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1

Improved method for expression and isolation of the Mycoplasma hominis arginine deiminase from the recombinant strain of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Arginine deiminase is a promising anticancer drug active against melanoma, hepatocarcinoma and other tumors. Recombinant strains of Escherichia coli that express arginine deiminase from pathogenic bacteria Mycoplasma have been developed. However, production costs of heterologous arginine deiminase are high due to use of an expensive inducer and extraction buffer, as well as using diluted culture for enzyme induction. We report on a new advanced protocol for Mycoplasma hominis arginine deiminase expression, extraction and renaturation. The main improvements include manipulation with dense suspensions of E. coli, use of lactose instead of isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside as an inducer and a cheaper but not less efficient buffer for solubilization of arginine deiminase inclusion bodies. In addition, supplementation of the storage culture medium with glucose and substrate (arginine) significantly stabilized the recombinant arginine deiminase producer. Homogenous preparations of recombinant arginine deiminase were obtained using anion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The purified enzyme retained a specific activity of 30-34 U/mg for 12 months when stored at 4°C in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.2 containing 1 M NaCl. PMID:23928331

Fayura, Lyubov R; Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Wheatley, Denys N; Sibirny, Andriy A

2013-09-20

2

Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV. PMID:24948939

Meng, Dong-Ya; Sun, Chang-Jian; Yu, Jing-Bo; Ma, Jun; Xue, Wen-Cheng

2014-01-01

3

Oestradiol-induced infection of the genital tract of female mice by Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed

Treatment of female BALB/c mice with oestradiol rendered them susceptible to vaginal colonization by three of four different strains of Mycoplasma hominis. Overall, the organisms were recovered persistently from the vagina of 68 (87%) of 78 of these mice. Strain TO mice given one of the strains were at least susceptible, all of ten becoming colonized and larger numbers of organisms being recovered. The hormone arrested the reproductive cycle in the oestrous phase, characterized by non-nucleated, cornified vaginal epithelial cells. In contrast, M. hominis organisms were isolated transiently from only seven (10.5%) of 66 BALB/c mice not treated with oestradiol, after intravaginal inoculation; treatment with progesterone, which induced the dioestrous phase of the cycle, did not render any of 10 BALB/c mice susceptible to vaginal colonization. The minimum number of organisms (2.5 x 10(5)) of one strain of M. hominis and the minimum dose of oestradiol (0.05 mg) required to induce persistent colonization were established. Vaginal colonization persisted for more than 200 d in some mice, the numbers of organisms recovered ranging between 10(1) and 10(8). At autopsy there was evidence of spread to the uterine horns and ovaries, and also to the oropharynx, of some animals but not to other organs. Infection was not associated with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response in the vagina or elsewhere, but a fourfold serum antibody response to M. hominis, measured by the metabolism-inhibition technique, was detected in almost half of the mice tested. PMID:2632670

Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

1989-10-01

4

Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonas vaginalis: a unique case of symbiotic relationship between two obligate human parasites.  

PubMed

Mollicutes are the smallest and simplest self-replicating microorganisms. Despite the minimal genome and apparent lack of complexity, mycoplasmas show a high degree of adaptation to the most diverse environments. Mycoplasma hominis is a human sexually transmitted mycoplasma which is able to establish a biological association with Trichomonas vaginalis, a pathogenic flagellated protist. M. hominis and T. vaginalis share the same specific natural niche, the human genitourinary tract. Symbiotic relationships between unicellular eukaryotes and bacteria are well known and have been extensively studied, providing interesting insights into the biology of one or both the symbionts. The relationship between T. vaginalis and M. hominis is unique in that it was the first described association of two obligated human parasites. Several aspects of this relationship have been investigated, showing how the trichomonad may be viewed not only as a new niche for M. hominis, but also as a "Trojan horse" for the transmission of the bacterial infection to the human host. PMID:16720288

Dessì, Daniele; Rappelli, Paola; Diaz, Nicia; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Fiori, Pier Luigi

2006-01-01

5

Updated phylogenetic description of the Mycoplasma hominis cluster (Weisburg et al. 1989) based on 16S rDNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fastidious nature of the mollicutes (mycoplasmas), their lack of a classic bacterial cell wall, and their very small genome, make phylogenetic placements of new species in this enlarging group of prokaryotes an important and valuable aid in their classification. In this report we have determined the phylogeny of the Mycoplasma hominis cluster of the hominis group. The 16S rDNA

Bertil Pettersson; Joseph G. Tully; Karl-Erik Johansson

2000-01-01

6

[Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum in patients with bacterial vaginosis].  

PubMed

An observational descriptive study to determine the frequency of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolates in patients with bacterial vaginosis was carried out in 296 patients who had vaginal secretion and were seen at two hospitals. The diagnosis was based on Amsel's criteria. Endocervical swabs were taken from women positive to this disease for M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. diagnosis by traditional methods. Polymerase chain reaction identified U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 30.1% of females, and in 77.5% of them the studied urogenital mycoplasmas were present. M. hominis was the most common species (71%) whereas U. parvum and Urealyticum were detected in 23.2 % and 5.8% of cases respectively. The diagnosis of Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas should be performed in females with bacterial vaginosis, which will allow applying adequate therapeutic control and avoiding future pathologies in the genital tract. PMID:23427443

Fernández Molina, Carmen; Zamora Martínez, Yarelys; Rodríguez, Preval Nadia; Rodríguez González, Islay; Berdasquera Corcho, Denis; Ortega González, Lilia María

2007-01-01

7

P80, the HinT interacting membrane protein, is a secreted antigen of Mycoplasma hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria which encode a minimal set of proteins. In Mycoplasma hominis, the genes encoding the surface-localized membrane complex P60\\/P80 are in an operon with a gene encoding a cytoplasmic, nucleotide-binding protein with a characteristic Histidine triad motif (HinT). HinT is found in both procaryotes and eukaryotes and known to hydrolyze adenosine nucleotides in eukaryotes. Immuno-precipitation

Miriam Hopfe; Ricarda Hoffmann; Birgit Henrich

2004-01-01

8

Cervical Cytopathological Findings in Korean Women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections  

PubMed Central

This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P < 0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections. PMID:24526918

Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

2014-01-01

9

Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of this pestering pathogen. PMID:23326599

Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, Rene; Degrandi, Daniel; Kohrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

2013-01-01

10

Mycoplasma hominis in Cuban Trichomonas vaginalis isolates: association with parasite genetic polymorphism.  

PubMed

Trichomonas vaginalis can be naturally infected with intracellular Mycoplasma hominis. This bacterial infection may have implications for trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. The objective of the study was to report the presence of M. hominis in Cuban T. vaginalis isolates and to describe the association between the phenotype M. hominis infected with RAPD genetic polymorphism of T. vaginalis. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine genetic differences among 40 isolates of T. vaginalis using a panel of 30 random primers and these genetic data were correlated with the infection of isolates with M. hominis. The trees drawn based on RAPD data showed no relations with metronidazole susceptibility and significantly association with the presence of M. hominis (P=0.043), which demonstrates the existence of concordance between the genetic relatedness and the presence of M. hominis in T. vaginalis isolates. This result could point to a predisposition of T. vaginalis for the bacterial enters and/or survival. PMID:22584035

Fraga, Jorge; Rodríguez, Nadia; Fernández, Carmen; Mondeja, Brian; Sariego, Idalia; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Rojas, Lazara

2012-07-01

11

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Results Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is recommended. In addition, it is recommended that antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are determined. PMID:24679107

2014-01-01

12

Evaluation of intraspecies genetic variation within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis and detection by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis is a heterogeneous species with DNA-DNA hybridization values ranging from 51 to 100%. We report here the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of a strain (183) that greatly differs from the type strain (PG21) of this species. Comparison of 16S rDNA sequences from these two strains showed limited differences, indicating that the two strains belong to the same rRNA species complex. Using these nucleotide sequence data, we established a rapid method for the detection of M. hominis by using polymerase chain reaction. This method was shown to be sensitive and specific when tested with reference strains and clinical isolates. Images PMID:7684753

Blanchard, A; Yanez, A; Dybvig, K; Watson, H L; Griffiths, G; Cassell, G H

1993-01-01

13

[The adaptation of mycoplasmas to stress conditions: features of proteome shift in Mycoplasma hominis PG37 under starvation and low temperature].  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hominis--one of the widely spread mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), associated with the socially significant human diseases and contamination of cell cultures. The solution of the problem on controlling M. hominis infections is connected with determination of the molecular basis, responsible for mechanisms of bacterium survival under unfavorable conditions. As a result of proteomic approach (2-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS) for the first time, 53 M. hominis PG37 proteins were detected, different abundance of which occurred at cultivating the bacterium under stress (starvation and low temperature) conditions. According to the classification of proteins by functional category (clusters of orthologous groups of proteins--COG), 47 of the 53 proteins of the mycoplasma are involved in the fundamental cellular and biochemical processes--translation (12; 22.64%), transcription (2; 3.77%), posttranslational modification (7; 13.20%), cell cycle control (2; 3.77%), energy production and conversion (6; 11.32%), carbohydrate transport and metabolism (3; 5.66%), amino acid transport and metabolism (8; 15.09%), nucleotide transport and metabolism (6; 11.32%), inorganic ion transport and metabolism (1; 1.89%). The functions of six proteins (11.32%) have not been found; 24 proteins (45.28%) are the factors of bacterium virulence. M. hominis PG37 proteins, the expression modulation of which arises under the unfavorable environmental conditions, are the components of adaptation mechanisms of the mycoplasma to the stressors and potential targets for controlling infections caused by this bacterium. PMID:22393789

Chernov, V M; Chernova, O A; Baranova, N B; Gorshkov, O V; Medvedeva, E S; Sha?mardanova, G F

2011-01-01

14

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by Multiplex PCR in Semen Sample of Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyti- cum from semen samples of infertile men by Multiplex PCR and investigation of influence of bacteriospermia on semen parameters. Methods: Semen samples of 200 infertile men were evaluated by Multiplex PCR. In addition, analysis of semen parameters was performed according to the WHO guidelines.

M Golshani; G Eslami; Sh Mohhammadzadeh Ghobadloo; F Fallah; H Goudarzi; AA Soleimani Rahbar; F Fayaz

15

Experimental infection of the genital tract of female grivet monkeys by Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis, a common inhabitant of the mucosae of the genitourinary tract of human and nonhuman primates, was inoculated directly into the uterine tubes of five laparotomized grivet monkeys. A self-limiting acute salpingitis and parametritis developed within a few days in all animals. Although there were no clinical signs of overt disease, the gross pathology was characterized by pronounced oedematous swelling and hyperaemia of the tubes and parametria. Microscopically, cellular infiltrations of lymphocytes and some polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found in the acute phase in the subserosa and muscularis of the tubes and in the parametria. Granulation tissue and fat necrosis appeared at a later stage in the parametria. The infection was associated with a marked antibody response and a moderate rise of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocyte counts. The capability of M. hominis to produce salpingitis and parametritis in a nonhuman primate would seem to add rather significantly to the available evidence suggesting an etiological role of this organism in inflammatory diseases of the internal female genitals of humans. Images PMID:97224

M?ller, B R; Freundt, E A; Black, F T; Frederiksen, P

1978-01-01

16

Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting of Mycoplasma Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selec- tive amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplas- mas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including Mycoplasma genitalium (n 5 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n 5 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n 5 5), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (n

BRANKO KOKOTOVIC; NIELS F. FRIIS; JØRGEN S. JENSEN; PETER AHRENS

1999-01-01

17

Genome annotation of five Mycoplasma canis strains.  

