. With this strategy, we identified a genomic region of about 10.4 kb in M. hominis FBG carrying the P100 gene. Analysis of the complete deduced protein sequence suggests that P100 is expressed as a pre-lipoprotein with a structure in the N-terminal region common to peptide-binding proteins and an ATP- or GTP-binding P-loop structure in the C-terminal region. Downstream of the P100 gene, an additional four open reading frames putatively encoding the four core domains of an active transport system, OppBCDF, were localized. The organization of the P100 gene and oppBCDF in a transcriptionally active operon structure was demonstrated in Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR analyses, as all gene-specific probes detected a common RNA of 9.5 kb. Primer extension analysis revealed that the transcriptional initiation site was localized 323 nucleotides upstream of the methionine-encoding ATG of the P100 gene. The peptide-binding character of the P100 protein was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and strongly suggests that the cytoadherence-mediating lipoprotein P100 represents OppA, the substrate-binding domain of a peptide transport system in M. hominis. PMID:10438757

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma arginini Strain HAZ 145_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma arginini is a species sometimes isolated from bovine specimens, mastitic milk, etc. Its pathogenicity against cows, however, is unspecific, unlike other bovine mycoplasmas. Its whole-genome sequence is needed to comprehend its real image. We present here the 678,592-bp complete genome sequence of M. arginini strain HAZ 145_1. PMID:25883285

  13. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and facilitate the design of new vaccines. PMID:23384176

  14. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Stark, R; Brokat, S; Hafez, H M

    2007-04-01

    Some Mycoplasma species are well-known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey, and a strain of Mycoplasma lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be pathogenic, causing a high mortality as well as dwarfing, curled toes and infiltrations of heterophils in the liver, kidney, intestine and chorioallantoic membrane. PMID:17479376

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovis Type Strain PG45 (ATCC 25523)?

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Kim S.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Röske, Kerstin; Madupu, Ramana; Methé, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    This complete and fully assembled genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis type strain PG45 is the first available for this species and offers a framework for comparison with additional pathogenic isolates. The single circular chromosome of 1,003,404 bp reveals multiple gene sets and mechanisms involved in variable expression of surface antigens and the incursion of numerous and assorted mobile elements, despite its reduced size. PMID:21134966

  16. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ? 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ? 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ? 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains. PMID:25571953

  17. Validation of the suppressive subtractive hybridization method in Mycoplasma agalactiae species by the comparison of a field strain with the type strain PG2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc S. Marenda; Edy M. Vilei; Joachim Frey; Xavier Berthelot

    2004-01-01

    The subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH), a method that allows the identification of sequences that are present in one genome (tester) but not in the other (driver), is a promising technique for the comparison of Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenic strains. The optimal conditions for SSH were established by subtracting the M. agalactiae type strain PG2 DNA from the M. agalactiae strain 5632

  18. Identification of fibronectin-binding proteins in Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R.

    PubMed

    May, Meghan; Papazisi, Leka; Gorton, Timothy S; Geary, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    We have determined that virulent Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow is capable of binding the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. Fibronectin was found to be present in M. gallisepticum Rlow protein extracts by Western blotting and peptide sequencing. Mycoplasma gallisepticum Rhigh, the attenuated, high-passage derivative of Rlow, is deficient in this ability. MGA_1199, the M. gallisepticum homologue of the cytadherence-associated protein P65 from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and MGA_0928, the M. gallisepticum homologue of the M. pneumoniae cytoskeletal protein HMW3, were identified as fibronectin-binding proteins. Peptides from the regions of MGA_1199 and MGA_0928 exhibiting the highest degree of homology with known fibronectin-binding proteins were shown to bind the gelatin/heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. MGA_1199 and MGA_0928 were shown to be absent and aberrant, respectively, in Rhigh, explaining its lack of fibronectin-binding capability. Consistent with its M. pneumoniae counterpart, MGA_1199 (renamed PlpA) was demonstrated to be surface exposed, despite a lack of classical membrane-spanning domains. Due to its demonstrated topology and the strength of interaction between its binding peptide and fibronectin, we propose that PlpA functions as a fibronectin-binding protein in vivo and may possess atypical transmembrane domains. PMID:16495551

  19. INITIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS FROM MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAINS TS-11 AND F DETECTED BY WESTERN BLOTTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) reduces the number of eggs produced by layer chickens. Three live MG vaccine strains are available for use in layer chickens and include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bi...

  20. Effects of Time-Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Blood Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treat...

  1. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian Strain 57/13, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, M.; Krasteva, I.; Marcacci, M.; Ancora, M.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Gentile, B.; Lista, F.; Pini, A.; Scacchia, M.; Sacchini, F.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is generally considered one of most pathogenic Mycoplasma species, and it is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Here, we present the annotated genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian strain 57/13, isolated in 1992 during CBPP outbreaks in Italy. PMID:25814605

  3. Sequencing analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum wild strains in vaccinated chicken breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Rabab; Eissa, Sabry; El-Hariri, Mahmoud; Refai, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is still of continuing economic concern in commercial broiler breeder chicken flocks in Egypt. MG infection continues to emerge despite the application of vaccination programs in breeder flocks. This prompted flock surveillance including MG isolation and molecular characterization of the circulating MG strains. The present study was concerned with 15 broiler breeder flocks of different ages (5-51 weeks). Three flocks were apparently healthy and 12 flocks were diseased. The aim of the study was to characterize the MG strains recovered from tracheal swabs. Four positive MG DNA extracts identified by rt-PCR and confirmed by isolation were subjected to sequencing of the mgc2 gene and intergenic spacer region (IGSR). The current molecular study demonstrated the presence of 3 different wild-type MG strains (RabE1-08, RabE2-09 and RabE3-09) in vaccinated diseased flocks, while the fourth strain (RabE4-08), which was isolated from a nonvaccinated apparently healthy breeder flock, scored 100% of homology and similarity to the F-strain vaccine by the sequence analysis of mgc2 and IGSR. It can be assumed that the vaccine F strain, which is supposed to replace field strains not only failed to do that, but also infected nonvaccinated flocks. Accordingly, there is a need to revise the control program including vaccine strategy in parallel with biosecurity measures. PMID:24525899

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Large DNA Repetitive Elements RepMP1 Show Type Specific Organization among Strains

    PubMed Central

    Musatovova, Oxana; Kannan, T. R.; Baseman, Joel B.

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the smallest self-replicating bacterium with a streamlined genome of 0.81 Mb. Complete genome analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of four large repetitive elements (designated RepMP1, RepMP2/3, RepMP4 and RepMP5) that are implicated in creating sequence variations among individual strains. Recently, we described RepMP1-associated sequence variations between reference strain M129 and clinical isolate S1 that involved three RepMP1-genes (i.e. mpn130, mpn137 and mpn138). Using PCR and sequencing we analyze 28 additional M. pneumoniae strains and demonstrate the existence of S1-like sequence variants in nine strains and M129-like variants in the remaining nineteen strains. We propose a series of recombination steps that facilitates transition from M129- to S1-like sequence variants. Next we examined the remaining RepMP1-genes and observed no other rearrangements related to the repeat element. The only other detected difference was varying numbers of the 21-nucleotide tandem repeats within mpn127, mpn137, mpn501 and mpn524. Furthermore, typing of strains through analysis of large RepMPs localized within the adhesin P1 operon revealed that sequence divergence involving RepMP1-genes mpn130, mpn137 and mpn138 is strictly type-specific. Once more our analysis confirmed existence of two highly conserved groups of M. pneumoniae strains. PMID:23091634

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma canadense Strain HAZ 360_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. Mycoplasma canadense, a causal species of bovine mastitis, reduces milk quality and quantity via the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells. Presented here is the complete 693,241-bp genome sequence of M. canadense strain HAZ 360_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25278531

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma californicum Strain HAZ160_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. It often leads to clinical mastitis outbreaks and often results in huge economic losses. Mycoplasma californicum is an important causal species of bovine mastitis. Presented here is the 799,088-bp complete genome sequence of M. californicum strain HAZ160_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25013143

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T)

    PubMed Central

    Foecking, Mark F.; Fox, Lawrence K.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features. PMID:24994797

  8. Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

  9. Time-dependent recovery of Mycoplasma lipofaciens (strain ML64) from incubated infertile chicken eggs and dead in shell chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez M

    2008-09-01

    Mycoplasmas are pathogens of different avian species, and they are able to be vertically transmitted. Even detected, Mycoplasma prevalence in raptor eggs is very low. In contrast to poultry, raptor eggs submitted for investigations are usually incubated. To investigate the influence of incubation length on the recovery of mycoplasmas from eggs, infertile specific-pathogen-free chicken eggs and embryos were infected with Mycoplasma lipofaciens (strain ML64), which had previously been isolated from an egg of a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), in two different dosages. The eggs were investigated up to 12 days after infection (infertile eggs) or embryonic death. Mycoplasmas were recovered over the entire period after embryonic death by isolation. It was possible to re-isolate M. lipofaciens (strain ML64) from infertile eggs infected with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFUs) up to 12 days, but only up to 7 days if infected with 10(2) CFUs, which may be closer to the situation after natural infection. This study demonstrates that incubation of infertile eggs does have an influence on the recovery rate of mycoplasmas. This influence must be considered if interpreting results of Mycoplasma investigations in eggs of nonpoultry species. Additionally, it is recommended to use dead in shell embryos rather than infertile eggs for Mycoplasma detection. PMID:18939632

  10. Herd-specific strains of Mycoplasma bovis in outbreaks of mycoplasmal mastitis and pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marlis; Bodmer, Michèle; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola

    2012-06-15

    Mycoplasma bovis causes severe economic losses in livestock production, particularly on the Northern American continent and more recently also in continental Europe. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the recently emerging outbreaks were due to a particular clone or strain of M. bovis or whether these outbreaks are due to multiple infectious strains of M. bovis. The study is based on the analysis M. bovis isolated from cattle of herds with outbreaks of mycoplasmal mastitis or pneumonia from geographically non related parts of Switzerland. M. bovis isolates were typed by insertion sequence (IS) element analysis based upon ISMbov1 and ISMbov2 southern-blot hybridization. We observed a strong divergence of M. bovis strains among affected herds which mostly were herd specific. This argues against the assumption that a recent infiltration of a particular clone of M. bovis is the cause of the perilous emerging outbreaks. The study suggests that transmission occurs from animal to animal most probably via milk. PMID:22306036

  11. Adherence to various host cell lines of Mycoplasma bovis strains differing in pathogenic and cultural features.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Sachse, K; Dizier, I; Grajetzki, C; Farnir, F; Mainil, J G; Linden, A

    2003-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is known to be responsible for pneumonia and arthritis in calves, as well as mastitis in dairy cows. Despite clear evidence of its pathogenic potential, little is known about mechanisms of cytadherence and the molecular factors involved. The purpose of this work was to compare adherence rates of M. bovis field strains to different host cell lines and study the effects of cloning and sub-culturing M. bovis strains on their adherence properties. Eighteen metabolically labeled M. bovis strains isolated from different pathological backgrounds were examined in adherence trials using four different host cell lines, i.e. embryonic bovine lung (EBL), embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr), Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and rabbit kidney (RK) cells. Although large interstrain variations in adherence rates (3.4-19.1%) were measured they could not be correlated to the pathological background (pneumonia, arthritis or mastitis). Adherence rates to the fibroblast cell line (EBTr) were significantly lower than those to the three epithelial cell lines (EBL, MDBK and RK). The only non-pathogenic strain (221/89) exhibited lower adherence rates than three isolates from clinical mastitis. Interestingly, adherence rates were significantly reduced after in vitro passaging. In contrast, no effect of single cloning of strains on adherence was observed. There was no general correlation between expression of variable surface proteins (Vsps) as monitored by immunoblotting and adherence rates, although alterations in Vsp expression profiles were seen as a consequence of passaging. As there is probably a large number of adhesins, variable and non-variable, on the surface of M. bovis cells the issue is very complex, and the most active components have yet to be identified. PMID:12458160

  12. Effects of time specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on pre-lay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on performance characteristics of commercial laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bacteria are virtually ubiquitous in layer chicken flocks and M. gallisepticum is the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines were initially approved by the USDA for use in commercial layers in 1988 to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma ovis Strain Michigan, a Hemoplasma of Sheep with Two Distinct 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Dyson, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma ovis strain Michigan. Its single circular chromosome has 702,511 bp and contains 2 copies of the 16S rRNA gene, one corresponding to M. ovis and the other to “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis.” All housekeeping genes and the 5S-23S rRNA genes are present in single copies. PMID:24482515

  14. Characterization of P40, a cytadhesin of Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Bénédicte; Bergonier, Dominique; Berthelot, Xavier; Peterhans, Ernst; Frey, Joachim; Vilei, Edy M

    2002-10-01

    An immunodominant protein, P40, of Mycoplasma agalactiae was analyzed genetically and functionally. The gene encoding P40 was cloned from type strain PG2, sequenced, submitted to point mutagenesis in order to convert mycoplasma-specific TGA(Trp) codon to the universal TGG(Trp) codon, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence-derived amino acid sequence comparisons revealed a similarity of P40 to the adhesin P50 of Mycoplasma hominis and to protein P89 of Spiroplasma citri, which is expected to be involved in adhesion. The amino acid sequence of P40 revealed a recognition site for a signal peptidase and strong antigenic and hydrophilic motifs in the C-terminal domain. Triton X-114 phase partitioning confirmed that P40 is a membrane protein. Fab fragments of antibodies directed against recombinant purified P40 significantly inhibited adherence of M. agalactiae strains PG2 to lamb joint synovial cells LSM 192. Sera taken sequentially from sheep infected with PG2 revealed that P40 induced a strong and persistent immune response that gave strong signals on immunoblots containing recombinant P40 even 3 months after infection. The gene encoding P40 was present in a single copy in all of the 26 field strains of M. agalactiae analyzed and was not detected in closely related mycoplasma species. P40 was expressed as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 37 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels by all M. agalactiae strains except for serotype C strains, which showed nonsense mutations in their p40 genes. PMID:12228289

  15. Intracellular location of mycoplasmas in cultured cells demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Davies, H. A.; Sarathchandra, P.; Furr, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    Mycoplasma fermentans (strain 'incognitus') was incubated with HeLa cells for up to 96 h. After 24 h, mycoplasma organisms were demonstrated intracellularly by immunocytochemistry using mule anti-M. fermentans antiserum and gold labelling on ultrathin sections of both Lowicryl K4M and Araldite-embedded HeLa cells, the latter being treated with hydrogen peroxide. The Araldite-embedded cells were fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide in the presence of ruthenium red to stain the mucopolysaccharide surface components of both the procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Intracellular localization of some M. fermentans organisms was confirmed by exclusion of ruthenium red from their membranes. Various numbers of mycoplasma organisms were seen per cell and occasionally some were within vacuoles, the membranes of which were also unstained by ruthenium red. The PG18 strain of M. fermentans and a strain of M. hominis were also detected intracellularly using similar methodology and homologous mule or rabbit antisera. The occasional presence of both apparently normal and some denser degenerate mycoplasmas in the same cell may indicate gradual degradation by phagolysosomal digestion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1768615

  16. Association between an outbreak strain causing mycoplasma bovis mastitis and its asymptomatic carriage in the herd: a case study from Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Punyapornwithaya, V; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Alldredge, J R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between mycoplasma mastitis and colonization of mycoplasma organisms at body sites of asymptomatic carriers. The investigation was done in a dairy herd with a first outbreak of mycoplasma mastitis. Milk and swab solution specimens from accessible mucosal surfaces of body sites from cows and replacements were sampled at quarterly intervals (Herd Samplings 1-4). Samples were cultured and Mycoplasma spp. were isolated, speciated and fingerprinted. During Herd Sampling 1 two cows with mycoplasma bovis mastitis were identified and all swabbing solutions of body site samples from 18 of 84 cows and 36 of 77 replacements were positive to Mycoplasma bovis and fingerprinted as the same strain. A case of clinical M. bovis mastitis developed during Herd Sampling 3. During Herd Samplings 2-4, 4 lactating cows and 12 replacements were positive to M. bovis at various body sites with 4 different strains. Three isolates of Mycoplasma californicum were found from swabbing solutions of three cows during Herd Samplings 3 and 4. Only one strain of M. bovis caused mastitis although four strains were isolated from body sites of animals. Isolation of M. bovis from a body site never preceded mastitis. No lactating cow developed mastitis during Herd Sampling 4 although some animals were colonized with the organism. It appears that during the initial outbreak of M. bovis mastitis colonization of body sites by the outbreak strain may be common. However, the prevalence of colonization subsides and colonization does not appear to precede mastitis. PMID:19880206

  17. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma hyorhinis strains identified by a real-time TaqMan PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Tocqueville, Véronique; Ferré, Séverine; Nguyen, Ngoc Hong Phuc; Kempf, Isabelle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    A real-time TaqMan PCR assay based on the gene encoding the protein p37 was developed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Its specificity was validated with 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains (28 field strains and one reference strain) and other mycoplasma species or with other microorganisms commonly found in pigs. The estimated detection limit of this qPCR assay was 125 microorganism equivalents/?l. The same 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains and four previously fully sequenced strains were typed by two portable typing methods, the sequencing of the p37 gene and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The first method revealed 18 distinct nucleotide sequences and insufficient discriminatory power (0.934). The MLST scheme was developed with the sequenced genomes of the M. hyorhinis strains HUB-1, GDL-1, MCLD, and SK76 and based on the genes dnaA, rpoB, gyrB, gltX, adk, and gmk. In total, 2,304 bp of sequence was analyzed for each strain. MLST was capable of subdividing the 33 strains into 29 distinct sequence types. The discriminatory power of the method was >0.95, which is the threshold value for interpreting typing results with confidence (D=0.989). Population analysis showed that recombination in M. hyorhinis occurs and that strains are diverse but with a certain clonality (one unique clonal complex was identified). The new qPCR assay and the robust MLST scheme are available for the acquisition of new knowledge on M. hyorhinis epidemiology. A web-accessible database has been set up for the M. hyorhinis MLST scheme at http://pubmlst.org/mhyorhinis/. PMID:24622092

  18. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Strains Identified by a Real-Time TaqMan PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Tocqueville, Véronique; Ferré, Séverine; Nguyen, Ngoc Hong Phuc

    2014-01-01

    A real-time TaqMan PCR assay based on the gene encoding the protein p37 was developed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Its specificity was validated with 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains (28 field strains and one reference strain) and other mycoplasma species or with other microorganisms commonly found in pigs. The estimated detection limit of this qPCR assay was 125 microorganism equivalents/?l. The same 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains and four previously fully sequenced strains were typed by two portable typing methods, the sequencing of the p37 gene and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The first method revealed 18 distinct nucleotide sequences and insufficient discriminatory power (0.934). The MLST scheme was developed with the sequenced genomes of the M. hyorhinis strains HUB-1, GDL-1, MCLD, and SK76 and based on the genes dnaA, rpoB, gyrB, gltX, adk, and gmk. In total, 2,304 bp of sequence was analyzed for each strain. MLST was capable of subdividing the 33 strains into 29 distinct sequence types. The discriminatory power of the method was >0.95, which is the threshold value for interpreting typing results with confidence (D = 0.989). Population analysis showed that recombination in M. hyorhinis occurs and that strains are diverse but with a certain clonality (one unique clonal complex was identified). The new qPCR assay and the robust MLST scheme are available for the acquisition of new knowledge on M. hyorhinis epidemiology. A web-accessible database has been set up for the M. hyorhinis MLST scheme at http://pubmlst.org/mhyorhinis/. PMID:24622092

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Weisburg, W G; Tully, J G; Rose, D L; Petzel, J P; Oyaizu, H; Yang, D; Mandelco, L; Sechrest, J; Lawrence, T G; Van Etten, J

    1989-01-01

    Small-subunit rRNA sequences were determined for almost 50 species of mycoplasmas and their walled relatives, providing the basis for a phylogenetic systematic analysis of these organisms. Five groups of mycoplasmas per se were recognized (provisional names are given): the hominis group (which included species such as Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma lipophilum, Mycoplasma pulmonis, and Mycoplasma neurolyticum), the pneumoniae group (which included species such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma muris), the spiroplasma group (which included species such as Mycoplasma mycoides, Spiroplasma citri, and Spiroplasma apis), the anaeroplasma group (which encompassed the anaeroplasmas and acholeplasmas), and a group known to contain only the isolated species Asteroleplasma anaerobium. In addition to these five mycoplasma groups, a sixth group of variously named gram-positive, walled organisms (which included lactobacilli, clostridia, and other organisms) was also included in the overall phylogenetic unit. In each of these six primary groups, subgroups were readily recognized and defined. Although the phylogenetic units identified by rRNA comparisons are difficult to recognize on the basis of mutually exclusive phenotypic characters alone, phenotypic justification can be given a posteriori for a number of them. PMID:2592342

  20. Analysis of the 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of Mycoplasma synoviae field strains.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ana S; Naylor, Clive J; Yavari, Christine A; Dare, Cynthia M; Bradbury, Janet M

    2011-02-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae has been associated with economic loss in the chicken and turkey industries. The molecular characterization of M. synoviae at strain level allows the analysis of relationships between strains that may be valuable in epidemiological investigations. In the present study, the intergenic spacer region (ISR) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes was examined to see whether useful information about strains could be derived. M. synoviae has two copies of this region, which may not be exactly the same (intercistronic heterogeneity). Sequencing of the ISRs of 21 M. synoviae isolates and the type strain revealed that 19 of them had such heterogeneity so DNA cloning was performed where necessary. All sequences were analysed and aligned; the percentage similarity of the DNA was calculated and a dendrogram was constructed. The length of the ISRs varied between 305 and 309 base pairs. Apart from having extra A/Ts in poly-A or poly-T regions and the presence of a few polymorphisms, the sequences of the M. synoviae strains were similar. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the strains were assigned to 10 groups-taking into account that within each group the DNA similarity was 100%, while the lowest similarity between groups was 95.8%. The results were compared with those obtained with the vlhA gene, resulting in very similar M. synoviae groups. Although the ISR could be a good target for strain typing, as has been shown by others for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the method may be too cumbersome for routine use with M. synoviae because of complications with intercistronic heterogeneity. However, if the ISR sequence information was to be combined with other mutation detection techniques it could increase the discriminatory power. PMID:21331951

  1. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Is a Suitable Tool for Differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strains without Cultivation?

    PubMed Central

    Vranckx, K.; Maes, D.; Calus, D.; Villarreal, I.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2011-01-01

    An assay based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis allowed differentiating and studying diversity and persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains in pig herds without prior cultivation. The test had a discriminatory index of >0.99 and was applied reliably to porcine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tracheal swabs. PMID:21389157

  2. EFFECTS OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TWELVE WEEKS OF AGE AND DIET SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a 12 wk F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and various dietary supplementation regimens on performance and egg characteristics in Hy-Line W36 hens between 22 and 52 wk were investigated. At 12 wk of age, 120 sham (control) and 120 FMG- (treated) inoculated birds were...

  3. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Yolk Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay)...

  4. EFFECTS OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TWELVE WEEKS OF AGE ON EGG YOLK COMPOSITION IN COMMERCIAL EGG LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the content of egg yolks from commercial Single Combed White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of eight (Trial 1) or sixteen (Trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass bi...

  5. A solid medium for culture and identification of human T-mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Windsor, G D; Edward, D G; Trigwell, J A

    1975-02-01

    A solid urea-containing medium buffered to pH 6.5 with a suitable mixture of KH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 produced enlarged T-mycoplasma colonies containing a white precipitate. This was absent from M. hominis colonies. The medium can be used for the isolation and identification of T-mycoplasmas. PMID:236389

  6. Mutations in GTP Binding Protein Obg of Mycoplasma synoviae Vaccine Strain MS-H: Implications in Temperature-Sensitivity Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Muhammad A.; Markham, Philip F.; Markham, John F.; Marenda, Marc S.; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae strain MS-H, developed by chemical mutagenesis of the Australian field strain 86079/7NS, is a live temperature-sensitive (ts+) vaccine used for control of M. synoviae infection in poultry worldwide. Genetic basis of temperature sensitivity and attenuation of MS-H has not been revealed thus far. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of MS-H, its parent strain 86079/7NS and two non-temperature sensitive (ts–) reisolates of MS-H revealed a mutation in a highly conserved domain of GTP binding protein Obg of MS-H, with reversion in ts– MS-H reisolates. Nucleotide change from G to A at position 369 of the obg gene resulted in an alteration of glycine to arginine at position 123 in Obg fold. Further analysis of the complete obg gene sequence in several MS-H reisolates revealed that a Gly123Arg substitution was associated with alteration in temperature sensitivity phenotype of MS-H. A second mutation, C to T at position 629, in obg gene was found in some of the MS-H reisolates and appeared to suppress the effects of the Gly123Arg substitution. In silico analysis of point mutations revealed that Gly123Arg has highly destabilizing effect on the MS-H Obg structure that can potentially abolish its biological functions in vivo especially at non-permissive temperature. Findings of this study implicate Obg alteration (Gly123Arg) as one of the possible causes of MS-H attenuation/temperature sensitivity and warrant further investigations into exploring the role of Obg-like proteins, an evolutionarily conserved protein from human to bacteria, in the biology of mycoplasmas. PMID:24069254

  7. Molecular Variability of the Adhesin-Encoding Gene pvpA among Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains and Its Application in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T.; García, M.; Levisohn, S.; Yogev, D.; Kleven, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important pathogen of chickens and turkeys that causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The reemergence of M. gallisepticum outbreaks among poultry, the increased use of live M. gallisepticum vaccines, and the detection of M. gallisepticum in game and free-flying song birds has strengthened the need for molecular diagnostic and strain differentiation tests. Molecular techniques, including restriction fragment length polymorphism of genomic DNA (RFLP) and PCR-based random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), have already been utilized as powerful tools to detect intraspecies variation. However, certain intrinsic drawbacks constrain the application of these methods. The main goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using an M. gallisepticum-specific gene encoding a phase-variable putative adhesin protein (PvpA) as the target for molecular typing. This was accomplished using a pvpA PCR-RFLP assay. Size variations among PCR products and nucleotide divergence of the C-terminus-encoding region of the pvpA gene were the basis for strain differentiation. This method can be used for rapid differentiation of vaccine strains from field isolates by amplification directly from clinical samples without the need for isolation by culture. Moreover, molecular epidemiology of M. gallisepticum outbreaks can be performed using RFLP and/or sequence analysis of the pvpA gene. PMID:11326008

  8. Measurement of the cytotoxic effects of different strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube using a calmodulin assay.

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, V M; Miller, R B; Rosendal, S; Fernando, M A; Johnson, W H; O'Brien, P J

    1992-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced by five strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium for cells of equine uterine tube explants were tested by measuring changes in cellular and extracellular concentrations of calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin concentrations in samples of total homogenate (TH) and total homogenate supernates (THS) of the infected equine uterine tube explants were significantly lower than respective measurements on noninfected controls. In tissue culture medium fractions (TCM) of some infected explants, CaM concentrations were significantly higher than noninfected controls (p > 0.95). The results suggest that M. equigenitalium colonization on ciliated cells of the equine uterine tube can affect the permeability of the cell membrane leading to leakage or release of CaM during cell breakdown. Measurement of CaM concentrations in samples of TH revealed significant differences in the cytotoxic effects induced by different strains of M. equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube (EUT). The data suggests that some strains of M. equigenitalium may have a role in reproductive failure in the mare. In addition comparisons of the means of the concentrations of CaM in samples of TH or THS in EUT explants from four mares in the follicular and four in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were found to be not significantly different. PMID:1477802

  9. Dermatobia hominis infestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nunzi; F. Rongioletti; A. Rebora

    1984-01-01

    A patient is reported who, after leaving Venezuela, developed some boils on the left upper limb inhabited by Dermatobia hominis larvae. The curious life-cycle of this tropical fly is described with some considerations about the diagnostic problem. A simple unreported way of larvae extraction is suggested.

  10. Dermatobia hominis infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Nunzi, E.; Rongioletti, F.; Rebora, A.

    1984-01-01

    A patient is reported who, after leaving Venezuela, developed some boils on the left upper limb inhabited by Dermatobia hominis larvae. The curious life-cycle of this tropical fly is described with some considerations about the diagnostic problem. A simple unreported way of larvae extraction is suggested. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6709553

  11. Genetic Variation in the Complete MgPa Operon and Its Repetitive Chromosomal Elements in Clinical Strains of Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liang; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Mancuso, Miriam; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Jia, Qiuyao; McGowin, Chris L.; Martin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been increasingly recognized as an important microbe not only because of its significant association with human genital tract diseases but also because of its utility as a model for studying the minimum set of genes necessary to sustain life. Despite its small genome, 4.7% of the total genome sequence is devoted to making the MgPa adhesin operon and its nine chromosomal repetitive elements (termed MgPars). The MgPa operon, along with 9 MgPars, is believed to play an important role in pathogenesis of M. genitalium infection and has also served as the main target for development of diagnostic tools. However, genetic variation in the complete MgPa operon and MgPars among clinical strains of M. genitalium has not been addressed. In this study we examined the genetic variation in the complete MgPa operon (approximately 8.5 kb) and full or partial MgPar sequences (0.4–2.6 kb) in 15 geographically diverse strains of M. genitalium. Extensive variation was present in four repeat regions of the MgPa operon (with homology to MgPars) among and within strains while the non-repeat regions (without homology to MgPars) showed low-level variation among strains and no variation within strains. MgPars showed significant variation among strains but were highly homogeneous within strains, supporting gene conversion as the likely recombination mechanism. When applying our sequence data to evaluate published MgPa operon-based diagnostic PCR assays and genotyping systems, we found that 11 of 19 primers contain up to 19 variable nucleotides and that the target for one of two typing systems is located in a hypervariable repeat region, suggesting the likelihood of false results with some of these assays. This study not only provides new insights into the role of the MgPa operon in the pathogenesis of M. genitalium infection but has important implications for the development of diagnostic tools. PMID:21187921

  12. Blastocystis hominis revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, D J; Boreham, P F

    1996-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular organism found commonly in the intestinal tract of humans and many other animals. Very little is known of the basic biology of the organism, and controversy surrounds its taxonomy and pathogenicity. There morphological forms (vacuolar, granular, and ameboid) have been recognized, but recent studies have revealed several additional forms (cyst, avacuolar, and multivacuolar). The biochemistry of the organism has not been studied to any extent, and organelles and structures of unknown function and composition are present in the cells. Several life cycles have been proposed but not experimentally validated. The form used for transmission has not been defined. Infections with the organism are worldwide and appear in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals. Symptoms generally attributed to B. hominis infection are nonspecific, and the need for treatment is debated. If treatment appears warranted, metronidazole is suggested as the drug of choice, although failures of this drug in eradicating the organism have been reported. Infection is diagnosed by light microscopic examination of stained smears or wet mounts of fecal material. Most laboratories identify B. hominis by observing the vacuolar form, although morphological studies indicate that other forms, such as the cyst form and multivacuolar form, also should be sought for diagnosis. PMID:8894352

  13. A chronicle of serologic response in commercial layer chickens to vaccination with commercial F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initial efforts by the poultry industry at controlling and containing Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) included testing and slaughter of reactor flocks. Ultimately, using the aforementioned measures coupled with heat treatment of hatching eggs together with biosecurity and biosurveillance procedures, ...

  14. Comparison of the new Mycofast Revolution assay with a molecular assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas from clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genital mycoplasmas are opportunistic bacteria that are associated with undesirable gynaecologic and reproductive events. Mycoplasmas are fastidious bacteria with increasing resistance to routine antimicrobials and often fail to grow on conventional culture methods. The commercial Mycofast Revolution assay permits the phenotypic detection and identification of genital mycoplasmas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against five antimicrobial agents with MICs corresponding to the CLSI guidelines can also be performed. This study aimed to compare the new commercially available Mycofast Revolution assay with a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Self-collected swabs were obtained from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in Pretoria, South Africa from October 2012 to November 2012. These swabs were used to seed UMMt and modified Amies transport media. The seeded UMMt transported medium was used to inoculate the Mycofast Revolution assay for the identification, enumeration and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of genital mycoplasmas. Following DNA extraction from the modified Amies transport medium, specimens were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas. Results The Mycofast Revolution kit had a sensitivity and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI: 62.15% to 88.51%) and 80% (95% CI: 28.81% to 96.70%), respectively, against the PCR assay. The positive and negative predictive values were 97.1% (95% CI: 85.03% to 99.52%) and 28.6% (95% CI: 8.57% to 58.08%). Genital mycoplasmas were detected in 71.4% (35/49) of samples with the Mycofast Revolution assay with 49% (24/49) being Ureaplasma spp. and 22.4% (11/49) mixed strains. The multiplex PCR assay had a positivity rate of 89.8% (44/49) for genital mycoplasmas; mixed strains were present in 51% (25/49) of samples, Ureaplasma spp. in 16.3% (8/49) and M. hominis in 22.4% (11/49) of samples. Conclusions There was a fair agreement (??=?0.319) between the Mycofast Revolution assay and the mPCR assay. With the high prevalence rates of genital mycoplasmas, fast and efficient diagnostic methods are imperative to treat infections and minimise complications. The Mycofast Revolution assay is simple to use, has a short turn-around time and interpretation of results are straightforward. This assay circumvents common problems experienced with conventional culture and molecular methods in diagnostic laboratories where skilled personnel are limited and can be used as an alternative diagnostic assay. PMID:24079603

  15. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    Antibiotics that work against Mycoplasma include macrolides, fluroquinolones, and tetracyclines. You can take these steps at home: Control your fever with aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ...

  16. Effects of prelay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation and time specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma infections are pandemic in multiage layer chicken flocks with M. gallisepticum being the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines are presently being used to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks. However, vaccination of layers with F-str...

  17. EFFECTS OF S6-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TEN, TWENTY-TWO, OR FORTY-FIVE WEEKS OF AGE ON THE BLOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL EGG LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of the age of application of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) inoculation on the blood characteristics of commercial layers housed and maintained under controlled conditions was determined. The ages of inoculation compared were tho...

  18. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculatio...

  19. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat, Phytase, and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 2 levels of supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the performance of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were ...

  20. Dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristic of commercial...at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum 1 , 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) w...

  1. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers at 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (e...

  2. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG ino...

  3. The identification of mycoplasma species by gas chromatography

    E-print Network

    Shult, Milton Donald

    1969-01-01

    to consist completely of phosphatidyl glycerol. Certain frac- tions were found to contain amino acid esters and upon hydrolysis yielded alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, methionine, and leucine-isoleucine. The fatty acid fraction... . Phospholipid levels dropped with increase in age, probably due to cellular lysis. Fatty acids of mycoplasma are predominately saturated. O' Leary ( 32) reported that M. hominis contains 13$ unsatu- rated acids . Tourtellotte ( 56) has shown that the ratio...

  4. Haemotropic mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Séverine

    2010-01-01

    Practical relevance The feline haemotropic mycoplasmas (‘haemoplasmas') are a group of bacteria that can induce haemolytic anaemia in cats. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the species; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ are less pathogenic. The natural route of transmission of feline haemoplasma infection has not been confirmed, but fleas are implicated. When disease results, common clinical signs are pallor, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, depression, dehydration and pyrexia. Treatment with tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones is usually effective at resolving clinical disease, but clearance of infection may not result. Global importance The feline haemoplasmas are found worldwide, although prevalence varies geographically. Patient group Older male non-pedigree cats are believed to be at increased risk of haemoplasma infection, although younger cats are possibly more likely to show clinical disease associated with M haemofelis. Clinical challenges The significance of feline haemoplasma infection is difficult to determine due to the existence of asymptomatic carrier cats and the variable pathogenicity of the haemoplasma species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results should be interpreted in the light of the patient's clinical signs and haematological findings, infecting haemoplasma species and level of haemoplasma DNA present in the blood. Trial antibiotic treatment for haemoplasmosis may be warranted in suspected cases while awaiting PCR results. Evidence base Aspects of feline haemoplasmosis, particularly risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and treatment, have been the focus of much recent research. This article draws on the current evidence base with a view to helping clinicians diagnose and manage cases more effectively. PMID:20417898

  5. Mycoplasma auris sp. nov., Mycoplasma cottewii sp. nov., and Mycoplasma yeatsii sp. nov., New Sterol-Requiring Mollicutes from the External Ear Canals of Goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. DAMASSA; J. G. TULLY; D. L. ROSE; D. PITCHER; R. H. LEACH; G. S. COTI

    1994-01-01

    Three mycoplasma strains, designated GIHT (T = type strain), UUT, and VIST, were isolated from the external ear canals of goats and were shown to be serologically distinct from each other and from previously described Acholeplasma, Entomoplasma, Mesoplasma, and Mycoplasma species. Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that the cells of these organisms were small, pleomorphic, coccoid, nonmotile,

  6. Rapid detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures using sybr green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Ishikawa; Takaharu Kozakai; Hatsue Morita; Kaname Saida; Syuichi Oka; Yoshinori Masuo

    2006-01-01

    Summary  We have developed a simple method for rapid detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures using SYBR Green-based\\u000a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To detect eight common contaminant mollicutes, including Mycoplasma (M. arginini, M. fermentans, M. orale, M. hyorhinis, M. hominis, M. salivarium, M. pirum) and Acholeplasma laidlawii, four primers were prepared based on the 23S rRNA regions. Using these

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

  8. Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., a fast growing Mycoplasma species isolated from wild Caprinae.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Fischer, Anne; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thomann, Andreas; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Schnee, Christiane; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Heller, Martin; Frey, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Five Mycoplasma strains from wild Caprinae were analyzed: four from Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) which died at the Berlin Zoo between 1993 and 1994, one from a Rocky Mountain goat collected in the USA prior to 1987. These five strains represented a population different from the populations belonging to the 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' as tested using multi locus sequence typing, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (rrs), genomic sequence based in silico as well as laboratory DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of phenotypic traits in particular their exceptionally rapid growth all confirmed that they do not belong to any Mycoplasma species described to date. We therefore suggest these strains represent a novel species, for which we propose the name Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. The type strain is G5847(T) (=DSM 26019(T)=NCTC 1362(T)). PMID:24016869

  9. Mycoplasma agassizii Strain Variation and Distinct Host Antibody Responses Explain Differences between Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Western Blot Assays ?

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, Lori D.; Klein, Paul A.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Brown, Mary B.