PubMed

To understand its potential to cause invasive disease, the genome of Mycoplasma canis strain PG14(T) from a dog's throat was compared to those of isolates from the genital tract or brain of dogs. The average nucleotide identity between strain pairs is 98%, and their genome annotations are similar. PMID:22815452

Brown, D R; May, M; Michaels, D L; Barbet, A F

2012-08-01

18

Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes

A. T. R. Vasconcelos; H. B. Ferreira; C. V. Bizarro; S. L. Bonatto; M. O. Carvalho; P. M. Pinto; D. F. Almeida; L. G. P. Almeida; R. Almeida; L. Alves-Filho; E. N. Assuncao; V. A. C. Azevedo; M. R. Bogo; M. M. Brigido; M. Brocchi; H. A. Burity; A. A. Camargo; S. S. Camargo; M. S. Carepo; D. M. Carraro; J. C. de Mattos Cascardo; L. A. Castro; G. Cavalcanti; G. Chemale; R. G. Collevatti; C. W. Cunha; B. Dallagiovanna; B. P. Dambros; Odir A. Dellagostin; C. Falcao; F. Fantinatti-Garboggini; M. S. S. Felipe; L. Fiorentin; G. R. Franco; N. S. A. Freitas; D. Frias; T. B. Grangeiro; E. C. Grisard; C. T. Guimaraes; M. Hungria; S. N. Jardim; M. A. Krieger; J. P. Laurino; L. F. A. Lima; M. I. Lopes; E. L. S. Loreto; H. M. F. Madeira; G. P. Manfio; A. Q. Maranhao; C. T. Martinkovics; S. R. B. Medeiros; M. A. M. Moreira; M. Neiva; C. E. Ramalho-Neto; M. F. Nicolas; S. C. Oliveira; R. F. C. Paixao; F. O. Pedrosa; S. D. J. Pena; M. Pereira; L. Pereira-Ferrari; I. Piffer; L. S. Pinto; D. P. Potrich; A. C. M. Salim; F. R. Santos; R. Schmitt; M. P. C. Schneider; A. Schrank; I. S. Schrank; A. F. Schuck; H. N. Seuanez; D. W. Silva; R. Silva; S. C. Silva; C. M. A. Soares; K. R. L. Souza; R. C. Souza; C. C. Staats; M. B. R. Steffens; S. M. R. Teixeira; T. P. Urmenyi; M. H. Vainstein; L. W. Zuccherato; A. J. G. Simpson; A. Zaha

2005-01-01

19

Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, M. pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to GAR936, Dalfopristin, Dirithromycin, Evernimicin, Gatifloxacin, Linezolid, Moxifloxacin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Telithromycin Compared to Their Susceptibilities to Reference Macrolides, Tetracyclines, and Quinolones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to eight new antimicrobial agents were determined by agar dilution. M. pneumoniae was susceptible to the new glycylcycline GAR-936 at 0.12 mg\\/ml and evernimicin at 4 mg\\/ml, but it was resistant to linezolid. It was most susceptible to dirithromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, telithromycin, reference macrolides, and josamycin. M. hominis was susceptible to

GEORGE E. KENNY; FRANK D. CARTWRIGHT

2001-01-01

20

Cloning and Nucleotide Sequences of the Topoisomerase IV parC and parE Genes of Mycoplasma hominis  

PubMed Central

The topoisomerase IV parC and parE genes from the wall-less organism Mycoplasma hominis PG21 were cloned and sequenced. The coupled genes are located far from the DNA gyrase genes gyrA and gyrB. They encode proteins of 639 and 866 amino acids, respectively. As expected, the encoded ParE and ParC proteins exhibit higher homologies with the topoisomerase IV subunits of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae than with their Escherichia coli counterparts. The conserved regions include the Tyr residue of the active site and the region involved in quinolone resistance (quinolone resistance-determining region [QRDR]) in ParC and the ATP-binding site and the QRDR in ParE. PMID:9687401

Bebear, Cecile M.; Charron, Alain; Bove, Joseph Marie; Bebear, Christiane; Renaudin, Joel

1998-01-01

21

Survey of plasmids in various mycoplasmas.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-three strains representing 15 distinct Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma species were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic patterns of the DNAs of three strains, Mycoplasma sp. strain 747, Spiroplasma mirum strain SMCA, and M. hominis strain 1257, suggested the presence of a plasmid with molecular weights of approximately 70, 10, and 9 megadaltons, respectively. The functions of these plasmids are currently unknown. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6679154

Harasawa, R.; Barile, M. F.

1983-01-01

22

Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma columbinum Strain SF7  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma columbinum is a member of nonglycolytic Mycoplasma species which can hydrolyze arginine. Increasingly research has revealed that M. columbinum is associated with respiratory disease of pigeons and that the respiratory disease symptoms could be eliminated via the use of mycoplasma treatment medicine. Here we report the genome sequence of M. columbinum strain SF7, which is the first genome report for M. columbinum. PMID:23599295

Guo, Zisheng; Xu, Xiaolong; Zheng, Qian; Li, Tingting; Kuang, Shichang; Zhang, Zongde; Chen, Yushan; Lu, Xidong; Zhou, Rui; Jin, Hui

2013-01-01

23

Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Strain DBS 1050  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hyorhinis is known as one of the most prevalent contaminants of mammalian cell and tissue cultures worldwide. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the fastidious M. hyorhinis strain DBS 1050. PMID:24604646

Soika, Valerii; Volokhov, Dmitriy; Simonyan, Vahan; Chizhikov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

24

Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  

PubMed Central

This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Carvalho, Marcos O.; Pinto, Paulo M.; Almeida, Darcy F.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assuncao, Enedina N.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Brigido, Marcelo M.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Camargo, Sandro S.; Carepo, Marta S.; Carraro, Dirce M.; de Mattos Cascardo, Julio C.; Castro, Luiza A.; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambros, Bibiana P.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Falcao, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R.; Freitas, Nara S. A.; Frias, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Silvia N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Laurino, Jomar P.; Lima, Lucymara F. A.; Lopes, Maryellen I.; Loreto, Elgion L. S.; Madeira, Humberto M. F.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Maranhao, Andrea Q.; Martinkovics, Christyanne T.; Medeiros, Silvia R. B.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Neiva, Marcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E.; Nicolas, Marisa F.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Paixao, Roger F. C.; Pedrosa, Fabio O.; Pena, Sergio D. J.; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S.; Potrich, Deise P.; Salim, Anna C. M.; Santos, Fabricio R.; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S.; Schuck, Adriana F.; Seuanez, Hector N.; Silva, Denise W.; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sergio C.; Soares, Celia M. A.; Souza, Kelly R. L.; Souza, Rangel C.; Staats, Charley C.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Zaha, Arnaldo

2005-01-01

25

Infertility in heifers caused by pathogenic strain of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (M. bovigenitalium, strain AL) was inoculated by insemination during estrous into the uterus or the cervix of 12 heifers. The inoculum consisted of a mixture of M. bovigenitalium (strain AL) and diluted semen taken from a highly fertile bull free of mycoplasma infection. Mycoplasma organisms were recovered 3 days postinoculation (PI) from the vaginal mucous of eight of 12 inoculated heifers, and at weekly intervals thereafter until the time of necropsy. All inoculated heifers had granular vulvovaginitis; some also had mucopurulent vaginal discharges. Six of the 12 infected heifers were inseminated more than once, yet none became pregnant. Macroscopic changes observed at necropsy in the genital tracts, in addition to granular vulvovaginitis, consisted of mucopurulent discharges emananting from the uterus, cervix, and vagina. All ovaries had corpora lutea. Mycoplasmas were recovered at necropsy from eight of the 12 heifers. Isolations were made from the vaginal wall, cervix, uterus, right and left oviducts, and the ovaries. All recovered mycoplasms were identified as M. bovigenitalium. It was concluded that M. bovigenitalium (strain AL) can cause inflammatory changes and infertility in heifers. PMID:6839781

Saed, O M; Al-Aubaidi, J M

1983-04-01

26

Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium strains from the male urethra.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human mycoplasma species which, on the basis of detection by PCR, has been incriminated as a cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Previously, only two strains from the urogenital tract and five strains from extragenital sites have been isolated. We have developed a method for the isolation of this fastidious microbe. M. genitalium from PCR-positive urethral specimens was initially propagated in Vero cell cultures grown in serum-free medium supplemented with Ultroser HY serum substitute. Growth was monitored by PCR. The M. genitalium strains grown in cell cultures could subsequently be subcultured in modified Friis's FF broth medium. Several passages in broth medium were required before growth on agar medium was attained. A total of 11 urethral specimens positive for M. genitalium by PCR from male patients with urethritis were investigated. Six strains were adapted to growth in broth medium, and four of these strains were cloned. Three specimens were overgrown by other mycoplasmas during propagation in the cell cultures. In only two PCR-positive specimens was propagation of M. genitalium unsuccessful. The use of cell culture combined with PCR monitoring of mycoplasmal growth may prove to be more widely applicable for the isolation of other fastidious mollicutes. PMID:8789002

Jensen, J S; Hansen, H T; Lind, K

1996-01-01

27

The Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovis Strain Hubei-1  

PubMed Central

Infection by Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) can induce diseases, such as pneumonia and otitis media in young calves and mastitis and arthritis in older animals. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of M. bovis strain Hubei-1, a strain isolated in 2008 that caused calf pneumonia on a Chinese farm. The genome of M. bovis strain Hubei-1 contains a single circular chromosome of 953,114 bp with a 29.37% GC content. We identified 803 open reading frames (ORFs) that occupy 89.5% of the genome. While 34 ORFs were Hubei-1 specific, 662 ORFs had orthologs in the M. bovis type strain PG45 genome. Genome analysis validated lateral gene transfer between M. bovis and the Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, while phylogenetic analysis found that the closest M. bovis neighbor is Mycoplasma agalactiae. Glycerol may be the main carbon and energy source of M. bovis, and most of the biosynthesis pathways were incomplete. We report that 47 lipoproteins, 12 extracellular proteins and 18 transmembrane proteins are phase-variable and may help M. bovis escape the immune response. Besides lipoproteins and phase-variable proteins, genomic analysis found two possible pathogenicity islands, which consist of four genes and 11 genes each, and several other virulence factors including hemolysin, lipoate protein ligase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, extracellular cysteine protease and 5?-nucleotidase. PMID:21731639

Li, Yuan; Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yanwei; Xin, Jiuqing; Chen, Wei; Song, Zhiqiang

2011-01-01

28

Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64 for turkey embryos.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), has been found to be pathogenic for chicken embryos causing mortality during the first 2 weeks of incubation. The same strain was inoculated in turkey embryos to evaluate its pathogenicity and its ability to be transmitted laterally in the hatchery. The strain was found to be pathogenic for turkey embryos, causing a high mortality (88.9%) during late incubation as well as haemorrhages of the legs, dwarfing, curled toes and a severe, multifocal, purulent to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. In addition, lateral transmission between turkey poults hatched from infected eggs and poults from non-infected controls was observed in the incubator. PMID:17899463

Lierz, M; Deppenmeier, S; Gruber, A D; Brokat, S; Hafez, H M

2007-10-01

29

Biosynthesis of Glucosyl Diglycerides by Mycoplasma laidlawii Strain B  

PubMed Central

Monoglucosyl diglyceride is synthesized from 1,2-diglyceride and uridine-5?-diphosphoglucose (UDP); diglucosyl diglyceride from monoglucosyl diglyceride, and uridine-5?-diphosphoglucose by membranes of Mycoplasma laidlawii strain B. All of these enzymatic activities reside in the membrane. Membranes solubilized by detergent action or succinylation and acetone powders of membranes were inactive. Requirements for Mg2+, UDP, and appropriate lipid acceptor were demonstrated for biosynthesis of both glycolipids. Glucose-1-phosphate plus uridine triphosphate could replace the UDP requirement. A medium of relatively high ionic strength and a critical concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate stimulated biosynthesis of the monoglucosyl diglyceride. The optimal pH for both reactions was 8.0. A specificity for 1,2-diglyceride from the homologous organism was found for optimal synthesis of the monoglucosyl diglyceride, and a specificity for monoglucosyl diglyceride was found in the case of diglucosyl diglyceride synthesis. Both reactions were specific for UDP. PMID:5808075

Smith, Paul F.