    2010-01-01

    The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A405 values were significantly correlated (r2 goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations. PMID:20810678

  10. Survey of Surface Proteins from the Pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 7448 Using a Biotin Cell Surface Labeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia. PMID:25386928

  11. Isolation and molecular identification of mycoplasma genitalium from the secretion of genital tract in infertile male and female

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Tafsiri, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasmas can cause acute and chronic diseases at multiple sites with wide-range complications and have been implicated as cofactors in diseases. The infections influenced form genital mycoplasmas specifically Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium potentially affect reproductive disorders, and infertility. Objective: Isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma genitalium from the genital tract of infertile male and vaginal discharge of infertile female referred to Infertility Center of Kerman in 2013. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, prospective study. We included 100 infertile male and 100 infertile female that were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman. Then for isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma genitalium from urethral and vaginal discharge polymerase chain reaction was performed on Mycoplasma genus and genitalium. Results: From a total of 100 semen samples 45 patients (45%) were mycoplasma-positive and 13 (28.8%) were genitalium species positive. Also, from a total of 100 women samples 43 women (43%) were mycoplasma-positive and 10 (23.2%) were genitalium species positive. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic tree was drawn. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, a high percentage of infertile male and female were infected with the Mycoplasma genitalium. For prevention of harmful and significant consequences of this infection, we suggest a screening program in symptomatic infertile couples. PMID:25469132

  12. Genes Found Essential in Other Mycoplasmas Are Dispensable in Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Markham, Philip F.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are regarded to be useful models for studying the minimum genetic complement required for independent survival of an organism. Mycoplasma bovis is a globally distributed pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis media and reproductive tract disease, and genome sequences of three strains, the type strain PG45 and two strains isolated in China, have been published. In this study, several Tn4001 based transposon constructs were generated and used to create a M. bovis PG45 insertional mutant library. Direct genome sequencing of 319 independent insertions detected disruptions in 129 genes in M. bovis, 48 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC and 99 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Sixteen genes found to be essential in previous studies on other mycoplasma species were found to be dispensable. Five of these genes have previously been predicted to be part of the core set of 153 essential genes in mycoplasmas. Thus this study has extended the list of non-essential genes of mycoplasmas from that previously generated by studies in other species. PMID:24897538

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to Multicolored Butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The history, replication, genetics, characteristics (both biological and physical), and factors involved in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium are presented. The latter factors include adhesion, the influence of hormones, motility, possible toxin production, and immunological responses. The preferred site of colonization, together with current detection procedures, mainly by PCR technology, is discussed. The relationships between M. genitalium and various diseases are highlighted. These diseases include acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis, balanoposthitis, chronic prostatitis, and acute epididymitis in men and urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and reproductive disease in women. A causative relationship, or otherwise strong association, between several of these diseases and M. genitalium is apparent, and the extent of this, on a subjective basis, is presented; also provided is a comparison between M. genitalium and two other genital tract-orientated mollicutes, namely, Mycoplasma hominis, the first mycoplasma of human origin to be discovered, and Ureaplasma species. Also discussed is the relationship between M. genitalium and infertility and also arthritis in both men and women, as is infection in homosexual and immunodeficient patients. Decreased immunity, as in HIV infections, may enhance mycoplasmal detection and increase disease severity. Finally, aspects of the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of M. genitalium, together with the treatment and possible prevention of mycoplasmal disease, are discussed. PMID:21734246

  14. Comparison of multiple genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space region for their capacity in high resolution melt curve analysis to differentiate Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 from field strains.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed A; Bradbury, Janet M; Ferguson-Noel, Naola M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2013-12-27

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important avian pathogen causing significant economic losses in the global poultry industry. In an attempt to compare and evaluate existing genotyping methods for differentiation of MG strains/isolates, high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was applied to 5 different PCR methods targeting vlhA, pvpA, gapA, mgc2 genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space region (IGSR). To assess the discriminatory power of PCR-HRM of examined genes and IGSR, MG strains ts-11, F, 6/85 and S6, and, initially, 8 field isolates were tested. All MG strains/isolates were differentiated using PCR-HRM curve analysis and genotype confidence percentage (GCP) values of vlhA and pvpA genes, while only 0, 3 and 4 out of 12 MG strains/isolates were differentiated using gapA, mgc2 genes and IGSR, respectively. The HRM curve analysis of vlhA and pvpA genes was found to be highly correlated with the genetic diversity of the targeted genes confirmed by sequence analysis of amplicons generated from MG strains. The potential of the vlhA and pvpA genes was also demonstrated for genotyping of 12 additional MG strains from Europe and the USA. Results from this study provide a direct comparison between genes previously used in sequencing-based genotyping methods for MG strain identification and highlight the usefulness of vlhA and pvpA HRM curve analyses as rapid and reliable tools specially for diagnosis and differentiation of MG strains used here. PMID:24238667

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Surface-Localized Adhesion Protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yumei; Liu, Yang; Xin, Jiuqing

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX). Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX). Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL), and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1. PMID:23936063

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a surface-localized adhesion protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 strain.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yumei; Liu, Yang; Xin, Jiuqing

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX). Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX). Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL), and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1. PMID:23936063

  17. Mycoplasma mucosicanis sp. nov., isolated from the mucosa of dogs.

    PubMed

    Spergser, Joachim; Langer, Stefan; Muck, Simone; Macher, Kathrin; Szostak, Michael; Rosengarten, Renate; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2011-04-01

    Fourteen Mycoplasma strains were isolated from the oral cavity and genital tract of asymptomatic dogs. Isolates had been preliminarily identified by conventional serological testing as Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, but in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer PCR-RFLP assays the isolates exhibited an RFLP pattern distinct from M. bovigenitalium PG11(T). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene placed a representative of the isolates (strain 1642(T)) in the M. bovigenitalium subcluster of the Mycoplasma bovis cluster of mycoplasmas, with the highest sequence similarities to Mycoplasma californicum ST-6(T) (96.4?%), M. bovigenitalium PG11(T) (96.3?%) and Mycoplasma phocirhinis 852(T) (96.2?%). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities almost equidistant from three recognized species and results obtained by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, polar lipid profiles and serological reactions indicated that this organism represents a novel species of the genus Mycoplasma for which the name Mycoplasma mucosicanis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 1642(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-1895(T) ?=?DSM 22457(T)) as the type strain. PMID:20418418

  18. Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain.

    PubMed

    Spergser, Joachim; Macher, Kathrin; Kargl, Munkhtsetseg; Lysnyansky, Inna; Rosengarten, Renate

    2013-06-28

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis was identified and reported in Austria as agent of infection and disease in cattle only once, namely in 2005 associated with a case of mastitis in a smallholding, but in 2007 it unexpectedly emerged as the cause of a devastating disease outbreak in a dairy herd of 100 individuals and spill over infection to pigs, both kept on the same mountain pasture. In 2008, M. bovis remained endemic at a low level in this region followed by the re-emergence of the agent in 2009 and a dramatic spread of the disease to further Alpine areas and their foothills in 2010 and 2011. From these outbreaks, a total of 94 M. bovis isolates including 7 porcine isolates were selected for genotyping. Two molecular tools, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were chosen to identify strain types involved in these outbreaks and to trace routes of infection and dynamics of dissemination. With both typing methods, the majority of Alpine isolates (96.8%) recovered over time from different areas and hosts was clustered into one group exhibiting a unique and indistinguishable profile which significantly differed from those of geographically unrelated strains including the type strain PG45 and 3 Alpine isolates which suddenly appeared and disappeared in 2009. Stability of the unique profile strongly indicated that a single M. bovis strain initiated the outbreak in 2007, crossed the host species barrier by infecting pigs, re-emerged in 2009 and became widespread in the Austrian Alps in 2010 and 2011. The remarkable dissemination and persistence of a single and unique M. bovis strain may reflect peculiarities of dairy management practices in the Alps based on Alpine transhumance and cooperative use of mountain pastures. As the source of the outbreak strain remains unknown, the findings of this study underscore the importance of continuous surveillance by monitoring further spread and persistence of M. bovis infections for effective control to minimize losses in Alpine dairy farming. PMID:23490560

  19. Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma infections in infertile couples and effects of these infections on fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?lker Günyeli; Faruk Abike; ?lkkan Dünder; Canan Aslan; Ömer Lütfi Tap?s?z; Osman Temizkan; Ahmet Payasl?; Evrim Erdemo?lu

    2011-01-01

    Objective  In our study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections among infertile couples and effects of these infections on infertility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Prevalence of Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma antibodies and Chlamydia IgM antibodies and its effect on these agents’ sperm\\u000a parameters, namely, morphology, density, and motility were investigated among a total of 212

  20. Specific Evolution of F1-Like ATPases in Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Dautant, Alain; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Labroussaa, Fabien; Sköllermo, Anna; Persson, Anja; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    F1F0 ATPases have been identified in most bacteria, including mycoplasmas which have very small genomes associated with a host-dependent lifestyle. In addition to the typical operon of eight genes encoding genuine F1F0 ATPase (Type 1), we identified related clusters of seven genes in many mycoplasma species. Four of the encoded proteins have predicted structures similar to the ?, ?, ? and ? subunits of F1 ATPases and could form an F1-like ATPase. The other three proteins display no similarity to any other known proteins. Two of these proteins are probably located in the membrane, as they have three and twelve predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenomic studies identified two types of F1-like ATPase clusters, Type 2 and Type 3, characterized by a rapid evolution of sequences with the conservation of structural features. Clusters encoding Type 2 and Type 3 ATPases were assumed to originate from the Hominis group of mycoplasmas. We suggest that Type 3 ATPase clusters may spread to other phylogenetic groups by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasmas in the same host, based on phylogeny and genomic context. Functional analyses in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides showed that the Type 3 cluster genes were organized into an operon. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that the seven encoded proteins were produced during growth in axenic media. Mutagenesis and complementation studies demonstrated an association of the Type 3 cluster with a major ATPase activity of membrane fractions. Thus, despite their tendency toward genome reduction, mycoplasmas have evolved and exchanged specific F1-like ATPases with no known equivalent in other bacteria. We propose a model, in which the F1-like structure is associated with a hypothetical X0 sector located in the membrane of mycoplasma cells. PMID:22685606

  1. Cutaneous Myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Hohenstein; S. A. Buechner

    2004-01-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by the human botfly Dermatobia hominis involves the infestation of tissue with dipterous fly larvae and is common in the neotropical region of the New World. We report a case of D. hominis imported in Switzerland from Costa Rica. In the past, various approaches to extract the botfly larva have been reported.

  2. Microbiological and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus hominis Isolates from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; González-González, Gloria Ma; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Background Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec) type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. Methodology S. hominis blood isolates (n?=?21) were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21) were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21) as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21) of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0–95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82%) harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. Conclusions The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor new SCCmec structural elements and might be reservoirs of ccrC1 in addition to ccrAB1 and mec complex A. PMID:23585877

  3. Validation of nested PCR and a selective biochemical method as alternatives for mycoplasma detection.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kyung Ah; Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Lee, Ai-Young

    2011-04-01

    Direct culture is the most common way to reliably detect mycoplasma, but it is not practical for the qualitative control of cell therapeutics because of the elaborate culture medium, the prolonged incubation time, and the large sample volumes. Here, we chose two alternative methods using commercial detection kits, the PCR mycoplasma detection kit with nested PCR and the selective biochemical method, MycoAlert(®), and validated them with the direct culture method as a reference. We tested eight mycoplasma species and five validation parameters: specificity, detection limit, robustness, repeatability, and ruggedness, based on the regulatory guidelines in the US Pharmacopoeia. All experiments were performed using fibroblasts spiked with mycoplasma. Specificity tests for both methods included all mycoplasma species, except Mycoplasma pneumonia and M. genitalium for the nested PCR and Ureaplasma urealyticum for the MycoAlert(®) assay. Regarding the detection limit, the nested PCR proved to be as sensitive as the direct culture method and more sensitive than the MycoAlert(®) assay. The predicted median for probit = 0.9 was 54 (44-76) CFU/ml for M. hyorhinis and 16 (13-23) CFU/ml for M. hominis by the nested PCR, but 431 (346-593) CFU/ml and 105 (87-142) CFU/ml, respectively, with MycoAlert(®). Changes in the concentration of reagents, reagent lot, or individual analysts did not influence the results of the examined methods. The results of this study support nested PCR as a valuable alternative for mycoplasma detection. PMID:20806253

  4. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to Mycoplasma hyorhinis surface antigens: tools for analyzing mycoplasma-lymphoid cell interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Wise, K. S.; Watson, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    A library has been constructed of approximately 50 monoclonal antibodies that recognize antigens of Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Characteristics of six antibodies are discussed. Each reacts with a discrete determinant borne on a protein-containing molecule of distinct molecular size. Three of these respective antigens are expressed at the surface of mycoplasmas colonizing lymphoblastoid cells in culture. Of these three surface antigens, two are selectively expressed on strain GDL but not on strain BTS-7 of M. hyorhinis, thus defining strain-restricted immunological specificities within these species. One monoclonal antibody of the IgM class (mu, kappa) mediated marked complement-dependent growth inhibition of M. hyorhinis in broth culture. These monoclonal reagents should facilitate analysis of mycoplasma surface architecture, and the molecular interactions of these organisms with the host cell surface. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:6206658

  6. Cutaneous human myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Suite, M; Polson, K

    2007-10-01

    This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands. PMID:18303762

  7. Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma bovis is associated with pneumonia in calves characterized by the development of chronic caseonecrotic lesions with the agent persisting within the lesion. The purposes of this study were to characterize the morphology of lung lesions, examine the presence of M. bovis variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and study the local immune responses in calves after infection with M. bovis strain 1067. Methods Lung tissue samples from eight calves euthanased three weeks after experimental infection with M. bovis were examined by bacteriology and pathology. Lung lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for wide spectrum cytokeratin and for M. bovis Vsp antigens and pMB67 antigen. IHC identification and quantitative evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA)-containing plasma cells was performed. Additionally, expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) was studied by IHC. Results Suppurative pneumonic lesions were found in all calves. In two calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia, necrotic foci were surrounded by epithelial cells resembling bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium. In all calves, M. bovis Vsp antigens were constantly present in the cytoplasm of macrophages and were also present extracellularly at the periphery of necrotic foci. There was a considerable increase in numbers of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves. In M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells, but only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Conclusions The results from this study show that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins. PMID:22305416

  8. Conserved Terminal Organelle Morphology and Function in Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma iowae

    PubMed Central

    Jurkovic, Dominika A.; Newman, Jaime T.

    2012-01-01

    Within the genus Mycoplasma are species whose cells have terminal organelles, polarized structures associated with cytadherence and gliding motility. Mycoplasma penetrans, found mostly in HIV-infected patients, and Mycoplasma iowae, an economically significant poultry pathogen, are members of the Mycoplasma muris phylogenetic cluster. Both species have terminal organelles that interact with host cells, yet the structures in these species, or any in the M. muris cluster, remain uncharacterized. Time-lapse microcinematography of two strains of M. penetrans, GTU-54-6A1 and HF-2, and two serovars of M. iowae, K and N, show that the terminal organelles of both species play a role in gliding motility, with differences in speed within and between the two species. The strains and serovars also differed in their hemadsorption abilities that positively correlated with differences in motility speeds. No morphological differences were observed between M. penetrans and M. iowae by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM and light microscopy of M. penetrans and M. iowae showed the presence of membranous filaments connecting pairs of dividing cells. Breaking of this filament during cell division was observed for M. penetrans by microcinematography, and this suggests a role for motility during division. The Triton X-100-insoluble fractions of M. penetrans and M. iowae consisted of similar structures that were unique compared to those identified in other mycoplasma species. Like other polarized mycoplasmas, M. penetrans and M. iowae have terminal organelles with cytadherence and gliding functions. The difference in function and morphology of the terminal organelles suggests that mycoplasmas have evolved terminal organelles independently of one another. PMID:22447904

  9. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B; Johansson, K E; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    Automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used for determination of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of mycoplasmas. The sequence information was used to establish phylogenetic relationships of 11 different mycoplasmas whose 16S rRNA sequences had not been determined earlier. A biotinylated fragment corresponding to positions 344 to 939 in the Escherichia coli sequence was generated by PCR. The PCR product was immobilized onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and direct sequencing was performed in both directions. One previously unclassified avian mycoplasma was found to belong to the Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster of the hominis group. Microheterogeneities were discovered in the rRNA operons of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC type), confirming the existence of two different rRNA operons. The 16S rRNA sequence of M. mycoides subsp. capri was identical to that of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (type SC), except that no microheterogeneities were revealed. Furthermore, automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used to identify a mycoplasmal contamination of a cell culture as Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which proved to be very difficult by conventional methods. The results suggest that the direct solid-phase DNA sequencing procedure is a powerful tool for identification of mycoplasmas and is also useful in taxonomic studies. Images PMID:7521158

  10. Characterization of P40, a Cytadhesin of Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedicte Fleury; Dominique Bergonier; Xavier Berthelot; Ernst Peterhans; Joachim Frey; Edy M. Vilei

    2002-01-01

    An immunodominant protein, P40, of Mycoplasma agalactiae was analyzed genetically and functionally. The gene encoding P40 was cloned from type strain PG2, sequenced, submitted to point mutagenesis in order to convert mycoplasma-specific TGATrp codon to the universal TGGTrp codon, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence-derived amino acid sequence comparisons revealed a similarity of P40 to the adhesin P50

  11. Evidence of plasmotomy in Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Tan, T C; Suresh, K G

    2007-11-01

    Blastocystis hominis has been regarded as an enigmatic parasite as many aspects of its basic biology remain uncertain. Many reproductive processes have been suggested for the organism; however, to date, only the binary fission has been proven. Plasmotomy is one of the modes of reproduction previously suggested to be seen in in vitro cultures. The present study provides trichrome and acridine orange staining evidence for the existence of nucleic acid suggestive of division of nucleus into multinucleate forms with the respective cytoplasm dividing giving rise to two or three progeny B. hominis. Transmission electron micrographs further confirmed that these daughter cells had respective surrounding surface coat, mitochondria, and vacuoles. PMID:17701428

  12. The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kube; Bernd Schneider; Heiner Kuhl; Thomas Dandekar; Katja Heitmann; Alexander M Migdoll; Richard Reinhardt; Erich Seemüller

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas) and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Three Species with Equivocal Pathogenic Status for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Barré, Aurélien; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Couture, Carole; Citti, Christine; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Dupuy, Virginie; Gaurivaud, Patrice; Jacob, Daniel; Lemaitre, Claire; Nikolski, Macha; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Poumarat, François; Thébault, Patricia; Theil, Sébastien; Thiaucourt, François; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. These three species are regularly isolated from bovine clinical specimens, although their role in disease is unclear. PMID:23766408

  14. Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats. PMID:11972343

  15. Detection of Blastocystis hominis: a controversial human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Basak, Silpi; Rajurkar, Monali N; Mallick, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis has been reclassified as a protozoan parasite. Its role as a human pathogen is somewhat controversial. There has been a dramatic increase in the frequency of B. hominis infection in association with diarrhea especially in immunocompromised hosts like AIDS patients, travelers, homosexuals, day care children, animal handlers especially zoo keepers, etc. Recent reports suggest that B. hominis is an emerging pathogen; hence, we have undertaken this study to detect B. hominis from stool samples of patients attending our hospital. About 200 stool samples were tested by light microscopic examination, for observing wet mounts with saline and Lugol's iodine. Permanent staining of fecal smear by Gram's staining and modified acid fast staining was done. The stool sample which was microscopically positive for B. hominis was cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen's (LJ) medium. In one patient, the vacuolated form of B. hominis was observed in wet mount with saline preparation of stool sample. This was very clearly seen in wet mount with Lugol's iodine. In Gram's stained preparation, also the vacuolated form was observed. Detection of B. hominis was not possible by modified acid fast staining. B. hominis was also grown on LJ medium which is an egg-containing medium. Clinical microbiology laboratories should start screening of stool samples for B. hominis as it is an emerging pathogen. PMID:24169810

  16. Molecular diversity of Scottish Cryptosporidium hominis isolates.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A; Alexander, C L; Coyne, M; Brownlie, S; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L

    2015-04-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis is one of the most prevalent protozoan parasites to infect humans where transmission is via the consumption of infective oocysts. This study describes sporadic cases in addition to the molecular diversity of outbreak cases in Scotland using the glycoprotein-60 subtyping tool. From a total of 187 C. hominis isolates, 65 were subjected to further molecular analysis and 46 were found to be the common IbA10G2 subtype. Unusual subtypes included four isolates belonging to the Ia family (IaA14R3, n = 12; IaA14R2, n = 1; IaA9G3, n = 1; IaA25R3, n = 2), two from the Id family (IdA24, n = 1; IdA17, n = 1) and one belonging to the Ie family, namely IeA11G3T3. These data contribute significantly to our knowledge and understanding of the molecular diversity of C. hominis isolates from outbreak investigations involving Scottish residents which will be beneficial for the management of future outbreaks. PMID:25185671

  17. Mycoplasma bovis: disease, diagnosis, and control.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2003-04-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major, but often overlooked, pathogen causing respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. It is found worldwide and has spread into new areas, including Ireland and parts of South America, in the last decade. In Europe, it is responsible for at least a quarter to a third of all calf pneumonia although this may be an underestimate as few laboratories regularly monitor for mycoplasmas. Like all mollicutes, M. bovis is inherently refractory to certain groups of antibiotics because it does not possess a cell wall; furthermore evidence is accumulating that strains of M. bovis are becoming resistant to antibiotics, including tetracycline, tilmicosin and spectinomycin, traditionally used for their control. No vaccines are presently available for the control of M. bovis infections. PMID:12589733

  18. Use of polymerase chain reactions to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans, Mycoplasma iowae, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Lueschow, D; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Certain Mycoplasma spp. are pathogens of poultry, but little is known of the role of mycoplasmas in disease of birds of prey. Species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for the detection of the poultry pathogens Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans, Mycoplasma iowae, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae were therefore evaluated for use in birds of prey. The specificities of the PCR methods were established using avian and other mycoplasmas and also selected walled bacteria. The sensitivities of the different PCR assays varied between 100 fg and 10 pg DNA. Fifty-three tracheal swabs from healthy captive and free-ranging birds of prey were then investigated using these PCRs, and in no case was an amplicon obtained for M. gallisepticum/M. imitans, M. iowae or M. synoviae. Species-specific primers for M. meleagridis amplified a product from eight birds of prey but restriction enzyme analysis as well as sequencing of PCR products demonstrated these results to be false positives. Alignment studies of the sequenced products with the 16S rRNA gene sequence of various Mycoplasma species in GenBank demonstrated an identity of 91% to M. meleagridis but of 98% to Mycoplasma buteonis or Mycoplasma gallopavonis. Isolation and attempted identification of these mycoplasmas suggested it may be a previously unrecognized species. PMID:18661307

  19. Proposal for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.

    PubMed

    Harasawa, Ryô; Fujita, Hiromi; Kadosaka, Teruki; Ando, Shuji; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anaemia or splenomegaly in rodents. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes, rnpB and dnaK, in strains of the species M. haemomuris detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpB nucleotide sequences in strains of the species M. haemomuris isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89?% sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnaK had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 84?% between the subgroups. These results support the classification of M. haemomuris into two genetically distinct subgroups. Here we propose the establishment of these subgroups as 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi', detected in small field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti', detected in black rats (Rattus rattus). PMID:25406232

  20. Studies with Lectins on the Surface Carbohydrate Structures of Mycoplasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, Hans-Gerd; Gerhardt, Ursula; Brunner, Helmut; Krüpe, Martin

    1974-01-01

    The surface carbohydrate structures on the cell membranes of various mycoplasma species have been investigated by using lectins, which are sugar-specific proteins. Carbohydrate structures presumably bound to glycolipids, with both galactose and glucose units, were found to be exposed on the surface of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its temperature-sensitive mutants, M. mycoides var. mycoides and capri, M. pulmonis, M. gallinarum, and M. gallisepticum. Lipid-bound glucose was found on M. neurolyticum. The possible relationship of the lipid-bound surface carbohydrate groups to the known serological cross-reactions and lipid compositions of the various mycoplasma species is discussed. Intact Acholeplasma laidlawii and M. fermentans have no lectin-binding sites exposed on their surfaces; galactose groups were discovered only after Pronase digestion of the organisms, suggesting that their glycolipids are hidden under a protein layer. Neither intact nor Pronase-digested M. hominis reacted with the lectins; this is fully consistent with the lipid composition of this organism, which contains glycolipids. The lectins from Vicia cracca and Phaseolus vulgaris, which react with N-acetyl-galactosamine groups, agglutinated M. gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, M. mycoides var. capri, and M. pulmonis. The agglutinability was lost after Pronase treatment, indicating that the corresponding carbohydrates are presumably protein bound. They may be correlated with the extracellular structures observed by electron microscopy of both sectioned and negatively stained mycoplasma species. PMID:4138526

  1. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    PubMed

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections. PMID:7287398

  2. Dermatobia hominis myiasis among travelers returning from South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Tamir; Josef Haik; Arie Orenstein; Eli Schwartz

    2003-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis is the most common cause of myiasis in Central and South America, affecting mammals and humans, causing nonhealing furuncle-like lesions. During the years 1994 to 1999, 14 Israeli travelers returning from South America were diagnosed with D hominis myiasis. The approach consists of correct diagnosis and a proper removal of the larvae, after which the patients heal with

  3. Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Maier; Herbert Hönigsmann

    2004-01-01

    Myiasis is a common travel-associated dermatosis. Travelers to many parts of Central and South America are susceptible to infestation by Dermatobia hominis. Despite the common name of human botfly, D hominis infests a broad range of mammals and is a severe pest to economically important farm animals in endemic regions. The adult female does not lay the eggs on the

  4. Blastocystis hominis as a cause of hypoalbuminemia and anasarca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nassir; J. Awad; A. B. Abel; J. Khoury; M. Shay; F. Lejbkowicz

    2004-01-01

    The protozoan Blastocystis hominis has been considered nonpathogenic, but this classification has come under scrutiny in light of reports in the medical literature indicating it could be the cause of intestinal disorders and, in one case, hypoalbuminemia. Reported here is a severe case of infection with B. hominis that caused acute gastroenteritis with prolonged diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia and anasarca. The diagnosis

  5. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM HUMANS, HOMO SAPIENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on biological and molecular data, the species of Cryptosporidium infecting the intestine of humans is considered a new species for which the name Cryptosporidium hominis is proposed. The structure and infectivity of the oocysts of C. hominis from the feces of humans are described. Oocysts are ...

  6. The incidence of Mycoplasma dispar, Ureaplasma and conventional Mycoplasma in the pneumonic calf lung.

    PubMed Central

    Muenster, O A; Ose, E E; Matsuoka, T

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the incidence of Mycoplasma dispar, ureaplasma and conventional (large colony) mycoplasma isolated from the pneumonic lungs of groups of young calves and the identification to species level of mycoplasmas in mixed populations with the aid of the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Pneumonic lung tissue yielded one or more mycoplasma species from 88% of the 153 calves cultured. The mycoplasmas identified and percent of the calves with lungs positive for each species were: M. dispar (56%), ureaplasma (44%), Mycoplasma bovis (37%), Mycoplasma arginini (33%) and Mycoplasma bovirhinis (23%). Conventional mycoplasmas isolated from two calves (1%) could not be identified using the antisera available. PMID:398234

  7. Unusually low prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples from infertile men and healthy controls: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. Methods The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Results Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. Conclusions In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. PMID:25157184

  8. Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: two cases and a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Malani; D. M. Aronoff; S. F. Bradley; C. A. Kauffman

    2006-01-01

    Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species), is a rare cause of endocarditis. There are 61 reported cases of C. hominis infective endocarditis in the English-language literature, 15 of which involved prosthetic valve endocarditis. There is one reported case of C. hominis after

  9. Mycoplasma mobile sp. nov., a New Species from Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. KIRCHHOFF; P. BEYENE; M. FISCHER; J. FLOSSDORF; J. HEITMANN; B. KHATTAB; D. LOPATTA; R. ROSENGARTEN; G. SEIDEL; C. YOUSEF

    1987-01-01

    Mycoplasma strain 163K was isolated from the gills of a tench (Tinca tinca L.) with red disease. The cells are elongated, ovoid or flask shaped, consisting of a thicker body and a more slender part ending in a hemispherical terminal structure, that is apparently stabilized by a cytoskeleton. They are able to attach to inert surfaces and living cells. The

  10. A simplified PCR assay for fast and easy mycoplasma mastitis screening in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Hidetomo; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Takehiro; Obayashi, Tetsu; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Ito, Nobuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka; Nagahata, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for fast and easy screening of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle. Species of major mycoplasma strains [Mycoplasma (M.) bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens and M. canadense] in cultured milk samples were detected by this simplified PCR-based method as well as a standard PCR technique. The minimum concentration limit for detecting mycoplasma by the simplified PCR was estimated to be about 2.5 × 103 cfu/mL and was similar to that of the standard PCR. We compared the specificity and sensitivity of the simplified PCR to those of a culture method. Out of 1,685 milk samples cultured in mycoplasma broth, the simplified PCR detected Mycoplasma DNA in 152 that were also positive according to the culture assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the simplified PCR were 98.7% and 99.7%, respectively, for detecting mycoplasma in those cultures. The results obtained by the simplified PCR were consistent with ones from standard PCR. This newly developed simplified PCR, which does not require DNA purification, can analyze about 300 cultured samples within 3 h. The results from our study suggest that the simplified PCR can be used for mycoplasma mastitis screening in large-scale dairy farms. PMID:21586880

  11. A simplified PCR assay for fast and easy mycoplasma mastitis screening in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Takehiro; Obayashi, Tetsu; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Ito, Nobuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka; Nagahata, Hajime

    2011-06-01

    A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for fast and easy screening of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle. Species of major mycoplasma strains [Mycoplasma (M.) bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens and M. canadense] in cultured milk samples were detected by this simplified PCR-based method as well as a standard PCR technique. The minimum concentration limit for detecting mycoplasma by the simplified PCR was estimated to be about 2.5 × 10(3) cfu/mL and was similar to that of the standard PCR. We compared the specificity and sensitivity of the simplified PCR to those of a culture method. Out of 1,685 milk samples cultured in mycoplasma broth, the simplified PCR detected Mycoplasma DNA in 152 that were also positive according to the culture assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the simplified PCR were 98.7% and 99.7%, respectively, for detecting mycoplasma in those cultures. The results obtained by the simplified PCR were consistent with ones from standard PCR. This newly developed simplified PCR, which does not require DNA purification, can analyze about 300 cultured samples within 3 h. The results from our study suggest that the simplified PCR can be used for mycoplasma mastitis screening in large-scale dairy farms. PMID:21586880

  12. Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomics of Hemotrophic Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Timenetsky, Jorge; Messick, Joanne B.

    2014-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are a group of animal pathogens of the Mollicutes class. Recently, the genomes of 8 hemoplasmas have been completely sequenced. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of their genomic features and relationship to other Mycoplasma species. The genome structure and dynamics of hemoplasmas were analyzed by evaluating gene synteny, adaptive evolution of paralogous gene families (PGF) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The Mollicutes class was then phylogenetically analyzed by constructing a distance matrix of the 16S rRNA genes and a phylogenetic tree with 32 conserved, concatenated proteins. Our results suggest that the hemoplasmas have dynamic genomes. The genome size variation (from 547 to 1,545 genes) indicates substantial gene gain/loss throughout evolution. Poorly conserved gene syntenies among hemoplasmas, positional shuffling of paralogous genes between strains, HGT, and codons under positive selection in PGFs were also observed. When compared to other Mollicutes species, the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic reduction, and the 16S rRNA gene distance matrix of the available mollicutes suggests that these organisms presently constitute the most divergent clade within its class. Our phylogenetic tree of concatenated proteins showed some differences when compared to the 16S rRNA gene tree, but non-mycoplasma organisms, such as Ureaplasma spp. and Mesoplasma spp., continue to branch within Mycoplasma clades. In conclusion, while the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic shrinkage through gene loss, PGFs with positively selected codons are likely beneficial to these species. Phylogeny of the mollicutes based on 16S rRNA genes or concatenated proteins do not obey the current taxonomy. The metabolism and genetic diversity of the mollicutes, the presence of HGT, and lack of standard for genus circumscription are likely to hinder attempts to classify these organisms based on phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24642917

  13. Comparison of the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA Amplification Assay and Culture for Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Amy E.; Duffy, Lynn B.

    2014-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system, the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA amplification assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH) was evaluated to determine its analytical sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application in comparison to historic culture in a collection of archived respiratory specimens. The illumigene limit of detection was ?88 CFU/reaction for 10 Mycoplasma pneumoniae reference strains. This assay correctly identified 36 M. pneumoniae reference strains and clinical isolates from various geographic origins, including both of the main subtypes. No cross-reactions were detected with other mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, other bacterial species, viruses, yeasts, or human DNA. Among 214 respiratory specimens previously cultured for M. pneumoniae, when real-time PCR with bidirectional sequencing of the PCR products was used to resolve discrepancies, the sensitivity was 22 of 22 (100%) and the specificity was 190 of 192 (99%). This commercial LAMP assay is a useful rapid method for detecting M. pneumoniae in clinical specimens. Additional prospective clinical trials with direct comparison to culture and PCR are warranted. PMID:24430454

  14. Complexity of the Mycoplasma fermentans M64 Genome and Metabolic Essentiality and Diversity among Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Huang-I; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Shu, Hung-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Hu, Wensi S.; Ng, Wailap Victor

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the genomes of two Mycoplasma fermentans strains, namely M64 and JER, have been completely sequenced. Gross comparison indicated that the genome of M64 is significantly bigger than the other strain and the difference is mainly contributed by the repetitive sequences including seven families of simple and complex transposable elements ranging from 973 to 23,778 bps. Analysis of these repeats resulted in the identification of a new distinct family of Integrative Conjugal Elements of M. fermentans, designated as ICEF-III. Using the concept of “reaction connectivity”, the metabolic capabilities in M. fermentans manifested by the complete and partial connected biomodules were revealed. A comparison of the reported M. pulmonis, M. arthritidis, M. genitalium, B. subtilis, and E. coli essential genes and the genes predicted from the M64 genome indicated that more than 73% of the Mycoplasmas essential genes are preserved in M. fermentans. Further examination of the highly and partly connected reactions by a novel combinatorial phylogenetic tree, metabolic network, and essential gene analysis indicated that some of the pathways (e.g. purine and pyrimidine metabolisms) with partial connected reactions may be important for the conversions of intermediate metabolites. Taken together, in light of systems and network analyses, the diversity among the Mycoplasma species was manifested on the variations of their limited metabolic abilities during evolution. PMID:22509252

  15. The Phospholipid Profile of Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Kornspan, Jonathan D.; Rottem, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disaturated PC. Although their small genome, in some Mycoplasma species, other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis were detected, resulting in the synthesis of a variety of glycolipis, phosphoglycolipids and ether lipids. We suggest that analyses and comparisons of mycoplasma polar lipids may serve as a novel and useful tool for classification. Nonetheless, to evaluate the importance of polar lipids in mycoplasma, further systematic and extensive studies on more Mycoplasma species are needed. While studies are needed to elucidate the role of lipids in the mechanisms governing the interaction of mycoplasmas with host eukaryotic cells, the finding that a terminal phosphocholine containing glycolipids of M. fermentans serves both as a major immune determinants and as a trigger of the inflammatory responses, and the findings that the fusogenicity of M. fermentans with host cells is markedly stimulated by lyso-ether lipids, are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of M. fermentans pathogenicity. PMID:22848839

  16. [Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jia, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Lan; Xin, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Hong-Yin; Shi, Lin-Chun; Yao, Hui; Liu, Dong; Wu, Zhen-Hong

    2014-06-01

    In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method. PMID:25244745

  17. [An erysipelas revealing infection by Dermatobia hominis].

    PubMed

    Elsendoorn, A; Landron, C; Goudet, V; Pénin, G; Roblot, F

    2010-01-01

    Myiases are parasitic infections by larvae of flies. The development of intercontinental travels increases the incidence of tropical myiasis in travellers. We report the case of a patient, having recently stayed in Peru, presenting with an inflammatory plate of the right shoulder, covered with small papules with a hole inside. The initial aspect seemed like an erysipelas. Considering the resistance to the antibiotic treatment, the diagnosis of myiase was suspected. The local application of petroleum jelly allowed the exit of nine larvae of Dermatobia hominis and a fast good outcome. In human beings, the number of larvae usually infecting the same individual varies from one to four. This observation is original because of the number of implied larvae, which explains the intensity and the extent of the local inflammatory signs, which first looked like erysipelas. This diagnosis must be suspected in cases of erysipelas resistant to antibiotics in patients back from an endemic area. PMID:19362437

  18. Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, S; Francia, C; Persico, M C; La Vela, V

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe a case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in a 23-year-old Italian woman who contracted the infestation during a tour in Jamaica. The infestation was located on the back and was characterized clinically by a single inflammatory nodule. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica. PMID:20583696

  19. Sterol requirement of Mycoplasma capricolum.

    PubMed Central

    Odriozola, J M; Waitzkin, E; Smith, T L; Bloch, K

    1978-01-01

    Mycoplasmas require an external source of sterol for growth. For Mycoplasma capricolum this requirement is met not only by cholesterol but also by the methylcholestane derivatives lanosterol, cycloartenol, 4,4-dimethylcholesterol, and 4beta-methylcholestanol. Cholesteryl methyl ether and 3alpha-methylcholestanol serve equally well as sterol supplements. None of the growth-supporting sterol derivatives tested was metabolically modified. The unusual acceptance of diverse cholestane derivatives by a mycoplasma species contrasts with the structural attributes thought to be necessary for sterol function in eukaryotic membranes. PMID:279900

  20. The Recognition of a vlhA Protein from the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with Monoclonal Antibody 6F10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to identify the genes encoding M. gallisepticum F-strain surface proteins recognized by specific antibody reagents to characterize the individual role of each gene product in host colonization. Here we report the characterization of a 70-kDa surface protein recognized by ...

  1. Pasteurization of Discard Mycoplasma Mastitic Milk Used to Feed Calves: Thermal Effects on Various Mycoplasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Butler; S. A. Sickles; C. J. Johanns; R. F. Rosenbusch

    2000-01-01

    Discard milk from sick or antibiotic-treated cows is often used as an economical alternative to milk re- placer at dairy farms. This practice poses a health risk to calves if the discard milk is from cows with mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum, and Mycoplasma canadense are among the agents known to cause contagious mastitis in cattle and occasionally pneumonia,

  2. Evidence that UGA is read as a tryptophan codon rather than as a stop codon by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Inamine, J M; Ho, K C; Loechel, S; Hu, P C

    1990-01-01

    Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum, like Mycoplasma capricolum, contains both tRNA(UCA) and tRNA(CCA) genes, while Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium each appear to have only a tRNA(UCA) gene. Therefore, these mycoplasma species contain a tRNA with the anticodon UCA that can translate both UGA and UGG codons. PMID:2104612

  3. New Assay Procedure for Separation of Mycoplasmas from Virus Pools and Tissue Culture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zgorniak-Nowosielska, Izabella; Sedwick, W. David; Hummeler, Klaus; Koprowski, Hilary

    1967-01-01

    Presence of mycoplasma organisms in tissue culture systems and virus pools was detected by titration of the contaminated material on agarose-suspended BHK21/13S cells. The use of this method permitted isolation of mycoplasmas which could not be detected by standard assay methods. Mycoplasma colonies at concentrations ranging from 104 to 106 colony-forming units/ml in agarose-BHK21/13S media could be distinguished from virus plaques, and the two populations of microorganisms could be easily disassociated either by electron microscopy or by biological methods. All isolated mycoplasmas were identified in growth inhibition tests as belonging to the GDL group. The growth inhibition test on agarose-BHK21/13S cell suspension plates could also be applied directly to those strains which could not be isolated by standard assay procedures. Images PMID:4912246

  4. The Origin of the ‘Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster’ Coincides with Domestication of Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Anne; Shapiro, Beth; Muriuki, Cecilia; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ comprises the ruminant pathogens Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae the agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, Mycoplasma leachii and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. CBPP and CCPP are major livestock diseases and impact the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through reduced food-supply and international trade restrictions. In addition, these diseases are a threat to disease-free countries. We used a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach to gain insights into the demographic history of and phylogenetic relationships among the members of the ‘M. mycoides cluster’. We collected partial sequences from seven housekeeping genes representing a total of 3,816 base pairs from 118 strains within this cluster, and five strains isolated from wild Caprinae. Strikingly, the origin of the ‘M. mycoides cluster’ dates to about 10,000 years ago, suggesting that the establishment and spread of the cluster coincided with livestock domestication. In addition, we show that hybridization and recombination may be important factors in the evolutionary history of the cluster. PMID:22558362

  5. DNA repair in reduced genome: the Mycoplasma model.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Fonseca, Marbella Maria; Batistuzzo De Medeiros, Sílvia; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2005-11-01

    The occurrence of bacteria with a reduced genome, such as that found in Mycoplasmas, raises the question as to which genes should be enough to guarantee the genomic stability indispensable for the maintenance of life. The aim of this work was to compare nine Mycoplasma genomes in regard to DNA repair genes. An in silico analysis was done using six Mycoplasma species, whose genomes are accessible at GenBank, and M. synoviae, and two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, whose genomes were recently sequenced by The Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium and Southern Genome Investigation Program (Brazil) respectively. Considering this reduced genome model, our comparative analysis suggests that the DNA integrity necessary for life can be primarily maintained by nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is the only complete repair pathway. Furthermore, some enzymes involved with base excision repair (BER) and recombination are also present and can complement the NER activity. The absence of RecR and RecO-like ORFs was observed only in M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae, which can be involved with the conservation of gene order observed between these two species. We also obtained phylogenetic evidence for the recent acquisition of the ogt gene in M. pulmonis and M. penetrans by a lateral transference event. In general, the presence or nonexistence of repair genes is shared by all species analyzed, suggesting that the loss of the majority of repair genes was an ancestral event, which occurred before the divergence of the Mycoplasma species. PMID:16153783

  6. Increasing the value of hominy feed as a coproduct by fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hominy feed is a low value ($83.7/metric ton) coproduct of the corn dry milling process that accounts for nearly 35% of the starting corn quantity. The average composition of hominy feed on a dry basis is 56.9% starch, 25.2% neutral detergent fiber, 11.1% protein, and 5.3% fat. Starch in hominy fe...

  7. Identification of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Gene Sequences in Filtered Air in Hospital Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATS OLSSON; CHRISTER LIDMAN; SOPHIE LATOUCHE; ANDERS BJORKMAN; PATRICIA ROUX; EWERT LINDER; MATS WAHLGREN

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of a nosocomial spread of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis (P. carinii hominis), air filter samples from rooms of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) patients, adjacent corridors, and other hospital environ- ments have been investigated for the presence of P. carinii hominis. Amplified DNA from air filters and sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the PCP patients

  8. Comparative Susceptibilities of Various Animal-Pathogenic Mycoplasmas to Fluoroquinolones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. T. HANNAN; G. D. WINDSOR; A. DE JONG; N. SCHMEER; M. STEGEMANN

    The in vitro activities of six antimicrobial agents were tested against 162 mycoplasma strains of eight species isolated from poultry and livestock at different geographic sites. Tiamulin was most active (MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90s), 0.025 to 0.25 mg\\/ml); enrofloxacin and danofloxacin had near equiv- alent activities (MIC90s, 0.05 to 1.0 mg\\/ml), but were much

  9. Effects of 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccination Alone at Ten Weeks of Age or in Conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays at 22 or 45 Weeks of Age on the Reproductive and Digestive....Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum (6/85MG) vaccination alone or in conjunction with time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays on the gross reproductive and digestive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens...