1969-01-01

30

Microscopy and genomic analysis of Mycoplasma parvum strain Indiana.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma parvum [Eperythrozoon parvum] is the second hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) described in pigs. Unlike M. suis, its closest phylogenetic relative, M. parvum, is considered a non-pathogenic bacterium in this host species. Natural infection of a domestic, 6-month-old splenectomized pig with M. parvum strain Indiana is described herein. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the bacteria were performed in addition to whole genome sequencing, analysis, and comparison to the genome of M. suis strain Illinois. Neither clinical signs nor anemia were observed during the infection. Microscopy analyses revealed coccoid to rod- shaped organisms varying from 0.2 to 0.5 ?m; they were observed individually or in short chains by both light and electron microscopy, however less than 30% of the red blood cells were infected at peak bacteremia. The single circular chromosome of M. parvum was only 564 395 bp, smaller than M. genitalium, previously considered the tiniest member of the Mollicutes. Its general genomic features were similar to others in this class and species circumscription was verified by phylogenomic analysis. A gene-by-gene comparison between M. suis and M. parvum revealed all protein coding sequences (CDS) with assigned functions were shared, including metabolic functions, transporters and putative virulence factors. However, the number of CDS in paralogous gene families was remarkably different with about half as many paralogs in M. parvum. The differences in paralogous genes may be implicated in the different pathogenic potential of these two species, however variable gene expression may also play a role. Both are areas of ongoing investigation. PMID:25113534

do Nascimento, Naíla C; Dos Santos, Andrea P; Chu, Yuefeng; Guimaraes, Ana Ms; Baird, Aubrey N; Weil, Ann B; Messick, Joanne B

2014-01-01

31

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strain 9231-Abomsa.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain 9231-Abomsa. PMID:25323727

Dupuy, Virginie; Thiaucourt, François

2014-01-01

32

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strain 9231-Abomsa  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain 9231-Abomsa. PMID:25323727

Thiaucourt, Francois

2014-01-01

33

Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Mycoplasma species are well-known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey, and a strain of Mycoplasma lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen free chicken embryos since

M. Lierz; R. Stark; S. Brokat; H. M. Hafez

2007-01-01

34

Phylogeny of Some Mycoplasmas from Ruminants Based on 16s rRNA Sequences and Definition of a New Cluster within the Hominis Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost complete (>96%) 16s rRNA sequences from nine ruminant mycoplasmas have been determined by solid-phase DNA sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in four of the 16s rRNA sequences, which indicated the existence of two different rRNA operons. Seven polymorphisms were found in Mycoplasma agalactiae, three were found in Mycoplasma bovis, one was found in Mycoplasma alkalescens, and one was found in

BERTIL PETTERSSON; MATHIAS UHLEN; KARL-ERIK JOHANSSON

1996-01-01

35

The immunizing dose of T 1 strain Mycoplasma mycoides against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle vaccinated against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia with the T1 strain ofMycoplasma mycoides with doses of 109, 107 and 105 colony forming units were challenged six months later by the ‘in contact’ method, namely mixing with vrtificially infected ‘donor’ animals. The results of the experiment suggest that the vaccinating dose of this strain should not contain less than 107 colony forming

F. R. Gilbert; R. S. Windsor

1971-01-01

36

Examination of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using restriction endonuclease DNA analysis and DNA?DNA hybridisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from 10 Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains and one strain each of M. synoviae and M. gallinarum were studied by restriction endo?nuclease DNA analysis using endonucleases Eco RI, HindIII, BglII, BamHI, KpnI, and XhoI. Digestion patterns of DNA in agarose gels allowed easy differentiation of M. gallisepticum strains from different sources, while patterns obtained from one strain at the 6th and

S. H. Kleven; G. F. Browning; D. M. Bulach; E. Ghiocas; C. J. Morrow; K. G. Whithear

1988-01-01

37

Genome Sequence of Duck Pathogen Mycoplasma anatis Strain 1340  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma anatis, a member of the class Mollicutes, is the causative agent of a contagious infectious disease of domestic ducklings, wild birds, and eggs. Increasing reports show that coinfection of M. anatis with Escherichia coli results in substantial economic impacts on the duck farms in China. Here, we announce the first genome sequence of M. anatis. PMID:21952548

Guo, Zisheng; Chen, Ping; Ren, Pinxing; Kuang, Shichang; Zhou, Zutao; Li, Zili; Liu, Mei; Shi, Deshi; Xiao, Yuncai; Wang, Xiliang; Zhou, Rui; Jin, Hui; Bi, Dingren

2011-01-01

38

The complete genome sequence of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow has been sequenced. The genome is composed of 996422 bp with an overall G+C content of 31 mol%. It contains 742 putative coding DNA sequences (CDSs), representing a 91% coding density. Function has been assigned to 469 of the CDSs, while 150 encode conserved hypothetical proteins and 123 remain as unique hypothetical

Leka Papazisi; Timothy S. Gorton; Gerald Kutish; Philip F. Markham; Glenn F. Browning; Steven Swartzell; Anup Madan; Greg Mahairas; Steven J. Geary

2003-01-01

39

Complete Genome Sequences of Virulent Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains F38 and ILRI181  

PubMed Central

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a severe epidemic affecting mainly domestic Caprinae species but also affects wild Caprinae species. M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.” The disease features prominently in East Africa, in particular Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. CCPP also endangers wildlife and thus affects not only basic nutritional resources of large populations but also expensively built-up game resorts in affected countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of two M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains: the type strain F38 and strain ILRI181 isolated druing a recent outbreak in Kenya. Both genomes have a G+C content of 24% with sizes of 1,016,760 bp and 1,017,183 bp for strains F38 and ILRI181, respectively. PMID:25323717

Liljander, Anne; Schieck, Elise; Gluecks, Ilona; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2014-01-01

40

Complete Genome Sequences of Virulent Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains F38 and ILRI181.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a severe epidemic affecting mainly domestic Caprinae species but also affects wild Caprinae species. M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster." The disease features prominently in East Africa, in particular Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. CCPP also endangers wildlife and thus affects not only basic nutritional resources of large populations but also expensively built-up game resorts in affected countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of two M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains: the type strain F38 and strain ILRI181 isolated druing a recent outbreak in Kenya. Both genomes have a G+C content of 24% with sizes of 1,016,760 bp and 1,017,183 bp for strains F38 and ILRI181, respectively. PMID:25323717

Falquet, Laurent; Liljander, Anne; Schieck, Elise; Gluecks, Ilona; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2014-01-01

41

Identification and localization of a 94 kDa membrane protein found in Mycoplasma bovoculi strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of Mycoplasma bovoculi obtained from cattle herds with bovine keratoconjunctivitis were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting techniques. All six strains showed similarity in their protein profiles although no two patterns were identical. Antigenic differences between strains were detected in immunoblots reacted with post-exposure calf serum. A common 94 kDa protein band designated p94 was detected in all

Barik A Salih; Ricardo F Rosenbusch

1998-01-01

42

Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Some Mycoplasma species are well-known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey, and a strain of Mycoplasma lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be pathogenic, causing a high mortality as well as dwarfing, curled toes and infiltrations of heterophils in the liver, kidney, intestine and chorioallantoic membrane. PMID:17479376

Lierz, M; Stark, R; Brokat, S; Hafez, H M

2007-04-01

43

Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Common Cell Culture Contaminant and Pathogenic Mollicutes Strains by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 7 July 2003\\/Accepted 20 November 2003 We have developed a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay to detect and identify the commonest mollicutes causing cell line contamination (Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) and human infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum). We developed a nested PCR assay with

Hui Wang; Fanrong Kong; Peter Jelfs; Gregory James; Gwendolyn L. Gilbert

2004-01-01

44

Intraspecific variation in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific variation in the 16S rRNA genes of 17 Mycoplasma agalactiae and eight Mycoplasma bovis isolates was investigated to determine the degree of sequence variation in these two species and to determine whether the polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA genes could be used for the construction of an evolutionary tree and as epidemiological markers. A high degree of variation was

Malin Heldtander Königsson; Göran Bölske; Karl-Erik Johansson

2002-01-01

45

Sequencing analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum wild strains in vaccinated chicken breeder flocks.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is still of continuing economic concern in commercial broiler breeder chicken flocks in Egypt. MG infection continues to emerge despite the application of vaccination programs in breeder flocks. This prompted flock surveillance including MG isolation and molecular characterization of the circulating MG strains. The present study was concerned with 15 broiler breeder flocks of different ages (5-51 weeks). Three flocks were apparently healthy and 12 flocks were diseased. The aim of the study was to characterize the MG strains recovered from tracheal swabs. Four positive MG DNA extracts identified by rt-PCR and confirmed by isolation were subjected to sequencing of the mgc2 gene and intergenic spacer region (IGSR). The current molecular study demonstrated the presence of 3 different wild-type MG strains (RabE1-08, RabE2-09 and RabE3-09) in vaccinated diseased flocks, while the fourth strain (RabE4-08), which was isolated from a nonvaccinated apparently healthy breeder flock, scored 100% of homology and similarity to the F-strain vaccine by the sequence analysis of mgc2 and IGSR. It can be assumed that the vaccine F strain, which is supposed to replace field strains not only failed to do that, but also infected nonvaccinated flocks. Accordingly, there is a need to revise the control program including vaccine strategy in parallel with biosecurity measures. PMID:24525899

Khalifa, Rabab; Eissa, Sabry; El-Hariri, Mahmoud; Refai, Mohamed

2014-01-01

46

Molecular Variability of the Adhesin-Encoding Gene pvpA among Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains and Its Application in Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important pathogen of chickens and turkeys that causes considerable eco- nomic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The reemergence of M. gallisepticum outbreaks among poultry, the increased use of live M. gallisepticum vaccines, and the detection of M. gallisepticum in game and free-flying song birds has strengthened the need for molecular diagnostic and strain differentiation tests.

T. Liu; M. Garcia; S. Levisohn; D. Yogev; S. H. Kleven

2001-01-01

47

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma canadense Strain HAZ 360_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan  

PubMed Central

Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. Mycoplasma canadense, a causal species of bovine mastitis, reduces milk quality and quantity via the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells. Presented here is the complete 693,241-bp genome sequence of M. canadense strain HAZ 360_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25278531

2014-01-01

48

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma canadense Strain HAZ 360_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan.  

PubMed

Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. Mycoplasma canadense, a causal species of bovine mastitis, reduces milk quality and quantity via the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells. Presented here is the complete 693,241-bp genome sequence of M. canadense strain HAZ 360_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25278531

Hata, Eiji

2014-01-01

49

A comparative study of live attenuated F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines.  

PubMed

Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG "chick F" strain. In the present study, the commercially available F strain derivatives were compared for their ability to elicit seroconversion, persist in vivo, and protect against virulent MG-induced airsacculitis. In addition, a noncommercial laboratory-derived high-passage F strain isolate was included in the study. Commercial (Hy-Line W-36) layers were placed in biological isolation units at 9 wk of age (woa). At 10 woa, birds within each biological isolation unit were treated via eye-drop application with one of the three F strain-derived vaccines at one of four levels (1x, 10(-1)x, 10(-2)x, or 10(-3)x). For the commercially available F strain derivatives, 1x equaled the manufacturer's recommended dose. The 1x dose of the noncommercial laboratory-maintained F strain derivative equaled 20 microl of a 48 hr culture. For wk 1-6 postvaccination (p.v.), sera were collected weekly from each bird, and seroconversion was assessed via serum plate agglutination (SPA). Virulent MG (strain R(low)) challenge occurred via intratracheal inoculation at 7 wk p.v. Necropsies were subsequently performed to assess challenge-associated airsacculitus. For each F strain derivative applied at 1x and 10(-1)x, 100% seroconversion, as measured by SPA, was demonstrated by 6 wk p.v., and rates at the 10(-2)x dosage were 10% and 90% for the commercial vaccines and 60% for the laboratory-derived strain in this period. Following challenge, airsacculitis was observed in 66.67% of the nontreated controls but not in any 1x- or 10(-1)x-treated bird independent of applied F strain derivative. PMID:22856200

Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Purswell, J L; Jacob, R; Peebles, E D; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

2012-06-01

50

Investigations into the survival of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae on materials found in the poultry house environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following preliminary experiments to determine suitable methods for studying mycoplasma survival, suspensions of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (four strains), Mycoplasma synoviae (two strains) or Mycoplasma iowae (two strains) were seeded onto replicate samples of cotton, rubber, straw, shavings, timber, food, feathers and human hair. The organisms were also seeded onto human skin, ear and nasal mucosa. All samples were cultured for viability

N. H. Christensen; Christine A. Yavari; A. J. McBain; Janet M. Bradbury

1994-01-01

51

Evaluation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain as a live vaccine in chickens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the pathogenicity of three live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidates by infection via aerosol of 3-wk-old chickens with log phase broth cultures (trial 1). Two of the candidates (K3020 and K4649A) colonized only 10% and 20% of the chickens, respectively, unlike K2101 (K-strain), which was reisolated from all of the vaccinated chickens tested. K-strain inoculation did not result in significant air sac or tracheal lesions in chickens at 10 and 39 days postinfection (P < or = 0.05). The efficacy of K-strain as a live vaccine was evaluated in trial 2, by challenge of vaccinated chickens with virulent R-strain via aerosol at 6 wk postvaccination. K-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions (P < or = 0.05). The K-strain was further investigated to evaluate transmissibility (trial 3), colonization and persistence of infection following aerosol administration (trial 4), genetic and phenotypic stability following back passage through chickens (trial 5), and vertical transmission (trial 6). The K-strain had a low rate of horizontal transmission; it remained primarily in the respiratory system of inoculated birds and persisted in the upper respiratory tract for the duration of the trial 4 (5 mo). There was no increase in virulence of K-strain when it was back passaged five times through chickens, and no vertical transmission of K-strain was detected. K-strain showed great potential as a safe and effective live MG vaccine. PMID:22545527

Ferguson-Noel, N M; Laibinis, V A; Kleven, S H

2012-03-01

52

Differences in incorporation of nucleic acid bases and nucleosides by various Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species.  

PubMed Central

Eight species representative of the serological diversity of the Mycoplasmatales were tested for their ability to incorporate radiolabeled nucleic acid precursors into acid-insoluble material. Cultures in complex growth medium were centrifuged and resuspended in minimal essential medium (Eagle). For Acholeplasma laidlawii, labeling occurred mainly during the first 4 h of incubation, with substrate saturation at 20 micron. All organisms tested incorporated uracil, adenine, and guanine; none incorporated cytosine. Thymine was incorporated only by bovine group 7, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (strain 3546), but deoxynucleosides enhanced thymine incorporation in A. laidlawii, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. pneumoniae (strain AP-164), and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Nucleoside incorporation (adenosine, guanosine, uridine, cytidine, and thymidine) was not observed for the arginine-utilizing species, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma arginini, whereas all other organisms tested incorporated nucleosides. The incorporation pattern provides additional metabolic evidence to support the biochemical and antigenic diversity of these organisms. The recognition of differences in incorporation of nucleic acid precursors is important not only to the specific labeling of these organisms, but also to the study of metabolism and transport. PMID:681280

McIvor, R S; Kenny, G E

1978-01-01

53

Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Thiaucourt, Francois; Thebault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, Francois

2012-01-01

54

Time-dependent recovery of Mycoplasma lipofaciens (strain ML64) from incubated infertile chicken eggs and dead in shell chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are pathogens of different avian species, and they are able to be vertically transmitted. Even detected, Mycoplasma prevalence in raptor eggs is very low. In contrast to poultry, raptor eggs submitted for investigations are usually incubated. To investigate the influence of incubation length on the recovery of mycoplasmas from eggs, infertile specific-pathogen-free chicken eggs and embryos were infected with Mycoplasma lipofaciens (strain ML64), which had previously been isolated from an egg of a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), in two different dosages. The eggs were investigated up to 12 days after infection (infertile eggs) or embryonic death. Mycoplasmas were recovered over the entire period after embryonic death by isolation. It was possible to re-isolate M. lipofaciens (strain ML64) from infertile eggs infected with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFUs) up to 12 days, but only up to 7 days if infected with 10(2) CFUs, which may be closer to the situation after natural infection. This study demonstrates that incubation of infertile eggs does have an influence on the recovery rate of mycoplasmas. This influence must be considered if interpreting results of Mycoplasma investigations in eggs of nonpoultry species. Additionally, it is recommended to use dead in shell embryos rather than infertile eggs for Mycoplasma detection. PMID:18939632

Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez M

2008-09-01

55

Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes and phylogeny of the goat mycoplasmas Mycoplasma adleri, Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma cottewii and Mycoplasma yeatsii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of the 16s rRNA genes from the type strains of four goat mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma adleri, Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma cottewii and Mycoplasma yeatsii, were determined by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in two of the 16s rRNA gene sequences, showing the existence of two different rRNA operons. Three polymorphisms were found in M. adleri, and one

Malin Heldtander; Bertil Pettersson; Joseph G. Tully; Karl-Erik Johansson

1998-01-01

56

Search for the presence of six Mycoplasma species in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects seropositive and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma penetrans was investigated by using specific PCR assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects infected or not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Only M. fermentans was detected in 5.8% of 154 HIV-seropositive and 11.1% of 90 HIV-seronegative subjects. PMID:8784596

Kovacic, R; Launay, V; Tuppin, P; Lafeuillade, A; Feuillie, V; Montagnier, L; Grau, O

1996-01-01

57

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma ovis Strain Michigan, a Hemoplasma of Sheep with Two Distinct 16S rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma ovis strain Michigan. Its single circular chromosome has 702,511 bp and contains 2 copies of the 16S rRNA gene, one corresponding to M. ovis and the other to “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis.” All housekeeping genes and the 5S-23S rRNA genes are present in single copies. PMID:24482515

Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naila C.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Dyson, Melissa C.

2014-01-01

58

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Strains Identified by a Real-Time TaqMan PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

A real-time TaqMan PCR assay based on the gene encoding the protein p37 was developed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Its specificity was validated with 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains (28 field strains and one reference strain) and other mycoplasma species or with other microorganisms commonly found in pigs. The estimated detection limit of this qPCR assay was 125 microorganism equivalents/?l. The same 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains and four previously fully sequenced strains were typed by two portable typing methods, the sequencing of the p37 gene and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The first method revealed 18 distinct nucleotide sequences and insufficient discriminatory power (0.934). The MLST scheme was developed with the sequenced genomes of the M. hyorhinis strains HUB-1, GDL-1, MCLD, and SK76 and based on the genes dnaA, rpoB, gyrB, gltX, adk, and gmk. In total, 2,304 bp of sequence was analyzed for each strain. MLST was capable of subdividing the 33 strains into 29 distinct sequence types. The discriminatory power of the method was >0.95, which is the threshold value for interpreting typing results with confidence (D = 0.989). Population analysis showed that recombination in M. hyorhinis occurs and that strains are diverse but with a certain clonality (one unique clonal complex was identified). The new qPCR assay and the robust MLST scheme are available for the acquisition of new knowledge on M. hyorhinis epidemiology. A web-accessible database has been set up for the M. hyorhinis MLST scheme at http://pubmlst.org/mhyorhinis/. PMID:24622092

Tocqueville, Veronique; Ferre, Severine; Nguyen, Ngoc Hong Phuc

2014-01-01

59

Attenuated Mycoplasma bovis strains provide protection against virulent infection in calves.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is a major etiological agent of pneumonia and arthritis in feedlot beef cattle. To develop a novel live vaccine against M. bovis, two attenuated M. bovis strains, P150 and P180, were tested in calves for protection against challenge with the virulent M. bovis parental strain. Twenty calves were divided into four groups of five calves each that were designated as the P150, P180, positive control (PC), and negative control (NC) groups. Each calf in the P150 and P180 groups was immunized with 10(9)CFU of P150 or P180, respectively, via the nasal cavity, and the PC and NC groups received the mock inoculation. Baseline data were collected for 46 days post-immunization. The clinical signs were scored, and rectal temperatures and daily weight gain were recorded. The blood leukocyte count, the neutrophil ratio, and the serum levels of IgG, IgA, IFN-?, and TNF-? were quantified using laboratory tests, and the nasal shedding was evaluated using microbiological methods. The P150, P180, and PC calves were challenged with a dose of 10(10)CFU of virulent M. bovis by intratracheal injection on 3 consecutive days. The calves were monitored for 25 days post-challenge to observe changes in the baseline parameters. On day 25 post-challenge the calves were euthanized for necropsy and analysis of tissue samples. The P150 and P180 immunizations caused no clinical abnormality, and did not affect daily weight gain. The post-inoculation neutrophil ratio and serum levels of IgG and IFN-? significantly increased in the P150, P180, and PC calves, whereas the serum levels of IgA and TNF-? did not. After challenge, the PC group developed the typical clinical signs and pathology associated with M. Bovis infection, whereas immunization with P150 or P180 provided efficacious protection. Based on the scores for gross pathology and lung pathology, the protection rates of the P150 and P180 immunizations were 87.7% and 70.8%, respectively. The P150 attenuated strain is a promising candidate for a live vaccine against M. bovis infection in cattle. PMID:24462404

Zhang, Rui; Han, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Qi, Jingjing; Chen, Xi; Hu, Changmin; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

2014-05-23

60

Characterization of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma sp. strain F38 and development of an identification system based on PCR.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma sp. (strain F38) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, which is a goat disease of great global concern. Strain F38 belongs to the so-called "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster," and the members of this cluster have many biochemical and serological properties in common, which makes it difficult to differentiate between them by conventional methods. Their phylogenetic interrelationship are thus uncertain. The 16S rRNA gene of the rrnB operon from strain F38 was cloned and sequenced. The sequence was compared with the 16S rRNA sequences of related mycoplasmas, and phylogenetic trees were constructed by parsimony analysis. A three-way ambiguity among strain F38, Mycoplasma capricolum, and Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 was observed in the trees. This observation is in agreement with a recent proposal to reclassify strain F38 and M. capricolum. A primer set was designed for in vitro amplification by PCR of a fragment of the 16S rRNA genes from the M. mycoides cluster. The amplimers of strain F38 could be distinguished easily from the corresponding amplimers from other members of the M. mycoides cluster by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI. This observation was utilized to design an identification system for strain F38. Part of the 16S rRNA gene of the rrnA operon from strain F38 was also cloned, and several sequence differences between the two rRNA operons were discovered, revealing microheterogeneity between the two 16S rRNA genes of this organism. Images PMID:8169205

Bascunana, C R; Mattsson, J G; Bolske, G; Johansson, K E

1994-01-01

61

Analysis of Cytadherence-Deficient, GapA-Negative Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strain R  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent with the interactions of typical noninvasive pathogenic bacteria and their host cells, Mycoplasma gallisep- ticum must first establish a specific and firm attachment to its target cell through a process known as cytadhesion in order to avoid rapid clearance by innate host defense mechanisms. This is a prerequisite for the initiation of the processes that result in host cell

L. Papazisi; K. E. Troy; T. S. Gorton; X. Liao; S. J. Geary

2000-01-01

62

A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification.  

PubMed Central

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were determined for almost 50 species of mycoplasmas and their walled relatives, providing the basis for a phylogenetic systematic analysis of these organisms. Five groups of mycoplasmas per se were recognized (provisional names are given): the hominis group (which included species such as Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma lipophilum, Mycoplasma pulmonis, and Mycoplasma neurolyticum), the pneumoniae group (which included species such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma muris), the spiroplasma group (which included species such as Mycoplasma mycoides, Spiroplasma citri, and Spiroplasma apis), the anaeroplasma group (which encompassed the anaeroplasmas and acholeplasmas), and a group known to contain only the isolated species Asteroleplasma anaerobium. In addition to these five mycoplasma groups, a sixth group of variously named gram-positive, walled organisms (which included lactobacilli, clostridia, and other organisms) was also included in the overall phylogenetic unit. In each of these six primary groups, subgroups were readily recognized and defined. Although the phylogenetic units identified by rRNA comparisons are difficult to recognize on the basis of mutually exclusive phenotypic characters alone, phenotypic justification can be given a posteriori for a number of them. PMID:2592342

Weisburg, W G; Tully, J G; Rose, D L; Petzel, J P; Oyaizu, H; Yang, D; Mandelco, L; Sechrest, J; Lawrence, T G; Van Etten, J

1989-01-01

63

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Twelve Weeks of Age on Performance and Egg Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisep- ticum (FMG) inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent performance and egg characteristics of com- mercial Single Combed White Leghorn hens were evalu- ated. In two trials, BW, feed consumption, egg production (EP), egg weight, egg size class, relative eggshell water vapor conductance, and relative percentages of eggshell, yolk and albumen weights were

M. R. Burnham; S. L. Branton; E. D. Peebles; B. D. Lott; P. D. Gerard

64

Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Is a Suitable Tool for Differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strains without Cultivation?  