  10. Functional Analysis of the Superfamily 1 DNA Helicases Encoded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Estevão, Silvia; van der Heul, Helga U.; Sluijter, Marcel; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hartwig, Nico G.; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Vink, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The DNA recombination and repair machinery of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is composed of a limited set of approximately 11 proteins. Two of these proteins were predicted to be encoded by neighboring open reading frames (ORFs) MPN340 and MPN341. Both ORFs were found to have sequence similarity with genes that encode proteins belonging to the DNA helicase superfamily 1 (SF1). Interestingly, while a homolog of the MPN341 ORF is present in the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium (ORF MG244), MPN340 is an M. pneumoniae-specific ORF that is not found in other mycoplasmas. Moreover, the length of MPN340 (1590 base pairs [bp]) is considerably shorter than that of MPN341 (2148 bp). Examination of the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence indicated that it may lack a so-called 2B subdomain, which is found in most SF1 DNA helicases. Also, the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence was found to differ between subtype 1 strain M129 and subtype 2 strain FH at three amino acid positions. Both protein variants, which were termed PcrAsM129 and PcrAsFH, respectively, as well as the MPN341- and MG244-encoded proteins (PcrAMpn and PcrAMge, respectively), were purified, and tested for their ability to interact with DNA. While PcrAMpn and PcrAMge were found to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA, both PcrAsM129 and PcrAsFH did not demonstrate significant DNA binding. However, all four proteins were found to have divalent cation- and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity. The proteins displayed highest activity on partially double-stranded DNA substrates carrying 3? single-stranded extensions. PMID:23894687

  11. Functional analysis of the superfamily 1 DNA helicases encoded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Estevão, Silvia; van der Heul, Helga U; Sluijter, Marcel; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hartwig, Nico G; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Vink, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The DNA recombination and repair machinery of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is composed of a limited set of approximately 11 proteins. Two of these proteins were predicted to be encoded by neighboring open reading frames (ORFs) MPN340 and MPN341. Both ORFs were found to have sequence similarity with genes that encode proteins belonging to the DNA helicase superfamily 1 (SF1). Interestingly, while a homolog of the MPN341 ORF is present in the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium (ORF MG244), MPN340 is an M. pneumoniae-specific ORF that is not found in other mycoplasmas. Moreover, the length of MPN340 (1590 base pairs [bp]) is considerably shorter than that of MPN341 (2148 bp). Examination of the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence indicated that it may lack a so-called 2B subdomain, which is found in most SF1 DNA helicases. Also, the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence was found to differ between subtype 1 strain M129 and subtype 2 strain FH at three amino acid positions. Both protein variants, which were termed PcrA(s) M129 and PcrA(s) FH, respectively, as well as the MPN341- and MG244-encoded proteins (PcrA Mpn and PcrA Mge , respectively), were purified, and tested for their ability to interact with DNA. While PcrA Mpn and PcrA Mge were found to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA, both PcrA(s) M129 and PcrA(s) FH did not demonstrate significant DNA binding. However, all four proteins were found to have divalent cation- and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity. The proteins displayed highest activity on partially double-stranded DNA substrates carrying 3' single-stranded extensions. PMID:23894687

  12. Subacute bacterial endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Davie; Carson, Julie; Johnson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group of organisms, is an uncommon but important cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis. First-line therapy is a third-generation cephalosporin due to rare beta-lactamase production. The authors report a case involving endovascular infection due to C hominis that initially tested resistant to third-generation cephalosporins using an antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility method (nitrocephin negative), but later proved to be susceptible using broth microdilution reference methods (a ‘major’ error). There are limited studies to guide susceptibility testing and interpretive breakpoints for C hominis in the medical literature, and the present case illustrates some of the issues that may arise when performing susceptibility testing for fastidious organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25798154

  13. [Update on Dermatobia hominis: South American furuncular myiasis].

    PubMed

    Clyti, E; Pages, F; Pradinaud, R

    2008-02-01

    Furuncular myiasis is an infestation of the skin caused by Dermatobia hominis larvae known as "ver macaque" in French Guyana, "berne" in Brazil, "torsalo" in Colombia, or "human botfly" in English-language literature. It has identical features in man and domestic mammals. The primary lesion consists of a boil-like inflammatory papule with a central punctum exuding a serosanguinous discharge. The respiratory sinus of the D. hominis larvae may be visible through the punctum. Myiasis secondary to D. hominis accounts for 10% of imported tropical dermatosis observed in Paris. Diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered in any patient with a history of travel or residence in an endemic area. Treatment depends mainly on mechanical removal that may be facilitated by injection of lidocaine into the lesion or prior application of a 1% solution of ivermectin. PMID:18478762

  14. Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Toxicity by a Catalase from Mycoplasma iowae

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Rachel E.; Prassinos, Alexandre J.; Osborne, John D.; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute. PMID:25127127

  15. Infection with Cryptosporidium hominis provides incomplete protection of the host against Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Abhineet; Wiffin, Anthony; Widmer, Giovanni; Singh, Pradeep; Tzipori, Saul

    2012-03-15

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, which infect humans equally, are genetically/antigenically almost identical. It remains unclear, however, whether infection with C. hominis protects against C. parvum. Gnotobiotic piglets were used to investigate cross-protection. After ?3 days of recovery from C. hominis infection, the piglets were completely protected against subsequent challenge with C. hominis but only partially against challenge with C. parvum, as compared with age-matched control animals challenged with either species. In conclusion, C. hominis-specific immunity was sufficient to completely protect against challenge with the same species but insufficient to provide the same level of protection against C. parvum. PMID:22279124

  16. [Possibilities of differenciating mycoplasma serologically and by protein analysis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blenk, H; Junge, W; Hofstetter, A; Braun, B

    1975-06-13

    The problem of serological differentiation of the various mycoplasma strains and their demarcation from the L-phase variants of bacteria are based on the fact that it is difficult to obtain highly purified antisera which are only directed towards the cell membrane. For this reason an attempt was made by means of diselectrophoresis to determine the plasma and membrane proteins of various mycoplasma strains and L-phase variants and to evaluate them from differential diagnostic point of view. The results suggest that an unequivocal and rational differentiation is possible by this method of examination. PMID:817130

  17. Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

  18. Liquid-Based Urine Cytology as a Tool for Detection of Human Papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The ?-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis. PMID:22135257

  19. High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of obg Gene to Differentiate the Temperature-Sensitive Mycoplasma synoviae Vaccine Strain MS-H from Non-Temperature-Sensitive Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Muhammad A.; Markham, Philip F.; Marenda, Marc S.; Agnew-Crumpton, Rebecca; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive (ts+) vaccine strain MS-H is the only live attenuated M. synoviae vaccine commercially available for use in poultry. With increasing use of this vaccine to control M. synoviae infections, differentiation of MS-H from field M. synoviae strains and from rarely occurring non-temperature-sensitive (ts–) MS-H revertants has become important, especially in countries where local strains are indistinguishable from MS-H by sequence analysis of variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the obg of MS-H have been found to associate with ts phenotype. In this study, four PCRs followed by high-resolution melting (HRM)-curve analysis of the regions encompassing these SNPs were developed and evaluated for their potential to differentiate MS-H from 36 M. synoviae strains/isolates. The nested-obg PCR-HRM differentiated ts+ MS-H vaccine not only from field M. synoviae strains/isolates but also from ts– MS-H revertants. The mean genotype confidence percentages, 96.9±3.4 and 8.8±11.2 for ts+ and ts– strains, respectively, demonstrated high differentiating power of the nested-obg PCR-HRM. Using a combination of nested-obg and obg-F3R3 PCR-HRM, 97% of the isolates/strains were typed according to their ts phenotype with all MS-H isolates typed as MS-H. A set of respiratory swabs from MS-H vaccinated specific pathogen free chickens and M. synoviae infected commercial chicken flocks were tested using obg PCR-HRM system and results were consistent with those of vlhA genotyping. The PCR-HRM system developed in this study, proved to be a rapid and reliable tool using pure M. synoviae cultures as well as direct clinical specimens. PMID:24643035

  20. Lipids of a Sterol-Nonrequiring Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, P.; Smith, P. F.; Mayberry, W. R.

    1970-01-01

    The lipids of the sterol nonrequiring Mycoplasma strain S743 were found to include both ester glycerophosphatides (phosphatidylglycerol, acylphosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol) and ceramide glycerophosphate compounds containing N-hydroxyacyl groups. The major phosphosphingolipid was tentatively identified as a hydroxyceramidephosphorylglycerol containing an O-acyl group. These compounds became labeled during growth in the presence of 32P-orthophosphate, 14C-glycerol, or 14C-palmitate. The lipid fraction also contained free long-chain base. 14C-palmitate was converted to labeled sphinganine. The long-chain base composition of the lipids was modified by growing the organisms in media containing different fatty acids, which were converted to bases containing two more C atoms per molecule. Ninety per cent of the long-chain base from cells grown in medium supplemented with elaidate consisted of monounsaturated C20 base. Images PMID:5489436

  1. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408 Section 113.408 Animals...STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall...

  2. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408 Section 113.408 Animals...STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 ...Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  4. 21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma detection media and components. 864.2360 Section...Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma detection media and components are used to detect...

  5. Applying network theory epidemics: Control measures for outbreaks Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    E-print Network

    Newman, Mark

    Applying network theory epidemics: Control measures for outbreaks Mycoplasma pneumoniae Lauren W, Atlanta, Georgia #12; Abstract Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause bacterial pneumonia the United wards. Analysis this contact network predicts that despite relatively prevalence of mycoplasma pneumonia

  6. Adherence of Mycoplasma bovis to bovine bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Sachse, K; Farnir, F; Dizier, I; Mainil, J; Linden, A

    2003-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is responsible for considerable economic losses in cattle due to pneumonia, arthritis and mastitis. As the agent was shown to be capable of adhering to neutrophils and embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells and invading the respiratory epithelium it is highly desirable to improve our understanding of cytadherence processes. Although several surface proteins likely to be directly involved in this initial stage of interaction between pathogen and host cells have been identified, these findings mainly referred to type strain PG45 adhering to the continuous EBL cell line. The present study provides new and complementary data about cytadherence of M. bovis based on adherence of various radiolabeled strains to a primary culture of bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells using a standardized adherence assay. M. bovis was shown to adhere specifically to the primary culture of BBE cells. Inhibition of adherence was observed upon addition of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), trypsin treatment of mycoplasmas, and competition with non-radiolabeled mycoplasma cells. Interestingly, three MAbs against proteins involved in adherence to EBL cells failed to inhibit significantly the adherence to BBE cells. On the other hand, significant reduction of adherence rates by MAbs 2A8 and 9F1 directed against epitopes of variable surface lipoproteins VspC and VspF, respectively, demonstrated the involvement of these proteins in adherence of M. bovis to primary culture of BBE cells. PMID:12631475

  7. A sebaceous cyst with a difference: Dermatobia hominis

    PubMed Central

    Harbin, L J; Khan, M; Thompson, E M; Goldin, R D

    2002-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis causes furuncular myiasis and is endemic to South America. This report describes a case in a young woman who had recently visited Belize, highlighting the importance of clinical history (including travel history) and close liaison between pathologist and surgeon. PMID:12354816

  8. Cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobium hominis in Winnipeg

    PubMed Central

    Musto, David J; Murray, Kenneth A

    2003-01-01

    Cutaneous myiasis is an uncommon infestation in North America, with most cases arising in travelers who have recently returned from Central and South America. The majority of cases are due to Dermatobium hominis and present with a furunculoid nodule with local inflammation. The case reported is of a 57-year-old woman with cutaneous myiasis contracted in Winnipeg, Manitoba. PMID:24115849

  9. FURUNCULAR MYIASIS CAUSED BY DERMATOBIA HOMINIS IN A RETURNING TRAVELER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAMANATH BHANDARI; DAVID P. JANOS; PHOTINI SINNIS

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis is endemic throughout Central and South America. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a traveler returned from Costa Rica. The case is unique because the primary care physician obtained magnetic resonance images. The images, however, do not show any characteristic features that assist in diagnosis. Myiasis is defined as infestation of a

  10. Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in a returning traveler.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramanath; Janos, David P; Sinnis, Photini

    2007-03-01

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis is endemic throughout Central and South America. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a traveler returned from Costa Rica. The case is unique because the primary care physician obtained magnetic resonance images. The images, however, do not show any characteristic features that assist in diagnosis. PMID:17360891

  11. FURUNCULAR MYIASIS CAUSED BY DERMATOBIA HOMINIS IN A RETURNING TRAVELER

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ramanath; Janos, David P.; Sinnis, Photini

    2007-01-01

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis is endemic throughout Central and South America. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a traveler returned from Costa Rica. The case is unique because the primary care physician obtained magnetic resonance images. The images, however, do not show any characteristic features that assist in diagnosis. PMID:17360891

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of Dermatobia hominis reveals cutaneous anchoring features.

    PubMed

    Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Mempel, Martin; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Engst, Reinhard; Ring, Johannnes; Behrendt, Heidrun

    2007-10-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from cutaneous myiasis. With the use of scanning electron microscopy, we placed special focus on the mechanisms by which Dermatobia hominis can fasten securely within the human skin. PMID:17599666

  13. Dermatobia hominis in the accident and emergency department: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A MacNamara; S Durham

    1997-01-01

    An unusual form of larval infestation from South America is presented which, in view of increasing tourism to South america's tropical areas, may present to any accident and emergency department. Infestation with Dermatobia hominis is reviewed in terms of clinical recognition and life cycle. Techniques of removal are described.

  14. Defense reactions of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) larval hemocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA CAROLINA FARALDO; EDY LELLO

    The defense reactions against biological (Histoplasma capsulatum and Escherichia coli) and non-biological materials (China ink and nylon thread) were tested in vivo in third instar larvae of Dermatobia hominis. The cellular defense performed by larval hemocytes was observed under electron microscopy. China ink particles were phagocytosed by granular cells 5 h after injection. E. coli cells were internalized by granu-

  15. A sebaceous cyst with a difference: Dermatobia hominis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Harbin; M Khan; E M Thompson; R D Goldin

    2002-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis causes furuncular myiasis and is endemic to South America. This report describes a case in a young woman who had recently visited Belize, highlighting the importance of clinical history (including travel history) and close liaison between pathologist and surgeon.

  16. In vitro response of Blastocystis hominis against traditional Chinese medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Q. Yang; Mulkit Singh; E. H. Yap; G. C. Ng; H. X. Xu; K. Y. Sim

    1996-01-01

    This is the first in vitro study on the activity of 20 kinds of crude extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the intestinal parasite, Blastocystis hominis using the criteria of living cell count (LCC) and living cell rate (LCR). LCC and LCR were applied as observation indicators, the former as a fixed-quantity and the latter as a fixed-quality method.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibilities of recent isolates of Mycoplasma bovis in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Nicolas, C; Dizier, I; Mainil, J; Linden, A

    2003-10-01

    The susceptibilities of 40 recent Belgian field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis to 10 antimicrobial agents were assessed. Tiamulin was the most active antimicrobial agent against M bovis, with an initial inhibitory concentration (IIC50) of 0.06 microg/ml, but it is not licensed for the treatment of cattle. All three fluoroquinolones tested (danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin) were effective against strains of M bovis, and had a minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC50) less than or equal to 1 microg/ml. Gentamicin was poorly effective, having an IIC50 of 8 microg/ml. Many strains of M bovis were resistant to tylosin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. PMID:14582732

  18. Mycoplasma agassizii sp., nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Mary E.; Brown, D.R.; Kelin, P.A.; McLaughlin, G.S.; Schumacher, I.M.; Jacobson, E.R.; Adams, H.P.; Tully, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (=ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises.

  19. Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040 is a Mg2+-Dependent, Sugar-Nonspecific SNase Recognised by the Host Humoral Response during Natural Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cacciotto, Carla; Addis, Maria Filippa; Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Carcangiu, Laura; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Tore, Gessica; Dore, Gian Mario; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Uzzau, Sergio; Chessa, Bernardo; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Recombinant GST-MAG_5040 exhibits nuclease activity similar to typical sugar-nonspecific endo- and exonucleases, with DNA as the preferred substrate and optimal activity in the presence of 20 mM MgCl2 at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45°C. According to in silico analyses, the position of the gene encoding MAG_5040 is consistently located upstream an ABC transporter, in most sequenced mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma hominis group. In M. agalactiae, MAG_5040 is transcribed in a polycistronic RNA together with the ABC transporter components and with MAG_5030, which is predicted to be a sugar solute binding protein by 3D modeling and homology search. In a natural model of sheep and goats infection, anti-MAG_5040 antibodies were detected up to 9 months post infection. Taking into account its enzymatic activity, MAG_5040 could play a key role in Mycoplasma agalactiae survival into the host, contributing to host pathogenicity. The identification of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives for the development of suitable tools for the control of contagious agalactia in small ruminants. PMID:23469065

  20. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture. PMID:23508237

  1. Membrane-associated and cytosolic species-specific antigens of Mycoplasma bovis recognized by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rasberry, U; Rosenbusch, R F

    1995-10-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a causative agent of bovine mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against M. bovis were prepared and used to characterize specific antigens of the mycoplasma. Reactivity of the MAbs to six M. bovis strains was tested by IFA, ELISA, and immunoblotting. The specificity of these MAbs was tested by the same methods against 8 other species of bovine mycoplasmas and 1 mycoplasma species of sheep and goats (Mycoplasma agalactiae) that is highly cross-reactive with M. bovis. Three of the MAbs were used on Western blots of trypsin-treated whole organisms to determine if the antigens were exposed on the surface of M. bovis By isotyping, MAbs were identified as kappa chain IgG1 (3 MAbs), and IgM (3MAbs). The MAbs reacted with all six M. bovis strains in IFA, ELISA, and Western blots. Four of the antigens recognized were highly specific for M. bovis in ELISA, and 3 were cross-reactive with M. agalactiae or other bovine mycoplasmas in Western blots. One MAb reacted with multiple bands with all M. bovis strains, indicating recognition of a size-variant antigen. The size-variant antigen and one of the M. bovis-specific antigens were recognized as surface proteins. A large M. bovis-specific antigen was a conserved cytosolic protein. The M. bovis antigens discovered may be used for specific detection of the organism or measurement of antibody responses, particularly if used in tests with nondenatured alkali-treated antigen, such as ELISA. PMID:8575797

  2. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lawrence K; Muller, Fredrick J; Wedam, Michael L; Schneider, Christopher S; Biddle, Mary Kate

    2008-11-01

    Findings of herd investigations of heifers with prepubertal mastitis are presented. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from lacteal secretions and tissue samples of necropsied heifers; the same strain infected dams and herd mates. Vertical transmission is suggested in this first report of intramammary infections of M. bovis in peripubertal heifers. PMID:19183734

  3. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lawrence K.; Muller, Fredrick J.; Wedam, Michael L.; Schneider, Christopher S.; Biddle, Mary Kate

    2008-01-01

    Findings of herd investigations of heifers with prepubertal mastitis are presented. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from lacteal secretions and tissue samples of necropsied heifers; the same strain infected dams and herd mates. Vertical transmission is suggested in this first report of intramammary infections of M. bovis in peripubertal heifers. PMID:19183734

  4. INDUCTION OF A MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM PMGA GENE IN THE CHICKEN TRACHEAL RING ORGAN CULTURE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To search for Mycoplasma gallisepticum genes involved in colonization of the poultry respiratory tract, a transposon containing a promoterless lacZ gene was employed as a transcriptional reporter. The transposon was used to randomly mutagenize the chromosome of the M. gallisepticum S6 strain and a ...

  5. An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

  6. Vaccines for Mycoplasma diseases in animals and man.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D; McAuliffe, L

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines for important mycoplasma diseases, including contagious bovine and caprine pleuropneumonia, have been used for centuries, consisting mainly of infected tissue or fluids which are inoculated into sites at which the risk of severe infection is slight, such as the tail and bridge of the nose. Surprisingly, little progress has been made in developing safe, defined and protective alternatives, the vaccines today still consisting of mildly attenuated strains serially passaged in eggs or in culture. Ill-defined temperature-sensitive mutants are widely used for mycoplasmoses in poultry despite uncertainty about their mode of protection. Inactivated vaccines for enzootic pneumonia appear to have improved pig health worldwide, but disease reduction has been generally modest. Ironically, attempts to develop subunit preparations have often led to exacerbation of disease, particularly in human atypical pneumonia. Promising results have been seen in DNA vaccine technology, which has been applied to the development of mycoplasma vaccines for porcine enzootic pneumonia, but field trials still seem a long way off. No commercial vaccines exist for Mycoplasma bovis, despite evidence that this is a major cause of calf pneumonia, mastitis and arthritis. PMID:19111314

  7. Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

    1998-01-01

    The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are able to stimulate as well as suppress lymphocytes in a nonspecific, polyclonal manner, both in vitro and in vivo. As well as to affecting various subsets of lymphocytes, mycoplasmas and mycoplasma-derived cell components modulate the activities of monocytes/macrophages and NK cells and trigger the production of a wide variety of up-regulating and down-regulating cytokines and chemokines. Mycoplasma-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6, by macrophages and of up-regulating cytokines by mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes plays a major role in mycoplasma-induced immune system modulation and inflammatory responses. PMID:9841667

  8. Blastocystis hominis infection in long-term care facilities in Taiwan: prevalence and associated clinical factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Hsiung Su; Fang-Yeh Chu; Chung-Yi Li; Hui-Fei Tang; Yu-Shiang Lin; Yu-Ju Peng; Yih-Ming Su; Shyh-Dye Lee

    2009-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is probably the most common protozoan found in the human gut worldwide. In Taiwan, the prevalence of B. hominis infection is yet to be determined but is expected to be relatively higher among foreign workers. No data is available on\\u000a the prevalence of B. hominis infection in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. This study included 713 subjects (552

  9. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies). PMID:11570280

  10. Cytoadherence-dependent induction of inflammatory responses by Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takashi; Kida, Yutaka; Kuwano, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is considered to be in part attributed to excessive immune responses. Mycoplasma pneumoniae shows strong cytoadherence to host cells and this cytoadherence is thought to be involved in the progression of pneumonia. However, the interaction between the cytoadherence and the immune responses is not known in detail. In this study, we demonstrated that the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the human monocyte cell line THP-1 is dependent on the property of cytoadherence of M. pneumoniae. A wild-type strain of M. pneumoniae with cytoadherence ability induced pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Whereas, heat-killed M. pneumoniae and cytoadherence-deficient mutants of M. pneumoniae caused significantly less production of pro-inflammatory cytokines than the wild-type strain. The wild-type strain induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in an endocytosis-independent manners, but the induction by heat-killed M. pneumoniae and cytoadherence-deficient mutants was dependent on endocytosis. Moreover, the wild-type strain induced caspase-1 production and ATP efflux, promoting the maturation of IL-1? and release of the pro-IL-1? precursor, whereas heat-killed M. pneumoniae and the cytoadherence-deficient mutants failed to induce them. These data suggest that the cytoadherence ability of M. pneumoniae activates immune responses and is involved in the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:21320122

  11. Dermatobia hominis: Small Migrants Hidden in Your Skin.

    PubMed

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Viligiardi, Riccardo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of vertebrate animal tissues due to maggots of two-winged flies (Diptera) that feed on living or necrotic tissue. Dermatobia hominis occurs widely in tropical parts of Latin America; it is the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in this region. The continuous increase in international travel has increased the possibility of observing this pathology outside endemic countries, especially in travelers returning from the tropics. If clinicians are aware of the possibility of the disease and its treatment options, this dermatosis can be easily managed. However, diagnostic delay is very common because the disease is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial skin infection. Here, we report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis caused by D. hominis in travelers returning to Italy from Latin America. Surgical and noninvasive treatment approaches are also described. PMID:25324659

  12. Dermatobia hominis: Small Migrants Hidden in Your Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Viligiardi, Riccardo; Strohmeyer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of vertebrate animal tissues due to maggots of two-winged flies (Diptera) that feed on living or necrotic tissue. Dermatobia hominis occurs widely in tropical parts of Latin America; it is the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in this region. The continuous increase in international travel has increased the possibility of observing this pathology outside endemic countries, especially in travelers returning from the tropics. If clinicians are aware of the possibility of the disease and its treatment options, this dermatosis can be easily managed. However, diagnostic delay is very common because the disease is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial skin infection. Here, we report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis caused by D. hominis in travelers returning to Italy from Latin America. Surgical and noninvasive treatment approaches are also described. PMID:25324659

  13. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis endophthalmitis following cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jun Yeon; Kim, Moosang

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis, treated at our hospital. An 80-year-old male presented 2 days after uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, with a 24-hour history of progressive visual loss and redness in the operated (right) eye. On examination, best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. Anterior segment examination revealed conjunctival injection, chemosis, corneal edema, and hypopyon. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitreous opacification, but no retinal detachment. Acute postoperative endophthalmitis was diagnosed. We performed vitrectomy with vancomycin in the irrigating solution, intraocular lens removal, and silicone oil tamponade. Culture of the vitreous grew Staphylococcus hominis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed the isolate was sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and teicoplanin but resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, cefazolin, and vancomycin. At 3 months, the visual acuity of the silicone oil-treated eye was 20/400. PMID:23818754

  14. In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae by PCR.

    PubMed

    Chávez González, Y R; Ros Bascuñana, C; Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Fernández Molina, C; Johansson, K E

    1995-11-01

    Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae are two very closely related species which cause mastitis in cows and goats, respectively. M. bovis can also cause arthritis and respiratory disease in cattle. It has recently been shown that the 16S rRNA sequences differ only in 8 nucleotide positions between the two species [J.G. Mattsson, B. Guss and K.-E. Johansson (1994) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 115: 325-328]. These nucleotide differences are distributed over the molecule in such a way that it is difficult to design specific identification systems, based on PCR only, for M. bovis and M. agalactiae. Two different PCR systems based on 16S rRNA sequence data have, however, been designed for these two species. The forward primers were identical in the two systems and complementary to a segment of the evolutionarily variable region V2. The reverse primers were complementary to the variable region V6, in which there are two nucleotide differences between M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The size of the PCR products, generated with these primers, was 360 bp. Cross-amplification was obtained with the two species in the heterologous PCR systems, but with approximately a 100-fold lower efficiency. Cross-amplification was not obtained with any other bovine or caprine mycoplasma except for Mycoplasma sp. strain A1343 of the caprine group 7. The detection limit of the PCR system for M. bovis with a reference culture was 4 x 10(2) CFU/ml and of the PCR system for M. agalactiae 2 x 10(2) CFU/ml. The M. bovis-PCR system was used to analyze nasal samples of calves from a herd where an outbreak of pneumonia had occured and it proved possible to detect M. bovis in these samples. PMID:8604550

  15. Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Maunsell, F P; Woolums, A R; Francoz, D; Rosenbusch, R F; Step, D L; Wilson, D J; Janzen, E D

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen causing respiratory disease, otitis media, arthritis, mastitis, and a variety of other diseases in cattle worldwide. It is increasingly recognized by the veterinary and livestock communities as having an important impact on the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy and beef cattle. M. bovis diseases can be difficult to diagnose and control because of inconsistent disease expression and response to treatments and vaccines, and large gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these diseases. There are limited data on which to base evidence-based decisions for treatment and control, and the literature contains differing clinical biases and opinions. This document is intended for veterinarians dealing with cattle and is focused on the cattle production systems of North America. The goal of the consensus statement panel was to encourage an evidence-based approach to M. bovis problems. The scientific literature was critically reviewed, including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews obtained by database searches using the terms "Mycoplasma bovis" or "mycoplasma + cattle." Where other data were lacking, conference proceedings were reviewed as a source of expert opinion. PMID:21745245

  16. Molecular Methods for the Detection of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M.; Glass, John I.

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques. PMID:22819362

  17. Comparative Genomics of Mycoplasma: Analysis of Conserved Essential Genes and Diversity of the Pan-Genome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Fang, Liurong; Li, Mao; Li, Sha; Guo, Shaohua; Luo, Rui; Feng, Zhixin; Li, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Shao, Guoqing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages. PMID:22536428

  18. Efficacy of abamectin injection against Dermatobia hominis in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Cruz; C. Benitez-Usher; L. G. Cramer; S. J. Gross; A. B. Kohn

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of abamectin 1%, when injected subcutancously in cattle at a dose of 200 µg\\/kg body weight, against the larval stages (grubs) of the flyDermatobia hominis was evaluated in two trials in endemic areas of Brazil and Argentina. Eighteen Holstein x Brahman castrated males and 16 Brahman-cross with natural infestations were used. Larvae were counted by instar in situ

  19. Sebaceous cysts with unpleasant twists: cutaneous myiasis with Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M; O'Shearn, M K

    2013-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis (human Bot fly) causes furuncular myiasis (larval infection) in Central and South America. This report describes a case in a member of the UK Armed Forces who had recently taken part in an overseas training exercise in Belize. The importance of clinical history (including travel history) is highlighted. We also describe the outcomes of conservative treatment and surgical intervention for separate lesions in the same patient. PMID:24079201

  20. Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...

  1. Mycoplasma neophronis sp. nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pérez, A; Ramírez, A S; Rosales, R S; Calabuig, P; Poveda, C; Rosselló-Móra, R; Nicholas, R A J; Poveda, J B

    2012-06-01

    Six strains with the typical characteristics of mycoplasmas were isolated from the tracheae of six Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis). The results of biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies showed that the isolates were nearly identical and that they could be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Mycoplasma. Colonies possessed the typical fried-egg appearance and electron micrographs revealed a pleomorphic cellular morphology with the lack of a cell wall. The isolates hydrolysed arginine and required sterol for growth but did not ferment glucose or hydrolyse urea. We propose that the isolates be assigned to a novel species,Mycoplasma neophronis sp. nov. The type strain is G.A.(T) ( = DSM 24097(T) = ATCC BAA-2157(T)). The antiserum of strain G.A.(T) has been deposited in the Mollicutes collection at Purdue University (Indiana, USA). PMID:21828019

  2. Clinical report of Blastocystis hominis infection in children.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M; Daoud, A S; Pugh, R N; al-Ali, F; al-Mutairi, G; al-Saleh, Q

    1991-04-01

    During a 9-month hospital-based survey, the intestinal parasite Blastocystis hominis was detected in high numbers (five or more organisms per oil immersion field) in faecal specimens from 39 (2%) of 1960 children under 13 years old. Abdominal pain or discomfort with or without diarrhoea was present in 32 children categorized as acute (14), subacute (7) or chronic (11) cases with respective mean ages of 6.4, 7.3 and 8.7 years. They included three with other enteropathogens (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp. or Hymenolepis nana). The remaining seven children had no gastrointestinal symptoms. The 14 acute cases (symptoms duration 1-11 days) were characterized by cramp-like abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea and vomiting. The seven subacute (3-4 weeks) and 11 chronic (3-12 months) cases presented with abdominal discomfort and/or loose non-watery stools. Four complained of flatus and eosinophilia was noted in six. All symptoms resolved with eradication of B. hominis or reduction to low numbers after metronidazole chemotherapy (28 cases) or with no treatment (four cases). This study would appear to support the role of the parasite as an enteropathogen in some children. A case control study is clearly needed to clarify the status of B. hominis as a pathogen. PMID:2023289

  3. The genus Spiroplasma and its non-helical descendants: phylogenetic classification, correlation with phenotype and roots of the Mycoplasma mycoides clade.

    PubMed

    Gasparich, Gail E; Whitcomb, Robert F; Dodge, Deborah; French, Frank E; Glass, John; Williamson, David L

    2004-05-01

    The genus Spiroplasma (helical mollicutes: Bacteria: Firmicutes: Mollicutes: Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae) is associated primarily with insects. The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster (sensu Weisburg et al. 1989 and Johansson and Pettersson 2002) is a group of mollicutes that includes the type species - Mycoplasma mycoides - of Mycoplasmatales, Mycoplasmataceae and Mycoplasma. This cluster, associated solely with ruminants, contains five other species and subspecies. Earlier phylogenetic reconstructions based on partial 16S rDNA sequences and a limited sample of Spiroplasma and Mycoplasma sequences suggested that the genus Mycoplasma was polyphyletic, as the M. mycoides cluster and the grouping that consisted of the hominis and pneumoniae groups of Mycoplasma species were widely separated phylogenetically and the M. mycoides cluster was allied with Spiroplasma. It is shown here that the M. mycoides cluster arose from Spiroplasma through an intermediate group of non-helical spiroplasmal descendants - the Entomoplasmataceae. As this conclusion has profound implications in the taxonomy of Mollicutes, a detailed phylogenetic study of Spiroplasma and its non-helical descendants was undertaken. These analyses, done with maximum-parsimony, provide cladistic status; a new nomenclature is introduced here, based on 'bottom-up' rather than 'top-down' clade classification. The order Entomoplasmatales consists of four major clades: (i) the Mycoides-Entomoplasmataceae clade, which contains M. mycoides and its allies and Entomoplasma and Mesoplasma species and is a sister lineage to (ii) the Apis clade of Spiroplasma. Spiroplasma and the Entomoplasmataceae are paraphyletic, but this status does not diminish their phylogenetic usefulness. Five species that were previously unclassified phylogenetically are basal to the Apis clade sensu strictu and to the Mycoides clade. One of these species, Spiroplasma sp. TIUS-1, has very poor helicity and a very small genome (840 kbp); this putative species can be envisioned as a 'missing link' in the evolution of the Mycoides-Entomoplasmataceae clade. The other two Spiroplasma clades are: (iii) the Citri-Chrysopicola-Mirum clade (serogroups I, II, V and VIII) and (iv) the ixodetis clade (serogroup VI). As Mesoplasma lactucae represents a basal divergence within the Mycoides-Entomoplasmataceae clade, and as Entomoplasma freundtii is basal to the Mycoides clade, M. mycoides and its allies must have arisen from an ancestor in the Entomoplasmataceae. The paraphyletic grouping that consists of the Hominis and Pneumoniae groups (sensu Johansson & Pettersson 2002) of Mycoplasma species contains the ancestral roots of Ureaplasma spp. and haemoplasmas. This clade is a sister lineage to the Entomoplasmatales clade. Serological classifications of spiroplasma are very highly supported by the trees presented. Genome size and G+C content of micro-organismal DNA were moderately conserved, but there have been frequent and polyphyletically distributed genome reductions. Sterol requirements were polyphyletic, as was the ability to grow in the presence of polyoxyethylene sorbitan-supplemented, but not serum-supplemented, media. As this character is not phylogenetically distributed, Mesoplasma and Entomoplasma should be combined into a single genus. The phylogenetic trees presented here confirm previous reports of polyphyly of the genus Mycoplasma. As both clades of Mycoplasma contain several species of great practical importance, a change of the genus name for species in either clade would have immense practical implications. In addition, a change of the genus name for M. mycoides would have to be approved by the Judicial Commission. For these reasons, the Linnaean and phylogenetic classifications of Mycoplasma must for now be discrepant. PMID:15143041

  4. Adaptation of Mycoplasmas to Antimicrobial Agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii Extracellular Vesicles Mediate the Export of Ciprofloxacin and a Mutant Gene Related to the Antibiotic Target

    PubMed Central

    Medvedeva, Elena S.; Baranova, Natalia B.; Mouzykantov, Alexey A.; Grigorieva, Tatiana Yu.; Davydova, Marina N.; Trushin, Maxim V.; Chernova, Olga A.; Chernov, Vladislav M.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations. PMID:24605048

  5. Colony opacity, hemadsorption, hemolysis, and mitogenicity are not associated with virulence of Mycoplasma pulmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M K; Ross, S E; Lindsey, J R; Cassell, G H

    1988-01-01

    Colony opacity, hemadsorption and hemolysis of erythrocytes, and the ability of whole mycoplasmal cells to induce a blastogenic response when incubated with C3H/HeN or C57BL/6 mouse lymphocytes were examined for 18 strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis to determine if any of these characteristics could be associated with virulence in vivo. Although there were differences among strains in each of these characteristics, none of these parameters were associated with virulence. PMID:3397189

  6. An urban epidemic of human myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Clyti, Emmanuel; Deligny, Christophe; Nacher, Mathieu; Del Giudice, Pascal; Sainte-Marie, Dominique; Pradinaud, Roger; Couppie, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We report the onset of an urban epidemic of human myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis. To our knowledge, this is the first urban epidemic described for D. hominis. The epidemic was most likely related to exceptional weather conditions and notably high rainfall in January 2000, which may have facilitated the maturation of the pupae. PMID:18981525

  7. Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis isolates from humans and cattle in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad; Ali Haghighi; Niloofar Taghipour; Akbar Keshavarz; Seyed Reza Mohebi; Mohammad Reza Zali; Lihua Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an intestinal parasite associated with severe acute diarrhea in humans and animals. To investigate subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from humans and cattle in Iran, 47 Cryptosporidium parvum (22 from children and 25 from cattle) and three Cryptosporidium hominis from children were characterized by sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Nine subtypes (two of C. hominis

  8. Identification of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Gene Sequences in Filtered Air in Hospital Environments

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Mats; Lidman, Christer; Latouche, Sophie; Björkman, Anders; Roux, Patricia; Linder, Ewert; Wahlgren, Mats

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of a nosocomial spread of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis (P. carinii hominis), air filter samples from rooms of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) patients, adjacent corridors, and other hospital environments have been investigated for the presence of P. carinii hominis. Amplified DNA from air filters and sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the PCP patients have been genotyped with the P. carinii hominis genes of the mitochondrial large-subunit (mtLSU) rRNA and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rRNA. Genotypes of the two loci were identified by direct sequencing, and for site 85 of the mtLSU locus, three allele-specific PCR assays were used. P. carinii hominis DNA was identified in the air of five of seven PCP patient rooms and in the air of two of four air filtrations from the ward corridors. The P. carinii hominis genotypes were the same in four of the five room air samples as those in the corresponding patients, suggesting a risk of person-to-person transmission of P. carinii hominis from PCP patients. Three of 16 air samples collected in infectious disease wards without the presence of PCP patients and one sample from a cardiology unit in a separate hospital building were also positive, which further strengthens the possibility of acquisition of P. carinii hominis from the environment. PMID:9620410

  9. A placebo-controlled treatment trial of Blastocystis hominis infection with metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Luciano; Larocca, Licia; Massarelli, Laura; Patamia, Ildebrando; Minniti, Salvatore; Palermo, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis, previously considered a harmless yeast, is now classified as a protozoan inhabiting the human intestinal tract. The pathogenicity of B. hominis remains controversial and is currently the subject of extensive debate.1- 5 As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the pathogenic role of B. hominis, large-scale treatment trials of B. hominis infection have so far been lacking. In spite of this, several drugs have been reported to be active against the parasite.6-8 The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole treatment in inducing clinical remission and parasitologic eradication in immunocompetent individuals with B. hominis as the only evident cause of diarrhea. PMID:12650658

  10. Genomic Investigations Unmask Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a New Respiratory Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Stephen H.; Ling, Clare L.; Oravcova, Katarina; Pinheiro, Miguel; Wells, Louise; Bryant, Josephine M.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Bébéar, Cecile; Webster, David; Harris, Simon R.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Mycoplasma amphoriforme has been associated with infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). Little is known about the natural history of infection with this organism and its ability to be transmitted in the community. Methods.?The bacterial load was estimated in sequential sputum samples from 9 patients by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The genomes of all available isolates, originating from patients in the United Kingdom, France, and Tunisia, were sequenced along with the type strain. Genomic data were assembled and annotated, and a high-resolution phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results.?By using high-resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, we show that patients can be chronically infected with M. amphoriforme manifesting as a relapsing-remitting bacterial load, interspersed by periods when the organism is undetectable. Importantly, we demonstrate transmission of strains within a clinical environment. Antibiotic resistance mutations accumulate in isolates taken from patients who received multiple courses of antibiotics. Conclusions.?Mycoplasma amphoriforme isolates form a closely related species responsible for a chronic relapsing and remitting infection in PAD patients in the United Kingdom and from immunocompetent patients in other countries. We provide strong evidence of transmission between patients attending the same clinic, suggesting that screening and isolation may be necessary for susceptible patients. This work demonstrates the critical role that WGS can play in rapidly unraveling the biology of a novel pathogen. PMID:25344534

  11. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions. PMID:22068935

  12. Furuncular myiasis: unusual case of African Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Frikh, R; Hjira, N; Frikh, M; Baba, N; Ghfir, M; Lmimouni, B; Sedrati, O

    2009-01-01

    Human cutaneous myiasis is a common disease in endemic tropical zones. Increased international travel has produced increases in imported cases. We present an unusual patient with myiasis infestation of the leg caused by Dermatobia hominis, which manifested after returning from the Democratic Republic of Congo. This particular infestation has not been reported in Morocco prior to this case. Furuncular cutaneous miyasis must be considered when travellers exhibit draining nodules. Medical treatment consists of occlusion of the furuncular punctum with vaseline to stimulate extrusion of the larva or surgical debridement under local anesthesia. PMID:19930998

  13. External Ophthalmomyiasis Due to Dermatobia hominis Masquerading As Orbital Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Norah; Liao, Sophie; Tse, David T

    2014-09-15

    Human parasitization by oestrid flies is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case of ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Dermatobia hominis infestation in a 10-year-old female. Misdiagnosis resulted in a delay in treatment, which can be potentially devastating in cases of orbital or ocular involvement. The treatment of choice is early surgical removal of the larvae to minimize the inflammatory response and the extent of surgery. Patients should also be screened for multiple sites of cutaneous infestation. When the organism is completely excised, the prognosis is good. PMID:25226095

  14. Gliding ghosts of Mycoplasma mobile

    PubMed Central

    Uenoyama, Atsuko; Miyata, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Several species of mycoplasmas glide on solid surfaces, in the direction of their membrane protrusion at a cell pole, by an unknown mechanism. Our recent studies on the fastest species, Mycoplasma mobile, suggested that the gliding machinery, localized at the base of the membrane protrusion (the “neck”), is composed of two huge proteins. This machinery forms spikes sticking out from the neck and propels the cell by alternately binding and unbinding the spikes to a solid surface. Here, to study the intracellular mechanisms for gliding, we established a permeabilized gliding ghost model, analogous to the “Triton model” of the eukaryotic axoneme. Treatment with Triton X-100 stopped the gliding and converted the cells to permeabilized “ghosts.” When ATP was added exogenously, ?85% of the ghosts were reactivated, gliding at speeds similar to those of living cells. The reactivation activity and inhibition by various nucleotides and ATP analogs, as well as their kinetic parameters, showed that the machinery is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP plus phosphate, caused by an unknown ATPase. PMID:16126895

  15. Mycoplasma penetrans bacteremia and primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, A.; Cedillo, L.; Neyrolles, O.; Alonso, E.; Prévost, M. C.; Rojas, J.; Watson, H. L.; Blanchard, A.; Cassell, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    Mycoplasma penetrans, a rare bacterium so far only found in HIV-infected persons, was isolated in the blood and throat of a non-HIV-infected patient with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (whose etiology and pathogenesis are unknown). PMID:10081687

  16. Mycoplasma lipoproteins and Toll-like receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-ling Zuo; Yi-mou Wu; Xiao-xing You

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, the smallest free-living, self-replicating bacteria with diameters of 200 to 800 nm, have been reported to be\\u000a associated with human diseases. It is well known that the mycoplasma lipoprotein\\/peptide is able to modulate the host immune\\u000a system, whose N-terminal structure is an important factor in inducing immunity and distinguishing Toll-like receptors (TLRs).\\u000a However, there is still no clear elucidation

  17. Pasteurization of discard mycoplasma mastitic milk used to feed calves: thermal effects on various mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Butler, J A; Sickles, S A; Johanns, C J; Rosenbusch, R F

    2000-10-01

    Discard milk from sick or antibiotic-treated cows is often used as an economical alternative to milk replacer at dairy farms. This practice poses a health risk to calves if the discard milk is from cows with mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum, and Mycoplasma canadense are among the agents known to cause contagious mastitis in cattle and occasionally pneumonia, otitis media, or arthritis in calves. This report describes a recent outbreak of calf polyarthritis and respiratory disease on a midwest dairy farm. The farm fed discard mycoplasma mastitic milk to its calves. On-the-farm pasteurization of the discard milk to 65 degrees C for 1 h before feeding prevented additional illness in the calves. Discard milk samples were collected before and after heating and tested for mycoplasma by culture. Only samples collected before pasteurization yielded live cultures. Common mastitic mycoplasma agents were also tested for sensitivity to heat. It was determined that 65 degrees C killed M. bovis and M. californicum after 2 min of exposure, while M. canadense remained viable for up to 10 min. Exposure to 70 degrees C inactivated M. bovis and M. californicum after 1 min, but M. canadense samples were positive for up to 3 min. Thus, M. canadense appears to be more heat resistant than M. bovis and M. californicum. Heat treatment that results in the destruction of M. canadense should be used for the pasteurization of discard mycoplasma mastitic milk. PMID:11049070

  18. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba. diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Evelyn; Poveda, Carlos; Gupta, Rakesh; Suarez, Alejandro; Hernández, Yenney; Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, José B.