PubMed Central

An assay based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis allowed differentiating and studying diversity and persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains in pig herds without prior cultivation. The test had a discriminatory index of >0.99 and was applied reliably to porcine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tracheal swabs. PMID:21389157

Vranckx, K.; Maes, D.; Calus, D.; Villarreal, I.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.

2011-01-01

65

Mycoplasma penetrans and Other Mycoplasmas in Urine of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children  

PubMed Central

Urine samples from children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and healthy controls were examined for mycoplasmas by culture. Standard biochemical assays, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and PCR (16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA region) were used for identification of isolates. Mycoplasmas were identified from 13 (87%) of 15 HIV-positive patients and 3 (20%) of 15 HIV-negative control patients. The frequency and type of mycoplasma varied with the severity of HIV infection. Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma fermentans, and Mycoplasma genitalium were isolated from patients with severe immunodeficiency. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were isolated more frequently from children in the early stages of HIV infection and from HIV-negative patients. Mycoplasma penetrans was isolated from one (50%) of two patients in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) group B and from five (55.5%) of nine pediatric patients with AIDS (CDC group C). This is the first report that indicates that “AIDS-associated” mycoplasmas are more common in HIV-infected children than in HIV-negative controls. PMID:10203515

Hussain, Althaf I.; Robson, William Lane M.; Kelley, Robin; Reid, Tanya; Gangemi, J. David

1999-01-01

66

Discrepancy between minimal inhibitory concentration to enrofloxacin and mutations present in the quinolone-resistance determining regions of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains.  

PubMed

Molecular characterization of the quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in 93 Mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains isolated in different geographic regions revealed discrepancies between minimal inhibitory concentration values and presence of amino acid substitutions within the QRDRs of GyrA and ParC in 9/93 (10%) strains. This may delimitate applicability of a gene-based assay to detect fluoroquinolone resistance in this avian pathogen. PMID:22655973

Lysnyansky, I; Gerchman, I; Levisohn, S; Mikula, I; Feberwee, A; Ferguson, N M; Noormohammadi, A H; Spergser, J; Windsor, H M

2012-11-01

67

Detection of Several Mycoplasma Species at Various Anatomical Sites of Homosexual Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a In order to determine the colonisation patterns of several Mycoplasma species in homosexual men, urethral, oral and rectal specimens from 10 homosexual men with acute non-gonococcal urethritis\\u000a (NGU) and 18 without NGU were examined using sensitive methods. Mycoplasma \\u000a hominis and Ureaplasma \\u000a urealyticum existed in both groups, which is in keeping with previous studies of heterosexual men. Mycoplasma \\u000a genitalium was

D. Taylor-Robinson; C. B. Gilroy; F. E. Keane

2003-01-01

68

Draft Genome Sequence of the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Dermabacter hominis 1368.  

PubMed

Dermabacter hominis is a common colonizer of the healthy human skin and is rarely detected as an opportunistic human pathogen. The genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant D. hominis strain 1368, isolated from blood cultures of a pyelonephritis patient, provides insights into the repertoire of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25059872

Albersmeier, Andreas; Bomholt, Christina; Glaub, Alina; Rückert, Christian; Soriano, Francisco; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Tauch, Andreas

2014-01-01

69

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, a Hemotropic Mycoplasma?  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis strain Langford 1, representing the first hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) species to be completely sequenced and annotated. Originally isolated from a cat with hemolytic anemia, this strain induces severe hemolytic anemia when inoculated into specific-pathogen-free-derived cats. The genome sequence has provided insights into the biology of this uncultivatable hemoplasma and has identified potential molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. PMID:21317334

Barker, Emily N.; Helps, Chris R.; Peters, Iain R.; Darby, Alistair C.; Radford, Alan D.; Tasker, Severine

2011-01-01

70

Insertion element IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony identifies a European clonal line distinct from African and Australian strains.  

PubMed

Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type, the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), were analysed with respect to the polymorphism of distribution of a newly discovered insertion element, IS1296, on the chromosome. Analysis of 64 strains isolated from Europe, Africa and Australia, including four vaccine strains and the type strain PG1, revealed ten different IS patterns, forming two main clusters. The European strains originated from outbreaks of CBPP in different countries, and from various other sources such as semen and preputial washings from cattle, lungs from goats and buffalo, and milk from sheep. They showed identical IS1296 patterns, except one strain which had an additional IS1296 element, but the pattern belonged to the same cluster. This shows that the strains from Europe form a clonal lineage. The strains originating from different geographical parts of the African continent and from Australia showed four closely related IS1296 patterns which belong to a separate cluster. This indicates that strains from Africa and Australia form a clonal lineage different from that of the European strains, suggesting that the sporadic cases of CBPP that have re-emerged in Europe almost 15 years after the last declared endemic case in 1967 arose from an established reservoir within Europe rather than being the result of repeated importation from Africa and Australia. While most strains from Africa and Australia had the same IS1296 pattern, all vaccine strains could be distinguished by an individual pattern. The type strain PG1 also had a particular IS1296 pattern which belongs to the cluster of the strains from Africa and Australia. The molecular definition of clonality of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains with IS1296 represents a rapid and reproducible method for subtyping and differentiation of vaccine strains. It permits at the present time the definition of two main clonal lines, one including the strains from the European continent and a second with strains from Africa and Australia. PMID:8574413

Cheng, X; Nicolet, J; Poumarat, F; Regalla, J; Thiaucourt, F; Frey, J

1995-12-01

71

The persistence of mycoplasmas in the urogenital tract of men in the Antarctic  

PubMed Central

A series of meatal swabs, taken from 17 men over a period of 17 months during their tour at an Antarctic base was examined for mycoplasmas. The number of organisms isolated never exceeded 104 and not every specimen from each man yielded mycoplasmas. Nevertheless, Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 71% and T-mycoplasmas from 59% of the men at some time during their stay. M. hominis persisted in the presence of serum IHA antibody titres of 1/64. Three subjects yielded only M. hominis and one only T-mycoplasmas. Six men had already spent a year at the base when the study began and mycoplasmas were still being isolated from some of them at the end of a 31 month period of isolation. The persistence of mycoplasmas in the male genital tract can therefore be independent of sexual contact. Two modes of persistence are suggested; either a few men act as carriers and reinfect the others by contaminating their environment, or as seems more likely, most men have chronic infections. PMID:4602036

Holmes, M. J.; Furr, Patricia M.; Taylor-Robinson, D.

1974-01-01

72

Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry  

PubMed Central

The macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. In vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of M. gallisepticum isolated in Israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. Moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, tylosin and tilmicosin. Molecular typing of the field isolates, performed by gene-target sequencing (GTS), detected 13 molecular types (I-XIII). Type II was the predominant type prior to 2006 whereas type X, first detected in 2008, is currently prevalent. All ten type X strains were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and macrolides, suggesting selective pressure leading to clonal dissemination of resistance. However, this was not a unique event since resistant strains with other GTS molecular types were also found. Concurrently, the molecular basis for macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum was identified. Our results revealed a clear-cut correlation between single point mutations A2058G or A2059G in domain V of the gene encoding 23S rRNA (rrnA, MGA_01) and acquired macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum. Indeed, all isolates with MIC ? 0.63 ?g/mL to tylosin and with MIC ? 1.25 ?g/mL to tilmicosin possess one of these mutations, suggesting an essential role in decreased susceptibility of M. gallisepticum to 16-membered macrolides. PMID:21810258

2011-01-01

73

Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry.  

PubMed

The macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. In vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of M. gallisepticum isolated in Israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. Moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, tylosin and tilmicosin. Molecular typing of the field isolates, performed by gene-target sequencing (GTS), detected 13 molecular types (I-XIII). Type II was the predominant type prior to 2006 whereas type X, first detected in 2008, is currently prevalent. All ten type X strains were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and macrolides, suggesting selective pressure leading to clonal dissemination of resistance. However, this was not a unique event since resistant strains with other GTS molecular types were also found. Concurrently, the molecular basis for macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum was identified. Our results revealed a clear-cut correlation between single point mutations A2058G or A2059G in domain V of the gene encoding 23S rRNA (rrnA, MGA_01) and acquired macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum. Indeed, all isolates with MIC ? 0.63 ?g/mL to tylosin and with MIC ? 1.25 ?g/mL to tilmicosin possess one of these mutations, suggesting an essential role in decreased susceptibility of M. gallisepticum to 16-membered macrolides. PMID:21810258

Gerchman, Irena; Levisohn, Sharon; Mikula, Inna; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Lysnyansky, Inna

2011-01-01

74

Studies on the Nature of Receptors Involved in Attachment of Tissue Culture Cells to Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Several mycoplasmas, from avian and mammalian sources, growing in the form of colonies on agar and sheets attached to plastic dishes, were tested for their ability to adsorb tissue culture cells in suspension. HeLa cells adsorbed to the majority of mycoplasmas tested; adsorption occurred to the sheets and not to the colonies of some mycoplasmas. Other tissue cells, in primary culture and of diploid origin, adsorbed also. The mechanism of adsorption of HeLa cells to 4 mycoplasmas was examined by treating the cells and mycoplasmas in various ways and then testing for adsorption. N-acetyl neuraminic acid residues on the tissue cells were responsible for adsorption to M. gallisepticum and M. pneumoniae. The receptors for M. hominis and M. salivarium were probably not of this kind since treatment of the cells with purified neuraminidase did not influence adsorption. However, the cell receptors for these mycoplasmas were associated with protein because they were inactivated by proteolytic enzymes and by formalin. The cell receptors for M. hominis were more heat stable than those for the other mycoplasmas. From the aspect of the mycoplasma membrane, in no instance did neuraminidase treatment affect adsorption. On the other hand, various experiments suggested that protein components of the mycoplasma membrane were involved. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:5773147

Manchee, R. J.; Taylor-Robinson, D.

1969-01-01

75

Mycoplasma contamination of murine embryonic stem cells affects cell parameters, germline transmission and chimeric progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) inoculated at passage P13 with the mycoplasma species M. hominis, M. fermentans and M. orale and cultured over 20 passages showed reduced growth rate and viability (P < 0.0001) compared to control mESCs. Spectral karyotypic analysis of mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed a number of non-clonal\\u000a chromosomal aberrations which increased with the duration of infection. The differentiation status of

Kyriaki Markoullis; Diana Bulian; Gabriele Hölzlwimmer; Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez; Katrin-Janine Heiliger; Horst Zitzelsberger; Hagen Scherb; Josef Mysliwietz; Cord C. Uphoff; Hans G. Drexler; Thure Adler; Dirk H. Busch; Jörg Schmidt; Esther Mahabir

2009-01-01

76

Previously uncharacterized Mycoplasma isolates from an investigation of canine pneumonia.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas recovered from the respiratory tract and genitourinary system of dogs, with and without respiratory infection, have been characterized by biological and immunological methods. Some of the isolates were indentified as being similar to the three species of canine mycoplasmas described earlier under the designation Mycoplasma spumans, M. canis, and M. maculosum. Other mycoplasmas placed in three groups (A, C, and D) were found to be clearly distinct from the three classified species. Group A strains fermented glucose but not mannose and were serologically distinct from other canine mycoplasmas recovered in this study. These strains were subsequently found to be biologically and serologically related to a previously reported, but unclassified, canine mycoplasma. Group D strains differed in some biological properties but were serologically related. These were found to be nonfermenting mycoplasmas representing isolations from the throat and bladder of dogs. They were serologically distinct from other canine mycoplasmas and were apparently unrelated to other known mycoplasma serotypes. Group C mycoplasmas were recovered only from the lungs of dogs. Within the group, they differ in some immunological properties but appear to be serologically distinct from other canine strains. They can also be separated from other dog strains in their ability to ferment glucose and mannose. Group B strains were found to have biological properties similar to M. canis strains but seemed to be only partially related to this serotype when examined in several serological techniques. It is suggested that these strains might represent antigenic variants of M. canis. PMID:16557682

Armstrong, D; Tully, J G; Yu, B; Morton, V; Friedman, M H; Steger, L

1970-01-01

77

Mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: comparison of commercial F-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house.  

PubMed

Two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine (trial 1) or 2 inocula of layer complex-derived MG strains (LCD-MG; trial 2). In each of the 2 trials, 4 commercial turkeys were housed in each of 2 adjoining pens immediately adjacent to air inlets. The turkeys (8/trial) were inoculated in the right eye with either a 1× dose of FMG (trial 1) or with 0.02 mL of 1 of 2 actively growing LCD-MG inocula (4 turkeys/inoculum; trial 2). In each of the 2 trials, one pen housing 4 inoculated turkeys was maintained without the addition of other poultry, whereas 16 MG-free broilers and 4 MG-free layers were added to the other pen of 4 inoculated turkeys. Within each of the trials and at increasing intervals, either 4 layers (3 pens) or 4 turkeys (3 pens) were placed down-airstream from the inoculated pens. The distance of the first pen from the inoculated turkeys was separated by the width of one pen that was empty. Succeeding down-airstream pens were situated such that the empty distance (absence of any poultry) between pens that contained poultry doubled from one pen to the next such that the final pen that contained poultry had 4 empty pens between it and the next up-airstream pen that also contained poultry. At 106 d postinoculation, all poultry were bled, swabbed for MG from the choanal cleft, and then euthanized and necropsied. No commingled poultry in trial 1 (FMG), whether inoculated (turkeys) or commingled (layers and broilers), died during the course of the trial, and 5 of the 8 FMG-vaccinated turkeys exhibited serological but not cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. In trial 2 (LCD-MG), 2 commingled broilers died and no inoculated turkeys exhibited either serological or cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. In both trials, no poultry housed down-airstream from the inoculated poultry showed evidence of clinical signs of mycocplasmosis and none showed either serological or cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. PMID:23155015

Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Collier, S D; Olanrewaju, H A; Kim, E J; Pharr, G T; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L

2012-12-01

78

Chorioamnionitis and colonization of the newborn infant with genital mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

To study the role of Mycoplasma hominis and T-mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum) in chorioamnionitis, we obtained culture from 249 puerperal women and their babies. The placentas were examined histologically. Infants whose placentas showed inflammation (chorioamnionitis) had cultures positive for T-mycoplasmas more frequently (37.5 per cent) than those with normal placentas (19.0 per cent) (P = 0.021). Colonization with M. hominis was found in 16.0 per cent of the babies and was not significantly associated with chorioamnionitis. Material colonization with mycoplasmas was more frequent (73.4 per cent) and was not correlated with placental inflammation. We conclude that a substantial proportion of cases of chorioamnionitis may be caused by prenatal infection with T-mycoplasmas. The fact that these organisms are not highly virulent could explain the frequent finding of inflammed placentas from otherwise normal pregnacies. No adverse clinical effects of the placental lesions or of mycoplasmal colonization could be detected in this small study. PMID:1168854

Shurin, P A; Alpert, S; Bernard Rosner, B A; Driscoll, S G; Lee, Y H

1975-07-01

79

Towards a genome based taxonomy of Mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are Gram-positive wall-less bacteria with a wide environmental and host distribution, causing disease in man and in (wild and farmed) animals. The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of a genomic taxonomic approach in Mycoplasma systematics. Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), average amino acid identity (AAI), and Karlin genomic signature allowed a clear identification of species. For instance, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium had only 71% MLSA similarity, 67% AAI, and 88 for Karlin genomic signature. Codon usage (Nc) of the phylogenetically distantly related species Mycoplasma conjunctivae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum was identical, in spite of clear differences in MLSA, AAI, and Karlin, suggesting that these two species were subjected to convergent adaptation due to similar environmental conditions. We suggest that a Mycoplasma species may be better defined based on genomic features. In our hands, a Mycoplasma species is defined as a group of strains that share ? 97% DNA identity in MLSA, ? 93.9% AAI and ? 8 in Karlin genomic signature. This new definition may be useful to advance the taxonomy of Mycoplasmas. PMID:21840423

Thompson, Cristiane C; Vieira, Nayra M; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Thompson, Fabiano L

2011-10-01

80

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Chest & Lungs > Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Health Issues Listen Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Article Body Some lung infections, including ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

81

Mycoplasma genitalium and cancer: a brief review.  

PubMed

Approximately, 15-20% of all cancers worldwide are caused by infectious agents. Understanding the role of infectious agents on cancer development might be useful for developing new approaches to its prevention. Mycoplasma genitalium is a clinically important sexually transmitted pathogen that has been associated with several human diseases. There have been a few studies suggestive of probable roles of Mycoplasma genitalium in cancer development, including prostate and ovarian cancers and lymphomas, but the role of this microorganism like other Mycoplasma species in neoplasia is still conjectural. Considering the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infections and also the emergence of resistant strains, Mycoplasma genitalium needs more attention in the infectious agent cancer-causing research area. PMID:23886122

Zarei, Omid; Rezania, Simin; Mousavi, Atefeh

2013-01-01

82

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

2014-01-01

83

Mycoplasma agassizii Strain Variation and Distinct Host Antibody Responses Explain Differences between Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Western Blot Assays ?  

PubMed Central

The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A405 values were significantly correlated (r2 goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations. PMID:20810678

Wendland, Lori D.; Klein, Paul A.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Brown, Mary B.

2010-01-01

84

Survey of Surface Proteins from the Pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 7448 Using a Biotin Cell Surface Labeling Approach  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia. PMID:25386928

Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

2014-01-01

85

Urogenital Mycoplasmas and Human Papilloma Virus in Hemodialysed Women  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20–48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required. PMID:24363622

Ekiel, Alicja; Pietrzak, Bronislawa; Aptekorz, Malgorzata; Mazanowska, Natalia; Kaminski, Pawel; Martirosian, Gayane

2013-01-01

86

Inflammatory Lipoproteins Purified from a Toxigenic and Arthritogenic Strain of Mycoplasma arthritidis Are Dependent on Toll-Like Receptor 2 and CD14?  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma arthritidis is a naturally occurring murine pathogen, and the disease model has been used extensively to understand inflammatory mechanisms. Recently, Triton X-114 extracts of a virulent strain of M. arthritidis were found to be more potent in activating macrophages than were those from an avirulent strain, suggesting a role in disease. Here, octyl glucoside extraction of cells was used to identify four distinct bioactive moieties, with molecular masses of ?41, 37, 34, and 17 kDa. Their bioactivities were resistant to proteinase K but were destroyed by alkaline hydrolysis and oxidation. As for MALP-2, all were dependent upon Toll-like receptor 2, but unlike MALP-2, they were also dependent upon CD14. The M. arthritidis lipoproteins exhibited infrared absorbances at 2,900 cm?1 and 1,662 cm?1, similar to those seen in Pam3-Cys-Ser-(Lys)4. Edman degradation failed to reveal N-terminal sequences, suggesting that they were blocked and therefore might be triacylated. However, mass spectrometry of fragments revealed that the 41-kDa moiety, which binds to serum apolipoprotein A-1, had similarity with the recently described MlpD lipoprotein of M. arthritidis. PMID:17283106

Hasebe, Akira; Mu, Hong-Hua; Washburn, Leigh R.; Chan, Fok V.; Pennock, Nathan D.; Taylor, Michael L.; Cole, Barry C.

2007-01-01

87

Adhesion of 'Mycoplasma pneumoniae' and 'Mycoplasma hominus' to Sulfatide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates generally to carbohydrate receptors and their use. Specifically, for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma hominus, a method for removing Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma hominus from fluids, and for inhib...

H. C. Krivan, V. Ginsburg, D. D. Roberts

1988-01-01

88

A correlative in vivo study of the surface morphology and colonisation of the chicken trachea infected by mycoplasma gallisepticum strains R and F  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenic processes occurring in the chicken trachea as the result of infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum were followed at frequent intervals over a 2?week period after introduction of the organism into the trachea. A correlation was made between changes in the surface morphology of the trachea, as seen by the scanning electron microscope, and mycoplasma colonisation of the upper respiratory

Sharon Levisohn; Y. Yegana; I. Hod; A. Herz

1983-01-01

89

In vitro evaluation of various antimicrobials against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by the micro?broth method, and comparison with a commercially?prepared test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of danofioxacin, a new quinolone antimicrobial agent, was tested in vitro by the micro?broth method with nine field strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and eight of M. synoviae (Ms) and comparison was made with oxytetracycline and tylosin tartrate. The virulent S6 strain of Mg was also included for reference. All Mycoplasma strains, including a strain of Mg that

Janet M. Bradbury; Christine A. Yavari; C. J. Giles

1994-01-01

90

Comparison of multiple genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space region for their capacity in high resolution melt curve analysis to differentiate Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 from field strains.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important avian pathogen causing significant economic losses in the global poultry industry. In an attempt to compare and evaluate existing genotyping methods for differentiation of MG strains/isolates, high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was applied to 5 different PCR methods targeting vlhA, pvpA, gapA, mgc2 genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space region (IGSR). To assess the discriminatory power of PCR-HRM of examined genes and IGSR, MG strains ts-11, F, 6/85 and S6, and, initially, 8 field isolates were tested. All MG strains/isolates were differentiated using PCR-HRM curve analysis and genotype confidence percentage (GCP) values of vlhA and pvpA genes, while only 0, 3 and 4 out of 12 MG strains/isolates were differentiated using gapA, mgc2 genes and IGSR, respectively. The HRM curve analysis of vlhA and pvpA genes was found to be highly correlated with the genetic diversity of the targeted genes confirmed by sequence analysis of amplicons generated from MG strains. The potential of the vlhA and pvpA genes was also demonstrated for genotyping of 12 additional MG strains from Europe and the USA. Results from this study provide a direct comparison between genes previously used in sequencing-based genotyping methods for MG strain identification and highlight the usefulness of vlhA and pvpA HRM curve analyses as rapid and reliable tools specially for diagnosis and differentiation of MG strains used here. PMID:24238667

Ghorashi, Seyed A; Bradbury, Janet M; Ferguson-Noel, Naola M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

2013-12-27

91

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Surface-Localized Adhesion Protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 Strain  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX). Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX). Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL), and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1. PMID:23936063

Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yumei; Liu, Yang; Xin, Jiuqing

2013-01-01

92

The pathogenicity of avian mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Based on literature data and own experiences the author gives an outlook about pathogenicity of avian mycoplasmas. In chickens and turkeys M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae (in addition to it M. meleagridis exclusively in turkeys) are the most important mycoplasmas producing respiratory disease, inflamation of synovial membranes and other lesions. Their pathogenic effect is very much influenced by dose of agent, route of entry of microorganism, age of birds, virulence and tropism of organism as well as associated other mycoplasma or virus or bacterial or fungal infections and conditions of environment. These facts rise difficulties in serological diagnostic and erradication program. Recently ureaplasma infection was also established in chickens and turkeys which can also be associated with respiratory disease. From ducks A. laidlawii, M. anatis and various unclassified strains were isolated, among these M. anatis and unclassified arginine splitting mycoplasma strains proved to be pathogenic. In geese M. gallinarum, A. laidlawii and A. axanthum were detected. A. axanthum showed pathogenicity for goslings and goose embryos. Its effect is exacerbated by associated parvovirus infection. PMID:44612

Stipkovits, L

1979-10-01

93

Characterization of the mycoplasma genome.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances on the properties of the mycoplasma genome, including size, base composition, replication, extrachromosomal DNA, and transfer of genetic material are briefly reviewed, with emphasis on their phylogenetic implications. The use of cleavage patterns of the mycoplasma genome by restriction endonucleases as "finger-prints" indicating genetic relatedness among strains is discussed. The data support the notion that strains of mycoplasma species of strict host and tissue specificity exhibit marked genetic homogeneity, suggesting a clonal origin for some species. The regions of the mycoplasma genome carrying the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been studied using restriction endonucleases, cloning, and hybridization procedures. The mycoplasmal rRNA cistrons cross-hybridized among themselves, and with the seven rRNA cistrons of Escherichia coli, demonstrating the marked conservation of structure during evolution of this part of the procaryotic genome. In most of the mollicutes tested so far the number of rRNA cistrons is two, but a few species appear to carry only one rRNA cistron in their genome. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6206652

Razin, S.; Barile, M. F.; Harasawa, R.; Amikam, D.; Glaser, G.