    2011-01-01

    M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis ) in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba. PMID:24031686

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

  20. 21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    Mycoplasma detection media and components are used to detect and isolate mycoplasma pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO), a common microbial contaminant in cell cultures. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms....

  2. Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by an Assay Based on PCR and Probe Hybridization in a Nonradioactive Microwell Plate Format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARALD H. KESSLER; DEBORAH E. DODGE; KAREN PIERER; KAREN K. Y. YOUNG; YANHONG LIAO; BRIGITTE I. SANTNER; ERNST EBER; MARIA G. ROEGER; DORIS STUENZNER; BIRGIT SIXL-VOIGT; EGON MARTH

    1997-01-01

    A new molecular assay, based on a rapid DNA extraction protocol, PCR, and hybridization to a specific probe in a nonradioactive microwell plate format was used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae in bronchoalveolar fluid specimens. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 10 to 100 organisms with M. pneumoniae reference strains. Specificity testing with different bacteria capable of producing

  3. Short tandem repeat sequences in the Mycoplasma genitalium genome and their use in a multilocus genotyping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Ma; Stephanie Taylor; Jørgen S Jensen; Leann Myers; Rebecca Lillis; David H Martin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several methods have been reported for strain typing of Mycoplasma genitalium. The value of these methods has never been comparatively assessed. The aims of this study were: 1) to identify new potential genetic markers based on an analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) sequences in the published M. genitalium genome sequence; 2) to apply previously and newly identified markers

  4. Treatment and control of mycoplasma contamination in Plasmodium falciparum culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shubhra Singh; S. K. Puri; Kumkum Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    A comparative efficacy of four antibiotics, plasmocin (macrolid), Biomyc-1, -2, (tetracycline), and Biomyc-3, and Mycoplasma\\u000a Removing Agent (quinolone derivatives) was determined for elimination of mycoplasma from Plasmodium falciparum culture. Presence of mycoplasma was detected using enzyme-PCR-based mycoplasma detection kit and survival of malaria parasite\\u000a was determined in Giemsa’s stained smear made from treated and untreated cultures. It was observed that

  5. A PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Boonyayatra, S; Fox, L K; Besser, T E; Sawant, A; Gay, J M; Raviv, Z

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the current research was to develop real-time PCR assays with improved sensitivity and the capacity to simultaneously speciate the 3 most common mycoplasma mastitis agents: Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. Real-time PCR was chosen because it provides rapid results. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as the gold standard for evaluating candidate real-time PCR assays. To ascertain the real-time PCR assay specificity, reference strains of Mycoplasma species, Acholeplasma axanthum, and common gram-positive and gram-negative mastitis pathogens were tested. No cross-reactions were observed. Mycoplasma spp. isolated from bovine milk samples (n=228) and other organ sites (n=40) were tested by the real-time PCR assays and the partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing assay. Overall accuracy of this novel real-time PCR was 98.51%; 4 of 228 isolates identified as M. bovis by the partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing assay were identified as both M. bovis and M. californicum by real-time PCR. Subsequent amplicon sequencing suggested the presence of both M. bovis and M. californicum in these 4 samples. Using a cycle threshold of 37, the detection limits for real-time PCR were 10 copies of DNA template for both M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium, and 1 copy for M. californicum. This real-time PCR assay is a diagnostic technique that may be used as a screening tool or as a confirmation test for mycoplasma mastitis. PMID:22192198

  6. Experimental Infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae Identify Key Factors Involved in Host-Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagné, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs. PMID:24699671

  7. Persistence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin without development of resistance.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Anita K; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Gicquel-Bruneau, Mireille; Kobisch, Marylène; Kempf, Isabelle

    2005-03-20

    The ability of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to persist despite fluoroquinolone treatment was investigated in chickens. Groups of specific pathogen free chickens were experimentally infected with M. gallisepticum and treated with enrofloxacin at increasing concentrations up to the therapeutic dose. When M. gallisepticum could no longer be re-isolated from chickens, birds were stressed by inoculation of infectious bronchitis virus or avian pneumovirus. Although M. gallisepticum could not be cultured from tracheal swabs collected on several consecutive sampling days after the end of the enrofloxacin treatments, the infection was not eradicated. Viral infections reactivated the mycoplasma infection. Mycoplasmas were isolated from tracheal rings cultured for several days, suggesting that M. gallisepticum persisted in the trachea despite the enrofloxacin treatment. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of enrofloxacin for most of the re-isolated mycoplasmas was the same as that of the strain with which the birds were inoculated. Furthermore, no mutation could be detected in the fluoroquinolone target genes. These results suggest that M. gallisepticum can persist in chickens without development of resistance despite several treatments with enrofloxacin. PMID:15737482

  8. Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

  9. Molecular Demonstration of Hemotropic Mycoplasmas in Wild Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    SASHIDA, Hinako; SUZUKI, Yoshihisa; ROKUHARA, Sou; NAGAI, Kazuya; HARASAWA, Ryô

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild monkeys is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood specimens collected from wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) tentatively captured for ecological survey in Mie prefecture, Japan. We examined 9 monkeys using hemoplasma-specific real-time PCR and found all of them positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in wild monkeys were amplified using end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed a wide prevalence of a hemoplasma strain in Japanese monkeys, which was similar to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’ reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma strain remain unexplored. PMID:23978941

  10. In Vitro Activities of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin and the Streptogramin RPR 106972 against Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KOICHI IZUMIKAWA; YOICHI HIRAKATA; TOSHIYUKI YAMAGUCHI; RYOJI YOSHIDA; HIRONORI TANAKA; HIROMU TAKEMURA; SHIGEFUMI MAESAKI; KAZUNORI TOMONO; MITSUO KAKU; KIN-ICHI IZUMIKAWA; SHIMERU KAMIHIRA; SHIGERU KOHNO

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is recognized as a common patho- gen in community-acquired pneumonia. Macrolides and mino- cycline are agents of first choice in treatment of M. pneumoniae infections, but some strains are resistant to these agents (7). Quinupristin-dalfopristin and RPR 106972 are injectable and oral streptogramins, respectively, composed of two synergistic components and developed for multi-drug-resistant gram-pos- itive bacteria (10). In

  11. In Vitro Activities of the Newer Quinolones Garenoxacin, Gatifloxacin, and Gemifloxacin against Human Mycoplasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pereyre; H. Renaudin; C. Bebear

    2004-01-01

    The activities of garenoxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin were compared with those of four fluoroquino- lones against human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas, including fluoroquinolone-resistant genetically charac- terized strains. Garenoxacin exhibited the highest activity, followed by gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gati- floxacin. The minimal bactericidal activities of these three compounds were lower than those of the four fluoroquinolones. Garenoxacin, a des-fluoro(6)-quinolone, and gemifloxacin and

  12. In Vitro Selection and Characterization of Resistance to Macrolides and Related Antibiotics in Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pereyre; C. Guyot; H. Renaudin; A. Charron; C. Bebear

    2004-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant mutants of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were selected in vitro from the susceptible reference strain M129, by 23 to 50 serial passages in subinhibitory concentrations of macrolides and related antibiotics, erythromycin A, azithromycin, josamycin, clindamycin, quinupristin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, pristinamycin, and telithromycin. Mutants for which the MICs are increased could be selected with all antibiotics except the streptogramin B quinupristin. Portions of genes

  13. Antigenic heterogeneity in Mycoplasma iowae demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Panangala, V S; Gresham, M M; Morsy, M A

    1992-01-01

    Western blots of proteins of 14 Mycoplasma iowae strains and isolates resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were probed with three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), MI6, MI7, and MI8. MAb MI6 reacted with one or more antigens with apparent molecular weights of 60,000, 70,000, and 94,000. In three strains (N-PHN-D13, R-D2497, and K 1805), antigens located on a single peptide band were recognized, while in others additional epitopes at different molecular-weight positions were revealed. A similar pattern was observed with MAb MI7, although it reacted with fewer antigens than did MAb MI6 and failed to recognize antigens in strains N-PHN-D13 and R-D2497. MAb MI8 reacted with an antigen at an apparent molecular-weight position of 28,000 in four of the 14 strains and isolates. The diverse reaction patterns observed with the MAbs in the 14 M. iowae strains and isolates confirms the occurrence of antigenic variation within this species. Antigenic variation in M. iowae may be pivotal in determining host-parasite interactions, pathogenesis, and the outcome of disease. PMID:1373600

  14. A study on Blastocystis hominis in food-handlers: diagnosis and potential pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M

    2011-08-01

    Proper diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis in not performed routinely in medical laboratories of developing countries; consequently clinical significance of this common intestinal protozoon is liable to remain unsettled. Food-handlers are more prone to get and transmit this feco-oral infection. This work compared the sensitivity of direct diagnostic methods to detect B. hominis in stool, estimate the true prevalence among food-handlers in Sirte-Libya, to clarify the association between the parasite and gastrointestinal symptoms and the response to specific treatment. A total of 400 male food-handlers aged 18-50 year were included. Each was subjected to clinical questionnaire and 3 stool examinations by different methods. The results showed high prevalence of B. hominis in food-handlers (35.5%). Short- term in vitro culture (on Boeck and Derbholav's medium) was the most sensitive method for detection of B. hominis (35.5%), followed by permanent Trichrome-stained smear (27.5%); saline-sedimentation concentrated smear (21%) and direct iodine smear (14%). Of 108 cases having B. hominis alone, 68.5% were symptomatic. Diarrhea was the most frequent symptom (75.6%), followed by abdominal pain (66.2%) and flatulence (43.2%). Fecal parasite-load was significantly higher in symptomatic cases than asymptomatic; parasite and symptoms disappeared after metronidazole treatment. So, culture should be used on routine basis to detect B. hominis which should be considered pathogenic particularly when present alone in large numbers in symptomatic patients. PMID:21980782

  15. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D R; Samuel, M D; Thomas, C B; Sharp, P; Krapu, G L; Robb, J R; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Chipley, W H; Conroy, M J

    1995-07-01

    We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback. PMID:8592358

  16. A comparative clinical study of macrolide-sensitive and macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keita Matsubara; Miyuki Morozumi; Takafumi Okada; Takahiro Matsushima; Osamu Komiyama; Michi Shoji; Takashi Ebihara; Kimiko Ubukata; Yoshitake Sato; Hironobu Akita; Keisuke Sunakawa; Satoshi Iwata

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the increased prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MR-M. pneumoniae) has become a significant issue in Japan. We isolated 94 strains of M. pneumoniae, and determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of macrolides and other antimicrobial agents for these strains.\\u000a We also performed a comparative clinical evaluation of macrolide efficacy for cases of MR-M. pneumoniae infections and cases

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE (EATON'S AGENT)

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Clyde, Wallace A.; Denny, Floyd W.

    1965-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was studied in the Syrian hamster with qualitative and quantitative culture methods and special histopathologic techniques. The animals were readily infected with the mycoplasma, which multiplied throughout the respiratory tract. Sensitivity of this experimental host to infection was indicated by the 50 per cent infective dose, which was 10 colony-forming units of the organism. Inoculation consistently resulted in the production of peribronchial pneumonitis which was induced by the mycoplasma. The organisms were visualized in a superficial location in the mucosa of involved bronchi, by means of indirect fluorescent antibody staining and by a modification of the Brown and Brenn technique. The data indicate applicability of the hamster to the study of problems concerned with M. pneumoniae disease which are impractical or impossible to resolve in the human host. PMID:14319403

  18. Transposon mutagenesis in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a novel mariner-based system for generating random mutations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, a chronic respiratory disease associated with significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of infection is poorly understood due to the lack of genetic tools to allow manipulation of the organism and more generally for the Mycoplasma genus. The objective of this study was to develop a system for generating random transposon insertion mutants in M. hyopneumoniae that could prove a powerful tool in enabling the pathogenesis of infection to be unraveled. A novel delivery vector was constructed containing a hyperactive C9 mutant of the Himar1 transposase along with a mini transposon containing the tetracycline resistance cassette, tetM. M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 was electroporated with the construct and tetM-expressing transformants selected on agar containing tetracycline. Individual transformants contained single transposon insertions that were stable upon serial passages in broth medium. The insertion sites of 44 individual transformants were determined and confirmed disruption of several M. hyopneumoniae genes. A large pool of over 10 000 mutants was generated that should allow saturation of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome. This is the first time that transposon mutagenesis has been demonstrated in this important pathogen and could be generally applied for other Mycoplasma species that are intractable to genetic manipulation. The ability to generate random mutant libraries is a powerful tool in the further study of the pathogenesis of this important swine pathogen. PMID:24359443

  19. Identification, Characterization, and Application of a Recombinant Antigen for the Serological Investigation of Feline Hemotropic Mycoplasma Infections ? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A.; Jäckel, Christian; Museux, Kristina; Hoelzle, Katharina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2010-01-01

    In felids, three hemotropic mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) have been described: Mycoplasma haemofelis, “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum,” and “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis.” In particular, M. haemofelis may cause severe, potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia. No routine serological assays for feline hemoplasma infections are available. Thus, the goal of our project was to identify and characterize an M. haemofelis antigen (DnaK) that subsequently could be applied as a recombinant antigen in a serological assay. The gene sequence of this protein was determined using consensus primers and blood samples from two naturally M. haemofelis-infected Swiss pet cats, an experimentally M. haemofelis-infected specific-pathogen-free cat, and a naturally M. haemofelis-infected Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). The M. haemofelis DnaK gene sequence showed the highest identity to an analogous protein of a porcine hemoplasma (72%). M. haemofelis DnaK was expressed recombinantly in an Escherichia coli DnaK knockout strain and purified using Ni affinity, size-exclusion, and anion-exchange chromatography. It then was biochemically and functionally characterized and showed characteristics typical for DnaKs (secondary structure profile, thermal denaturation, ATPase activity, and DnaK complementation). Moreover, its immunogenicity was assessed using serum samples from experimentally hemoplasma-infected cats. In Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, it was recognized by sera from cats infected with M. haemofelis, “Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum,” and “Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis,” respectively, but not from uninfected cats. This is the first description of a full-length purified recombinant feline hemoplasma antigen that can readily be applied in future pathogenesis studies and may have potential for application in a diagnostic serological test. PMID:20876820

  20. Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Karas, Bogumil J.; Wise, Kim S.; Sun, Lijie; Venter, J. Craig; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Suzuki, Yo

    2014-01-01

    With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of “whole genome writing” in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF) of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in M. mycoides. PMID:25101070

  1. Pediatric priapism associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Hirshberg; Robert S. Charles; Jeffrey B. Ettinger

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Priapism in the pediatric population is rare and most commonly occurs secondary to sickle cell disease or hematologic malignancy. We present a case of a 12-year-old boy with priapism who required aggressive surgical therapy for adequate detumescence. This patient had a recent viral upper respiratory infection and titers for Mycoplasma pneumoniae were indicative of infection. We propose that a

  2. Survey of viruses and mycoplasmas in strawberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Aerts

    1974-01-01

    The present survey based on the literature lists the viruses and mycoplasmas infecting strawberries and endeavours to sort out their relationships and synonyms. Remarks and suggestions of several specialists from various countries were taken into consideration. The data have been assembled in tables. In total, 54 different viruses have been reported to infect strawberry and eight diseases have been attributed

  3. Macrolide Resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Averbuch, Diana; Hidalgo-Grass, Carlos; Moses, Allon E.; Engelhard, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae is often found in Asia but is rare elsewhere. We report the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in Israel and the in vivo evolution of such resistance during the treatment of a 6-year-old boy with pneumonia. PMID:21749775

  4. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Laibinis, Victoria; Wooten, Ruth; Stabler, Lisa; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2011-06-01

    Two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates (n = 24) from Jordan were analyzed by molecular methods and compared with other Middle Eastern isolates, related international isolates, and reference strains. The first group (n = 19) was isolated from July 2004 to January 2005 (isolation period A), and the newer group (n = 5) from June 2007 to April 2008 (isolation period B). The groups of isolates are from chicken flocks from northern Jordan, but are not from the same farms. None of the flocks were vaccinated for MG. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, targeted sequencing of the partial MG cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), and the MG 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGSR) divided the Jordanian isolates into two groups. All of the 19 isolates from time period A, in addition to two isolates from time period B, were indistinguishable from the F strain. Three of five isolates from time period B were characterized as wild types and were indistinguishable from each other. The wild-type field strain was readily distinguished from the F strain. It was 91% and 96.4% similar to the F strain based on Clustal-W alignments of sequences of mgc2 and IGSR, respectively. Sequence similarity of mgc2 gene of the Jordan wild-type strain to isolates from Israel and Egypt ranged from 96.5% to 100%, whereas for IGSR it was 99.4%-100%. We theorize that the F-strain live MG vaccine, commonly used in Jordan prior to 2007, was transmitted to nonvaccinated poultry in the region and was a predominant genotype during time period A. PMID:21793435

  5. Chronic "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infects felids. The pathogenesis of "Candidatus M. turicensis" chronic infection is poorly understood. The goals of the present study were to (1) induce reactivation of the infection in chronic carrier cats by attempted immunosuppression, (2) identify potential tissue sequestration using real-time TaqMan® PCR and (3) monitor the humoral immune response by DnaK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten specified pathogen-free cats that had ostensibly recovered from experimental "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection were used: five cats (group 1) received high dose methylprednisolone (attempted immunosuppression), while five cats served as untreated controls (group 2). Besides weekly blood samples, tissue samples were collected from bone marrow, kidney, liver and salivary glands at selected time points. The cats in group 1 had significantly lower lymphocyte counts and higher blood glucose levels after methylprednisolone administration than the controls. After methylprednisolone administration one blood and three tissue samples from cats in group 1 tested PCR-positive; before the administration, only one sample was positive. All other samples tested PCR-negative. All cats stayed seropositive; the antibody levels of the cats in group 1 showed a significant transient decrease after methylprednisolone administration. This is the first study to report the presence of "Candidatus M. turicensis" in tissues of chronically infected cats and the persistence of anti-feline hemoplasma antibodies in the absence of detectable bacteremia. Methylprednisolone administration did not lead to a significant reactivation of the infection. Our results enhance the knowledge of "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection pathogenesis and are clinically relevant to the prognosis of hemoplasma-infected cats. PMID:21507220

  6. Transcriptome changes in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during infection.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Melissa L; Puttamreddy, Supraja; Thacker, Eileen L; Carruthers, Michael D; Minion, F Chris

    2008-02-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes swine pneumonia and contributes significantly to the porcine respiratory disease complex. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are difficult to address, since there is a lack of genetic tools, but microarrays are available and can be used to study transcriptional changes that occur during disease as a way to identify important virulence-related genes. Mycoplasmas were collected from bronchial alveolar lavage samples and compared to broth-grown cells using microarrays. Bronchial alveolar lavage was performed on pigs 28 days postinfection, and mycoplasmas were isolated by differential centrifugation. Mycoplasma RNA-enriched preparations were then obtained from total RNA by subtracting eucaryotic ribosomal and messenger RNAs. Labeled cDNAs were generated with mycoplasma open reading frame-specific primers. Nine biological replicates were analyzed. During lung infection, our analysis indicated that 79 M. hyopneumoniae genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01), at a false-discovery rate of <2.7%. Of the down-regulated genes, 28 of 46 (61%) lacked an assigned function, in comparison to 21 of 33 (63%) of up-regulated genes. Four down-regulated genes and two up-regulated genes encoded putative lipoproteins. secA (mhp295) (P = 0.003) and two glycerol transport permease genes (potA [mhp380; P = 0.006] and ugpA [mhp381; P = 0.003]) were up-regulated in vivo. Elongation factor EF-G (fusA [mhp083]) (P = 0.002), RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC [mhp635]) (P = 0.003), adenylate kinase (adk [mhp208]) (P = 0.001), prolyl aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (proS [mhp397]) (P = 0.009), and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (cysS [mhp661]) (P < 0.001) were down-regulated in vivo. PMID:18070898

  7. The Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Other Protozoan Parasites in Soldiers Returning from Peacekeeping Missions.

    PubMed

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Ko?odziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  8. A novel transposon construct expressing PhoA with potential for studying protein expression and translocation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major poultry pathogen and causes severe economic loss to the poultry industry. In mycoplasmas lipoproteins are abundant on the membrane surface and play a critical role in interactions with the host, but tools for exploring their molecular biology are limited. Results In this study we examined whether the alkaline phosphatase gene (phoA ) from Escherichia coli could be used as a reporter in mycoplasmas. The promoter region from the gene for elongation factor Tu (ltuf) and the signal and acylation sequences from the vlhA 1.1 gene, both from Mycoplasma gallisepticum , together with the coding region of phoA , were assembled in the transposon-containing plasmid pISM2062.2 (pTAP) to enable expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a recombinant lipoprotein. The transposon was used to transform M. gallisepticum strain S6. As a control, a plasmid containing a similar construct, but lacking the signal and acylation sequences, was also produced (pTP) and also introduced into M. gallisepticum . Using a colorimetric substrate for detection of alkaline phosphatase activity, it was possible to detect transformed M. gallisepticum . The level of transcription of phoA in organisms transformed with pTP was lower than in those transformed with pTAP, and alkaline phosphatase was not detected by immunoblotting or enzymatic assays in pTP transformants, eventhough alkaline phosphatase expression could be readily detected by both assays in pTAP transformants. Alkaline phosphatase was shown to be located in the hydrophobic fraction of transformed mycoplasmas following Triton X-114 partitioning and in the membrane fraction after differential fractionation. Trypsin proteolysis confirmed its surface exposure. The inclusion of the VlhA lipoprotein signal sequence in pTAP enabled translocation of PhoA and acylation of the amino terminal cysteine moiety, as confirmed by the effect of treatment with globomycin and radiolabelling studies with [14?C]palmitate. PhoA could be identified by mass-spectrometry after separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Conclusion This is the first study to express PhoA as a lipoprotein in mycoplasmas. The pTAP plasmid will facilitate investigations of lipoproteins and protein translocation across the cell membrane in mycoplasmas, and the ease of detection of these transformants makes this vector system suitable for the simultaneous screening and detection of cloned genes expressed as membrane proteins in mycoplasmas. PMID:22770122

  9. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in eggs from birds of prey using culture and a genus-specific mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Harcourt-Brown, N; Hernandez-Divers, S J; Lüschow, D; Hafez, H M

    2007-04-01

    Mycoplasmas are commensals and pathogens of different avian species, especially poultry and passeriforms. The role of mycoplasmas in raptors has not yet been completely determined, and especially not the possibility of vertical transmission. Therefore 424 raptor eggs were examined for the occurrence of mycoplasmas using culture, and 155 of these eggs with a Mycoplasma genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. This PCR was tested for its sensitivity and specificity, especially for use in a bird population of unknown mycoplasma status (prevalence and species). The size of the amplified PCR product was large (1013 base pairs) to enable use of the product for species differentiation by sequencing. Culture and PCR yielded only one positive result, in an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). The isolate was identified as Mycoplasma lipofaciens using an immunobinding assay, as well as by sequencing part of its 16S rRNA gene. PMID:17479375

  10. Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a reticulated giraffe.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Elizabeth E; Miller, Craig A; Sneed, Loyd; Radcliffe, Robin W

    2003-01-01

    A case of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis was diagnosed in a captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Recurrent episodes of lameness with temporary response to antimicrobial therapy characterized the disease. After the fifth episode, the giraffe was immobilized for arthrocentesis of the right front fetlock joint. Although the culture was negative, Mycoplasma sp. nucleic acid was detected in synovial fluid using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve weeks after completion of enrofloxacin therapy evidence of Mycoplasma sp. was not detectable in the synovial fluid; no relapses occurred after 22 mo. This is the first report of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a giraffe. PMID:12685090

  11. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  12. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  13. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S; Markham, Philip F; Browning, Glenn F

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  14. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in native cattle of central Iran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Zohourtabar, A; Pourmirzaei Tafti, H; Moghaddam Ahmadi, M

    2014-03-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are two-host protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Among different known species of Sarcocystis in cattle, only Sarcocystis hominis is important from the public health viewpoint, because of its zoonotic characteristics. This study presents the first molecular identification of S. hominis in native cattle in central Iran. A sample of diaphragm muscle from a 6-year-old native cow slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Yazd, central Iran, was collected in May 2013. DNA extraction was performed, using the salting-out method. DNA purification and precipitation were performed consecutively. The amplicon and digestion results were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. A PCR product with 926 bp in length was obtained after amplification, and 376 bp and 550 bp in length after digestion that identified S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be reported from Iran. PMID:24862059

  15. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticums vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, it was shown to occur in response to an F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers from our laboratory a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation to...

  16. Mycoplasma haemocanis – the canine hemoplasma and its feline counterpart in the genomic era

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed or splenectomized dogs. The genome of the strain Illinois, isolated from blood of a naturally infected dog, has been entirely sequenced and annotated to gain a better understanding of the biology of M. haemocanis. Its single circular chromosome has 919 992 bp and a low G?+?C content (35%), representing a typical mycoplasmal genome. A gene-by-gene comparison against its feline counterpart, M. haemofelis, reveals a very similar composition and architecture with most of the genes having conserved synteny extending over their entire chromosomes and differing only by a small set of unique protein coding sequences. As in M. haemofelis, M. haemocanis metabolic pathways are reduced and apparently rely heavily on the nutrients afforded by its host environment. The presence of a major percentage of its genome dedicated to paralogous genes (63.7%) suggests that this bacterium might use antigenic variation as a mechanism to evade the host’s immune system as also observed in M. haemofelis genome. Phylogenomic comparisons based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide signature suggest that these two pathogens are different species of mycoplasmas, with M. haemocanis infecting dogs and M. haemofelis infecting cats. PMID:23020168

  17. Reconstitution of an Active Arginine Deiminase Pathway in Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129

    PubMed Central

    Rechnitzer, Hagai; Herrmann, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Some species of the genus Mycoplasma code for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI), which enables these bacteria to produce ATP from arginine by the successive reaction of three enzymes: arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC). It so far appears that independently isolated strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encode an almost identical truncated version of the ADI pathway in which the proteins ArcA and ArcB have lost their original enzymatic activities due to the deletion of significant regions of these proteins. To study the consequences of a functional ADI pathway, M. pneumoniae M129 was successfully transformed with the cloned functional arcA, arcB, and arcC genes from Mycoplasma fermentans. Enzymatic tests showed that while the M. pneumoniae ArcAB and ArcABC transformants possess functional arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, they were unable to grow on arginine as the sole energy source. Nevertheless, infection of a lung epithelial cell line, A549, with the M. pneumoniae transformants showed that almost 100% of the infected host cells were nonviable, while most of the lung cells infected with nontransformed M. pneumoniae were viable under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23897620

  18. Case report: first report of a prosthetic joint infection caused by Facklamia hominis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Pablo S; Haddad, Sleiman; Andrés, José; González-López, Juan José; Amat, Carles; Flores, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Facklamia spp. are gram-positive cocci first described in 1997. They are ?-hemolytic, facultative anaerobes, catalase-negative cocci, resembling viridians streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar. Facklamia hominis is, by far, the most common species of the 6 so far described, and it is thought that its natural habitat is the female genital tract. Four previous human infections with Facklamia spp. have been documented. We report the first case of a chronic prosthetic joint infection caused by F. hominis and its successful treatment by a 2-stage exchange procedure to eradicate the infection. This is also the first osteoarticular infection reported. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25245196

  19. New records of mosquitoes carrying Dermatobia hominis eggs in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Marco Jacometto; Pereira, Petra Assis; de Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi; Tubaki, Rosa Maria

    2012-06-01

    We found 4 species of mosquitoes bearing eggs of the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in the Reserva Municipal de Trabiju, Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The mosquitoes were simultaneously collected in landing-biting catches by 2 collectors. From a total of 6,902 specimens collected from January through April 2010, the 15 females carrying D. hominis eggs belonged to Aedes scapularis, Limatus durhamii, Onirion personatum, and Wyeomyia confusa. The first 3 species are new reports of phoresy among mosquitoes and the human botfly. PMID:22894123

  20. [Dermatobia hominis furuncular myiasis in a man returning from Latin America: first imported case in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Kaouech, E; Kallel, K; Belhadj, S; Chaker, E

    2010-04-01

    Human cutaneous myiasis is a common dermatosis in tropical zones. The purpose of this report is to describe the first imported case of furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis (human botfly) in Tunisia. The patient was a man returning from Bolivia. Furuncular myiasis was suspected based on epidemiological data and clinical examination showing pruriginous elevated lesions. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of Dermatobia hominis larvae. Treatment was based mainly on manual removal of larvae. Since furuncular myiasis is unknown in Tunisia, it is important to remember this parasitic disease in differential diagnosis in patients presenting boil-like inflammatory papules following travel to Latin America. PMID:20486346

  1. Herpesvirus hominis type 2 infection in Ibadan. Problem of non-venereal transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Montefiore, D; Sogbetun, A O; Anong, C N

    1980-01-01

    Examination of sera from blood donors, from patients attending a special treatment clinic, a family planning clinic, and an antenatal clinic showed that the prevalence of herpes virus hominis type 2 antibodies among the adult population in Ibadan is similar to that in other parts of the world. The possibility of non-venereal transmission of herpes virus infection was confirmed by the finding that herpesvirus hominis type 2 could survive on cloth samples under humid tropical conditions for long enough to allow transmission of infection via fomites. PMID:6245750

  2. Comparative geno-plasticity analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese isolate).

    PubMed

    Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

  3. Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

  4. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from turkeys.

    PubMed

    Kleven, S H; Fulton, R M; García, M; Ikuta, V N; Leiting, V A; Liu, T; Ley, D H; Opengart, K N; Rowland, G N; Wallner-Pendleton, E

    2004-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from several turkey flocks at different locations in the United States that were clinically affected with respiratory disease. Five of these isolates from four series of outbreaks had patterns similar to the 6/85 vaccine strain of M. gallisepticum by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using three different primer sets, whereas with a fourth primer set (OPA13 and OPA14), only two of the isolates were similar to 6/85. Results obtained by sequencing portions of the pvpA, gapA, and mgc2 genes and an uncharacterized surface lipoprotein gene indicated that the field isolates had DNA sequences that ranged from 97.6% to 100%, similar to the 6/85 results. In some of the outbreaks there was an indirect association with the presence of commercial layers in the area that had been vaccinated with this vaccine strain, but there was no known close association with vaccinated birds in any of the outbreaks. Turkeys were challenged with two of the field isolates and with 6/85 vaccine strain. Turkeys challenged with the field isolates developed respiratory disease with airsacculitis and a typical M. gallisepticum antibody response, whereas birds challenged with 6/85 developed no respiratory signs or lesions and developed only a weak antibody response. Although these isolates were very similar to the 6/85 vaccine strain, it was not possible to prove that they originated from the vaccine strain-it is possible that they could be naturally occurring field isolates. PMID:15529978

  5. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zibo; Li, Xiangzhi; Chen, Xiaojian; Luo, Fangjun; Pan, Changwang; Zheng, Xiaoping; Tan, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumoniae (CAP), which is generally treated with macrolides. In recent years, however, although macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae has been reported frequently, particularly in China, very little is known about the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adults. In this study, we survey the macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adults in Zhejiang province and characterize the mechanisms of resistance to macrolide. Six hundred fifty throat swab samples were collected from adult patients with CAP from January 2012 to August 2014. These samples were assayed by nested PCR and then cultivated for M. pneumoniae. All isolates were sequenced to determine the mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. The activities of 10 antibiotics against macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates were also investigated in vitro. Moreover, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the amplified P1 gene was used to type 50 resistant strains. One hundred percent (71/71) of M. pneumoniae strains isolated from adults with CAP were resistant to erythromycin (MIC=128 to >256 ?g/ml), clarithromycin (MIC=128 to >256 ?g/ml), and azithromycin (MIC=32 to >64 ?g/ml). Furthermore, all macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains identified had an A2063G mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. Forty-six resistant strains (92.0%) were classified into type I strain on the basis of P1 gene PCR-RFLP analysis. According to these findings, it is suggested that macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection is very prevalence among adults in Zhejiang province. Thus, there is necessary to perform the epidemiological monitoring of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in the future. PMID:25451048

  6. Origins of the mycoplasmas: sterol-nonrequiring mycoplasmas evolved from streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Neimark, H; London, J

    1982-01-01

    We report the establishment of a phylogenetic relationship between the sterol-nonrequiring mycoplasmas (Acholeplasma species) and streptococci. Three specific antisera prepared against purified Streptococcus faecalis fructose diphosphate aldolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Pediococcus cerevisiae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were used for comparative enzyme immunological studies; the Ouchterlony double-diffusion technique and the quantitative microcomplement fixation procedure were employed. The reactions obtained provide evidence showing that all seven ACholeplasma species studied (A. laidlawii, A. granularum, A. modicum, A. oculi, A. axanthum. A. hippikon, and A. equifetale) are phylogenetically related to streptococci and that they evolved from streptococci. The data strongly suggest that the acholeplasmas comprise a distinct evolutionary group that has diverged from streptococci belonging to Lancefield group D or N. No reactions were observed between these enzyme antisera and cell extracts from six fermentative Mycoplasma species. These results support the view that mycoplasmas are derived from various bacteria. Images PMID:6176574

  7. Resistance of Mycoplasma pulmonis to Complement Lysis Is Dependent on the Number of Vsa Tandem Repeats: Shield Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren L. Simmons; Amy M. Denison; Kevin Dybvig

    2004-01-01

    The Vsa proteins are associated with the virulence of the murine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis. The antigens consist of a conserved N-terminal region that is combined with one of several different variable C-terminal regions comprised of tandem repeats. M. pulmonis strains that produce VsaA with about 40 tandem repeats do not adhere to polystyrene or erythrocytes and are highly resistant

  8. The Minimal Gene Complement of Mycoplasma genitalium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire M. Fraser; Jeannine D. Gocayne; Owen White; Mark D. Adams; Rebecca A. Clayton; Robert D. Fleischmann; Carol J. Bult; Anthony R. Kerlavage; Granger Sutton; Jenny M. Kelley; Janice L. Fritchman; Janice F. Weidman; Keith V. Small; Mina Sandusky; Joyce Furhmann; David Nguyen; Teresa R. Utterback; Deborah M. Saudek; Cheryl A. Phillips; Joseph M. Merrick; Jean-Francois Tomb; Brian A. Dougherty; Kenneth F. Bott; Ping-Chuan Hu; Thomas S. Lucier; Scott N. Peterson; Hamilton O. Smith; Clyde A. Hutchison III; J. Craig Venter

    1995-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (580,070 base pairs) of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism, has been determined by whole-genome random sequencing and assembly. A total of only 470 predicted coding regions were identified that include genes required for DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. Comparison of this genome

  9. Discrimination between Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species of bovine origin using digitonin disc diffusion assay, nisin disc diffusion assay, and conventional polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Boonyayatra, Sukolrat; Fox, Lawrence K; Gay, John M; Sawant, Ashish; Besser, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Microbiological culture of milk samples has been used as a standard diagnosis for Mycoplasma mastitis. This technique is effective in isolating mollicutes that are Mycoplasma-like; however, isolates may be misinterpreted as Acholeplasma species, which are indistinguishable from Mycoplasma species by culture. A study to contrast the abilities of 2 culture-based tests, digitonin and nisin disc diffusion assays and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, to discriminate between Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma was performed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene partial sequencing as the gold standard of comparison. A total of 288 bovine mollicute field isolates (248 from milk and 40 from other organ sites) and 13 reference strains were tested. Results obtained from the digitonin disc diffusion assay when it was performed with all field isolates were 92.7% and 99.0% in agreement with the gold standard using 5 mm and 3 mm of zone of growth inhibition as thresholds, respectively. Considering only milk isolates, agreements between the digitonin disc diffusion assay with the gold standard were 97.2% and 100% using 5 mm and 3 mm of zone of growth inhibition as thresholds, respectively. Culture identification using the nisin disc diffusion assay and the PCR was in a 100% agreement with the gold standard. Comparable results using culture-based nisin and digitonin disc diffusion assays, and PCR, to distinguish Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species was found, especially for isolates from bovine milk. PMID:22362930

  10. THE OCCURRENCE OF MYCOPLASMAS IN SELECTED WILD NORTH AMERICAN WATERFOWL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Goldberg; M. D. Samuel; C. B. Thomas; P. Sharp; G. L Krapu; J. R. Robb; K. P. Kenow; C. E. Korschgen; W. H. Chipley; M. J. Conroy; S. H. Kleven

    We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya va!isineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples

  11. Mycoplasma ovis in captive cervids: Prevalence, molecular characterization and phylogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Laura Grazziotin; Andrea Pires Santos; Ana Marcia Sa Guimaraes; Ahmed Mohamed; Zalmir Silvino Cubas; Marcos Jose de Oliveira; Leonilda Correia dos Santos; Wanderlei de Moraes; Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira; Lucelia Donatti; Ivan Roque de Barros Filho; Alexander Welker Biondo; Joanne Belle Messick

    2011-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria that attach to red blood cells of mammals, leading to acute and\\/or subclinical disease in infected animals. It has been suggested that Mycoplasma ovis, a hemoplasma that infects sheep and goats worldwide, may also infect deer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether South American deer are infected with M. ovis. EDTA-anticoagulated blood

  12. Detection and Treatment of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cultured Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsuan Jung; Shih-Yee Wang; I-Wen Yang; Ding-Wei Hsueh; Wei-Ju Yang; Tzu-Hao Wang; Hsin-Shih Wang

    Background: Mycoplasmas, the smallest and simplest prokaryotes that reside in endo- somes of mammalian cells, are widespread contaminants found in cell cul- tures. About 30% of all cell cultures, varying from 15 to 80%, are reportedly contaminated with mycoplasmas. Here, we present our experience in suc- cessfully detecting and treating mycoplasmal infection in various cell lines. Methods: The nested polymerase

  13. [Isolation of Mycoplasma bovis during an outbreak of bovine mastitis at a dairy farm in the province of Buenos Aires. 1st report in the Republic of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cerdá, R; Xavier, J; Sansalone, P; de la Sota, R; Rosenbush, R

    2000-01-01

    Several mycoplasma species produce various diseases in different animal species. M. bovis has been described as the cause of mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia and infertility in cattle. Furthermore, this species has been the most frequently isolated agent producing bovine mastitis. The objective of this study was to isolate and typify mycoplasma strains from a clinical mastitis outbreak in a dairy farm of Buenos Aires Province. A total of 279 samples were studied (276 from pooled quarter milk of cows with clinical mastitis that did not respond to antibiotic therapy, 1 from bulk tank milk and 2 preputial swabs from bulls). The isolated mycoplasma strains (n = 12) were further characterized by biochemical analysis, serological studies and electrophoretic analysis of the protein profiles (SDS-PAGE). Based upon these studies, the isolated strains were identified as Mycoplasma bovis. This is the first report of isolation of this microorganism in Argentina. Therefore the results described here could be very useful to improve mastitis control in dairy farms. PMID:10948823

  14. Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Prá Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bébéar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ?1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

  15. The development and application of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum sequence database.

    PubMed

    Armour, Natalie K; Laibinis, Victoria A; Collett, Stephen R; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2013-01-01

    Molecular analysis was conducted on 36 Mycoplasma gallisepticum DNA extracts from tracheal swab samples of commercial poultry in seven South African provinces between 2009 and 2012. Twelve unique M. gallisepticum genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGSR), M. gallisepticum cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), MGA_0319 and gapA genetic regions. The DNA sequences of these genotypes were distinct from those of M. gallisepticum isolates in a database composed of sequences from other countries, vaccine and reference strains. The most prevalent genotype (SA-WT#7) was detected in samples from commercial broilers, broiler breeders and layers in five provinces. South African M. gallisepticum sequences were more similar to those of the live vaccines commercially available in South Africa, but were distinct from that of F strain vaccine, which is not registered for use in South Africa. The IGSR, mgc2 or MGA_0319 sequences of three South African genotypes were identical to those of the ts-11 vaccine strain, necessitating a combination of mgc2 and IGSR targeted sequencing to differentiate South African wild-type genotypes from ts-11 vaccine. To identify and differentiate all 12 wild-types, mgc2, IGSR and MGA_0319 sequencing was required. Sequencing of gapA was least effective at strain differentiation. This research serves as a model for the development of an M. gallisepticum sequence database, and illustrates its application to characterize M. gallisepticum genotypes, select diagnostic tests and better understand the epidemiology of M. gallisepticum. PMID:23889487

  16. Running head: EXPLAINING ANTISOCIAL PUNISHMENT Homo homini lupus? Explaining antisocial punishment

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    Running head: EXPLAINING ANTISOCIAL PUNISHMENT 1 Homo homini lupus? Explaining antisocial punishment Karolina Sylwester1 Benedikt Herrmann2 Joanna J. Bryson1 1 University of Bath Department Commission #12;EXPLAINING ANTISOCIAL PUNISHMENT 2 ABSTRACT1 Punishing group members who parasitize their own

  17. Efficacy of injectable doramectin in the therapy and control of Dermatobia hominis infestations in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Muniz; R. Cerqueira-Leite; A. Coronado; O. Soraci; O. Umehara; J. Moreno; J. Errecalde

    1995-01-01

    Three studies were conducted in Latin America, one in Brazil, one in Venezuela and one in Argentina, using a common protocol to investigate the efficacy of a single subcutaneous injection of doramectin at 200 ?g kg?1 (1 ml per 50 kg) for the treatment and control of Dermatobia hominis infestations in cattle raised under commercial conditions. In each study, two

  18. The main proteinases in Dermatobia hominis second and third instars larvae are serine-proteinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Pires; G. E. Moya-Borja; J. D. Barreira; R. T. Pinho; C. R. Alves

    2007-01-01

    We performed a combination of proteinase assay, either in solution or immobilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with gelatin, to detect and quantify proteinases of Dermatobia hominis second (L2) and third (L3) instar larvae. In the quantitative assay, we examined proteinase activity by hydrolysis of a panel of peptide bonds specific for the main proteinase classes. We verified that

  19. Dermatobia hominis in the accident and emergency department: "I've got you under my skin".

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, A; Durham, S

    1997-01-01

    An unusual form of larval infestation from South America is presented which, in view of increasing tourism to South america's tropical areas, may present to any accident and emergency department. Infestation with Dermatobia hominis is reviewed in terms of clinical recognition and life cycle. Techniques of removal are described. Images Figure 1 PMID:9193989

  20. Myiasis of the scalp due to Dermatobia hominis in a traveler returning from Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Calderaro; Simona Peruzzi; Chiara Gorrini; Giovanna Piccolo; Sabina Rossi; Eugenio Grignaffini; Stefano Gatti; Edoardo Caleffi; Giuseppe Dettori; Carlo Chezzi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a case of myiasis by Dermatobia hominis diagnosed in a young Italian man returning from a vacation through Brazil. Considering the increasing number of travels to tropical and subtropical areas, clinicians in nonendemic areas must think about the possibility of imported unusual infestations during their daily practice.

  1. Activated host neutrophils in the larval midgut lumen of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. R Leite; L. G Evangelista

    2002-01-01

    Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mammalian hosts as well as invading bacteria in the midgut lumen of larvae of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis. Other resident or recruited cells associated with dermal myiasis were fed on by larvae and digested more rapidly than neutrophils. The latter were observed

  2. Furuncular Myiasis Caused by the Human Botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in the Domestic Rabbit: Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Verocai; J. I. Fernandes; F. A. Ribeiro; R. M. P. S. Melo; T. R. Correia; F. B. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae), is geographically found throughout Neotropical America, is considered the major causal agent of furuncular myiasis. This parasite generates considerable damage in affected livestock. Its low host specificity leads to reports of parasitism in several domestic species. The goal of the present study is to report a case of natural infestation

  3. An initial survey of the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) in Nicaragua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A Villarino; Omar Garcia; Weyman Fussell; Kelly Preston; Gale G Wagner

    2003-01-01

    After the civil war and the Hurricane-Mitch disaster, cattlemen in Nicaragua were forced to transport their cattle from lowland areas to higher, dryer areas of the country. These areas are natural ecological niches for the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) (Diptera: Cuterebridae). To determine the importance of this infestation, the Agricultural and Livestock-Forestry Ministry selected a central area of

  4. A case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagamori, Katsushi; Katayama, Toshiko; Kumagai, Masahiro

    2007-08-01

    We report the 34th imported case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in Japan, which is not a habitat of the fly. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed an insect-sting-like papule on his left upper back during his stay in Ecuador in March 2004. After his return home, the lesion gradually increased to become a red subcutaneous nodule with a central pore from which serosanguineous fluid drained. Because antimicrobial treatment under a diagnosis of inflammatory atheroma was ineffective, the lesion was incised and a 3rd instar larva of D. hominis was then found and removed. We checked the literature on D. hominis myiasis reported from Japan, and noted the fact, which nobody had previously pointed out, that in Japan only one case of D. hominis myiasis had been diagnosed correctly before a larva was found, and most of the cases were misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated, including 11 cases given unnecessary resection of the nodules. Doctors in Japan should be aware of myiasis so that patients are neither anxious about the disease nor suffer pain, and doctors avoid performing unnecessary resections of the lesions. PMID:17721688

  5. Myiasis of the scalp due to Dermatobia hominis in a traveler returning from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Adriana; Peruzzi, Simona; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Sabina; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Gatti, Stefano; Caleffi, Edoardo; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    This article describes a case of myiasis by Dermatobia hominis diagnosed in a young Italian man returning from a vacation through Brazil. Considering the increasing number of travels to tropical and subtropical areas, clinicians in nonendemic areas must think about the possibility of imported unusual infestations during their daily practice. PMID:18077122

  6. Myiasis owing to Dermatobia hominis in a HIV-infected subject: Treatment by topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Clyti, E; Nacher, M; Merrien, L; El Guedj, M; Roussel, M; Sainte-Marie, D; Couppié, P

    2007-01-01

    We report the occurrence of myiasis owing to Dermatobia hominis (Dh) in a HIV-infected subject. HIV infection did not modify the pathogenicity of myiasis. However, the clinical presentation seemed unusual with voluminous inflammatory nodules. Use of topical ivermectin killed the larvae and facilitated their extraction. PMID:17214720

  7. Infection of the finger-nail by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis.

    PubMed

    English, M P

    1980-07-01

    Infection of the finger-nail of an elderly woman by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is reported. The small lesion was extending slowly into the healthy nail plate. The fungus has been isolated from diseased toe-nails on two previous occasions but its extra-human habitat is unknown. PMID:7426409

  8. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in serum specimens from patients with mycoplasma pneumonia by PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Daxboeck; Gelas Khanakah; Claudia Bauer; Maria Stadler; Hanns Hofmann; Gerold Stanek

    2005-01-01

    There are few data on detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from blood, serum or plasma, and systematic studies on this diagnostic approach in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are scarce. Compared to testing respiratory specimens, this approach has the advantages that it is less dependent on proper specimen collection, serum is easily stored and handled, and the pathogen is detected in a primary

  9. Presence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, Mycoplasma haemominutum and piroplasmids in cats from southern Europe: a molecular study.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Martinez-Marcos, A; Buling-Saraña, A; Barba-Carretero, J C

    2003-06-10

    Clinical symptoms produced by Mycoplasma spp. and piroplasmids in cats are sometimes similar. Diagnosis of these pathogens is difficult by microscopic procedures and molecular methods have been used as an alternative. We present in this work, the development of new molecular procedures for diagnosis of the aforementioned organisms, together with a molecular characterization of isolates found in southern European cats.A single PCR-RFLP procedure was designed for diagnosis of Mycoplasma spp. and a seminested PCR-RFLP was designed for diagnosis of piroplasmids. The 16S or 18S rRNA genes of isolates found in clinical samples were partially sequenced in all positive cases. Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 9 (30%) out of 30 symptomatic cats from Spain. Sequencing indicated that 66.6% of these isolates can be ascribed to Mycoplasma haemofelis and only 33.3% to Mycoplasma haemominutum. Partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained in Spanish isolates were very similar to those previously published from the UK and the USA. The presence of piroplasmids (Babesia and Theileria spp.) was studied in 16 cats from Spain (n=13) and Portugal (n=3). Animals analyzed were 10 cats with immunosuppressive viral infection (either FeLV or FIV), 5 asymptomatic cats and 1 cat with Babesia-compatible symptoms. Asymptomatic cats were all PCR-negative. Partial sequencing of 18S rRNA gene demonstrated that the Babesia-symptomatic cat was infected with Babesia canis canis whereas 3 (30%) out of the 10 cats with immunosuppressive viral infection were coinfected with piroplasmids (1 with B. canis canis, 1 with Theileria annae, and 1 with B. canis canis and T. annae both). PMID:12713893

  10. New models of chronic synovitis in rabbits induced by mycoplasmas: microbiological, histopathological, and immunological observations on rabbits injected with Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, B C; Griffiths, M M; Eichwald, E J; Ward, J R

    1977-01-01

    A dose-dependent chronic synovitis was induced in rabbit knees after the intra-articular injection of both Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis. The inflammation progressed from an initial acute phase at 1 week characterized by edema, infiltration of the synovium with monocytes and heterophils, and desquamation of lining cells, to a more chronic phase at 1 and 3 months, in which villus hyperplasia, lymph "nodules," mononuclear cell infiltration, fibroplasia, and collagen deposition were prominent. With one exception, mycoplasmas could no longer be cultivated from the joints 1 month postinoculation. Both mycoplasma species evoked a humoral antibody response that was more marked in synovial fluids than in peripheral blood. A cell-mediated immune reaction, as evidence by enhanced uptake by [3H]thymidine by sensitized blood, spleen, or node lymphocytes in the presence of homologous antigen, was detected only in rabbits injected with M. pulmonis. Lymphocytes taken from arthritic rabbits were no more cytotoxic toward synovial cells derived from normal or arthritic rabbits than were normal lymphocytes. The models of synovitis described in this study offer a convenient probe for determining the mechanisms of mycoplasma-induced inflammation, since they require only a single injection of the initiating agent and, in addition, utilize an animal host large enough for detailed investigation into the nature of mycoplasma/synovium interactions. Images PMID:873616

  11. Inhibition of Mycoplasma bovis cytadherence by a monoclonal antibody and various carbohydrate substances.

    PubMed

    Sachse, K; Pfützner, H; Heller, M; Hänel, I

    1993-09-01

    The attachment of Mycoplasma bovis to permanent embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells was studied in order to identify factors participating in the adhesion process. A monoclonal antibody directed against a 26 kDa protein of M. bovis was shown to reduce cytadherence of strains 120 and 454 by 46% and 70%, respectively. In uninhibited assays, strain 120 which exhibits an intense 26 kDa band in electrophoretic protein patterns adhered more strongly to EBL cell monolayers than strain 454 whose corresponding band is considerably weaker. The findings indicate involvement of the 26 kDa protein in M. bovis adherence. In further inhibition experiments, the ability of N-acetyl-neuraminlactose, glycophorin and dextran sulfate to significantly reduce adherence could be demonstrated. This suggests participation of sialic acid residues and probably also sulfatide groups as binding receptors. The data point to a complex adhesion mechanism with similarities to M. pneumoniae. PMID:7505986

  12. Chromosomal Transfers in Mycoplasmas: When Minimal Genomes Go Mobile

    PubMed Central

    Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Sagné, Eveline; Baranowski, Eric; Breton, Marc; Nouvel, Laurent Xavier; Blanchard, Alain; Marenda, Marc Serge; Tardy, Florence; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a main driving force of bacterial evolution and innovation. This phenomenon was long thought to be marginal in mycoplasmas, a large group of self-replicating bacteria characterized by minute genomes as a result of successive gene losses during evolution. Recent comparative genomic analyses challenged this paradigm, but the occurrence of chromosomal exchanges had never been formally addressed in mycoplasmas. Here, we demonstrated the conjugal transfer of large chromosomal regions within and among ruminant mycoplasma species, with the incorporation of the incoming DNA occurring by homologous recombination into the recipient chromosome. By combining classical mating experiments with high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we documented the transfer of almost every position of the mycoplasma chromosome. Mycoplasma conjugation relies on the occurrence of an integrative conjugative element (ICE) in at least one parent cell. While ICE propagates horizontally from ICE-positive to ICE-negative cells, chromosomal transfers (CTs) occurred in the opposite direction, from ICE-negative to ICE-positive cells, independently of ICE movement. These findings challenged the classical mechanisms proposed for other bacteria in which conjugative CTs are driven by conjugative elements, bringing into the spotlight a new means for rapid mycoplasma innovation. Overall, they radically change our current views concerning the evolution of mycoplasmas, with particularly far-reaching implications given that over 50 species are human or animal pathogens. PMID:25425234

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium: An emerging sexually transmitted pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Samanta, Palash; Sharma, Meera

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium. PMID:23391789

  14. Development of a specific DNA probe and PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Ghadersohi, A; Coelen, R J; Hirst, R G

    1997-05-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is responsible for several production diseases in cattle, including mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia, abortion and infertility. Current methodologies for detecting and identifying M. bovis are time consuming and difficult. Tests which rely on antigen or antibody detection have poor sensitivity and specificity. In this paper associated protocols for the development of a hybridization probe and PCR are described. A genomic library (SauIIIA digested) was prepared from M. bovis DNA (Colindale Reference Strain: NC10131:02) and cloned into pUC19. Colony hybridization, using a probe preparation made from purified M. bovis DNA, was used to identify colonies of interest. M. bovis DNA fragments were retrieved from recombinant plasmids by digestion with EcoRI and HindIII. This DNA was used to prepare randomly primed probes for dot blot hybridization analysis with immobilized DNA from M. bovis (two strains), M. dispar, M. agalactiae, M. bovigenitalium (two strains), M. ovipneumoniae, a Group 7 strain, M. arginini and bacteria belonging to different genera. Four probes were found to hybridize only with M. bovis and M. ovipneumoniae DNA, whereas one probe reacted with genomic DNA from only one of the two M. bovis strains. The level of sensitivity of the dot blot hybridization assay was 200 CFU (colony forming units)/mL. To enhance the sensitivity further, an M. bovis-specific PCR assay was developed. The primers were designed using sequences obtained from the probe DNA which discriminated M. bovis from all other Mycoplasma DNA tested. The minimum amount of target DNA that could be detected by the PCR assay was that isolated from 10-20 CFU/mL. The PCR assay was therefore 10 times more sensitive than dot blot hybridization. PMID:9228685

  15. New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences that may help to explain why one species is pathogenic and the other is considered to be commensal. However, it was not possible to identify specific virulence determinant factors that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the analyzed species. The M. hyorhinis genome contains differences in some components involved in metabolism and evasion of the host’s immune system that may contribute to its growth aggressiveness. Several horizontal gene transfer events were identified. The phylogenomic analysis places M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis in the hyopneumoniae clade. PMID:23497205

  16. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

    1985-06-01

    Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

  19. Rhamnose Biosynthesis in Mycoplasmas Requires Precursor Glycans Larger than Monosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, David S.; Daubenspeck, James M.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite the apparent absence of genes coding for the known pathways for biosynthesis, the monosaccharide rhamnose was detected in the D configuration in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pulmonis, and in both the D and L configurations in Mycoplasma arthritidis. Surprisingly, the monosaccharide glucose was not a precursor for rhamnose biosynthesis and was not incorporated at detectable levels in glucose-containing polysaccharides or glycoconjugates. In contrast, carbon atoms from starch, a polymer of glucose, were incorporated into rhamnose in each of the three species examined. When grown in a serum-free medium supplemented with starch, M. arthritidis synthesized higher levels of rhamnose, with a shift in the relative amounts of the D and L configurations. Our findings suggest the presence of a novel pathway for rhamnose synthesis that is widespread in the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:23826905

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOGENS OF 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' BY PROTEIN BLOTTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet by blotting. Sera obtained from infected hamsters and immunized rabbits were then incubated with the nitrocellulose strips. Proteins which are capa...

  1. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be 7.0±0.2. (e) Purity requirements. The antigen shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in § 113.26. (f) Sensitivity requirements. The reactivity of each antigen shall...

  2. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be 7.0±0.2. (e) Purity requirements. The antigen shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in § 113.26. (f) Sensitivity requirements. The reactivity of each antigen shall...

  3. Mycoplasma species and related organisms isolated from ruminants in Britain between 1990 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Ayling, R D; Bashiruddin, S E; Nicholas, R A J

    2004-10-01

    Between 1990 and 2000, more than 1600 mycoplasmas and the related acholeplasmas were identified from ruminant animals by the Mycoplasma Group at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency--Weybridge. Mycoplasma bovis was the most commonly identified pathogen, mostly from pneumonic calves but occasionally from cattle with mastitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma canis was first isolated in Britain in 1995 from pneumonic calves and the number of isolates increased to 18 per cent of the total mycoplasmas isolated from cattle in 1999. The ELISA for antibodies to M. bovis detected 1971 positive samples (22 per cent) among 8959 serum samples, mainly from pneumonic cattle. Other mycoplasmas identified included Mycoplasma dispar from the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium from the reproductive tract of cows with vulvovaginitis and infertility. Mycoplasma bovirhinis and Acholeplasma species were found commonly but are thought to be more opportunistic than pathogenic. In sheep and goats, the majority of Mycoplasma species isolated were identified as Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae from pneumonic sheep, Mycoplasma conjunctivae from sheep with keratoconjunctivitis, and the ubiquitous Mycoplasma arginini. PMID:15508840

  4. Sex pheromone of the American warble fly, Dermatobia hominis: the role of cuticular hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Gulias Gomes, Claudia Cristina; Trigo, José Roberto; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2008-05-01

    Chemical communication between adults of the American warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae), was investigated by electroantennography and behavioral bioassays. Significant electroantennographic responses were recorded from both sexes to hexane-soluble cuticular lipids from either sex. Olfactometer tests indicated an attraction between males and females, and between females. Copulatory behavior of males with a white knotted string treated with female extract confirmed production of a sexual stimulant by females. Such behavior was not observed in tests with male extract, demonstrating that the pheromone acts also as a sex recognition factor. Cuticular hydrocarbons of sexually mature female and male D. hominis were identified by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and consist of a mixture of saturated n-, monomethyl-, and dimethylalkanes in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism was characterized by a higher relative concentration of dimethylalkanes in males and the presence of alkenes only in females. PMID:18443879

  5. Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis isolates from humans and cattle in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar; Keshavarz, Akbar; Mohebi, Seyed Reza; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-06-30

    Cryptosporidium is an intestinal parasite associated with severe acute diarrhea in humans and animals. To investigate subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from humans and cattle in Iran, 47 Cryptosporidium parvum (22 from children and 25 from cattle) and three Cryptosporidium hominis from children were characterized by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Nine subtypes (two of C. hominis and seven of C. parvum) in four subtype families were identified. Cattle were mainly infected with C. parvum IIa subtypes and humans mostly with the C. parvum IIa and IId subtypes. Consequently, cattle could be a source of human infection with C. parvum IIa in Iran. However, the occurrence of subtype IId families in Iranian children, suggests that other infection sources might also be involved in C. parvum transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first published record and description of Cryptosporidium subtypes in Iran. PMID:21376469

  6. [Cutaneous myiasis caused by a double infestation with larvae of Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax].

    PubMed

    Zupan-Kajcovski, B; Simonian, H; Keller, J J; Faber, W R

    2004-10-16

    In a 51-year-old man who had visited Surinam, cutaneous myiasis was diagnosed, caused by simultaneous infestation with the larvae of two different species of flies: Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax. On his right lower arm the man had two solitary, furuncle-like lesions with a central breathing hole. Two days after these holes had been occluded with vaseline, two white larvae of D. hominis emerged. On both ankles the man had large, undermined ulcers containing hundreds of creeping larvae about 2 cm in length with a salmon-like colour: C. hominivorax. The larvae were removed from the ulcers by hand and by rinsing with physiological saline, after which the wounds healed rapidly. Myiasis is seen in the Netherlands mostly in people returning from a holiday in myiasis-endemic areas. PMID:15532333

  7. Mycoplasma pneumonia combined with pulmonary infarction in a child

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhihong; Li, Fengyan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Jin, Peina; Guo, Qingmin; Wang, Huaili

    2015-01-01

    We reported a 9-year-old boy with mycoplasma pneumonia who developed pulmonary infarction. The child first had fever and cough, and then had difficult breathing. But, the signs of his lung were not obvious. Mycoplasma antibody IgM was positive. The child was given intravenous azithromycin for anti-infection, and intravenous low molecular weight heparin and oral warfarin for anti-coagulation. Although difficult breathing was relieved, sudden cardiac arrest occurred. His parents requested to give up treatment.

  8. Isolation of a Mycoplasma sp. from three buzzards (Buteo spp.).

    PubMed

    Bölske, G; Mörner, T

    1982-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the respiratory tissues of three buzzards. Bird I, a rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus), showed airsacculitis, catarrhal-fibrinous pneumonia, and catarrhal tracheitis. Bird II, a common buzzard (Buteo buteo), revealed mycotic airsacculitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Bird III was a healthy rough-legged buzzard. All isolates metabolized glucose but not arginine and were serologically identical by immunofluorescence and growth-inhibition tests. No serological cross-reactions were seen with several known Mycoplasma species. PMID:7049150

  9. Cutaneous myiasis with Dermatobia hominis (human bot fly) larvae treated both conservatively and surgically.

    PubMed

    Wild, G

    2006-01-01

    A case is presented of infestation with the larvae of Dermatobia hominis (human bot fly). This case is unusual in that it provides an example of three different outcomes for separate lesions in the same patient; spontaneous resolution, conservative treatment and surgical intervention. It also illustrates that myiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any skin lesion of a patient returning from the tropics. PMID:16892758

  10. Myiasis with Dermatobia hominis in a Sicilian traveller returning from Peru.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, M R; Pistone, G; Aricò, M

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a bot fly infestation of the scalp. A 45-year-old man after returning to Sicily noted a small white "worm" erupting from the upper lesion. Physical examination revealed a superficial furuncular lesion with central pores with sero-sanguineous discharge. The foreign body identified was diagnosed as the larva of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis. PMID:17448949

  11. Characterization of the excretory\\/secretory products of Dermatobia hominis larvae, the human bot fly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. R. Brant; S. Guimarães; J. A. Souza-Neto; P. E. M. Ribolla; T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic activity in excretory\\/secretory products (ESP) of first- (L1), second- (L2) and third-instar (L3) larvae of Dermatobia hominis was analyzed through gelatin-gel and colorimetric enzyme assays with the chromogenic substrates azocasein and BApNA. The functional characterization of proteases was based on inhibition assays including synthetic inhibitors. ESP were obtained from new-hatched larvae reared in the laboratory and from second- and

  12. Case report: cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Kanishka W; Singh, Virtaj

    2007-05-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly, involves the infestation of human tissue with fly larvae, and is common in Central and South America. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with cutaneous myiasis imported into the US from Belize. The epidemiology, biological life cycle, clinical presentation, and various methods of larval extraction, including incision and drainage, are discussed. PMID:17448950

  13. Rapid Microsphere Assay for Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool and Environmental Samples?

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Kellar, Kathryn L.; Moura, Iaci; Casaqui Carollo, Maria Cristina; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Slemenda, Susan; Johnston, Stephanie P.; da Silva, Alexandre J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are associated with massive disease outbreaks worldwide. Because these two species have different transmission cycles, identification of these parasites to the species level in clinical samples may provide laboratory data of crucial importance in epidemiologic investigations. To date, the most reliable way to differentiate C. hominis and C. parvum is based on DNA sequencing analysis of PCR amplicons. Although this approach is very effective for differentiation of Cryptosporidium species, it is labor-intensive and time-consuming compared with methods that do not require DNA sequencing analysis as an additional step and that have been successfully used for specific identification of a number of pathogens. In this study, we describe a novel Luminex-based assay that can differentiate C. hominis from C. parvum in a rapid and cost-effective manner. The assay was validated by testing a total of 143 DNA samples extracted from clinical specimens, environmental samples, or samples artificially spiked with Cryptosporidium oocysts. As few as 10 oocysts per 300 ?l of stools could be detected with this assay. The assay format includes species-specific probes linked to carboxylated Luminex microspheres that hybridize to a Cryptosporidium microsatellite-2 region (ML-2) where C. hominis and C. parvum differ by one nucleotide substitution. The assay proved to be 100% specific when samples that had been characterized by direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) and DNA sequencing analysis were tested. In addition, the assay was more sensitive than DFA and provided species identification, which is an advantage for epidemiologic studies. PMID:17652477

  14. Elucidation of the life cycle of the intestinal protozoan Blastocystis hominis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Singh; K. Suresh; L. C. Ho; G. C. Ng; E. H. Yap

    1995-01-01

    This paper elucidates the status of the different morphological forms ofBlastocystis and reports the existence of thin-and thick-walled cysts inB. hominis on the basis of current experimental evidence. It is suggested that the thin-walled cysts are autoinfectious, leading to multiplication of the organism in the intestinal tract. The thick-walled cysts are responsible for external transmission via the faecal-oral route. A

  15. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-beom Seo; In-sun Han; Jin-hwan Yoon; In-chan Seol; Yun-sik Kim; Hyun-kyung Jo; Joung-jo An; Kwon-eui Hong; Young-bae Seo; Dong-hee Kim; Seung-kiel Park; Deok-chun Yang

    2006-01-01

    Aim:Extract of Hominis Placenta (HP) has been used in oriental medicine as an agent for improving physiological function. The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury.Methods:After HP was injected into a sciatic nerve injury site, changes in protein levels were

  16. Antibody to Herpesvirus hominis in Patients with Carcinoma of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Najem, S. N.; Barton, I. G.; Al-Omar, L. S.; Potter, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    An ELISA test was used to measure the levels of antibody to Herpesvirus hominis in a group of women with carcinoma of the cervix. The results were compared to those in a similar group of age-matched controls. The mean titre of antibody in the patients with carcinoma of the cervix was significantly greater than in the corresponding control group using both HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens. PMID:6293526

  17. A Mycoplasma species of emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n?=?7) and wood turtles (n?=?4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US. PMID:25574806

  18. Spleen cell proliferation during and after skin myiasis by human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jomara Mendes; Nascimento, Maria Fernanda Alves do; Breyner, Natália Martins; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Góes, Alfredo Miranda de; Leite, Antonio César Rios

    2009-01-01

    Spleen cells from mice were examined at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days post-infection (dpi) with Dermatobia hominis larva and at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Cell proliferation in vitro assays were carried out with RPMI-1640 medium and larval secretory product (LSP) of D. hominis at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. When each group of mice was tested against each medium, significance was only seen for 25 dpi, with increasing order: LSP-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d and RPMI. Significant results were also observed when each medium was tested against mice at each dpi or dple. Each dple group vs. each medium produced significant results only for 10 dple, with increasing order: LSP-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d and RPMI. Comparative tests were also carried out between groups to refine certain observations. The LSPs were also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The results prove that myiasis caused depletion of spleen cells, particularly under the effect of the LSP-10 and -15, but the cells tended to increase up to 60 dple. This in vitro assay may represent the real systemic immune response in the relationship LSP-D. hominis-host. PMID:19551289

  19. Blastocystis hominis infection in a post-cardiotomy patient on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Chou, Nai-Kuan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Opportunistic pathogens can cause severe damage leading to irreversible complications in immune-compromised patients. Here we describe a patient who sustained Blastocystis hominis infection resulting in severe sepsis while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and the course of treatment taken to treat him. PRESENTATION OF CASE Our case, a 34-year-old Filipino man, was hospitalized for valvular disease and received valve replacements. ECMO and an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) were implemented when the patient developed progressive heart failure after cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from sepsis with persistent fever and diarrhea, and subsequent examinations indicated the patient was infected by B. hominis. After adequate administration of the antibiotic metronidazole, the patient's symptoms subsided and he was discharged. DISCUSSION Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular protozoa commonly found in the intestinal tract, and the prevalence of B. hominis is 1.5–10% in developed countries and 30–50% in developing countries. The patient needed the support of ECMO and IABP, was immunocompromised to a certain extent; B. hominis can be a harmful opportunistic pathogen for them and lead to severe irreversible complications such as death. CONCLUSION This is the first published article showing that the opportunistic pathogen, B. hominis, can cause severe infection in patients on ECMO support, a result that should be kept in mind when patients come from a place with a high prevalence of B. hominis. The prophylactic medication should be administered routinely when patients live in the region and extracorporeal life-support is used. PMID:25160800

  20. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Layers Innoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Stain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on BW and the blood characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were assessed at 34, ...

  1. Role of Binding in Mycoplasma mobile and Mycoplasma pneumoniae Gliding Analyzed through Inhibition by Synthesized Sialylated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Taishi; Nakane, Daisuke; Ishida, Hideharu; Ando, Hiromune; Kiso, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, which have been shown to be the causative pathogens in recent human pneumonia epidemics, bind to solid surfaces and glide in the direction of the membrane protrusion at a pole. During gliding, the legs of the mycoplasma catch, pull, and release sialylated oligosaccharides fixed on a solid surface. Sialylated oligosaccharides are major structures on animal cell surfaces and are sometimes targeted by pathogens, such as influenza virus. In the present study, we analyzed the inhibitory effects of 16 chemically synthesized sialylated compounds on the gliding and binding of Mycoplasma mobile and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and concluded the following. (i) The recognition of sialylated oligosaccharide by mycoplasma legs proceeds in a “lock-and-key” fashion, with the binding affinity dependent on structural differences among the sialylated compounds examined. (ii) The binding of the leg and the sialylated oligosaccharide is cooperative, with Hill constants ranging from 2 to 3. (iii) Mycoplasma legs may generate a drag force after a stroke, because the gliding speed decreased and pivoting motion occurred more frequently when the number of working legs was reduced by the addition of free sialylated compounds. PMID:23123913

  2. Insights into the Gene Expression Profile of Uncultivable Hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis during Acute Infection, Obtained Using Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Kathrin M.; Carranza, Paula M.; Gehrig, Peter M.; Roschitzki, Bernd; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Hoelzle, Katharina; Riedel, Katharina; Kube, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas, bacteria without cell walls whose niche is the erythrocytes of their hosts, have never been cultivated in vitro. Therefore, knowledge of their pathogenesis is fundamental. Mycoplasma suis infects pigs, causing either acute fatal hemolytic anemia or chronic low-grade anemia, growth retardation, and immune suppression. Recently, the complete genomes of two hemotrophic mycoplasma species, M. suis and M. haemofelis, were sequenced, offering new strategies for the analysis of their pathogenesis. In this study we implemented a proteomic approach to identify M. suis proteins during acute infection by using tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-two percent of the predicted proteins encoded in M. suis strain KI_3806 were identified. These included nearly all encoded proteins of glycolysis and nucleotide metabolism. The proteins for lipid metabolism, however, were underrepresented. A high proportion of the detected proteins are involved in information storage and processing (72.6%). In addition, several proteins of different functionalities, i.e., posttranslational modification, membrane genesis, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, inorganic ion transport, and defense mechanisms, were identified. In its reduced genome, M. suis harbors 65.3% (strain Illinois) and 65.9% (strain KI_3806) of the genes encode hypothetical proteins. Of these, only 6.3% were identified at the proteome level. All proteins identified in this study are present in both M. suis strains and are encoded in more highly conserved regions of the genome sequence. In conclusion, our proteome approach is a further step toward the elucidation of the pathogenesis and life cycle of M. suis as well as the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. PMID:22267506

  3. Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin are all suitable candidates for further investigation as potential treatments for CBPP. This study also highlights the importance of testing drug activity in biological matrices as well as artificial media. PMID:22952911

  4. Transposon mutagenesis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by conjugation with enterococcus faecalis and determination of insertion site by direct genomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, D C; van Santen, V L; Zhang, Y; Voelker, L L; Panangala, V S; Dybvig, K

    2000-09-01

    Few genetic systems for studying mycoplasmas exist, but transposon Tn916 has been shown to transpose into the genomes of some species and can be used as an insertional mutagen. In the current study, the ability of Enterococcus faecalis to serve as a donor for the conjugative transfer of transposon Tn916 into the genome of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain PG31 was examined. Transconjugants were obtained at a frequency of > or =6 x 10(-8) per recipient CFU. To determine the transposon insertion site, an oligonucleotide primer corresponding to the 3' end of Tn916 was designed for the purpose of directly sequencing genomic DNA without PCR amplification. Using the direct sequencing approach, Tn916 was shown to insert into any of numerous sites in the M. gallisepticum genome. This is the first report of conjugal transposition of Tn916 into the M. gallisepticum genome. The ability to determine transposon insertion sites in mycoplasmas by genomic sequencing has not been previously described and allows rapid sequence analysis of transposon-generated mutants. PMID:10964629

  5. Mycoplasma mycoides, from "mycoides Small Colony" to "capri". A microevolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of five species or subspecies that are ruminant pathogens. One subspecies, Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Its very close relative, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), is a more ubiquitous pathogen in small ruminants causing mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia and is also found as saprophyte in the ear canal. To understand the genetics underlying these phenotypic differences, we compared the MmmSC PG1 type strain genome, which was already available, with the genome of an Mmc field strain (95010) that was sequenced in this study. We also compared the 95010 genome with the recently published genome of another Mmc strain (GM12) to evaluate Mmc strain diversity. Results The MmmSC PG1 genome is 1,212 kbp and that of Mmc 95010 is ca. 58 kbp shorter. Most of the sequences present in PG1 but not 95010 are highly repeated Insertion Sequences (three types of IS) and large duplicated DNA fragments. The 95010 genome contains five types of IS, present in fewer copies than in PG1, and two copies of an integrative conjugative element. These mobile genetic elements have played a key role in genome plasticity, leading to inversions of large DNA fragments. Comparison of the two genomes suggested a marked decay of the PG1 genome that seems to be correlated with a greater number of IS. The repertoire of gene families encoding surface proteins is smaller in PG1. Several genes involved in polysaccharide metabolism and protein degradation are also absent from, or degraded in, PG1. Conclusions The genome of MmmSC PG1 is larger than that of Mmc 95010, its very close relative, but has less coding capacity. This is the result of large genetic rearrangements due to mobile elements that have also led to marked gene decay. This is consistent with a non-adaptative genomic complexity theory, allowing duplications or pseudogenes to be maintained in the absence of adaptive selection that would lead to purifying selection and genome streamlining over longer evolutionary times. These findings also suggest that MmmSC only recently adapted to its bovine host. PMID:21324191

  6. Proteomics inference of genes involved in host adaptation of Mycoplasma gallinarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different from most other host-specific mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallinarum has been isolated from various hosts, such as poultry, pig, cattle, and sheep. The wide distribution among different hosts, the low pathogenesis, and the weak host immunological responses suggest this mycoplasma has a unique ...

  7. Contribution of Topoisomerase IV Mutation to Quinolone Resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Masaya; Kishii, Ryuta; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium remains poorly understood due to difficulties with in vitro culture, especially of clinical isolates. In this study, to confirm the association between mutations in topoisomerases and antimicrobial susceptibilities to quinolones, ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant strains were selected using the cultivable type strain ATCC 33530. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant strains harbored mutations in topoisomerase IV: Gly81Cys in ParC, Pro261Thr in ParC, or Asn466Lys in ParE. The MICs of all quinolones tested against the mutant strains were 2- to 16-fold higher than those against the wild-type strain. No cross-resistance was observed with macrolides or tetracyclines. We determined the inhibitory activities of quinolones against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in order to investigate the correlation between antimicrobial susceptibility and inhibitory activity against the target enzymes, considered the primary targets of quinolones. Furthermore, using enzymatic analysis, we confirmed that Gly81Cys in the ParC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) contributed to quinolone resistance. This is the first study to isolate quinolone-resistant mutant strains of M. genitalium harboring substitutions in the parC or parE gene in vitro and to measure the inhibitory activities against the purified topoisomerases of M. genitalium. PMID:23357772

  8. Rapid Detection of a Point Mutation in the parC Gene Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones in Mycoplasma bovis?