1983-01-01

94

Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma (M.) bovis was identified and reported in Austria as agent of infection and disease in cattle only once, namely in 2005 associated with a case of mastitis in a smallholding, but in 2007 it unexpectedly emerged as the cause of a devastating disease outbreak in a dairy herd of 100 individuals and spill over infection to pigs, both kept on the same mountain pasture. In 2008, M. bovis remained endemic at a low level in this region followed by the re-emergence of the agent in 2009 and a dramatic spread of the disease to further Alpine areas and their foothills in 2010 and 2011. From these outbreaks, a total of 94 M. bovis isolates including 7 porcine isolates were selected for genotyping. Two molecular tools, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were chosen to identify strain types involved in these outbreaks and to trace routes of infection and dynamics of dissemination. With both typing methods, the majority of Alpine isolates (96.8%) recovered over time from different areas and hosts was clustered into one group exhibiting a unique and indistinguishable profile which significantly differed from those of geographically unrelated strains including the type strain PG45 and 3 Alpine isolates which suddenly appeared and disappeared in 2009. Stability of the unique profile strongly indicated that a single M. bovis strain initiated the outbreak in 2007, crossed the host species barrier by infecting pigs, re-emerged in 2009 and became widespread in the Austrian Alps in 2010 and 2011. The remarkable dissemination and persistence of a single and unique M. bovis strain may reflect peculiarities of dairy management practices in the Alps based on Alpine transhumance and cooperative use of mountain pastures. As the source of the outbreak strain remains unknown, the findings of this study underscore the importance of continuous surveillance by monitoring further spread and persistence of M. bovis infections for effective control to minimize losses in Alpine dairy farming. PMID:23490560

Spergser, Joachim; Macher, Kathrin; Kargl, Munkhtsetseg; Lysnyansky, Inna; Rosengarten, Renate

2013-06-28

95

Effects of intrauterine infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma capricolum on the fertility of Nubian goats  

E-print Network

Effects of intrauterine infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma capricolum injection of either a Staphylococcus aureus or a Mycoplasma capricolum strain of caprine origin. A third of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma capricolum on corpus luteum regression and its consequences on reproductive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

2014-01-01

97

Extensive Variation and Rapid Shift of the MG192 Sequence in Mycoplasma genitalium Strains from Patients with Chronic Infection  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma genitalium causes persistent urogenital tract infection in humans. Antigenic variation of the protein encoded by the MG192 gene has been proposed as one of the mechanisms for persistence. The aims of this study were to determine MG192 sequence variation in patients with chronic M. genitalium infection and to analyze the sequence structural features of the MG192 gene and its encoded protein. Urogenital specimens were obtained from 13 patients who were followed for 10 days to 14 months. The variable region of the MG192 gene was PCR amplified, subcloned into plasmids, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 220 plasmid clones yielded 97 unique MG192 variant sequences. MG192 sequence shift was identified between sequential specimens from all but one patient. Despite great variation of the MG192 gene among and within clinical specimens from different patients, MG192 sequences were more related within M. genitalium specimens from an individual patient than between patients. The MG192 variable region consisted of 11 discrete subvariable regions with different degrees of variability. Analysis of the two most variable regions (V4 and V6) in five sequential specimens from one patient showed that sequence changes increased over time and that most sequences were present at only one time point, suggesting immune selection. Topology analysis of the deduced MG192 protein predicted a surface-exposed membrane protein. Extensive variation of the MG192 sequence may not only change the antigenicity of the protein to allow immune evasion but also alter the mobility and adhesion ability of the organism to adapt to diverse host microenvironments, thus facilitating persistent infection. PMID:24396043

Mancuso, Miriam; Williams, James A.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Jia, Qiuyao; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

2014-01-01

98

Prevalence of genital Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Gardnerella , and human papillomavirus in Japanese men with urethritis, and risk factors for detection of urethral human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the risk factors for HPV infection in the urethra, we examined the prevalence of various microorganisms, for example\\u000a Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) in Japanese male patients with urethritis, and investigated their sexual backgrounds. Rubbed\\u000a samples obtained from the distal urethra and questionnaires regarding sexual

Shohei Kawaguchi; Toshiyuki Sasagawa; Keiichi Furubayashi; Masayoshi Shimamura; Yuji Maeda; Hiroyuki Konaka; Atsushi Mizokami; Eitetsu Koh; Mikio Namiki

99

Phenotypic differentiation of Cardiobacterium hominis, Kingella indologenes and CDC group EF4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven strains ofCardiobacterium hominis, two strains ofKingella indologenes and six strains of CDC group EF-4 were characterized. Since all three taxa are oxidase-positive, fastidious gram-negative rods with relatively few positive reactions, they may be easily confused in the microbiological laboratory. Common characteristics are acid production from glucose, aerobic growth in semi-solid agar and very slow anaerobic growth. Group EF-4 is

B. Bruun; Y. Ying; E. Kirkegaard; W. Frederiksen

1984-01-01

100

In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma genitalium to antibiotics.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of seven clinical isolates of Mycoplasma genitalium and three strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to a variety of antibiotics were examined by an agar dilution method. Macrolides, pristinamycin, and tetracyclines were very active against both species. Sparfloxacin was the most active quinolone tested. None of the 21 antibiotics tested had differential activity toward the two organisms. PMID:1503451

Renaudin, H; Tully, J G; Bebear, C

1992-01-01

101

Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov. and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains 1517(T) and 61D(T) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517(T) and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum, and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61D(T) and Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA-DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517(T) and L. gigeriorum, and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61D(T) and L. johnsonii, L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517(T) ( = CRBIP 24.76(T) = DSM 23907(T)) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61D(T) (=CRBIP 24.179(T) = DSM 23910(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22328611

Cousin, Sylvie; Motreff, Laurence; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Gouyette, Catherine; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Begaud, Evelyne; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2013-01-01

102

Serological cross-reactions between Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered mycoplasma species Mycoplasma genitalium was isolated from urethral specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis (Tully et al., Lancet i:1288-1291, 1981). In a previous report (K. Lind, Lancet ii:1158-1159, 1982), prominent serological cross-reactions were demonstrated between this mycoplasma and M. pneumoniae. In the present study, the two mycoplasma species were compared more extensively. In classical mycoplasma medium without thallium acetate, M. genitalium grew more slowly than M. pneumoniae did but finally formed similar amounts of acetic acid and lactic acid from glucose. Although their colonies on solid medium were indistinguishable, transmission electron microscopy showed that the flask-formed cells of M. genitalium (especially their necks) were shorter than those of M. pneumoniae. The two species were distinct since DNA hybridization showed only 1.8% homology in base sequences, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significantly different profiles of the two strains. However, considerable similarities were found in their antigenic reactions in various serological tests. The presence of common or closely related antigens was demonstrated in the two species with rabbit immune sera in complement fixation test with chloroform-methanol-extracted antigens by an indirect immunofluorescence test on microcolonies, and by metabolism inhibition and growth inhibition tests. Cross-reactions were also demonstrated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The role of M. genitalium as a human pathogen in the genital tract has not been assessed. If serological tests are to be used in this assessment, caution must be exercised due to the extensive cross-reactions demonstrated. Some of the species-specific antigens which we have demonstrated would be appropriate for use in such tests and would help to circumvent problems caused by cross-reactions. Images PMID:6440905

Lind, K; Lindhardt, B O; Schutten, H J; Blom, J; Christiansen, C

1984-01-01

103

Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.  

PubMed

The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

2013-06-01

104

Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma bovis is associated with pneumonia in calves characterized by the development of chronic caseonecrotic lesions with the agent persisting within the lesion. The purposes of this study were to characterize the morphology of lung lesions, examine the presence of M. bovis variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and study the local immune responses in calves after infection with M. bovis strain 1067. Methods Lung tissue samples from eight calves euthanased three weeks after experimental infection with M. bovis were examined by bacteriology and pathology. Lung lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for wide spectrum cytokeratin and for M. bovis Vsp antigens and pMB67 antigen. IHC identification and quantitative evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA)-containing plasma cells was performed. Additionally, expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) was studied by IHC. Results Suppurative pneumonic lesions were found in all calves. In two calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia, necrotic foci were surrounded by epithelial cells resembling bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium. In all calves, M. bovis Vsp antigens were constantly present in the cytoplasm of macrophages and were also present extracellularly at the periphery of necrotic foci. There was a considerable increase in numbers of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves. In M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells, but only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Conclusions The results from this study show that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins. PMID:22305416

2012-01-01

105

Interplay between mycoplasmas and host target cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infectious pattern of mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma penetrans,Mycoplasma pneumoniaeandMycoplasma genitalium) in mammalian cells was examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry combined with cell fractionation and mycoplasma viability determinations. Within 2 h postinfection mycoplasmas parasitize cell surfaces, enter the intracellular spaces and locate throughout the cytoplasmic and perinuclear regions. These mycoplasmas can be cultivated from cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions 96 h

J. Baseman; M. Lange; N. Criscimagna; J. Giron; C. Thomas

1995-01-01

106

Mycoplasma mycoides, from \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of five species or subspecies that are ruminant pathogens. One subspecies, Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Its very close relative, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), is a more ubiquitous pathogen in small ruminants causing mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia\\u000a and is also found as

Francois Thiaucourt; Lucia Manso-Silvan; Woubit Salah; Valérie Barbe; Benoit Vacherie; Daniel Jacob; Marc Breton; Virginie Dupuy; Anne Marie Lomenech; Alain Blanchard; Pascal Sirand-Pugnet

2011-01-01

107

In vitro cell invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

The ability of the widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to invade cultured human epithelial cells (HeLa-229) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was investigated by using the gentamicin invasion assay and a double immunofluorescence microscopic technique for accurate localization of cell-associated mycoplasmas. The presence of intracellular mycoplasmas in both cell lines was clearly demonstrated, with organisms entering the eukaryotic cells within 20 min. Internalized mycoplasmas have the ability to leave the cell, but also to survive within the intracellular space over a 48-h period. Frequencies of invasion were shown to differ between the two cell lines, but were also considerably dependent on the mycoplasma input population. Of the prototype strain R, a low-passage population in artificial medium, R(low), was capable of active cell invasion, while a high-passage population, R(high), showed adherence to but nearly no uptake into HeLa-229 and CEF. By passaging R(low) and R(high) multiple times through HeLa-229 cells, the invasion frequency was significantly increased. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that M. gallisepticum has the capability of entering nonphagocytic host cells that may provide this pathogen with the opportunity for resisting host defenses and selective antibiotic therapy, establishing chronic infections, and passing through the respiratory mucosal barrier to cause systemic infections. PMID:10858241

Winner, F; Rosengarten, R; Citti, C

2000-07-01

108

Eradication of Mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma contaminations have a multitude of effects on cultured cell lines that may influence the results of experiments or pollute bioactive substances isolated from the eukaryotic cells. The elimination of mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures with antibiotics has been proven to be a practical alternative to discarding and re-establishing important or irreplaceable cell lines. Different fluoroquinolones, tetracyclins, pleuromutilins, and macrolides shown to have strong anti-mycoplasma properties are employed for the decontamination. These antibiotics are applied as single treatments, as combination treatment of two antibiotics in parallel or successively, or in combination with a surface-active peptide to enhance the action of the antibiotic. The protocols in this unit allow eradication of mycoplasmas, prevention of the development of resistant mycoplasma strains, and potential cure of heavily contaminated and damaged cells. Consistent and permanent alterations to eukaryotic cells attributable to the treatment have not been demonstrated. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 106:28.5.1-28.5.12. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24733241

Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G

2014-01-01

109

Original article Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

E-print Network

Original article Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC identification by PCR in sperm of seminal) diagnosis for the detection and identification of Mycoplasma, we investigated mycoplasmas contaminating was neg- ative. Furthermore, we have investigated mycoplasmas isolated from semen of healthy breeding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing.  