    PubMed Central

    Lysnyansky, I.; Mikula, I.; Gerchman, I.; Levisohn, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in 42 Mycoplasma bovis clinical isolates revealed amino acid substitutions at both GyrA (position 83) and ParC (position 84) in 10/11 enrofloxacin-resistant strains. The mutation present in the parC QRDR was discriminative for enrofloxacin resistance by parC PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison of molecular profiles by insertion sequence typing suggests that the currently prevalent enrofloxacin-resistant M. bovis strain evolved by selection under field conditions from one of the susceptible strains. PMID:19721062

  9. Treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium. Observations from a Swedish STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Anagrius, Carin; Loré, Britta; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium infection with doxycycline or azithromycin 1 g compared to five days of azithromycin (total dose 1.5 g). Methods A retrospective case study was performed among patients attending the STD-clinic in Falun, Sweden 1998–2005. All patients with a positive PCR test for M. genitalium were routinely offered a test of cure (toc). Response to doxycycline for 9 days, azithromycin 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg o.d. for 4 days) was determined. In patients with treatment failure after azithromycin, macrolide resistance was monitored before and after treatment. Furthermore, the rate of macrolide resistance was monitored for positive specimens available from 2006–2011. Results The eradication rate after doxycycline was 43% (48% for women and 38% for men), for azithromycin 1 g 91% (96% for women and 88% for men) and for extended azithromycin 99% (100% for women and 93% for men). Macrolide resistance developed in 7/7 examined (100%) of those testing positive after azithromycin 1 g, but in none of those treated with extended azithromycin. Macrolide resistance before treatment increased from 0% in 2006 and 2007 to 18% in 2011. Conclusions These findings confirm the results from other studies showing that doxycycline is inefficient in eradicating M. genitalium. Although azithromycin 1 g was not significantly less efficient than extended dosage, it was associated with selection of macrolide resistant M. genitalium strains and should not be used as first line therapy for M. genitalium. Monitoring of M. genitalium macrolide resistance should be encouraged. PMID:23593483

  10. Development of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection model in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wijesurendra, Dinidu S; Kanci, Anna; Tivendale, Kelly A; Bacci, Barbara; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and is also highly pathogenic in turkeys. Several live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccines are available for prevention of disease in chickens but they are considered to be either not safe or not efficacious in turkeys. The studies presented here aimed to develop a suitable infection model in turkeys, a prerequisite for development of a vaccine against M. gallisepticum for turkeys. Two wild-type Australian M. gallisepticum strains, Ap3AS and 100809/31, were used and their capacity to induce lesions was evaluated in 5-week-old to 6-week-old turkeys exposed to aerosols of these strains. Gross air sac lesion scores in the group exposed to Ap3AS were significantly greater than those in the group exposed to 100809/31 (P < 0.05). Histological tracheal lesion scores and tracheal mucosal thicknesses were significantly greater in birds exposed to either strain than in the unexposed birds (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between the two infected groups. In a subsequent experiment, 6-week-old to 7-week-old turkeys were exposed to different doses of M. gallisepticum Ap3AS. Serology and M. gallisepticum re-isolation performed 14 days after infection showed that all birds exposed to Ap3AS were positive by rapid serum agglutination and by culture. Gross air sac lesion scores in the groups exposed to the highest dose, 8.17 × 10(8) colour-changing units Ap3AS/ml, as well as a 10-fold lower dose were significantly more severe than in the uninfected control group. Lesion scores and tracheal mucosal thicknesses were significantly greater in birds exposed to Ap3AS than in the unexposed birds (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were seen in tracheal mucosal thicknesses or lesion scores between the groups exposed to the different doses of Ap3AS. This study has established a reliable challenge model for M. gallisepticum infection in turkeys, which will be useful for evaluation of potential M. gallisepticum vaccine candidates for this species. PMID:25431001

  11. Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Corbett, R; Harding, R; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp., usually Mycoplasma bovis, are important bovine pathogens that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, and arthritis. The currently documented routes of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. are through contaminated milking equipment and by direct animal contact. The existence of environmental sources for Mycoplasma spp. and their role in transmission and clinical disease is poorly characterized. Mycoplasma spp. (confirmed as M. bovis in 2 of 4 samples tested using PCR) was found in recycled bedding sand originating from a dairy experiencing an outbreak of clinical mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma spp. were subsequently found in bedding sand from 2 other dairies whose bulk-tank milk was mycoplasma-positive. The association between the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and mycoplasma mastitis in cows was further investigated using a pile of recycled sand from dairy 1. Study objectives included the determination of factors associated with the concentration of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and the duration of survival of mycoplasmas in the sand. We also evaluated the efficacy of 2 disinfectants at 2 different concentrations each for the elimination of Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated sand. Mycoplasma spp. survived in the sand pile for 8 mo. The concentration of Mycoplasma spp. within the sand pile was directly related to temperature and precipitation. It was also positively associated with the growth of gram-negative microorganisms, suggesting the possibility of the formation of a biofilm. Ideal temperatures for replication of Mycoplasma spp. occurred between 15 and 20 degrees C. Moisture in the sand and movement of the sand pile also appeared to play a role in replication of mycoplasmas. We found that 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine were efficacious in eliminating Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated bedding sand. Recycled bedding sand could be an environmental source of Mycoplasma spp., including M. bovis, infections in dairy cows. Future studies should investigate the contribution of this environmental source to the epidemiology of mycoplasma infections in dairy cattle. PMID:20059918

  12. Human botfly (Dermatobia hominis) larva in a child's scalp mimicking osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Kanupriya; Kalapos, Paul; Makkar, Abhishek; Engbrecht, Brett; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis is endemic throughout Central and South America. However, because of widespread travel, furuncular myiasis has become more common in North America. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement can occur owing to limited awareness of the condition outside endemic areas. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in an immigrant from El Salvador with magnetic resonance imaging findings. The case is unique because neuroimaging was obtained upon the clinical suspicion of calvarial osteomyelitis. Parasitic infestation should be included in the differential diagnosis of a new skin lesion in patients who have traveled to endemic areas. PMID:22910983

  13. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Bitarello, Bárbara Domingues; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Lyra, Mariana Lúcio; DE Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe the development of 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, an obligatory parasite of mammals of great veterinary importance in Latin America. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 21 per locus, with a mean of 12.2 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.2571 to 0.9206 and from 0.2984 to 0.9291 in two populations from Brazil. These markers should provide a high resolution tool for assessment of the fine-scale genetic structure of natural populations of the human botfly. PMID:21564664

  14. Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma mycoides Subspecies capri from Milk of Natural Goat Mastitis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Rana, Rajneesh; Mehra, Somya; Rout, Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples (n = 171) of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strain variation was also studied by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (16S ARDRA). The study recovered a total of 6 Mmc isolates (3.5%). Three types of intraspecies variants among the recovered Mmc isolates were found by 16S ARDRA. The study concluded that Mmc may be an etiological agent of mycoplasmal mastitis in Indian goat herds. PMID:23762593

  16. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark. PMID:17204146

  17. Cytoskeletal “jellyfish” structure of Mycoplasma mobile

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, Daisuke; Miyata, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma mobile, a parasitic bacterium lacking a peptidoglycan layer, glides on solid surfaces in the direction of a membrane protrusion at a cell pole by a unique mechanism. Recently, we proposed a working model in which cells are propelled by leg proteins clustering at the protrusion's base. The legs repeatedly catch and release sialic acids on the solid surface, a motion that is driven by the force generated by ATP hydrolysis. Here, to clarify the subcellular structure supporting the gliding force and the cell shape, we stripped the membrane by Triton X-100 and identified a unique structure, designated the “jellyfish” structure. In this structure, an oval solid “bell” ?235 wide and 155 nm long is filled with a 12-nm hexagonal lattice and connected to this structure are dozens of flexible “tentacles” that are covered with particles of 20-nm diameter at intervals of ?30 nm. The particles appear to have 180° rotational symmetry and a dimple at the center. The relation of this structure to the gliding mechanism was suggested by its cellular localization and by analyses of mutants lacking proteins essential for gliding. We identified 10 proteins as the components by mass spectrometry and found that these do not show sequence similarities with other proteins of bacterial cytoskeletons or the gliding proteins previously identified. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that two components are localized at the bell and another that has the structure similar to the F1-ATPase ? subunit is localized at the tentacles. PMID:18042728

  18. Mycoplasma genitalium: Should We Treat and How?

    PubMed Central

    Broad, Jennifer M.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with acute and chronic urethritis in men. Existing data on infection in women are limited and inconsistent but suggest that M. genitalium is associated with urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and possibly female infertility. Data are inconclusive regarding the role of M. genitalium in adverse pregnancy outcomes and ectopic pregnancy. Available data suggest that azithromycin is superior to doxycycline in treating M. genitalium infection. However, azithromycin-resistant infections have been reported in 3 continents, and the proportion of azithromycin-resistant M. genitalium infection is unknown. Moxifloxacin is the only drug that currently seems to uniformly eradicate M. genitalium. Detection of M. genitalium is hampered by the absence of a commercially available diagnostic test. Persons with persistent pelvic inflammatory disease or clinically significant persistent urethritis or cervicitis should be tested for M. genitalium, if possible. Infected persons who have not previously received azithromycin should receive that drug. Persons in whom azithromycin therapy fails should be treated with moxifloxicin. PMID:22080266

  19. Mechanisms of volume regulation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a cell wall-less bacterium, must confront the problem of colloid osmotic swelling. Cell volume was determined by optical density and intracellular water measurements. Transmembrane pH and electrical gradients were determined by the distribution of the weak acid benzoate and lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium respectively. Cells incubated in sodium chloride without glucose exhibited a progressive fall in ATP over several hours. When ATP fell below 40 uM the cells swelled, leaked protein and became permeable to inulin. Subsequent addition of glucose induced shrinkage and restored the original permeability properties. Energized cells exhibited an electrochemical gradient of protons of up to 130 mV, inside negative and alkaline. The proton-ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), which collapsed the chemical and electrical components of the proton gradient, induced rapid swelling despite high ATP levels thus implicating the proton gradient in volume regulation. Either the pH gradient or the membrane potential could maintain volume. Energy-dependent sodium efflux in exchange for protons was demonstrated in sodium-loaded cells using radioactive sodium and 9-aminoacridine fluorescence to follow sodium and proton translocation respectively.

  20. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection with Neurologic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yimenicio?lu, Sevgi; Yakut, Ayten; Ekici, Arzu; Bora Carman, Kursat; Cagr? Dinleyici, Ener

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extrapulmonary complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection include encephalitis, optic neuritis, acute psychosis, stroke, cranial nerve palsies, aseptic meningitis and also it may be implicated in immune mediated neurological diseases such as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and transverse myelitis. Case Presentation: We present five cases with acute neurological diseases after M. pneumoniae infection. The clinical presentations were characterized by encephalitis in 2 patients, Gullain-Barre syndrome in 2 patients, transverse myelitis in 1 patient. M. pneumoniae infection was detected in serum by serological method. Only two patients had respiratory symptoms preceding M. pneumoniae infection. Brain MRI revealed hyperintensities on corpus striatum and mesencephalon in one patient with encephalitis, the other had front parietal coalescent periventricular white matter lesions on T2 images. The patient with transverse myelitis had cervical, dorsal and lumbar scattered hyperintense lesions on T2 images. Two patients were treated with high dose steroid, the other two patients received treatment with intravenous immune globuline. Conclusion: M. pneumoniae may reveal different neurologic complications with different radiologic findings.

  1. A Novel Rapid DNA Microarray Assay Enables Identification of 37 Mycoplasma Species and Highlights Multiple Mycoplasma Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schnee, Christiane; Schulsse, Samuel; Hotzel, Helmut; Ayling, Roger D.; Nicholas, Robin A. J.; Schubert, Evelyn; Heller, Martin; Ehricht, Ralf; Sachse, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasmas comprise a conglomerate of pathogens and commensals occurring in humans and animals. The genus Mycoplasma alone contains more than 120 species at present, and new members are continuously being discovered. Therefore, it seems promising to use a single highly parallel detection assay rather than develop separate tests for each individual species. In this study, we have designed a DNA microarray carrying 70 oligonucleotide probes derived from the 23S rRNA gene and 86 probes from the tuf gene target regions. Following a PCR amplification and biotinylation step, hybridization on the array was shown to specifically identify 31 Mycoplasma spp., as well as 3 Acholeplasma spp. and 3 Ureaplasma spp. Members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster can be recognized at subgroup level. This procedure enables parallel detection of Mollicutes spp. occurring in humans, animals or cell culture, from mono- and multiple infections, in a single run. The main advantages of the microarray assay include ease of operation, rapidity, high information content, and affordability. The new test's analytical sensitivity is equivalent to that of real-time PCR and allows examination of field samples without the need for culture. When 60 field samples from ruminants and birds previously analyzed by denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were tested by the microarray assay both tests identified the same agent in 98.3% of the cases. Notably, microarray testing revealed an unexpectedly high proportion (35%) of multiple mycoplasma infections, i.e., substantially more than DGGE (15%). Two of the samples were found to contain four different Mycoplasma spp. This phenomenon deserves more attention, particularly its implications for epidemiology and treatment. PMID:22479374

  2. Detection of Mycoplasma mycoides sub-species mycoides small colony by a specific capture/enrichment monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.

    PubMed

    Brooks, C; Finlay, D; Blackburn, P; Ball, H J

    2009-10-01

    The present study describes the development of a specific Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) monoclonal antibody (MAb), 6E3, and its application in a sandwich ELISA (sELISA) format. Mab 6E3 reacted only to the 12 MmmSC within the 32 M. mycoides cluster strains and 12 representative strains of other bovine, ovine and caprine associated mycoplasmas examined. A capture/enrichment format of the sELISA that combined MAb 6E3 with a previously developed MAb 3H12 that cross reacted with Mmm Large Colony [Rodriguez, F., Ball, H.J., Finlay, D., Campbell, D., Mackie, D.P., 1996. Detection of Mycoplasma mycoides sub-species mycoides by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Veterinary Microbiology 51, 69-76], retained MmmSC specificity and improved the sensitivity from the 1.2x10(7)cfu/ml for a standard 2h capture stage sELISA down to as low as 2cfu/ml for a 72h capture. A low level of false positives (1%) was observed when this assay was applied to 200 bovine respiratory and milk samples submitted for diagnostic investigation. This simple and specific sELISA provides a suitable assay for screening large numbers of samples for CBPP. PMID:19361829

  3. Expression of circulating leucocytes before, during and after myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jomara M; Pereira, Mônica C T; Evangelista, Luciene G; Leite, Antônio C R

    2007-01-01

    Expression of circulating white blood cells was investigated in rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with larvae of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly. Leucocytes were counted prior to infection (control group) as well as at 6, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) and at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Total leucocyte numbers did not differ markedly among the groups. Significant differences were registered when values from control and animals harboring each larval stage of D. hominis were compared; with crescent rank: L1-, L2-, control and L3-infected groups. Leucocyte numbers were significantly higher in the control, 15, 20 or 28 dpi groups than in the 6 dpi animals. Higher counts were observed in control, L2- or L3-infected rats than L1-infected animals. Neutrophils, eosinophils and both large and small lymphocytes were also counted and analyzed. Basophils and monocytes were insufficient in number to permit statistical studies. These results stimulate the continuity of the studies about the host-parasite relationship in the dermatobiosis. PMID:18026634

  4. Genotypic Characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from Water Samples in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ronalda S.; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N.; Carvalho, Terezinha T.; Sato, Maria Inês Z.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Matté, Glavur R.; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil. PMID:22049036

  5. Simple and effective field extraction of human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, using a venom extractor.

    PubMed

    West, Jonathan K

    2013-03-01

    After a trip to Belize, a 25-year-old man noticed an erythematous papule on his upper right chest that enlarged over a 6-week period and formed a central aperture. The patient reported feeling movement and intermittent lancinating pains under the skin. The history and examination were consistent with cutaneous myiasis, likely secondary to the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis. The objective of reporting this case is to present a simple method of extraction of a botfly larva using a commercial venom extractor. The patient's upper chest was prepared, and an occlusive dressing was placed over the lesion for 30 minutes. The Extractor Pump (Sawyer Products, Safety Harbor, FL) was applied and activated, and the larva was rapidly extracted completely intact with no significant discomfort to the patient. The wound fully healed without complication. D hominis is a common etiology of cutaneous myiasis endemic to Belize. The larva burrows under the skin of mammals where it develops for a period of weeks before erupting and falling to the soil to pupate. The diagnosis and treatment of botfly infestation is pertinent to doctors in the United States as Central and South America are common travel destinations for North Americans. In this case, a commercially available venom extractor was demonstrated to be a safe, noninvasive, and painless method for botfly extraction in the field without use of hospital resources. PMID:23246347

  6. Molecular epidemiologic investigations of Mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis in songbirds by random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Ley, D H; Berkhoff, J E; Levisohn, S

    1997-01-01

    An ongoing outbreak of conjunctivitis in free-ranging house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) began in 1994 in the eastern United States. Bacterial organisms identified as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) were isolated from lesions of infected birds. MG was also isolated from a blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) that contracted conjunctivitis after being housed in a cage previously occupied by house finches with conjunctivitis, and from free-ranging American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) in North Carolina in 1996. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of this outbreak, we produced DNA fingerprints of MG isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We compared MG isolates from songbirds examined from 1994 through 1996 in 11 states, representing three host species, with vaccine and reference strains and with contemporary MG isolates from commercial poultry. All MG isolates from songbirds had RAPD banding patterns identical to each other but different from other strains and isolates tested. These results indicate that the outbreak of MG in songbirds is caused by the same strain, which suggests a single source; the outbreak is not caused by the vaccine or reference strains analyzed; and MG infection has not been shared between songbirds and commercial poultry. PMID:9284386

  7. Excision of a dermatobia hominis larva from the heel of a south american traveler: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W Adams; Ryan T Cooney

    2004-01-01

    Although foot and ankle specialists are well versed in treating insect bites and foreign bodies, many physicians in the United States are unfamiliar with parasitic organisms that are common in other parts of the world. This article presents a case of a patient inoculated in the posterior heel with the larva of a Dermatobia hominis, or human bot fly. Excision

  8. Population structure of natural and propagated isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum, C.?hominis and C.?meleagridis.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Giovanni; Ras, Refaat; Chalmers, Rachel M; Elwin, Kristin; Desoky, Enas; Badawy, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The three protozoan species Cryptosporidium parvum, C.?meleagridis and C.?hominis (phylum Apicomplexa) are enteric pathogens of humans. The former two species are zoonotic and the latter is thought to infect only humans. To better characterize the structure and transmission of natural and laboratory-propagated isolates, we analyzed a collection of archived human and animal isolates of these three species by deep-sequencing polymerase chain reaction products amplified from a polymorphic sequence on chromosome 1. Thousands of screened 200-nucleotide sequences were analyzed to compare the diversity among samples, to assess the impact of laboratory propagation on population complexity and to identify taxonomically mixed isolates. Contrary to our expectation, repeated propagation in animals did not reduce intra-isolate diversity nor was diversity associated with host species. Significantly, in most samples, sequences characteristic of a different species were identified. The presence of C.?hominis alleles in C.?parvum and C.?meleagridis isolates confirms earlier reports of mixed isolates and raises the possibility that the host range of C.?hominis is broader than typically assumed. In a genetically divergent isolate of C.?parvum, a majority of sequences was found to be recombinant, suggesting that this genotype originated from a C.?parvum?×?C.?hominis recombination event. PMID:24593863

  9. Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

  10. Induction of hemopoiesis by Saenghyuldan, a mixture of Ginseng Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Hominis Placenta extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SON Chang-Gue; HAN Seung-Hyun; CHO Jung-Hyo; SHIN Jang-Woo; CHO Chin-Ho; LEE Yeon-Weol; CHO Chong-Kwan

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of Saenghyuldan and its components, Ginseng Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Hominis Placenta extracts (SHD, GR, PRA, and HP, respectively) on the hemopoiesis in a myelosuppression model system. METHODS: Susceptibility to cyclophosphamide (CP) and S180 carcinoma was determined in SHD, GR, PRA, and HP-treated mice. Analysis of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells was demonstrated

  11. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation...vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest...at which time observation for growth of Mycoplasma shall be made...determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test...

  12. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation...vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest...at which time observation for growth of Mycoplasma shall be made...determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test...

  13. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation...vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest...at which time observation for growth of Mycoplasma shall be made...determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test...

  14. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation...vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest...at which time observation for growth of Mycoplasma shall be made...determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test...

  15. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation...vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest...at which time observation for growth of Mycoplasma shall be made...determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test...

  16. Method for concentrating antisera for preparing Mycoplasma growth inhibition discs.

    PubMed

    Windsor, G D; Trigwell

    1976-03-01

    Mycoplasma growth inhibiting antibody in rabbit anitsera was concentrated with a dry polyacrylamide gel. Discs prepared with such concentrated antisera inhibited only the homologous organism provided the antisera had been heated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and when dried retained their potency during storage for over two years at 4 degrees C. PMID:1265363

  17. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  18. Frequent detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Bell’s palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Völter; J. Helms; B. Weissbrich; P. Rieckmann; M. Abele-Horn

    2004-01-01

    The cause of Bell’s palsy (BP) remains unknown despite various hints to an infectious etiology. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen of the respiratory tract causing pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis or pneumonia. Neurological complications are the most frequent extrapulmonary manifestation. So far, only a few case reports suggested an association between cranial nerve palsy and M. pneumoniae infection. Patients with a BP

  19. Fatal Outbreak of Mycoplasma capricolum Pneumonia in Endangered Markhors

    PubMed Central

    Thiaucourt, Francois; Amirbekov, Mulojon; Mahmadshoev, Abdurahmon; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Dupuy, Virginie; Vahobov, Dustmurod; Ziyoev, Orom; Michel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A pneumonia outbreak reduced the numbers of a wild population of endangered markhors (Capra falconeri) in Tajikistan in 2010. The infection was diagnosed by histologic examination and bacteriologic testing. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was the sole infectious agent detected. Cross-species transmission from domestic goats may have occurred. PMID:22172532

  20. Isolation of Mycoplasma bovis from broiler chickens in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ongor, Hasan; Kalin, Recep; Karahan, Murat; Cetinkaya, Burhan; McAuliffe, Laura; Nicholas, Robin A J

    2008-12-01

    Mycoplasma bovis normally affects cattle, in which it causes pneumonia in calves, mastitis, arthritis and other diseases. In the present article we report the isolation of this bovine pathogen from the tracheas of broiler chickens with no clinical signs. The most probable source of infection was the cattle herd sharing the farm with the chickens. PMID:18802810

  1. Detection of Mycoplasma gallinarum by real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallinarum colonizes poultry as well as mammals, but is considered to have a commensal relationship with its hosts. Though unable to cause poultry disease by itself, reports have been published suggesting a synergism during mixed infections between M. gallinarum and respiratory viruses or...

  2. Stability of rehydrated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine homogeneity over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper vaccine application is required to maximize the results of the vaccination, with maintenance of a homogenous solution is critical to obtain uniform results. This study was designed to analyze the need for continued mixing of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine solution in order to maintain a ...

  3. Innate Immune Response to Intramammary Mycoplasma bovis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis is a growing concern for the dairy industry. M. bovis intramammary infection commonly results in an untreatable case of chronic mastitis. The innate immune system is responsible for initial recognition of, and immediate host responses to, infectious pathogens. ...

  4. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a cause of febrile hemolytic anemia in travelers].

    PubMed

    Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Flateau, F; Mangouka, L; Soler, C; Carmoi, T; Rapp, C

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause varied hematologic manifestations that are frequently associated with lower respiratory tract infections. Acute febrile hemolysis without respiratory symptoms is quite rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man, admitted for acute fever with hemolysis, after returning from Djibouti. M. pneumoniae infection was proved by serological testing. A favorable outcome followed macrolide treatment. PMID:23352983

  5. Protective Immunity against Infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Chelsea A. E.; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L.; Stokes, Christopher R.; Helps, Christopher R.; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hemoplasmas are potentially zoonotic mycoplasmal pathogens, which are not consistently cleared by antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic feline hemoplasma species. The aim of this study was to determine how cats previously infected with M. haemofelis that had recovered reacted when rechallenged with M. haemofelis and to characterize the immune response following de novo M. haemofelis infection and rechallenge. Five specific-pathogen-free (SPF)-derived naive cats (group A) and five cats that had recovered from M. haemofelis infection (group B) were inoculated subcutaneously with M. haemofelis. Blood M. haemofelis loads were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), antibody response to heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), blood lymphocyte cell subtypes by flow cytometry, and cytokine mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Group A cats all became infected with high bacterial loads and seroconverted, while group B cats were protected from reinfection, thus providing the unique opportunity to study the immunological parameters associated with this protective immune response against M. haemofelis. First, a strong humoral response to DnaK was only observed in group A, demonstrating that an antibody response to DnaK is not important for protective immunity. Second, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels appeared to increase rapidly postinoculation in group B, indicating a possible role in protective immunity. Third, an increase in IL-12p35 and -p40 mRNA and decrease in the Th2/Th1 ratio observed in group A suggest that a Th1-type response is important in primary infection. This is the first study to demonstrate protective immunity against M. haemofelis reinfection, and it provides important information for potential future hemoplasma vaccine design. PMID:25410206

  6. Protective immunity against infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Chelsea A E; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L; Stokes, Christopher R; Helps, Christopher R; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Tasker, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Hemoplasmas are potentially zoonotic mycoplasmal pathogens, which are not consistently cleared by antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic feline hemoplasma species. The aim of this study was to determine how cats previously infected with M. haemofelis that had recovered reacted when rechallenged with M. haemofelis and to characterize the immune response following de novo M. haemofelis infection and rechallenge. Five specific-pathogen-free (SPF)-derived naive cats (group A) and five cats that had recovered from M. haemofelis infection (group B) were inoculated subcutaneously with M. haemofelis. Blood M. haemofelis loads were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), antibody response to heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), blood lymphocyte cell subtypes by flow cytometry, and cytokine mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Group A cats all became infected with high bacterial loads and seroconverted, while group B cats were protected from reinfection, thus providing the unique opportunity to study the immunological parameters associated with this protective immune response against M. haemofelis. First, a strong humoral response to DnaK was only observed in group A, demonstrating that an antibody response to DnaK is not important for protective immunity. Second, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels appeared to increase rapidly postinoculation in group B, indicating a possible role in protective immunity. Third, an increase in IL-12p35 and -p40 mRNA and decrease in the Th2/Th1 ratio observed in group A suggest that a Th1-type response is important in primary infection. This is the first study to demonstrate protective immunity against M. haemofelis reinfection, and it provides important information for potential future hemoplasma vaccine design. PMID:25410206

  7. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Mostegl, Meike M.; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. PMID:21856079

  8. Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

    2013-12-01

    Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

  9. Mycoplasma stimulates the production of oxidative radicals by murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Avron, A; Gallily, R

    1995-02-01

    Mycoplasmas and mycoplasma membranes have been shown to induce the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, as well as nitric oxide, by mouse macrophages and rat brain astrocytes. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was used as a sensitive method to show that Mycoplasma capricolum membranes induce mouse peritoneal macrophages to produce reactive oxygen radicals. Coincubation of the mycoplasma with a secondary stimulus, namely macrophage-activating factor or interferon-gamma, increased the chemiluminescence. The augmentation was abolished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine, indicating the involvement of nitric oxide. The coproduction of superoxide and nitric oxide by the same cell allows the formation of the powerful oxidant peroxynitrite, which could be responsible for the increased chemiluminescence. Induction of oxidizing radicals by mycoplasmas may contribute to the clinical pathology seen in mycoplasma infections. PMID:7852840

  10. Retrospective Analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Pediatric Fatal Pneumonia in Guangzhou, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Ying Ou; Rong Zhou; Feng-Hua Wang; Jun-Peng Lu; Jian-Qing Xia; Hui-Min Xia; Jian-Tao Zhang; Si-Tang Gong; Li Deng; Zao-He Wu; Qi-Yi Zeng

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the infection and distribution of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in autopsied pulmonary tissue of pediatric severe pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae nested polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were done on autopsy pulmonary tissue from 173 patients who died of severe pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified in 135\\/173 (78.03%) and 114\\/173 (65.89%) samples of autopsied pulmonary tissue

  11. Distribution and diversity of mycoplasma plasmids: lessons from cryptic genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolution of mycoplasmas from a common ancestor with Firmicutes has been characterized not only by genome down-sizing but also by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasma species sharing a common host. The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. In particular, only a few plasmids have been described within the Mycoplasma genus. Results We have shown that several species of ruminant mycoplasmas carry plasmids that are members of a large family of elements and replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. All plasmids were isolated from species that either belonged or were closely related to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster; none was from the Mycoplasma bovis-Mycoplasma agalactiae group. Twenty one plasmids were completely sequenced, named and compared with each other and with the five mycoplasma plasmids previously reported. All plasmids share similar size and genetic organization, and present a mosaic structure. A peculiar case is that of the plasmid pMyBK1 from M. yeatsii; it is larger in size and is predicted to be mobilizable. Its origin of replication and replication protein were identified. In addition, pMyBK1 derivatives were shown to replicate in various species of the M. mycoides cluster, and therefore hold considerable promise for developing gene vectors. The phylogenetic analysis of these plasmids confirms the uniqueness of pMyBK1 and indicates that the other mycoplasma plasmids cluster together, apart from the related replicons found in phytoplasmas and in species of the clade Firmicutes. Conclusions Our results unraveled a totally new picture of mycoplasma plasmids. Although they probably play a limited role in the gene exchanges that participate in mycoplasma evolution, they are abundant in some species. Evidence for the occurrence of frequent genetic recombination strongly suggests they are transmitted between species sharing a common host or niche. PMID:23145790

  12. Effects of dexamethasone and Mycoplasma bovis on bovine neutrophil function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alabdullah, Hussain A; Fox, Lawrence K; Gay, John M; Barrington, George M; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-03-15

    It is well established that exposure either to elevated levels of glucocorticoids, or to Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis), has a negative effect on bovine neutrophil function. The objective of this research was to determine whether in vitro treatment of bovine neutrophils by M. bovis strains (n=4) and glucocorticoids would additively impair phagocyte function. Twenty, healthy, dairy cows were enrolled. Whole blood was collected from all cows for neutrophil isolation. Phagocytosis and the generation of superoxide anion (O2(-)) were tested in vitro by incubation of neutrophils with FITC labeled Escherichia coli (E. coli) and cytochrome c after treatment. Treatments included: NM1-4D (neutrophils treated with dexamethasone and exposed to one of the four M. bovis strains); NM1-4 (neutrophils exposed to one of the four M. bovis strains only); ND (neutrophils treated with dexamethasone only); and N (non-treated control neutrophils). The overall percentages of neutrophils phagocytizing E. coli were: 32%, 51%, 37%, and 53%±5.25% for treatments NM1-4D, NM1-4, ND, and N, respectively. The overall statistically transformed means of phagocytized E. coli per neutrophil were: 1.37, 1.72, 1.33, and 1.67±0.057 for treatments NM1-4D, NM1-4, ND, and N, respectively. The overall statistically transformed means of neutrophil O2(-) production were: 8.60, 11.91, 9.01, and 12.21±0.21nmol/10(6) for treatments NM1-4D, NM1-4, ND, and N, respectively. Exposure of neutrophils to M. bovis plus dexamethasone had an additive effect on generation of reactive oxygen species (p=0.0057), but not on the percentage of neutrophils phagocytizing E. coli (p=0.0817) or number of E. coli phagocytized per neutrophil (p=0.2946). Only one of the four M. bovis strains had a negative effect on neutrophil phagocytic function. Dexamethasone treatment consistently decreased neutrophil function as indicated by decreased percentage of neutrophils phagocytizing E. coli, decreased number of E. coli phagocytized per neutrophil, and decreased neutrophil O2(-) production, compared to controls (p<0.0001). Results suggested a synergistic effect of in vitro incubation of glucocorticoids and M. bovis on reduction of bovine neutrophil function as measured by generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings may explain in part the interaction between stressful events and outbreak of Mycoplasma bovis associated bovine disease. PMID:25593042

  13. Sensitive and Specific Detection of Mycoplasma species by Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction and Dot Blot Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Lee, Hyun-A; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Okjin

    2011-06-01

    Mycoplasmas are highly fastidious bacteria, difficult to culture and slow growing. Many species of mycoplasmas are important pathogens that cause respiratory infection in laboratory animals and that are known to affect experimental results obtained with contaminated animals. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of mycoplasma species. To this end, we developed a polymerase chain reaction and dot blot hybridization assay (PCR/DBH) for detecting mycoplasma DNA and evaluated it for its sensitivity and specificity. Mycoplasma consensus primer pairs were used for the amplification of target DNA. When PCR product was visually detected, the limit of detection of the PCR test was 10(2) pg of mycoplasma purified DNA. For DBH, the amplified DNA was labeled by incorporation of digoxigenin (DIG). This DIG-labeled probe was capable of detecting 10(4) pg of purified mycoplasma DNA by DBH. PCR/DBH was more sensitive than PCR or DBH alone and was also very specific. Our PCR/DBH assay can be applied efficiently to confirm the presence of mycoplasma species on clinical samples and to differentiate between mycoplasma species infection and other bacterial infections. PMID:21826174

  14. THE INTERACTION IN VITRO OF MYCOPLASMA PULMONIS WITH MOUSE PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES AND L-CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas C.; Hirsch, James G.

    1971-01-01

    Methods have been devised for establishing infection in vitro of mouse macrophages and fibroblasts with Mycoplasma pulmonis. The mycoplasmas attached to the cells and under appropriate cultural conditions grew into a lawn of microorganisms covering most of the cell surface. The mycoplasmas grew abundantly on fibroblasts cultured in minimal essential medium containing 20% fetal calf serum; supplementation of this medium with heart infusion broth was necessary to obtain similar growth on macrophages. The infection of these cells appeared to be essentially an extracellular process; only rarely were partially degraded mycoplasmas seen with phagocytic vacuoles. The addition to heavily infected macrophage cultures of low concentrations of anti-mycoplasma antibody stimulated rapid, massive phagocytosis of the surface microorganisms. In sharp contrast, the same antiserum had no discernable effect on the mycoplasma-fibroblast relationship. The antibody effect in the macrophage system was apparently a direct opsonic one rather than an indirect result of microbial killing, since the mycoplasmas in macrophage or fibroblast cultures incorporated labelled thymidine into DNA after the addition of antiserum to the medium. The phagocytic event and the subsequent fate of the mycoplasmas were studied in detail after the addition of antibody to the macrophage cultures. Phase-contrast cinemicrophotography revealed membrane ruffles surrounding the surface mycoplasmas and disappearance from view of the organisms; 10–30 min later translucent grapelike clusters were seen in large phagocytic vacuoles. On electronmicroscopic study the surface mycoplasmas were surrounded by pincers-like projections of the macrophage. Numerous mycoplasmas were seen in phagocytic vacuoles; in the early minutes after the addition of antibody the intracellular mycoplasmas appeared normal, but within 2 hr they appeared partially degraded with a central electron-lucent area and electron-opaque deposits at the microbial cell margin. 24 hr after the addition of antiserum, digestion of the mycoplasmas was nearly complete; the cells appeared normal except for large residual bodies composed of amorphous moderately dense material and increased lipid deposits. Degradation of mycoplasmas within macrophages was also studied using infected cultures in which the mycoplasmas, but not the macrophages, had incorporated tritiated thymidine into DNA. The appearance of large amounts of acid-soluble radiolabel after phagocytosis stimulated by antibody confirmed the degradation of the intracellular mycoplasmas. PMID:4943930

  15. Development of a real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine milk and lung samples.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hugh Y; Bell-Rogers, Patricia; Parker, Lois; Prescott, John F

    2005-11-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using hybridization probes on a LightCycler platform was developed for detection of Mycoplasma bovis from individual bovine mastitis milk and pneumonic lung tissues. The detection limit was 550 colony forming units (cfu)/ml of milk and 650 cfu/25 mg of lung tissue. A panel of bovine Mycoplasma and of other bovine-origin bacteria were tested; only M. bovis strains were positive, with a melting peak of 66.6 degrees C. Mycoplasma agalactiae PG2 was also positive and could be distinguished because it had a melting peak of 63.1 degrees C. In validation testing of clinical samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 99.3% for individual milks and 96.6% and 100% for the lung tissue. Using M. bovis real-time PCR, the M. bovis culture-positive milk samples were estimated to contain between 5 x 10(4) and 7.7 x 10(8) cfu/ml and the M. bovis culture-positive lungs between 1 x 10(3) and 1 x 10(9) cfu/25 mg. Isolation, confirmed with the real-time PCR and colony fluorescent antibody test, showed that at the herd level, the proportion of samples positive for M. bovis isolation in mastitis milk samples submitted to the Mastitis Laboratory, Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, was 2.4% (5/201). We conclude that this probe-based real-time PCR assay is a sensitive, specific, and rapid method to identify M. bovis infection in bovine milk and pneumonic lungs. PMID:16475511

  16. Dermatobia hominis (botfly) infestation of the lower extremity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cottom, James M; Hyer, Christopher F; Lee, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    We present a report of myiasis, which is the infestation of the body by the larva of flies. In this particular case the patient traveled to Belize and was infested in her foot and leg by Dermatobia hominis or the human botfly. Treatment was initiated once she returned to the United States. She ultimately underwent surgical excision of the larva, which was noted to be alive and moving upon removal. This is a rare larval infestation in humans, but is frequently seen in domestic and livestock animals in Central and South America. With increased international travel, the foot and ankle surgeon should be aware of this parasitic infection in recent travelers to Central and South American countries. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 4. PMID:18156065

  17. Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, I; Martín, C; Beristain, X; Mazón, A; Saugar, J M; Blanco, A; García Cenoz, M; Valle-Cristia, M; Ezpeleta, C; Castilla, J

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future. PMID:25017000

  18. Large Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In November 2010, ?27,000 (?45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens. PMID:24655474

  19. Clinical Review of the Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture in the Treatment of Facial Spasm Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Roh, Jeong-Du

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of treatment with Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture (HPP) for 32 patients with hemifacial spasm. Methods: We treated facial spasm patients with acupuncture and HPP at Sabaek (ST2), Seung-eup (ST1), Gwallyeo (SI18), Chanjuk (BL2), Sajukgong (TE23), Hagwan (ST7), Hyeopgeo (ST6), Jichang (ST4), Wan-gol (SI4) and Yepung (TE17), and we investigated the effect by using Scott’s scale. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS/10.0 for windows program with descriptive statistics, the paired t-test, and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Results: After treatment, the grade of the spasm’s intensity based on Scott’s description were decreased significantly. About 72% of the patients felt that the combination treatment had produced excellent results. Conclusion: These data suggested that HPP can be useful for treating facial spasm patients.

  20. Antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2 in malnourished Nigerian children.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A O; Salimonu, L S; Osunkoya, B O

    1981-01-01

    Antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis (HVH) types 1 and 2 were determined by a micro-neutralisation method in 37 children with kwashiorkor, 16 with marasmus, and in 64 well-nourished control children. All the children were aged between 1 and 4 years. The prevalence of antibodies was similar in the two sexes and at different ages. HVH-1 antibodies were present in 51% of children with kwashiorkor, in 44% with marasmus, and in 26% of well-nourished children, reflecting the very poor socioeconomic conditions of malnourished children. HVH-2 antibodies too were present in about 19% of children with kwashiorkor, and in 2% of well-nourished controls; they were absent in marasmic children. It is suggested that HVH-2 infection in malnourished children is facilitated by the communal use of fomites--such as bedclothes and underwear. PMID:6258486

  1. Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of small-subunit rRNA genes of Blastocystis hominis isolates from geographically diverse human hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hoevers; P. Holman; K. Logan; M. Hommel; R. Ashford; K. Snowden

    2000-01-01

    Genomic diversity among 14 isolates of Blastocystis hominis from 4 different geographic locations was examined by small-subunit rRNA (ssu rRNA) restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms\\u000a (RFLP) using 5 different restriction endonucleases. On the basis of the observed RFLP patterns among the isolates, a total\\u000a of 12 genotypes were identified, with 7 isolates exhibiting mixed RFLP genotypes. There was no correlation between B. hominis

  2. The main proteinases in Dermatobia hominis second and third instars larvae are serine-proteinases.

    PubMed

    Pires, F A; Moya-Borja, G E; Barreira, J D; Pinho, R T; Alves, C R

    2007-04-30

    We performed a combination of proteinase assay, either in solution or immobilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with gelatin, to detect and quantify proteinases of Dermatobia hominis second (L2) and third (L3) instar larvae. In the quantitative assay, we examined proteinase activity by hydrolysis of a panel of peptide bonds specific for the main proteinase classes. We verified that the pGlu-Phe-Leu p-nitroanilide substrate was hydrolyzed by crude extracts of L2 (3.0+/-0.2 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)) and L3 (7.7+/-0.1 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)) and that both activities were partially inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane, 15% and 3%, respectively. Also, we demonstrated that the Nalpha-p-Tosyl-l-Arg methyl ester substrate was hydrolyzed by crude extracts of L2 (117+/-24 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)) and L3 (111+/-10 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)), suggesting a predominance of esterase activity in the crude larval preparation. Interestingly, the specific activity of serine-proteinases was totally inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride in the L3 crude extract, while only 10% of this enzyme class activity was inhibited in the L2 crude extract. The results of the qualitative assays with substrate gels suggested that L2 and L3 larvae express serine-proteinases with similar (13 and 22 kDa) and distinct (50 kDa in L2 and 30 kDa in L3) relative molecular masses. These findings contribute to the biochemical characterization of D. hominis L2 and L3 larvae. PMID:17293049

  3. Mycoplasma synoviae induces upregulation of apoptotic genes, secretion of nitric oxide and appearance of an apoptotic phenotype in infected chicken chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The role of chondrocytes in the development of infectious arthritis is not well understood. Several examples of mycoplasma-induced arthritis in animals indicate that chondrocytes come into direct contact with bacteria. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of an arthrogenic Mycoplasma synoviae strain WVU 1853 with chicken chondrocytes. We found that M. synoviae significantly reduces chondrocyte respiration. This was accompanied by alterations in chondrocyte morphology, namely cell shrinkage and cytoplasm condensation, as well as nuclear condensation and formation of plasma membrane invaginations containing nuclear material, which appeared to cleave off the cell surface. In concordance with these apoptosis-like events in chondrocytes, transcription was increased in several pro-apoptotic genes. Twenty-four hours after infection, strong upregulation was assayed in NOS2, Mapk11, CASP8 and Casp3 genes. Twenty-four and 72 h incubation of chondrocytes with M. synoviae induced upregulation of AIFM1, NF?B1, htrA3 and BCL2. Casp3 and NOS2 remained upregulated, but upregulation ceased for Mapk11 and CASP8 genes. Increased production of nitric oxide was also confirmed in cell supernates. The data suggests that chicken chondrocytes infected with M. synoviae die by apoptosis involving production of nitric oxide, caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial inactivation. The results of this study show for the first time that mycoplasmas could cause chondrocyte apoptosis. This could contribute to tissue destruction and influence the development of arthritic conditions. Hence, the study gives new insights into the role of mycoplasma infection on chondrocyte biology and development of infectious arthritis in chickens and potentially in humans. PMID:22280251

  4. Immediate relief of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis symptoms after intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Chambert-Loir, Caroline; Ouachee, Marie; Collins, Kevin; Evrard, Philippe; Servais, Laurent

    2009-11-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae may cause acute encephalitis, resulting in severe neurologic complications despite antibiotic therapy. We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented with acute onset of orofacial tics, motor restlessness, compulsive behavior, and cerebellar symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated lymphocytic meningitis. Polymerase chain reaction for M. pneumoniae was strongly positive in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were negative for M. pneumoniae antibodies (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G). The child was administered intravenous gamma-globulin, which led to a dramatic improvement of her clinical condition and disappearance of the symptoms within 72 hours. This novel case points to the potential value of gamma-globulin in M. pneumoniae encephalitis confirmed with polymerase chain reaction and suggests that immediate administration of intravenous gamma-globulin in suspected mycoplasma encephalitis should be investigated in a larger patient cohort. PMID:19818942

  5. Furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Fernandes, Julio I; Correia, Thais R; de Souza, Clarissa P; Melo, Raquel M P S; Scott, Fabio B

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur, bot-fly larvae were removed from the lesion by digital compression. Afterwards, the wounds were treated with 10% iodine solution and also with wound-healing cream containing sulfanilamide, urea and beeswax. Maggots were identified as third-stage larvae of D hominis. Clinical case reports of human bot-fly myiasis in cats are relevant due to its scarce occurrence in feline veterinary practice in some countries. PMID:20226706

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated opsoclonus–myoclonus syndrome in three cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Maria Huber; Susi Strozzi; Maja Steinlin; Christoph Aebi; Simon Fluri

    2010-01-01

    Opsoclonus–myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare acquired movement disorder occurring in all age groups, predominantly in infants.\\u000a Although the exact pathogenesis is still undefined, there is strong evidence for a paraneoplastic or parainfectious immune\\u000a process resulting in central nervous system dysfunction. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been implicated in a number of immune-mediated neurologic diseases [28]. However, the association of M. pneumoniae

  7. Phase-locked mutants of Mycoplasma agalactiae: defining the molecular switch of high-frequency Vpma antigenic variation

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Citti, Christine; Glew, Michelle D; Zimmermann, Martina; Rosengarten, Renate; Jechlinger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae, an important pathogen of small ruminants, exhibits antigenic diversity by switching the expression of multiple surface lipoproteins called Vpmas (Variable proteins of M. agalactiae). Although phase variation has been shown to play important roles in many host–pathogen interactions, the biological significance and the mechanism of Vpma oscillations remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that all six Vpma proteins are expressed in the type strain PG2 and all undergo phase variation at an unusually high frequency. Furthermore, targeted gene disruption of the xer1 gene encoding a putative site-specific recombinase adjacent to the vpma locus was accomplished via homologous recombination using a replicon-based vector. Inactivation of xer1 abolished further Vpma switching and the ‘phase-locked’ mutants (PLMs) continued to steadily express only a single Vpma product. Complementation of the wild-type xer1 gene in PLMs restored Vpma phase variation thereby proving that Xer1 is essential for vpma inversions. The study is not only instrumental in enhancing our ability to understand the role of Vpmas in M. agalactiae infections but also provides useful molecular approaches to study potential disease factors in other ‘difficult-to-manipulate’ mycoplasmas. PMID:18248580

  8. Isolation of mycoplasmas from prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Dillehay, D L; Sander, M; Talkington, D F; Thacker, W L; Brown, D R

    1995-12-01

    A new species of mycoplasmas was isolated from the lungs and nasopharyngeal washings of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Clinical signs of disease and microscopic lesions were not observed at the time of this isolation. The organism was cultured in SP4 medium; it grew aerobically, anaerobically, and in 5% CO2 in 5 to 7 days, and fermented glucose. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the organism to lack a cell wall and to have typical mycoplasmal ultrastructural morphology. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene from an isolate was determined by amplification with polymerase chain reaction and by sequencing with the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The sequence did not match any known sequences in the GenBank of the National Institutes of Health. The 16S rRNA sequence of the organism, Mycoplasma volis (proposed species novum), is unique and most closely resembles that of M. muris and M. iowae. Because this vole colony will be housed in rooms with other rodents, pathogenicity studies of this new species of mycoplasmas in mice and rats are underway. PMID:8746521

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasmas adhering to erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Razin, S; Banai, M; Gamliel, H; Polliack, A; Bredt, W; Kahane, I

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum with human erythrocytes (RBC) was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The tight nature of the attachment of the microorganisms to the RBC was indicated by the indentation of the RBC surface at the site of attachment of M. gallisepticum cells and by traction and resulting distortion in the shape of the RBC at the point of its attachment to M. pneumoniae filaments growing on glass or plastic. In many cases attachment took place via the tip of the filaments, the membrane of the parasite appearing to be fused with that of the RBC. The morphology of the mycoplasmas growing on cover slips conformed in general with previous descriptions obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Growth of M. pneumoniae on glass or plastic consisted of branching filaments spread on the inert surface and microcolonies made up of intertwining filaments projecting into the medium. The filaments had a bulbous swelling adjacent to a tapered tip end. A few filaments were shown to have a ropelike helical twist. M. gallisepticum grown on the cover slips of Leighton tubes had a peculiar fusiform or teardrop shape with blebs at one or both poles of the cells. Elongated filamentous forms and chains of coccobacillary bodies were observed as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7a Fig. 7b-7e Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6777306

  10. Identification of major immunogenic proteins of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates.

    PubMed

    Bercic, Rebeka Lucijana; Slavec, Brigita; Lavric, Miha; Narat, Mojca; Bidovec, Andrej; Dovc, Peter; Bencina, Dusan

    2008-02-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae isolates differ in patterns of immunogenic proteins, but most of them have not been identified yet. The main aim of this study was their identification in two closely related M. synoviae isolates, ULB 02/P4 and ULB 02/OV6, recovered recently from chickens in Slovenia. N-terminal sequencing identified 17 M. synoviae proteins. Amongst them were 14 major, highly expressed but previously unidentified proteins, including enzymes, chaperones and putative lipoproteins. ULB 02/P4 proteins with increasing molecular weight (M(w)) in the region above the lipoprotein MSPB (approximately 40 kDa) were elongation factor EF-Tu, enolase, NADH oxidase, haemagglutinin MSPA, ATP synthase beta chain, trigger factor, pyruvate kinase and chaperone DnaK. Enolase (approximately 47 kDa) seemed to be immunogenic for chickens infected with M. synoviae, whereas EF-Tu, which might cross-react with antibodies to the P1 adhesin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, was not. ULB 02/OV6 synthesized several immunogenic proteins and those with M(w) of approximately 70, 78, 82, 90, 110 and 160 kDa, cross-reacted with antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. They remain to be identified, because besides putative lipoproteins, protein bands of 78, 82, 85 and 110 kDa contained also dehydrogenase PdhD, elongation factor EF-G, enzyme PtsG and putative neuraminidase, respectively. PMID:17720337

  11. A unique case of facial burn superinfected with Dermatobia Hominis larvae resulting in a bilateral enucleation of the eyes.

    PubMed

    Pinos, Victor Hugo; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Bermeo, Carlos; León, Juan; Armijos, Luciana; Almeida, Estibaliz

    2014-10-01

    We present a case of a female Ecuadorian patient who presented a deep facial burn injury complicated with a severe infestation of Dermatobia Hominis larvae. The burn injury was complicated by severe myiasis attributable to the poor management of the wound received at home, using tropical plants, which caused a secondary infection and severe necrosis of the tissue involving the forehead, cheeks, chin, scalp, nose, mouth and the eyes resulting in a bilateral enucleation and long inpatient hospital care. PMID:24728977

  12. Extreme Mitochondrial DNA Variability and Lack of Genetic Structure in Populations of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) from Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Geurgas; M. E. Infante-Malachias; A. M. L. AZEREDO-ESPIN

    2000-01-01

    Restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to characterize the genetic variation and population structure of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae), in parasite populations from cattle in southeastern, southern and central regions of Brazil. Forty-eight haplotypes with a nucleotide sequence diver- gence of 2.75% were found among 227 individuals. Haplotypes could be divided into

  13. Specific and quantitative detection and identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum in clinical and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Murphy, Cain; Song, Yong; Ng-Hublin, Josephine; Estcourt, Annika; Hijjawi, Nawal; Chalmers, Rachel; Hadfield, Stephen; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Ryan, Una

    2013-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric protozoan parasite that is resistant to inactivation by commonly used drinking water disinfectants. Between 2004 and 2010, it was responsible for 60% of all waterborne protozoan parasitic outbreaks reported worldwide. Most sporadic infections in humans and almost all outbreaks are caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. We report the development and validation of a quantitative qPCR assay using minor groove binder (MGB)-probes targeting a unique Cryptosporidium specific protein-coding gene, that directly detects, quantitates and identifies C. hominis and C. parvum in environmental and faecal samples. An internal amplification control (IAC) was also developed and included in this assay. The qPCR assay was compared with an 18S nested PCR assay for sensitivity and specificity. The analytical sensitivity for the qPCR assay was 1 oocyst and 1-10 oocysts for the 18S assay. Evaluation of analytical specificity of the qPCR assay revealed no cross-reactions with other genera and detected all C. parvum and C. hominis isolates correctly. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the qPCR was 100% compared to 96.9% and 98.4%, respectively for the 18S assay. The qPCR assay was also highly reproducible with RSD (relative standard deviation) values of 1.4-9.4%, when the assay was performed by four different technicians. When tested on water samples, the qPCR assay was more sensitive than the 18S assay, detecting positives in 37 of 138 water samples compared to 35 for the 18S locus. This qPCR assay should be a valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of C. hominis and C. parvum in both clinical and environmental samples. PMID:23838581

  14. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma bovis reveals host-specific genotypes in cattle versus bison.

    PubMed

    Register, Karen B; Thole, Luke; Rosenbush, Ricardo F; Minion, F Chris

    2015-01-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex. Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necrotic pharyngitis, pneumonia, dystocia and abortion. Whether isolates from cattle and bison comprise genetically distinct populations is unknown. This study describes the development of a highly discriminatory multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) method for M. bovis and its use to investigate the population structure of the bacterium. Genome sequences from six M. bovis isolates were used for selection of gene targets. Seven of 44 housekeeping genes initially evaluated were selected as targets on the basis of sequence variability and distribution within the genome. For each gene target sequence, four to seven alleles could be distinguished that collectively define 32 sequence types (STs) from a collection of 94 cattle isolates and 42 bison isolates. A phylogeny based on concatenated target gene sequences of each isolate revealed that bison isolates are genetically distinct from strains that infect cattle, suggesting recent disease outbreaks in bison may be due to the emergence of unique genetic variants. No correlation was found between ST and disease presentation or geographic origin. MLST data reported here were used to populate a newly created and publicly available, curated database to which researchers can contribute. The MLST scheme and database provide novel tools for exploring the population structure of M. bovis and tracking the evolution and spread of strains. PMID:25433454

  15. Molecular Characterization of Acquired Enrofloxacin Resistance in Mycoplasma synoviae Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gerchman, I.; Mikula, I.; Gobbo, F.; Catania, S.; Levisohn, S.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro activity of enrofloxacin against 73 Mycoplasma synoviae field strains isolated in Israel and Europe was determined by broth microdilution. Decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin was identified in 59% of strains, with the MICs ranging from 1 to >16 ?g/ml. The estimated MIC50 and MIC90 values for enrofloxacin were 2 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. Moreover, this study showed that 92% of recent Israeli field isolates (2009 to 2011) of M. synoviae have MICs of ?2 ?g/ml to enrofloxacin. Comparison of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in M. synoviae isolates revealed a clear correlation between the presence of one of the amino acid substitutions Asp79-Asn, Thr80-Ala/Ile, Ser81-Pro, and Asp84-Asn/Tyr/His of the ParC QRDR and decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml). Amino acid substitutions at positions GyrA 87, GyrB 401/402, and ParE 420/454 were also identified, but there was no clear-cut correlation with susceptibility to enrofloxacin. Comparison of vlhA molecular profiles revealed the presence of 9 different genotypes in the Israeli M. synoviae field isolates and 10 genotypes in the European isolates; only one vlhA genotype (type 4) was identified in both cohorts. Based on results of vlhA molecular typing, several mechanisms for emergence and dissemination of Israeli enrofloxacin-resistant M. synoviae isolates are suggested. PMID:23612192

  16. Gender Is a Major Factor in Determining the Severity of Mycoplasma Respiratory Disease in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY L. YANCEY; HAROLD L. WATSON; SAM C. CARTNER; JERRY W. SIMECKA

    2001-01-01

    Gender is a significant factor in determining the susceptibility to and severity of pulmonary diseases in both humans and animals. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM), due to Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the role of various host factors on the development of acute or chronic inflammatory lung diseases. MRM has many similarities to mycoplasma respiratory

  17. Stabilization of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines during vaccination with second generation Spray-Vac® vaccine stabilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dilutions and application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines without the use of vaccine stabilizing compounds may lead to significant loss of vaccine viability and loss of vaccine efficacy. Vaccine viability may decreases due to osmotic lysis of the mycoplasma as well as the presence of chlo...

  18. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Potentiation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Induced Pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EILEEN L. THACKER; PATRICK G. HALBUR; RICHARD F. ROSS; ROONGROJE THANAWONGNUWECH; BRAD J. THACKER

    An experimental model that demonstrates a mycoplasma species acting to potentiate a viral pneumonia was developed. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic, lymphohistiocytic bronchopneumonia in pigs, was found to potentiate the severity and the duration of a virus-induced pneumonia in pigs. Pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to, simultaneously with, or 10 days after inoculation with porcine

  19. Detection, Characterization, and Molecular Typing of Human Mycoplasma spp. from Major Hospitals in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Mirihan A.; Yassin, Aymen S.; Essam, Tamer M.; Hamouda, Hayam M.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are fastidious slow growing organisms lacking a cell wall and mostly isolated from the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. There is a dearth of information regarding clinical Mycoplasma spp. isolates among Egyptian patients. A total of 170 samples were collected from patients and apparently healthy personnel in local public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Isolation of Mycoplasma spp. was carried out using appropriate culture media and further identification was carried out by biochemical tests followed by serotyping using specific antisera. Confirmation was done by PCR for detection of different Mycoplasma spp. using genus-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Characterization of the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity pattern against different antimicrobials was carried out using disc diffusion test. The results indicated the presence of six Mycoplasma spp. in 22.94% of the samples. Mycoplasmas were detected more frequently in throat swabs than sputum. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was highly sensitive to macrolides and quinolones but less sensitive to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Molecular techniques were found to be of more rapid, highly sensitive, able to detect nonviable organisms, and cost effective. These results shed light on difficulties of Mycoplasma detection and the superiority of molecular techniques over culture. PMID:25506614

  20. An anomalous form of mycoplasma-like bodies in periwinkle infected with the sandal spike agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hiruki; Jeanne Dijkstra

    1973-01-01

    An anomalous form of mycoplasma-like bodies was found in ‘necrotic’ cells in the sieve elements of periwinkle stem after infection with the sandal spike disease agent. These bodies, 50–160 nm in diameter, were strongly osmiophilic and bounded by a unit membrane. It is suggested that these anomalous bodies represent a naturally degenerated form of the mycoplasma-like bodies.

  1. Identification of a novel mycoplasma species from an Oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Oaks, J Lindsay; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Rideout, Bruce A; Gilbert, Martin; Virani, Munir Z

    2004-12-01

    An intracellular organism was isolated from the tissues of an Oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures. Biochemical and physical properties, ultrastructural features, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing classified this organism as a new taxon of mycoplasma, for which the name "Mycoplasma vulturii" is proposed. PMID:15583338

  2. IDENTIFICATION AND INITIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A PUTATIVE MYCOPLASMA GALLINARUM LEUCINE AMINOPEPTIDASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most other host-specific mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallinarum is a commensal with a host range including most poultry as well as some mammals. This property of M. gallinarum may reflect unique mechanisms for its colonization and persistence in hosts. The aminopeptidases have been suggested to p...

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium species and sources of contamination with Cryptosporidium hominis during a waterborne outbreak in north west Wales.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Rachel M; Robinson, Guy; Elwin, Kristin; Hadfield, Stephen J; Thomas, Euron; Watkins, John; Casemore, David; Kay, David

    2010-06-01

    As part of investigations into the cause of a waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection linked to a mains water supply, surface waters and wastewater treatment plants were tested for Cryptosporidium spp. Oocyst counts in base flow surface water samples ranged from nil to 29 per 10 l. Oocyst counts in effluent from a community wastewater treatment plant were up to 63 fold higher and breakout from one septic tank five logs higher. There were no peak (storm) flow events during the investigation. C. hominis, four named genotypes (cervine, muskrat II, rat, W19) and six new small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identified. Four of the new sequences were closely related to Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I, one was closely related to the fox genotype and one to Cryptosporidium canis. C. hominis was found extensively in the catchment, but only at sites contaminated by wastewater, and in the treated water supply to the affected area. All were gp60 subtype IbA10G2, the outbreak subtype. Multiple routes of contamination of the reservoir were identified, resulting in persistent detection of low numbers of oocysts in the final water. This work demonstrates the utility of genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates in environmental samples during outbreak investigations. PMID:20154394

  4. Mycoplasma species isolated from harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoplodon bidens) stranded in Scottish waters.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; McAuliffe, Laura; Dagleish, Mark P; Barley, Jason; Howie, Fiona; Nicholas, Robin A J; Ayling, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species were recovered from 10 cetacean carcasses that stranded around Scotland. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale was isolated from the lungs of three harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) as well as from the liver of one of these animals. Novel Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the lungs of five additional harbor porpoises and the kidney of another. In addition an isolate closely related to Mycoplasma species 13CL was obtained from the kidney of a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoplodon bidens). The role of these Mycoplasma species in the disease of cetaceans, their host specificity, diversity, and any relation to cetacean strandings are unknown. PMID:21270010

  5. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in free-ranging birds of prey in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Hernadez-Divers, S J; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known avian pathogens of poultry and some passerines. Although reported in birds of prey, their role as pathogens is still unclear. Healthy, free-ranging raptor nestlings sampled during a routine ringing (banding) program, and birds of prey from rehabilitation centers, tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. by culture and a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given the lack of clinical signs and disease, we suggest that mycoplasmas in raptors may be commensal rather than pathogenic. Using immunobinding assay and species-specific PCR tests, Mycoplasma buteonis, M. falconis, and M. gypis were identified; M. falconis was only detected in falcons. Additionally, some isolates could not be identified. This is the first report of Mycoplasma spp. isolations from Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeroginosus), a Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo), and a Barn Owl (Tyto alba). PMID:18957640

  6. Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from local and imported cattle.

    PubMed

    Amram, Eytan; Freed, Mor; Khateb, Nihaya; Mikula, Inna; Blum, Shlomo; Spergser, Joachim; Sharir, Beny; Ozeri, Roni; Harrus, Shimon; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2013-08-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important and emerging pathogen of cattle. In this study, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was used to differentiate M. bovis type strain PG45 and 68 M. bovis field isolates, including 34 isolates from calves imported to Israel from Australia, Lithuania and Hungary in the period 2006-2011, 32 isolates from mastitic dairy cows in Israel in the period 2000-2011, one isolate from the pneumonic lungs of a calf in Israel in 2010 and one isolate from frozen bull semen in Israel in 2008. A total of 35 VNTR types were distinguished, including three, eight and 10 different VNTR types among isolates from calves imported from Australia, Hungary and Lithuania, respectively, and 17 VNTR types among isolates from dairy cows in Israel. The VNTR types in isolates from Lithuanian calves were not identified among isolates from Israeli dairy cows. VNTR type XX, present in the Hungarian group, was identified in one Israeli mastitis-associated isolate. A cluster of 16 M. bovis isolates from Israeli dairy cows possessed the same VNTR type III as three Australian isolates from a single shipment of calves in 2006. The other cluster of isolates contained M. bovis strain 883, isolated from a mastitic cow, strain 72236, isolated from a calf with pneumonia, two isolates from calves imported from Australia to the same farm 3 months previously and four isolates from calves in quarantine imported to Israel from Australia in 2009-2010. Multiple locus VNTR analysis is a useful tool for understanding the movement and spread of strains of M. bovis within and across international boundaries. PMID:23639372

  7. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Strait, Erin L; Raymond, Matthew; Ramirez, Alejandro; Minion, F Chris

    2014-11-01

    Several mycoplasma species possessing a range of virulence have been described in swine. The most commonly described are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma flocculare. They are ubiquitious in many pig producing areas of the world, and except for M. hyopneumoniae, commercial antibody-based assays are lacking for most of these. Antibody cross-reactivity among these four mycoplasma species is not well characterized. Recently, the use of pen-based oral fluids for herd surveillance is of increasing interest. Thus, this study sought to measure pig antibody responses and the level of cross-reactivity in serum and pen-based oral fluids after challenge with four species of swine mycoplasmas. Four groups of four mycoplasma-free growing pigs were separately inoculated with the different mycoplasma species. Pen-based oral fluids and serum samples were collected weekly until necropsy. Species-specific Tween 20 ELISAs were used to measure antibody responses along with four other commercial M. hyopneumoniae ELISAs. Animals from all groups seroconverted to the challenge species of mycoplasma and no evidence of cross-contamination was observed. A delayed antibody response was seen with all but M. hyorhinis-infected pigs. Cross-reactive IgG responses were detected in M. hyopneumoniae- and M. flocculare-infected animals by the M. hyorhinis Tween 20 ELISA, while sera from M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare-infected pigs were positive in one commercial assay. In pen-based oral fluids, specific anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgA responses were detected earlier after infection than serum IgG responses. In summary, while some antibody-based assays may have the potential for false positives, evidence of this was observed in the current study. PMID:25240775

  8. Experimental infection of rat (Rattus norvigus, strain Wistar) mammary gland by Mollicutes from the bovine udders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Garg, D N; Mahajan, S K

    1994-05-01

    Seven isolates of Mollicutes, Mycoplasma F-38; M. mycoides var. capri; mixed isolates of M. bovigenitalium and M. bovirhinis; M. bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma F-38 and M. bovirhinis; M. bovis, M. bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma F-38 and A. laidlawii; A. axanthum; A. laidlawii from bovine udders and a M. bovis type strain (NCTC-10131) produced significant histopathological changes characterized by infiltration of neutrophils in lumen of acini, interlobular and intralobular ducts along with the hyperplasia of lining cells of acini, interlobular and intralobular ducts and infiltration of mononuclear cells and fibroblasts in interstitium in the mammary gland of rat suggestive of mastitis. A. laidlawii and A. axanthum produced only mild changes suggestive of their negligible role in the bovine mastitis. Rat mammary gland is recommended as a suitable in vivo experimental laboratory model to screen the mastitogenic potential of Mollicutes. PMID:7927533

  9. Salivary glands of second and third instars of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2007-05-01

    Salivary glands of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae were studied under light and electron microscopy. The salivary glands of second (L2) and third instars (L3) are similar and consist of pairs of translucent tubules. The individual efferent ducts unite to form a single deferent duct, which inserts dorsally into the cephalopharingeal skeleton. Each gland has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The cellular plasma membrane is enfolded at its base, forming a labyrinthine area. The cell surface is linked to the basement membrane (BM) by hemidesmosomes and to adjacent cells by septet junctions and desmosomes. Irregular channels with several vesicles occur between the cytoplasm and BM. Golgi complex, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and myelin figures are usually present in the cells. The nucleus is large, with diffuse chromatin. The connective tissue circling the BM contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers and tracheal tubes. Lined cuticle encloses the efferent and deferent ductal cells, which have few, widely dispersed mitochondria, free ribosomes, microtubules, and a large nucleus with diffuse chromatin. PMID:17547224

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mycoplasma bovis? †

    PubMed Central

    Ben Shabat, M.; Mikula, I.; Gerchman, I.; Lysnyansky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis field isolates to antibiotics is important for the appropriate choice of treatment. However, in vitro susceptibility testing of mycoplasmas is technically demanding and time-consuming, especially for clinical isolates, and is rarely performed in mycoplasma diagnostic laboratories. Thus, the development of methods allowing rapid real-time detection of resistant strains of M. bovis in clinical samples is a high priority for successful treatment. In this study, a novel TaqMan single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) real-time PCR assay, which enables the rapid identification of M. bovis strains with different susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, was developed and evaluated. The TaqMan SNP real-time PCR assay is based on the amplification of a 97-bp fragment of the parC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) and allows the specific detection of four possible genotypes: GAC or GAT (susceptible to fluoroquinolones) and AAC or AAT (resistant to fluoroquinolones). Four TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probes identifying 1-base mismatches were designed and applied in a dual-probe assay with two reaction tubes. The TaqMan SNP real-time PCRs developed are highly specific for M. bovis, with a detection limit of 5 fg/?l (about 5 M. bovis genomes). In addition, all four SNP real-time PCR tests have almost the same efficiency (97.7% [GAC], 94% [AAC], 99.99% [GAT], and 98% [AAT]). Taken together, the data suggest that this SNP real-time PCR assay has potential as a routine diagnostic test for the detection of decreased susceptibility of M. bovis to fluoroquinolones. PMID:20534803

  11. The Effects of Mycoplasma Contamination upon the Ability to Form Bioengineered 3D Kidney Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerling, Erica P.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is a pervasive, often undiagnosed and ignored problem in many laboratories that can result in reduced cell proliferation and changes in gene expression. Unless contamination is specifically suspected, it is often undetected in two dimensional (2D) cultures and the resulting effects of mycoplasma contamination are rarely appreciated and can lead to incorrect conclusions. Three dimensional (3D) tissue cultures are increasingly utilized to explore tissue development and phenotype. However, 3D cultures are more complex than 2D cell cultures and require a more controlled cellular environment in order to generate structures necessary to mimic in vivo responses and are often maintained for longer time periods. Changes to the microenvironment are assumed to have a more extreme effect upon the success of 3D tissue cultures than 2D cell cultures, but the effects of mycoplasma have not been studied. To test this hypothesis, we grew 2D cell cultures and 3D tissues from pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) that were contaminated with mycoplasma and the same stock of cells after mycoplasma removal. We did not observe an effect of mycoplasma contamination on proliferation in 2D monolayer cell culture. However, cyst formation in 3D tissues was altered, with effects upon the number, size and structure of cysts formed. These data serve to reinforce the necessity of testing cell stocks for mycoplasma contamination. PMID:25793639

  12. In vitro and in vivo activities of Q-35, a new fluoroquinolone, against Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gohara, Y; Arai, S; Akashi, A; Kuwano, K; Tseng, C C; Matsubara, S; Matumoto, M; Furudera, T

    1993-09-01

    The in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy of Q-35, a new fluoroquinolone, against Mycoplasma pneumoniae were investigated by pharmacokinetic studies with M. pneumoniae-infected hamsters. By using fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines as references, Q-35 was found to possess the greatest mycoplasmacidal activity. The MIC for 90% of strains tested (MIC90) and the MIC50 were 0.78 and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively, and the MBC for 90% of strains tested (MBC90) and the MBC50 were 3.13 and 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. The MBC50-to-MIC50 ratio for Q-35 was 2. Furthermore, only Q-35 continued to be effective against 19 strains of erythromycin-resistant mutants of M. pneumoniae. The efficacies of fluoroquinolones against M. pneumoniae were also investigated by using an experimental hamster pneumonia model to measure the CFU of M. pneumoniae in the lungs. Q-35 and ofloxacin were efficacious following oral administration of 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days, initiated 24 h after infection, while ciprofloxacin was not active. Continuous administration of Q-35 for 10 days significantly reduced numbers of viable M. pneumoniae in the lungs. These results suggest that both Q-35 and ofloxacin are effective in the early phase of infection and, moreover, that Q-35 is also effective in the middle stage of infection, when progressive lung alterations and continuous increases in mycoplasmal growth occur. Peak levels of Q-35 in sera and lungs after oral administration were higher than those of ciprofloxacin but lower than those of ofloxacin. On the basis of these results, Q-35 appears to be a promising antimicrobial agent in chemotherapy of mycoplasmal infection. PMID:8239590

  13. In vitro and in vivo activities of Q-35, a new fluoroquinolone, against Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Gohara, Y; Arai, S; Akashi, A; Kuwano, K; Tseng, C C; Matsubara, S; Matumoto, M; Furudera, T

    1993-01-01

    The in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy of Q-35, a new fluoroquinolone, against Mycoplasma pneumoniae were investigated by pharmacokinetic studies with M. pneumoniae-infected hamsters. By using fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines as references, Q-35 was found to possess the greatest mycoplasmacidal activity. The MIC for 90% of strains tested (MIC90) and the MIC50 were 0.78 and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively, and the MBC for 90% of strains tested (MBC90) and the MBC50 were 3.13 and 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. The MBC50-to-MIC50 ratio for Q-35 was 2. Furthermore, only Q-35 continued to be effective against 19 strains of erythromycin-resistant mutants of M. pneumoniae. The efficacies of fluoroquinolones against M. pneumoniae were also investigated by using an experimental hamster pneumonia model to measure the CFU of M. pneumoniae in the lungs. Q-35 and ofloxacin were efficacious following oral administration of 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days, initiated 24 h after infection, while ciprofloxacin was not active. Continuous administration of Q-35 for 10 days significantly reduced numbers of viable M. pneumoniae in the lungs. These results suggest that both Q-35 and ofloxacin are effective in the early phase of infection and, moreover, that Q-35 is also effective in the middle stage of infection, when progressive lung alterations and continuous increases in mycoplasmal growth occur. Peak levels of Q-35 in sera and lungs after oral administration were higher than those of ciprofloxacin but lower than those of ofloxacin. On the basis of these results, Q-35 appears to be a promising antimicrobial agent in chemotherapy of mycoplasmal infection. PMID:8239590

  14. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: a diverse pathogen with limited clonality.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Désirée; Jores, Jörg; Korczak, Bozena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2008-02-01

    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was established and evaluated for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia in swine with the aim of defining strains. Putative target genes were selected by genome sequence comparisons. Out of 12 housekeeping genes chosen and experimentally validated, the 7 genes efp, metG, pgiB, recA, adk, rpoB, and tpiA were finally used to establish the MLST scheme. Their usefulness was assessed individually and in combination using a set of well-defined field samples and strains of M. hyopneumoniae. A reduction to the three targets showing highest variation (adk, rpoB, and tpiA) was possible resulting in the same number of sequence types as using the seven targets. The established MLST approach was compared with the recently described typing method using the serine-rich repeat motif-encoding region of the p146 gene. There was coherence between the two methods, but MLST resulted in a slightly higher resolution. Farms recognized to be affected by enzootic pneumonia were always associated with a single M. hyopneumoniae clone, which in most cases differed from farm to farm. However, farms in close geographic or operational contact showed identical clones as defined by MLST typing. Population analysis showed that recombination in M. hyopneumoniae occurs and that strains are very diverse with only limited clonality observed. Elaborate classical MLST schemes using multiple targets for M. hyopneumoniae might therefore be of limited value. In contrast, MLST typing of M. hyopneumoniae using the three genes adk, rpoB, and tpiA seems to be sufficient for epidemiological investigations by direct amplification of target genes from lysate of clinical material without prior cultivation. PMID:17884308

  15. Factors influencing the cell adhesion and invasion capacity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cell invasiveness of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the causative agent of respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, may be a substantial factor in the well-known chronicity of these diseases and in the systemic spread of infection. To date, not much is known about the host factors and mechanisms involved in promotion or obstruction of M. gallisepticum adherence and/or cell invasion. In the current study, the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin, collagen type IV and heparin, as well as plasminogen/plasmin, on the adhesion and cell invasion levels of M. gallisepticum to chicken erythrocytes and HeLa cells was investigated in vitro. Two strains, Rhigh and Rlow, which differ in their adhesion and invasion capacity, were analyzed by applying a modified gentamicin invasion assay. Binding of selected ECM molecules to M. gallisepticum was proven by Western blot analysis. Results Collagen type IV, fibronectin, and plasminogen exerted positive effects on adhesion and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum, with varying degrees, depending on the strain used. Especially strain Rhigh, with its highly reduced cell adhesion and invasion capabilities seemed to profit from the addition of plasminogen. Western and dot blot analyses showed that Rhigh as well as Rlow are able to adsorb horse fibronectin and plasminogen present in the growth medium. Depletion of HeLa cell membranes from cholesterol resulted in increased adhesion, but decreased cell invasion. Conclusion ECM molecules seem to play a supportive role in the adhesion/cell invasion process of M. gallisepticum. Cholesterol depletion known to affect lipid rafts on the host cell surface had contrary effects on cell adherence and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum. PMID:24011130

  16. Detection of multiple Mycoplasma species in bulk tank milk samples using real-time PCR and conventional culture and comparison of test sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to further validate a SYBR PCR protocol for Mycoplasma spp. by comparing it with standard microbial culture in the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Additionally, we identified Mycoplasma spp. present by analysis of PCR-generated amplicons [dissociation (melt) temperature (T(m)), length, and DNA sequence]. The research presented herein tests the hypothesis that the SYBR PCR protocol is as sensitive as conventional culture for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Mycoplasmas cause several important disease syndromes in cattle, including mastitis in dairy cows. The standard diagnostic method at the herd level has been microbial isolation of mycoplasmas on 1 of several specialized media and speciation through biochemical or immunological techniques; repeated sampling schemes are recommended. The development of a real-time SYBR PCR protocol offers advantages in decrease of time to detection, cost, and complexity. The T(m) of the double-stranded DNA generated from the PCR reaction was used to detect the presence of and tentatively identify the species of mycoplasmas other than Mycoplasma bovis. In the SYBR PCR protocol, the presence of multiple species of mycoplasmas is indicated by an atypical dissociation curve. Gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the amplicons was used to confirm the mycoplasma species present when a non-M. bovis organism was detected (T(m) not equal to M. bovis) and used to identify all the mycoplasma species present for the samples with atypical dissociation curves. Mycoplasma bovis was identified in 83% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank samples. Another mycoplasma was identified either alone or in addition to M. bovis in 25% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank milk samples. Four species of mycoplasma other than M. bovis (Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Mycoplasma gateae) were identified in bulk tank milk samples tested with this method. Five farms had 2 mycoplasma species occurring at different times in their bulk tanks. Two mycoplasma species were identified in the same bulk tank sample in 7 instances on 2 farms. The finding of multiple Mycoplasma spp. coexisting on a farm and even in the same bulk tank milk sample indicates that the clinical significance of multiple mycoplasma species in the pathology of intramammary infections should be investigated further. In comparison with conventional culture, the SYBR PCR protocol was slightly (but not statistically significantly) more sensitive in the detection of mycoplasmas in bulk tank milk. PMID:21700026

  17. Development and validation of an attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Yan-Na; Li, Gui-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Pharr, G Todd; Wang, Zhan-Wei; Kong, Meng; Gan, Yuan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-27

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and low mortality in swine, and has been presented as a major cause of growth retardation in the swine industry. Aerosol vaccination presents a needle free, high throughput, and efficient platform for vaccine delivery, and has been widely applied in poultry vaccination. However, aerosol vaccines have rarely been used in swine vaccination primarily because the long and curving respiratory track of swine presents a barrier for vaccine particle delivery. To develop an effective M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine, three major barriers need to be overcome: to optimize particle size for aerosol delivery, to maintain the viability of mycoplasma cells in the vaccine, and to optimize the environmental conditions for vaccine delivery. In this study, an aerosol mycoplasma vaccine was successfully developed based on a conventional live attenuated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. Specifically, the Pari LCD nebulizer was used to produce an aerosol vaccine particle size less than 5 ?m; and a buffer with 5% glycerol was developed and optimized to prevent inactivation of M. hyopneumoniae caused by aerosolization and evaporation. Before nebulization, the room temperature and relative humidity were control to 20-25 °C and 70-75%, respectively, which helped maintain the viability of aerosol vaccine. Animal experiments demonstrated that this newly developed aerosol vaccine was effectively delivered to swine low respiratory track, being confirmed by nested-PCR, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae specific sIgA secretion was detected in the nasal swab samples at 14 days post-immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a live M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine. PMID:24035264

  18. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)] [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  19. Intraspecies polymorphism of vsp genes and expression profiles of variable surface protein antigens (Vsps) in field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Beier, T; Hotzel, H; Lysnyansky, I; Grajetzki, C; Heller, M; Rabeling, B; Yogev, D; Sachse, K

    1998-10-01

    To assess the extent of interstrain variation, 50 isolates of Mycoplasma (M.) bovis including the type strain PG45 were examined for the presence of a family of variable membrane surface lipoproteins (Vsps) and their genes. Southern hybridization using a genomic fragment carrying three distinct vsp genes (vspAEF) revealed a striking heterogeneity, with only 2/50 strains having identical banding patterns. Cluster analysis of the data showed that most isolates from interrelated herds (groups 1, 2 and 3) were combined in a cluster of 50% homology, while isolates from distinct geographical regions (groups 4, 5 and 6) were linked only at 18% homology. Vsp antigen expression was monitored by Western immunoblotting using four specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Resembling the findings at the DNA level, interstrain variation of Vsp expression among groups 1-3 was less pronounced than among non-interrelated isolates from groups 4-6. Ten out of 50 strains did not hybridize with the vspAEF gene probe at high-stringency conditions, 8/50 failed to react with any of the Vsp-related MAbs, and 6/50 proved negative in both assays. Interestingly, most of these isolates produced hybridization signals at low stringency suggesting major distinctions in their vsp gene structure. The extensive evidence obtained on interstrain vsp gene polymorphism and variation in Vsp expression could provide a basis for a future understanding of the pathogenic potential of individual M. bovis strains. PMID:9850998

  20. Eggshell apex abnormalities associated with Mycoplasma synoviae infection in layers

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jong-Nyeo; Lee, Hae-Rim; Koo, Bon-Sang; Min, Kyeong-Cheol; Han, Moo-Sung; Lee, Seung-Baek; Bae, Yeon-Ji; Mo, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Eggs exhibiting eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) were evaluated for changes in shell characteristics such as strength, thickness, and ultrastructure. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection was confirmed by serological assay along with isolation of MS from the trachea and oviduct. Changes in eggshell quality were shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). We also identified ultrastructural changes in the mammillary knob layer by Scanning Electron Microscopy. While eggs may seem to be structurally sound, ultrastructural evaluation showed that affected eggs do not regain their former quality. In our knowledge, this is the first report describing the occurrence of EAA in Korea. PMID:24962418

  1. Detection of inhibitors in chicken tracheal washings against Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Slavik, M F; Maruca, S D; Skeeles, J K

    1982-01-01

    A chicken tracheal ring tissue-culture system was used to demonstrate that specific and nonspecific substances in chicken tracheal secretions inhibit the cilia-stopping effect (CSE) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). In chickens less than six weeks old, specific inhibitory substances were found in tracheal washings from chickens inoculated with MG. Nonspecific inhibitory substances were found in tracheal washes from untreated chickens seven weeks or older. Complement may play a role in the inhibition of CSE. Secretory immunoglobulin A was not detected in the tracheal washes. PMID:7092736

  2. Mycoplasma sturni from blue jays and northern mockingbirds with conjunctivitis in Florida.

    PubMed

    Ley, D H; Geary, S J; Berkhoff, J E; McLaren, J M; Levisohn, S

    1998-04-01

    Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) in a Florida (USA) wildlife care facility developed clinical signs and gross lesions suggestive of the ongoing outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). Mycoplasmal organisms were cultured from conjunctival/corneal swabs of birds with sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and/or epiphora. All of the isolates tested were identified as Mycoplasma sturni by indirect immunofluorescence. Mycoplasma sturni as well as MG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of songbirds with conjunctivitis. PMID:9577796

  3. The effect of various Mycoplasma bovis isolates on bovine leukocyte responses.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, M C; Woolums, A R; Hurley, D J; Sanchez, S; Ensley, D T; Donovan, D

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) contributes to a number of clinical syndromes in cattle; in particular, chronic pneumonia that is poorly responsive to therapy has been increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and financial loss. M. bovis impairs host immune function, but little is known about whether field isolates vary significantly in their effect on immune function. This research tested the hypothesis that different field isolates vary in their ability to suppress cellular metabolism and cellular production of radical oxygen species (ROS) by bovine leukocytes. Total blood leukocytes from 6 cattle were exposed to six field isolates, two diagnostic lab isolates, and two high passage laboratory isolates of M. bovis, and ROS production was measured by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123). Cellular metabolism was measured by reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Significant differences in the response to some field isolates were identified. Three field isolates and both diagnostic lab isolates significantly decreased ROS production by leukocytes from multiple cattle, while the high pass laboratory isolates did not. In contrast, MTT reduction was not significantly impaired by any of the M. bovis strains tested. M. bovis impairs ROS production by bovine leukocytes; the magnitude of the effect appears to be isolate-dependent, and is not related to a general impairment of cellular metabolism. Chronic M. bovis infection in some cattle may be related to impaired ability of leukocytes to produce ROS when exposed to M. bovis. PMID:20189247

  4. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

  5. Experimental reproduction of Mycoplasma gallisepticum disease in chukar partridges (Alectoris graeca).

    PubMed

    McMartin, D A; DaMassa, A J; McKeen, W D; Read, D; Daft, B; Lam, K M

    1996-01-01

    An outbreak of conjunctivitis and severe respiratory disease occurred in an integrated chukar partridge (Alectoris graeca) operation that involved about 8000 birds. The main clinical features were conjunctivitis and sinusitis and frequent mouth breathing, but almost no gasping or coughing. In 1000 breeders, egg production declined from 73% to 20%. Morbidity reached 100%, and losses from mortality and culling approached 60%. At necropsy, a conjunctivitis (often bilateral) and extensive caseated sinusitis were common. There was an occasional slight mucoid tracheitis, but no significant air sac lesions were noted. Mycoplasma gallisepticum, designated strain GM1125, was isolated and identified. Exposure of susceptible chukars to GM1125 reproduced the field disease. GM1125 was reisolated from the conjunctiva of all exposed birds 12 days postinfection, but infrequently from there or the respiratory system 36 days postexposure, even though clinical disease was still present. The experimental disease was confined to the conjunctiva and the upper respiratory tract. An occasional mucoid tracheitis was noted, but generally, the lungs and air sacs were not involved. Infection was followed by an appreciable serological response to M. gallisepticum. PMID:8790893

  6. Unmarked insertional mutagenesis in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC

    PubMed Central

    Janis, Carole; Bischof, Daniela; Gourgues, Géraldine; Frey, Joachim; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) is the aetiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease causing important losses in cattle production. The publication of the genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC should facilitate the identification of putative virulence factors. However, real progress in the study of molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity also requires efficient molecular tools for gene inactivation. In the present study, we have developed a transposon-based approach for the random mutagenesis of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. A PCR-based screening assay enabled the characterization of several mutants with knockouts of genes potentially involved in pathogenicity. The initial transposon was further improved by combining it with the transposon ?? TnpR/res recombination system to allow the production of unmarked mutations. Using this approach, we isolated a mutant free of antibiotic-resistance genes, in which the gene encoding the main lipoprotein LppQ was disrupted. The mutant was found to express only residual amounts of the truncated N-terminal end of LppQ. This approach opens the way to study virulence factors and pathogen-host interactions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and to develop new, genetically defined vaccine strains. PMID:18667575

  7. Functional Characterization of Osmotically Inducible Protein C (MG_427) from Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is the smallest self-replicating bacterium and an important human pathogen responsible for a range of urogenital infections and pathologies. Due to its limited genome size, many genes conserved in other bacteria are missing in M. genitalium. Genes encoding catalase and superoxide dismutase are absent, and how this pathogen overcomes oxidative stress remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized MG_427, a homolog of the conserved osmC, which encodes hydroperoxide peroxidase, shown to protect bacteria against oxidative stress. We found that recombinant MG_427 protein reduced organic and inorganic peroxide substrates. Also, we showed that a deletion mutant of MG_427 was highly sensitive to killing by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and H2O2 compared to the sensitivity of the wild type. Further, the fully complemented mutant strain reversed its oxidative sensitivity. Examination of the expression pattern of MG_427 during osmotic shock, oxidative stress, and other stress conditions revealed its lack of induction, distinguishing MG_427 from other previously characterized osmC genes. PMID:24363346

  8. First report of furuncular myiasis caused by the larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in a Taiwanese traveler

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Je-Ming; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chao, Li-Lian; Lee, Chung-Shinn; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A case of furuncular myiasis was reported for the first time in a 29-year-old young Taiwanese traveler returning from an ecotourism in Peru. Furuncle-like lesions were observed on the top of his head and he complained of crawling sensations within his scalp. The invasive larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, was extruded from the furuncular lesion of the patient. Awareness of cutaneous myiasis for clinicians should be considered for a patient who has a furuncular lesion and has recently returned from a botfly-endemic area. PMID:23620844

  9. First report of furuncular myiasis caused by the larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in a Taiwanese traveler.

    PubMed

    Hu, Je-Ming; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chao, Li-Lian; Lee, Chung-Shinn; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2013-03-01

    A case of furuncular myiasis was reported for the first time in a 29-year-old young Taiwanese traveler returning from an ecotourism in Peru. Furuncle-like lesions were observed on the top of his head and he complained of crawling sensations within his scalp. The invasive larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, was extruded from the furuncular lesion of the patient. Awareness of cutaneous myiasis for clinicians should be considered for a patient who has a furuncular lesion and has recently returned from a botfly-endemic area. PMID:23620844

  10. Mycoplasma agassizii in Morafka's desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Brown, Mary B.; Vaughn, Mercy; Gowan, Timothy A.; Hasskamp, Mary Ann; Torres, Ma. Cristina Melendez

    2015-01-01

    We conducted health evaluations of 69 wild and 22 captive Morafka's desert tortoises (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico between 2005 and 2008. The wild tortoises were from 11 sites in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, and the captive tortoises were from the state-managed Centro Ecológico de Sonora Zoo in Hermosillo and a private residence in the town of Alamos. We tested 88 tortoises for mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific antibody and by culture and PCR for detection of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum. Fifteen of 22 captive tortoises had one or more positive diagnostic test results for M. agassizii whereas no wild tortoises had positive tests. Tortoises with positive tests also had significantly more moderate and severe clinical signs of mycoplasmosis on beaks and nares compared to tortoises with negative tests. Captive tortoises also exhibited significantly more clinical signs of illness than did wild tortoises, including lethargy and moderate to severe ocular signs. The severity of trauma and diseases of the shell and integument did not differ significantly among tortoises by site; however, clinical signs of moderate to severe trauma and disease were more prevalent in older tortoises. Similar to research findings for other species in the genus Gopherusin the US, we found that URTD is an important disease in captive tortoises. If they escape or are released by intention or accident to the wild, captive tortoises are likely to pose risks to healthy, naïve wild populations.

  11. Can American goldfinches function as reservoirs for Mycoplasma gallisepticum?

    PubMed

    Dhondt, André A; Dhondt, Keila V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Schat, Karel A

    2013-01-01

    We performed experiments to test if American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) could be a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and play a role in the epidemic spread of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis among House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in North America. We infected one of two individuals housed together in a cage and determined if transmission occurred to the second bird. Probability of transmission between an American Goldfinch and a House Finch (in either direction) was similar to that between two House Finches. In a second experiment small groups of birds (6-8) were housed in large aviaries. Two source birds were inoculated with M. gallisepticum, and transmission to the naive birds in the aviary was recorded. Transmission occurred among House Finches, among American Goldfinches, and from House Finches to American Goldfinches. Transmission was more likely between House Finches than among American Goldfinches, and between House Finches and American Goldfinches. We conclude that American Goldfinches are a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and could have played a role in the spread of the epidemic as they are more migratory than House Finches. PMID:23307371

  12. Molecular characterization of the uncultivatable hemotropic bacterium Mycoplasma haemofelis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis is a pathogenic feline hemoplasma. Despite its importance, little is known about its metabolic pathways or mechanism of pathogenicity due to it being uncultivatable. The recently sequenced M. haemofelis str. Langford 1 genome was analysed and compared to those of other available hemoplasma genomes. Analysis showed that in hemoplasmas genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are limited to enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, with glucose appearing to be the sole energy source. The majority of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes that catalyze the de novo synthesis of ribonucleotides were absent, as were cell division protein FtsZ and chaperonins GroEL/ES. Uncharacterized protein paralogs containing putative surface expression motifs, comprised 62% of M. haemofelis and 19% of Mycoplasma suis genome coverage respectively, the majority of which were present in a small number of unstructured islands. Limited mass spectrometry and immunoblot data matched a number of characterized proteins and uncharacterized paralogs, confirming their expression and immunogenicity in vivo. These data have allowed further characterization of these important pathogens, including their limited metabolic capabilities, which may contribute to their uncultivatable status. A number of immunogenic proteins, and a potential mechanism for host immune system evasion, have been identified. PMID:21749699

  13. First isolation of Mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.

    PubMed

    Catania, S; Gobbo, F; Rodio, S; Qualtieri, K; Santone, C; Nicholas, R A J

    2014-06-01

    Mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. Mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. Treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. The gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development of the breast muscles, abnormalities in the keel development, and bone fragility. Some birds showed infraorbital sinusitis with serous or fibrinous exudates and catarrhal tracheitis, while others presented serofibrinous airsacculitis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed pure cultures of M. iowae in the gut as well as sinus and air sacs. While other organisms such as coccidia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Aspergillus spp. were detected, the similarity of the disease with that seen in turkeys infected with M. iowae strongly suggests that this mycoplasma may be the primary pathogen here. The presence of M. iowae in game birds commonly released into the wild could have serious implications particularly in areas where industrial poultry farms are concentrated. PMID:25055642

  14. ?-Enolase, an Adhesion-Related Factor of Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xin, Jiuqing; Zou, Xiaohui; Sun, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is the causative agent of Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease (MbAD). Although the mechanisms underlying M. bovis adherence to host cells is not clear, recent studies have shown that the cell surface protein ?-enolase facilitates bacterial invasion and dissemination in the infected host. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant M. bovis ?-enolase and induced polyclonal anti-?-enolase antibodies in rabbits. M. bovis ?-enolase was detected in the cytoplasmic and membrane protein fractions by these antibodies. Triple immunofluorescence labeling combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the plasminogen (Plg) enhanced the adherence of M. bovis to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells; the values obtained for adherence and inhibition are consistent with this finding. Interestingly, we found that trace amounts of trypsin acted as a more effective enhancer of cell adherence than Plg. Hence, our data indicate that surface-associated M. bovis ?-enolase is an adhesion-related factor of M. bovis that contributes to adherence by binding Plg. PMID:22719960

  15. Characterization of a major hemagglutinin protein from Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Markham, P F; Glew, M D; Brandon, M R; Walker, I D; Whithear, K G

    1992-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum cell membranes were used to immunize mice to produce monoclonal antibodies to cell surface proteins. Three monoclonal antibodies were chosen for further characterization. All three reacted in immunoblots with an M. gallisepticum protein band of M(r) approximately 67,000 (designated pMGA). By using immunoelectron microscopy, pMGA was shown to be located on the cell surface. When M. gallisepticum whole cells were treated with up to 250 micrograms of trypsin per ml for 30 min, the only major protein lost from the cell surface as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western immunoblot transfer was pMGA. Two of the pMGA-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited hemagglutination of chicken erythrocytes by M. gallisepticum S6, suggesting a role for pMGA in the attachment of M. gallisepticum to chicken erythrocytes. Sequencing the amino terminus of pMGA yielded 17 amino acids with no significant homology with the Mycoplasma pneumoniae attachment protein P1 or any other protein in the GenBank, Swiss-Prot, and EMBL data bases. PMID:1379991

  16. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  17. Mycoplasma agassizii in Morafka's desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Berry, Kristin H; Brown, Mary B; Vaughn, Mercy; Gowan, Timothy A; Hasskamp, Mary Ann; Torres, Ma Cristina Meléndez

    2015-01-01

    We conducted health evaluations of 69 wild and 22 captive Morafka's desert tortoises (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico between 2005 and 2008. The wild tortoises were from 11 sites in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, and the captive tortoises were from the state-managed Centro Ecológico de Sonora Zoo in Hermosillo and a private residence in the town of Alamos. We tested 88 tortoises for mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific antibody and by culture and PCR for detection of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum. Fifteen of 22 captive tortoises had one or more positive diagnostic test results for M. agassizii whereas no wild tortoises had positive tests. Tortoises with positive tests also had significantly more moderate and severe clinical signs of mycoplasmosis on beaks and nares compared to tortoises with negative tests. Captive tortoises also exhibited significantly more clinical signs of illness than did wild tortoises, including lethargy and moderate to severe ocular signs. The severity of trauma and diseases of the shell and integument did not differ significantly among tortoises by site; however, clinical signs of moderate to severe trauma and disease were more prevalent in older tortoises. Similar to research findings for other species in the genus Gopherus in the US, we found that URTD is an important disease in captive tortoises. If they escape or are released by intention or accident to the wild, captive tortoises are likely to pose risks to healthy, naïve wild populations. PMID:25375948

  18. Characterization of the excretory/secretory products of Dermatobia hominis larvae, the human bot fly.

    PubMed

    Brant, M P R; Guimarães, S; Souza-Neto, J A; Ribolla, P E M; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2010-03-25

    Proteolytic activity in excretory/secretory products (ESP) of first- (L1), second- (L2) and third-instar (L3) larvae of Dermatobia hominis was analyzed through gelatin-gel and colorimetric enzyme assays with the chromogenic substrates azocasein and BApNA. The functional characterization of proteases was based on inhibition assays including synthetic inhibitors. ESP were obtained from new-hatched larvae reared in the laboratory and from second- and third-instar larvae removed from naturally infested cattle. Gelatin-gel analysis evidenced few bands of proteolysis, predominantly of high apparent molecular masses, in ESP of L1, whereas in the gel of L2 and L3 ESP there was a wide range of proteolytic activity most of them not resolved in a single species. Azocasein assays revealed a progressive increase of protease activity from first- to third-instar larvae. Protease inhibitor assays revealed a predominance of metalloproteases in L1 ESP that could be related to a skin penetration process and to a diversion of host immune response. The predominance of serine proteases in L2 and L3 and the great tryptic activity presented by L3 ESP were attributed to an increasing trophic activity by the growing larvae, since the viability of adult flies strictly depends on larval abilities to assimilate nutrients from the host. Taking together, these results suggest that Dematobia larvae secrete/excrete different proteases that may be related to diverse functions during host penetration and infestation, which reinforces the relevance of the study of such proteolytic enzymes. PMID:20042295

  19. Effect of Hominis Placenta on cutaneous wound healing in normal and diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeun; Lee, Jiyoung; Jeong, Minsu; Min, Seorim; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Lim, Yunsook

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The number of diabetic patients has recently shown a rapid increase, and delayed wound healing is a major clinical complication in diabetes. In this study, the wound healing effect of Hominis placenta (HP) treatment was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Four full thickness wounds were created using a 4 mm biopsy punch on the dorsum. HP was injected subcutaneously at the middle region of the upper and lower wounds. Wounds were digitally photographed and wound size was measured every other day until the 14th day. Wound closure rate was analyzed using CANVAS 7SE software. Wound tissues were collected on days 2, 6, and 14 after wounding for H/E, immunohistochemistry for FGF2, and Masson's trichrome staining for collagen study. RESULTS Significantly faster wound closure rates were observed in the HP treated group than in normal and diabetes control mice on days 6 and 8. Treatment with HP resulted in reduced localization of inflammatory cells in wounded skin at day 6 in normal mice and at day 14 in diabetic mice (P < 0.01). Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 showed a significant increase in the HP treated group on day 14 in both normal (P < 0.01) and diabetic mice (P < 0.05). In addition, HP treated groups showed a thicker collagen layer than no treatment groups, which was remarkable on the last day, day 14, in both normal and diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, HP treatment has a beneficial effect on acceleration of cutaneous wound healing via regulation of the entire wound healing process, including inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. PMID:25110560

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF MULTIPLE ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS ON 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' ATTACHMENT PROTEIN BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinct multiple antigenic determinants of the attachment protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been identified by limited proteolytic cleavage using specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blots prepared from the gels containing the cleaved fragments were probed with antiserum ...

  1. First reported isolation of Mycoplasma bovis from an outbreak of bovine mastitis in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, S I

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-seven isolates of Mycoplasma bovis were recovered from 42 milk samples from imported Friesian cows in Khartoum State. This is the first report on isolation of M. bovis in the Sudan. PMID:9008958

  2. Detection of mycoplasma in mastitic milk by PCR analysis and culture method.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kawasaki, Y; Kotani, K; Tanaka, A; Abiko, K; Ogawa, H

    2001-06-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens, M. bovigenitalium, M. bovirhinis and M. bovis were directly detected from milk specimens by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) when milk specimens were centrifuged and treated with mycoplasmal lysis buffer. The sensitivity of this PCR method was 110 to 1,400 colony forming units (CFU). This method was useful for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk specimens from cows at an early stage of mycoplasmal mastitis since a small amount of mycoplasma could be detect in milk without culture. The results were available within 12 hr, which is faster than conventional culture techniques. M. bovirhinis was detected in more than 70% of mastitic milk specimens when mycoplasmas were detected in milk specimens from 30 cows with mastitis by this PCR method. PMID:11459020

  3. Mycoplasma Contamination of Cell Cultures: Vesicular Traffic in Bacteria and Control over Infectious Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, V. M.; Chernova, O. A.; Sanchez-Vega, J. T.; Kolpakov, A. I.; Ilinskaya, O. N.

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures are subject to contamination either with cells of other cultures or with microorganisms, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is of particular importance. Since cell cultures are used for the production of vaccines and physiologically active compounds, designing a system for controlling contaminants becomes topical for fundamental science and biotechnological production. The discovery of extracellular membrane vesicles in mycoplasmas makes it necessary to take into consideration the bacterial vesicular traffic in systems designed for controlling infectious agents. The extracellular vesicles of bacteria mediate the traffic of proteins and genes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions, as well as in the pathogenesis and development of resistance to antibiotics. The present review discusses the features of mycoplasmas, their extracellular vesicles, and the interaction between contaminants and eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, it provides an analysis of the problems associated with modern methods of diagnosis and eradication of mycoplasma contamination from cell cultures and prospects for their solution. PMID:25349713

  4. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Laura; Churchward, Colin P; Lawes, Joanna R; Loria, Guido; Ayling, Roger D; Nicholas, Robin AJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control. PMID:18992155

  5. MRI appearances of the CNS manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a report of two cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Francis; A. Brown; D. H. Miller; C. M. Wiles; E. D. Bennett; N. Leigh

    1988-01-01

    Two patients are reported with Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related cervical myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging in each case demonstrated clinically silent lesions suggesting more extensive neurological involvement. This supports the concept of widespread immunologically mediated disease occurring as a remote effect of initial M. pneumoniae respiratory infection. Differences from the MRI appearances of a patient with mycoplasma-related Guillian-Barré syndrome imply that more than

  6. MRI appearances of the CNS manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Francis, D A; Brown, A; Miller, D H; Wiles, C M; Bennett, E D; Leigh, N

    1988-09-01

    Two patients are reported with Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related cervical myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging in each case demonstrated clinically silent lesions suggesting more extensive neurological involvement. This supports the concept of widespread immunologically mediated disease occurring as a remote effect of initial M. pneumoniae respiratory infection. Differences from the MRI appearances of a patient with mycoplasma-related Guillian-Barré syndrome imply that more than one antigenic determinant is involved. PMID:3221251

  7. Differentiation of Mycoplasma Species by 16S Ribosomal DNA PCR and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Laura; Ellis, Richard J.; Ayling, Roger D.; Nicholas, Robin A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of a 16S ribosomal DNA PCR product was used to differentiate 32 mycoplasma species of veterinary significance. Twenty-seven (85%) species could be differentiated by DGGE. This method could enable the rapid identification of many mycoplasma species for which there is no specific PCR available and which are currently identified by using culture and serological tests. PMID:14532239

  8. Tandem use of immunofluorescent and DNA staining assays to validate nested PCR detection of mycoplasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Kumar; Arif Ali; Lakshmana K. Yerneni

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination in cell culture is a serious setback to cell culturists across the world with a very high rate of\\u000a reported occurrence particularly because of difficult early detection. Out of a variety of detection methods known, the double-step\\u000a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of mycoplasma in cell culture has been critically viewed upon because\\u000a of chances of producing

  9. Effect of selected water temperatures used in Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine reconstitution on titer at selected time intervals.

    PubMed

    Branton, S L; Leigh, S A; Roush, W B; Purswell, J L; Olanrewaju, H A; Collier, S D

    2008-06-01

    Numerous methods are currently used throughout the poultry industry for the administration of vaccines. Each utilizes water for vaccine reconstitution and/or administration, including two of the three commercially available live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines. Selected water temperatures were used to reconstitute and/or dilute the three commercially available live MG vaccines. Water temperatures included 4 C, 22 C (room temperature), and 32 C, and titer (color change units) was recorded at four time intervals, at point of reconstitution (time 0), 15, 30, and 60 min postreconstitution of the vaccines (time periods 15, 30, and 60, respectively). Results for F strain MG (FMG) vaccine showed significant decreases in titer from time 0 to time 15 for the 22 C and 32 C water temperatures but no significant decrease for any time period for FMG reconstituted with 4 C water. For 6/85 strain MG no significant difference in titer was noted for any of four time periods within any of the three water temperatures. For ts-11 strain MG a significant decrease was observed in titer at each of the four postdilution time periods when diluted with 32 C water. There was no significant decrease in titer at any time period for ts-11 MG vaccine when diluted with either 4 C or 22 C water. PMID:18646459

  10. Endothelial cells from bovine pulmonary microvasculature respond to Mycoplasma bovis preferentially with signals for mononuclear cell transmigration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaodong; Rosenbusch, Ricardo F

    2004-11-01

    Mycoplasma bovis can cause arthritis or mastitis following pneumonia and mycoplasmemia in cattle. Interactions with pulmonary vascular endothelium have been recorded as localized vasculitis, perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrations, and accumulation of inflammatory cells in lesions. We compared adhesion mediators and cytokine gene expression as well as cytotoxicity of cultured primary bovine aortic and bovine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (BPMEC) challenged with M. bovis. We also tested if abscess-forming ability of strains of M. bovis is associated with changes on endothelial cells. Increased VCAM-1 surface expression was found in both cell types, while only infected BPMEC increased MCP-1 transcription, both mediators specific for mononuclear cell transmigration. Given no induction of ICAM-1 mRNA in either cell type, induction of IL-8 mRNA by BPMEC suggested that neutrophil transmigration was signaled in microvascular areas. Infected BPMEC showed early induction of IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA. Excepting VCAM-1, differential strain effects were limited to BPMEC and not correlated with their abscess-forming capability. In addition, only strain DSA16 had minor cytotoxic effect on both cell types. We thus show that BPMEC are more susceptible than aortic cells to M. bovis-induced activation. Activation preferentially yielded signals for mononuclear cell transmigration, correlating well with in vivo observations of infiltrating cells at pulmonary sites. PMID:15519046

  11. Genetic diversity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates using partial sequencing of the pvpA gene fragment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sprygin, A V; Andreychuk, D B; Elatkin, N P; Zinyakov, N G; Kolosov, S N; Mudrak, N S; Irza, V N; Drygin, V V; Borisov, A V; Perevozchikova, N A

    2010-06-01

    The genetic diversity of the pvpA gene of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) samples originating from commercial chickens was investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of 26 field samples of MG detected in commercial chickens and turkeys from 18 regions of Russia and compared them to the reference strains of MG available in GenBank. Genetic variability was evaluated by partial nucleotide sequencing of the pvpA gene, which encodes a putative cytadhesin protein. Comparisons with MG strains and isolates from the United States, Australia, China, and Iran using sequence analysis of PCR products showed that Russian MG field samples clustered more closely to each other than to the international reference MG strains. The MG pvpA sequences were found to be highly variable with a discrimination index of 0.975 for Russian field samples. No apparent cluster was found using the criteria of year or location of detection. DNA sequence polymorphism and size variation in the pvpA gene were shown among the Russian MG field samples and could be used for MG typing. These findings might help better understand the relationship among MG isolates from Russia and other countries. PMID:20608536

  12. Evolutionary History of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Using Next Generation Sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides “Small Colony”

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Virginie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Barbe, Valérie; Thebault, Patricia; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Poumarat, François; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thiaucourt, François

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides “Small Colony” (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19th century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20th century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19th century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected. PMID:23071648

  13. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. PMID:25421836

  14. In situ immunohistochemical detection of intracellular Mycoplasma salivarium in the epithelial cells of oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Harumi; Kawamura, Takafumi; Nagasawa, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms; Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale are the most common species isolated from the oropharynx. Oral leukoplakia is the most prevalent potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa; its etiology has not been defined. Our previous study with DNA-binding fluorescent dye suggested the presence of mycoplasmas in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia tissue. Objective Our aim was to detect M. salivarium in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia by immunohistochemistry. Design We produced a polyclonal antibody (PAb) reactive to Mycoplasma by injecting a rabbit with M. salivarium cells (ATCC 23064) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant and a monoclonal antibody specific to M. salivarium by injecting M. salivarium cells (ATCC 23557) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant into the footpads of a rat. Then, we attempted to detect M. salivarium in the epithelium of leukoplakia tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results We obtained an antimycoplasma rabbit PAb reactive to all seven Mycoplasma species used in this study. Three hybridoma clones producing monoclonal antibodies specific to M. salivarium were obtained, and an M. salivarium-specific monoclonal antibody, designated 7-6H, was established. Immunohistochemistry with these antibodies revealed M. salivarium in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia with hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis on histology. PCR and sequencing verified the presence of M. salivariumDNA in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia. Conclusion Intracellular M. salivarium was identified in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia. PMID:25065471

  15. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue)

    PubMed Central

    Hijikata, Yasuyo; Kano, Takashi; Xi, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Objective Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method Placenta Hominis (PH), steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue) has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia. PMID:20360892

  16. The effect of multiple evolutionary selections on synonymous codon usage of genes in the Mycoplasma bovis genome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-hua; Ding, Yao-zhong; He, Ying; Chu, Yue-feng; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Li-ya; Wang, Xin-jun; Li, Xue-rui; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen causing arthritis, respiratory disease and mastitis in cattle. A better understanding of its genetic features and evolution might represent evidences of surviving host environments. In this study, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in M. bovis (three strains' genomes) were analyzed. The overall nucleotide content of genes in the M. bovis genome is AT-rich. Although the G and C contents at the third codon position of genes in the leading strand differ from those in the lagging strand (p<0.05), the 59 synonymous codon usage patterns of genes in the leading strand are highly similar to those in the lagging strand. The over-represented codons and the under-represented codons were identified. A comparison of the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis and cattle (susceptible host) indicated the independent formation of synonymous codon usage of M. bovis. Principal component analysis revealed that (i) strand-specific mutational bias fails to affect the synonymous codon usage pattern in the leading and lagging strands, (ii) mutation pressure from nucleotide content plays a role in shaping the overall codon usage, and (iii) the major trend of synonymous codon usage has a significant correlation with the gene expression level that is estimated by the codon adaptation index. The plot of the effective number of codons against the G+C content at the third codon position also reveals that mutation pressure undoubtedly contributes to the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis. Additionally, the formation of the overall codon usage is determined by certain evolutionary selections for gene function classification (30S protein, 50S protein, transposase, membrane protein, and lipoprotein) and translation elongation region of genes in M. bovis. The information could be helpful in further investigations of evolutionary mechanisms of the Mycoplasma family and heterologous expression of its functionally important proteins. PMID:25350396

  17. Predominant Virulent IbA10G2 Subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis in Human Isolates in Barcelona: A Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Remedios; Prim, Núria; Montemayor, Michel; Valls, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium infection is a worldwide cause of diarrheal disease. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the infection in a certain geographic area, molecular methods are needed to determine the species/genotypes and subtypes. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2004 to 2009, 161 cryptosporidiosis cases were detected in two hospitals in Barcelona. Diagnosis was performed by microscopic observation of oocysts in stool specimens following modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Most cases (82%) occurred in children. The number of cases increased in summer and autumn. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was performed in 69 specimens, and C. hominis and C. parvum were identified in 88.4% and 10.1% of the cases, respectively. C. meleagridis was detected in one specimen. Subtyping based on the gp60 polymorphism showed six subtypes, four C. hominis and two C. parvum. Subtype IbA10G2 was the most prevalent subtype corresponding to 90% of all C. hominis isolates. This is the first report on the distribution of specific Cryptosporidium subtypes from humans in Spain. Conclusions/Significance In our geographic area, the anthroponotic behavior of C. hominis, the lower infective dose, and the higher virulence of certain subtypes may contribute to the high incidence of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the IbA10G2 subtype. Further studies should include populations with asymptomatic shedding of the parasite. PMID:25816024

  18. Unitary step of gliding machinery in Mycoplasma mobile

    PubMed Central

    Kinosita, Yoshiaki; Nakane, Daisuke; Sugawa, Mitsuhiro; Masaike, Tomoko; Mizutani, Kana; Miyata, Makoto; Nishizaka, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Among the bacteria that glide on substrate surfaces, Mycoplasma mobile is one of the fastest, exhibiting smooth movement with a speed of 2.0–4.5 ?m?s?1 with a cycle of attachment to and detachment from sialylated oligosaccharides. To study the gliding mechanism at the molecular level, we applied an assay with a fluorescently labeled and membrane-permeabilized ghost model, and investigated the motility by high precision colocalization microscopy. Under conditions designed to reduce the number of motor interactions on a randomly oriented substrate, ghosts took unitary 70-nm steps in the direction of gliding. Although it remains possible that the stepping behavior is produced by multiple interactions, our data suggest that these steps are produced by a unitary gliding machine that need not move between sites arranged on a cytoskeletal lattice. PMID:24912194

  19. [Porcine eperythrozoonosis: from Eperythrozoon suis to Mycoplasma suis].

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, L E; Felder, K M; Hoelzle, K

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma suis (formerly known as Eperythrozoon suis ) is the most prevalent agent causing haemolytic anaemia in swine. The disease is also known as porcine eperythrozoonosis. M.suis is a small, pleomorphic bacteria parasitizing porcine erythrocytes. To date, no in vitro cultivation system for M.suis has been established and, therefore, our knowledge about the characteristics of M.suis and the pathogenesis of porcine eperythrozoonosis is rather limited. M.suis can cause acute disease, but the major significance of M.suis infections lies in the fact that M.suis can establish chronic and persistent infections leading to a higher susceptibility to other infections, especially of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The present article summarizes the current knowledge of the pathogen, the clinical signs and pathogenesis, diagnostic as well as therapy and prophylaxis. PMID:22138829

  20. Identification of Haemobartonella felis (Mycoplasma haemofelis) in captive nondomestic cats.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Monika; Burke, Thomas J; Kitchell, Barbara E; Lamont, Leigh A; Schaeffer, David J; Behr, Melissa; Messick, Joanne B

    2003-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether Haemobartonella felis (Mycoplasma haemofelis), the causative bacterial agent of feline infectious anemia, infects nondomestic cats. Routine complete blood count and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to detect the gene for 16S ribosomal RNA for the organism. Sixty-four blood samples were collected from 54 nondomestic cats, including tigers (Panthera tigris), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), lions (P. leo), mountain lions (Felis concolor), snow leopards (P. unica), and a jaguar (P. onca). Some cats were sampled on two or three different dates. Two tigers were positive for H. felis by PCR analysis. As previously described in domestic cats, the parasitemia appears to be intermittent in nondomestic cats. PMID:12885130

  1. Antigen heterogeneity among isolates of Mycoplasma bovis is generated by high-frequency variation of diverse membrane surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosengarten, R; Behrens, A; Stetefeld, A; Heller, M; Ahrens, M; Sachse, K; Yogev, D; Kirchhoff, H

    1994-11-01

    The protein and antigen profiles of 11 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis of whole organisms. The isolates examined included the type strain PG45 and 10 other filter-cloned strains or purified isolates both from animals without clinical signs and from clinical cases of bovine mastitis, arthritis, or pneumonia. While the overall protein patterns visualized by silver staining were very similar, marked differences in the antigen banding profiles were detected by rabbit antiserum prepared against whole organisms from one of the strains analyzed. This antigenic heterogeneity was shown to be independent of the geographical origin, the type of clinical disease, and the site of isolation and was also observed among serial isolates from a single animal. Antigen profiles were further monitored throughout sequentially subcloned populations of the PG45 strain. This clonal analysis revealed a high-frequency variation in the expression levels of several prominent antigens. All of these variable antigens were defined by detergent-phase fractionation with Triton X-114 as amphiphilic integral membrane proteins. A subset of different-sized membrane proteins was identified by a monoclonal antibody raised against a PG45 subclone expressing a 63- and a 46-kDa variant antigen within that set. The selective susceptibility of these proteins to trypsin treatment of intact organisms and their ability to bind the monoclonal antibody in colony immunoblots demonstrated that they were exposed on the cell surface. In addition, their preferential recognition by serum antibodies from individual cattle with naturally induced M. bovis mastitis or arthritis confirmed that they were major immunogens of this organism. These studies establish that the apparent antigenic heterogeneity among M. bovis isolates reported here does not represent stable phenotypic strain differences generated from accumulated mutational events but reflects distinct expression patterns of diverse, highly variable membrane surface proteins. PMID:7927789

  2. Ultrafast Evolution and Loss of CRISPRs Following a Host Shift in a Novel Wildlife Pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Nigel F.; Balenger, Susan; Bonneaud, Camille; Marx, Christopher J.; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Tsai, Peter; Rodrigo, Allen; Edwards, Scott V.

    2012-01-01

    Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ?2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8?1.2×10?5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007) House Finch MG strains retain only ?50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994–95) strains and have lost the CRISPR–associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs. PMID:22346765

  3. Mycoplasma corogypsi-associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus).

    PubMed

    Van Wettere, A J; Ley, D H; Scott, D E; Buckanoff, H D; Degernes, L A

    2013-03-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

  4. Versatile use of oriC plasmids for functional genomics of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum.

    PubMed

    Janis, Carole; Lartigue, Carole; Frey, Joachim; Wróblewski, Henri; Thiaucourt, François; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2005-06-01

    Replicative oriC plasmids were recently developed for several mollicutes, including three Mycoplasma species belonging to the mycoides cluster that are responsible for bovine and caprine diseases: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. In this study, oriC plasmids were evaluated in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum as genetic tools for (i) expression of heterologous proteins and (ii) gene inactivation by homologous recombination. The reporter gene lacZ, encoding beta-galactosidase, and the gene encoding spiralin, an abundant surface lipoprotein of the related mollicute Spiroplasma citri, were successfully expressed. Functional Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was detected in transformed Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum cells despite noticeable codon usage differences. The expression of spiralin in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum was assessed by colony and Western blotting. Accessibility of this protein at the cell surface and its partition into the Triton X-114 detergent phase suggest a correct maturation of the spiralin precursor. The expression of a heterologous lipoprotein in a mycoplasma raises potentially interesting applications, e.g., the use of these bacteria as live vaccines. Targeted inactivation of gene lppA encoding lipoprotein A was achieved in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum with plasmids harboring a replication origin derived from S. citri. Our results suggest that the selection of the infrequent events of homologous recombination could be enhanced by the use of oriC plasmids derived from related mollicute species. Mycoplasma gene inactivation opens the way to functional genomics in a group of bacteria for which a large wealth of genome data are already available and steadily growing. PMID:15932982

  5. Mycoplasma corogypsi associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus)

    PubMed Central

    Van Wettere, A. J.; Ley, D. H.; Scott, D. E.; Buckanoff, H. D.; Degernes, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

  6. Measuring Strain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah Brownlee

    This activity utilizes randomly oriented strain markers created in Illustrator to estimate strain by measuring angular strain and lengths of lines, calculating shear strain, defining and orienting the principal strain axes, calculating stretching, and creating a Mohr Strain diagram using measurements as well as the strain equations.

  7. Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis".

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Delicado, Verónica; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Esperón, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Molecular analyses of blood samples revealed infection with hemoplasmas in 97% of 31 cave bats captured in three caves in North-Eastern Spain. The characterization of 1250bp of the 16S rRNA gene in 29 of the positive bats identified two different groups of sequences. Twenty-two Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) and one long-eared bat (Myotis capaccinii) shared one group, composed of seven closely related sequences. These sequences showed an identity of about 97% with "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis" and the phylogenetic branch including bat and human sequences showed a 100% bootstrap value, supporting a close phylogenetic relationship between these hemoplasmas. The second group, representing a potentially novel species, was composed of a single sequence shared by six Schreibers' bats that had 91% identity with the recently reported hemoplasma from little brown bats in North America. Large bat aggregations in roosting caves probably benefits intra and inter-species transmission explaining the high observed prevalence. PMID:25655409

  8. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis. PMID:23398879

  9. The breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain, (Orthoxenic PA 12), created at our Station.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain induced airsacculitis associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (V248). The antibiotics were administered at 0.67 g/gal activity. Under the very severe experimental infection induced in this trial results

  10. 9 CFR 147.31 - Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...threshold cycle number (CT value) was determined to be the...reaction that has a recorded CT value was considered positive,...

  11. 9 CFR 147.31 - Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...threshold cycle number (CT value) was determined to be the...reaction that has a recorded CT value was considered positive,...

  12. 9 CFR 147.31 - Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...threshold cycle number (CT value) was determined to be the...reaction that has a recorded CT value was considered positive,...

  13. 9 CFR 147.31 - Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...threshold cycle number (CT value) was determined to be the...reaction that has a recorded CT value was considered positive,...

  14. 9 CFR 147.31 - Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...threshold cycle number (CT value) was determined to be the...reaction that has a recorded CT value was considered positive,...

  15. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Simulated and True Clinical Throat Swab Specimens by Nanorod Array-Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne L. Hennigan; Jeremy D. Driskell; Richard A. Dluhy; Yiping Zhao; Ralph A. Tripp; Ken B. Waites; Duncan C. Krause; Olivier Neyrolles

    2010-01-01

    The prokaryote Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans, accounting for 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia and the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults. The limitations of existing options for mycoplasma diagnosis highlight a critical need for a new detection platform with high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we evaluated silver nanorod

  16. Phenotypic Characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae Induced Changes in the Metabolic and Sensitivity Profile of In Vitro Infected Chicken Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dušani?, Daliborka

    2014-01-01

    In infectious synovitis caused by Mycoplasma synoviae chicken chondrocytes (CCH) may come into direct contact with these bacteria that are also capable of invading CCH in vitro. In this study, phenotype microarrays were used to evaluate the influence of Mycoplasma synoviae on the global metabolic activity of CCH. Therefore, CCH were cultured in the presence of 504 individual compounds, spotted in wells of 11 phenotype microarrays for eukaryotic cells, and exposed to Mycoplasma synoviae membranes or viable Mycoplasma synoviae. Metabolic activity and sensitivity of normal cells versus infected cells were evaluated. Metabolic profiles of CCH treated with viable Mycoplasma synoviae or its membranes were significantly different from those of CCH alone. CCH treated with Mycoplasma synoviae membranes were able to use 48 carbon/nitrogen sources not used by CCH alone. Treatment also influenced ion uptake in CCH and intensified the sensitivity to 13 hormones, 5 immune mediators, and 29 cytotoxic chemicals. CCH were even more sensitive to hormones/immune mediators when exposed to viable Mycoplasma synoviae. Our results indicate that exposure to Mycoplasma synoviae or its membranes induces a wide range of metabolic and sensitivity modifications in CCH that can contribute to pathological processes in the development of infectious synovitis. PMID:25243158

  17. Time to clearance of mycoplasma mastitis: The effect of management factors including milking time hygiene and preferential culling

    PubMed Central

    Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Fox, Lawrence K.; Hancock, Dale D.; Gay, John M.; Alldredge, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with time to clearance of mycoplasma mastitis were studied in 18 dairy cattle herds. Most herds cleared mycoplasma mastitis within 1 month; < 50% of the herds culled diseased cows preferentially, yet culling was not associated with hastened clearance. Other known mastitis biosecurity and management practices were not associated with clearance time. PMID:23543934

  18. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in the blood of cats with anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Ishak; Steve Radecki; Michael R. Lappin

    2007-01-01

    Hemoplasmas are known causes of anemia in some cats and some Bartonella species have been associated with anemia in people and in dogs. In this retrospective study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to determine the prevalence rates of Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus M haemominutum’, A phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia species, and Bartonella species DNA in the blood of cats with anemia

  19. Plant Viruses and Mycoplasmas. Proceedings of a Workshop on Plant Viruses and Mycoplasmas Held at the Botany Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore, May 24-27, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, G., Ed.; And Others

    A workshop on plant viruses and mycoplasmas brought together scientists and researchers working on these microorganisms in the countries of eastern Asia, and enabled them to discuss their studies, to exchange ideas, and to become familiar with their counterparts These proceedings of the workshop contain papers which include country reports,…

  20. Strain and strain rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-U. Voigt; F. A. Flachskampf

    2004-01-01

    Zusammenfassung. Myokardiale Verformung (strain) und Verformungsgeschwindigkeit (strain rate) sind neue Parameter der regionalen Myokardfunktion, die sich aus Gewebedopplerdaten berechnen lassen. Sie sind weniger von der Bildqualität abhängig als die Erkennung der Endokardkontur und weniger subjektiv als die visuelle Beurteilung der Wandbewegung. Die regionalen Verformungsparameter können echokardiographisch mit sehr hoher zeitlicher Auflösung (weitaus höher als mittels Magnetresonanztomographie) errechnet werden. Dadurch werden