PubMed Central

Automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used for determination of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of mycoplasmas. The sequence information was used to establish phylogenetic relationships of 11 different mycoplasmas whose 16S rRNA sequences had not been determined earlier. A biotinylated fragment corresponding to positions 344 to 939 in the Escherichia coli sequence was generated by PCR. The PCR product was immobilized onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and direct sequencing was performed in both directions. One previously unclassified avian mycoplasma was found to belong to the Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster of the hominis group. Microheterogeneities were discovered in the rRNA operons of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC type), confirming the existence of two different rRNA operons. The 16S rRNA sequence of M. mycoides subsp. capri was identical to that of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (type SC), except that no microheterogeneities were revealed. Furthermore, automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used to identify a mycoplasmal contamination of a cell culture as Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which proved to be very difficult by conventional methods. The results suggest that the direct solid-phase DNA sequencing procedure is a powerful tool for identification of mycoplasmas and is also useful in taxonomic studies. Images PMID:7521158

Pettersson, B; Johansson, K E; Uhlen, M

1994-01-01

111

Molecular and morphologic identification of Pentatrichomonas hominis in swine.  

PubMed

A marasmic pig with watery diarrhea was identified to harbor the human-pathogenic protist Pentatrichomonas hominis by PCR and sequence analysis of three genetic loci (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2, 18S rRNA, and EF-1?), electron microscopy, and infection experiments. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated the organism isolated in this study was most closely related to P. hominis. SEM and TEM observation of the ultrastructure demonstrated that it had a morphology identical to P. hominis. The result of experimental infections with P. hominis exhibited that the cells had the ability to propagate in the cecum of piglets and fecal-oral route might be the major way in which pigs became infected. The present study confirmed that swine could be a host for P. hominis and might serve as a reservoir for human trichomoniasis. PMID:24636786

Li, Weizhi; Li, Wei; Gong, Pengtao; Meng, Ying; Li, Wenchao; Zhang, Chengcai; Li, Shijie; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Zhang, Xichen; Li, Jianhua

2014-05-28

112

Reagents for Identifying 'Mycoplasma pneumoniae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related to reagents which specifically recognize the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae and no other Mycoplasma species or organism belonging to the class Mollicutes. More particularly, the present invention is related to an immunoassay...

L. D. Olson

1989-01-01

113

Method for Detection of Mycoplasma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for detecting mycoplasma infection in a sample by contacting the sample with labeled oligonucleotides, then measuring incorporation (if any) of the label into mycoplasma RNA. One preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a met...

D. Geselowitz, L. Neckers, L. Olsen

1992-01-01

114

Extensive variation in surface lipoprotein gene content and genomic changes associated with virulence during evolution of a novel North American house finch epizootic strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry, has since 1994 been recognized as an emergent pathogen of the American house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). Epizootic spread and pathognomonic characteristics of house finch-associated Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HFMG) have been studied as a model of an emergent to endemic pathogen in a novel host. Here we present comparative analysis of eight HFMG genomes, including one from an index isolate and seven isolates separated spatially and temporally (1994-2008) across the epizootic, and notably having differences in virulence. HFMG represented a monophyletic clade relative to sequenced poultry isolates, with genomic changes indicating a novel M. gallisepticum lineage and including unique deletions of coding sequence. Though most of the HFMG genome was highly conserved among isolates, genetic distances correlated with temporal-spatial distance from the index. The most dramatic genomic differences among HFMG involved phase-variable and immunodominant VlhA lipoprotein genes, including those variable in presence and genomic location. Other genomic differences included tandem copy number variation of a 5 kbp repeat, changes in and adjacent to the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, and small-scale changes affecting coding potential and association of genes with virulence. Divergence of monophyletic isolates from similar time/space in the epizootic indicated local diversification of distinct HFMG sublineages. Overall, these data identify candidate virulence genes and reveal the importance of phase-variable lipoproteins during the evolution of M. gallisepticum during its emergence and dissemination in a novel host in nature, likely mediating an important role at the interface between pathogen virulence and host immunity. PMID:22628486

Tulman, E R; Liao, X; Szczepanek, S M; Ley, D H; Kutish, G F; Geary, S J

2012-08-01

115

Original article Detection of specific Mycoplasma conjunctivae  

E-print Network

Original article Detection of specific Mycoplasma conjunctivae antibodies in the sera of sheep between Mycoplasma conjunctivae, the etiological agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC), and the antigenetically and phylogenetically closely related Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is often found in sheep, were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Studies with Lectins on the Surface Carbohydrate Structures of Mycoplasma Membranes  

PubMed Central

The surface carbohydrate structures on the cell membranes of various mycoplasma species have been investigated by using lectins, which are sugar-specific proteins. Carbohydrate structures presumably bound to glycolipids, with both galactose and glucose units, were found to be exposed on the surface of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its temperature-sensitive mutants, M. mycoides var. mycoides and capri, M. pulmonis, M. gallinarum, and M. gallisepticum. Lipid-bound glucose was found on M. neurolyticum. The possible relationship of the lipid-bound surface carbohydrate groups to the known serological cross-reactions and lipid compositions of the various mycoplasma species is discussed. Intact Acholeplasma laidlawii and M. fermentans have no lectin-binding sites exposed on their surfaces; galactose groups were discovered only after Pronase digestion of the organisms, suggesting that their glycolipids are hidden under a protein layer. Neither intact nor Pronase-digested M. hominis reacted with the lectins; this is fully consistent with the lipid composition of this organism, which contains glycolipids. The lectins from Vicia cracca and Phaseolus vulgaris, which react with N-acetyl-galactosamine groups, agglutinated M. gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, M. mycoides var. capri, and M. pulmonis. The agglutinability was lost after Pronase treatment, indicating that the corresponding carbohydrates are presumably protein bound. They may be correlated with the extracellular structures observed by electron microscopy of both sectioned and negatively stained mycoplasma species. PMID:4138526

Schiefer, Hans-Gerd; Gerhardt, Ursula; Brunner, Helmut; Krupe, Martin

1974-01-01

117

Studies with lectins on the surface carbohydrate structures of mycoplasma membranes.  

PubMed

The surface carbohydrate structures on the cell membranes of various mycoplasma species have been investigated by using lectins, which are sugar-specific proteins. Carbohydrate structures presumably bound to glycolipids, with both galactose and glucose units, were found to be exposed on the surface of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its temperature-sensitive mutants, M. mycoides var. mycoides and capri, M. pulmonis, M. gallinarum, and M. gallisepticum. Lipid-bound glucose was found on M. neurolyticum. The possible relationship of the lipid-bound surface carbohydrate groups to the known serological cross-reactions and lipid compositions of the various mycoplasma species is discussed. Intact Acholeplasma laidlawii and M. fermentans have no lectin-binding sites exposed on their surfaces; galactose groups were discovered only after Pronase digestion of the organisms, suggesting that their glycolipids are hidden under a protein layer. Neither intact nor Pronase-digested M. hominis reacted with the lectins; this is fully consistent with the lipid composition of this organism, which contains glycolipids. The lectins from Vicia cracca and Phaseolus vulgaris, which react with N-acetyl-galactosamine groups, agglutinated M. gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, M. mycoides var. capri, and M. pulmonis. The agglutinability was lost after Pronase treatment, indicating that the corresponding carbohydrates are presumably protein bound. They may be correlated with the extracellular structures observed by electron microscopy of both sectioned and negatively stained mycoplasma species. PMID:4138526

Schiefer, H G; Gerhardt, U; Brunner, H; Krüpe, M

1974-10-01

118

Unusually low prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples from infertile men and healthy controls: a prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. Methods The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Results Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. Conclusions In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. PMID:25157184

Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov

2014-01-01

119

The polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma gallisepticum detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the aligned 16S rRNA sequences of Mollicutes, a pair of primers was chosen for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. When used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the primers detected a specific amplification of all Mg strains tested, yielding an expected 330 bp product. Amplification was not detected when other Mollicutes or E. coli were used

Isabelle Kempf; A. Blanchard; Fabienne Gesbert; Michele Guittet; G. Bennejean

1993-01-01

120

Proteolytic Processing of the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Cilium Adhesin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that colonizes the respiratory ciliated epithelial cells. Cilium adherence is mediated by P97, a surface protein containing a repeating element (R1) that is responsible for binding. Here, we show that the cilium adhesin is proteolytically processed on the surface. Proteomic analysis of strain J proteins identified cleavage products of 22, 28, 66,

Steven P. Djordjevic; Stuart J. Cordwell; Michael A. Djordjevic; Jody Wilton; F. Chris Minion

2004-01-01

121

Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time.  

PubMed

Spray application is a commonly used, time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray-vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and the vaccine suspension droplet trajectory. In this study, a total of 48 Hy-Line W-36 males were placed individually in isolation units following eye-drop application of gradient levels (1 x, 10(-1) x, 10(-2) x, 10(-3) x, 10(-4) x, 10(-5) x, 10(-6) x, and unvaccinated control) of the MG vaccine. The determined titer associated with a 1 x dose was 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units/dose. Serologic response was assessed weekly following vaccination via serum plate agglutination (SPA) for weeks one through seven postvaccination (p.v.). In addition, immunologic response was assessed at 5, 6, and 7 wk p.v. via MG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As indicated by SPA analyses, a 1 x dose of vaccine resulted in 100% seroconversion, and dose levels of 10(-1) x and 10(-2) x resulted in 75% and 37.5% seroconversion, respectively, at 6 wk p.v. The MG ELISA results at 6 wk p.v. demonstrated immunologic responses in 100%, 57.1%, and 28.6% of the 1 x, 10(-1) x, and 10(-2) x dosed birds, respectively. The lower dosage levels of 10(-3) x, 10(-4) x, 10(-5) x, and 10(-6) x did not elicit a response from any bird at 6 wk p.v. Utilizing the SPA data, a logistic regression model was used to determine the relationship between dosage level and seroconversion rate (R2 = 0.999 with a standard error of prediction of 1.6%). The model predicted a required effective dosage of 0.26 x for 90% seroconversion at 6 wk p.v. under test conditions. PMID:22017053

Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

2011-09-01

122

In vitro development of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin and oxytetracycline in Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma iowae and Mycoplasma synoviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro emergence of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, and oxytetracycline in three avian Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasmagallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae was studied. Mutants were selected stepwise and their MICs were determined after 10 passages in subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic. High-level resistance to erythromycin and tylosin developed within 2–6 passages in the three Mycoplasma species. Resistance to

A. V Gautier-Bouchardon; A. K Reinhardt; M Kobisch; I Kempf

2002-01-01

123

Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomics of Hemotrophic Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are a group of animal pathogens of the Mollicutes class. Recently, the genomes of 8 hemoplasmas have been completely sequenced. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of their genomic features and relationship to other Mycoplasma species. The genome structure and dynamics of hemoplasmas were analyzed by evaluating gene synteny, adaptive evolution of paralogous gene families (PGF) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The Mollicutes class was then phylogenetically analyzed by constructing a distance matrix of the 16S rRNA genes and a phylogenetic tree with 32 conserved, concatenated proteins. Our results suggest that the hemoplasmas have dynamic genomes. The genome size variation (from 547 to 1,545 genes) indicates substantial gene gain/loss throughout evolution. Poorly conserved gene syntenies among hemoplasmas, positional shuffling of paralogous genes between strains, HGT, and codons under positive selection in PGFs were also observed. When compared to other Mollicutes species, the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic reduction, and the 16S rRNA gene distance matrix of the available mollicutes suggests that these organisms presently constitute the most divergent clade within its class. Our phylogenetic tree of concatenated proteins showed some differences when compared to the 16S rRNA gene tree, but non-mycoplasma organisms, such as Ureaplasma spp. and Mesoplasma spp., continue to branch within Mycoplasma clades. In conclusion, while the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic shrinkage through gene loss, PGFs with positively selected codons are likely beneficial to these species. Phylogeny of the mollicutes based on 16S rRNA genes or concatenated proteins do not obey the current taxonomy. The metabolism and genetic diversity of the mollicutes, the presence of HGT, and lack of standard for genus circumscription are likely to hinder attempts to classify these organisms based on phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24642917

Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naila C.; Timenetsky, Jorge; Messick, Joanne B.

2014-01-01

124

Antimycoplasmal Activity of Hydroxytyrosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol. Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hominis, three strains of Mycoplasma fermentans, and one strain of Mycoplasma pneu- moniae were used. For M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. fermentans, the MICs were 0.5, 0.03 (for 90% of the strains tested), and 0.25 g\\/ml, respectively. Typical components of

Pio Maria Furneri; Anna Piperno; Antonella Sajia; Giuseppe Bisignano

2004-01-01

125

Revision of haemotrophic Mycoplasma species names  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently proposed transfer of four rickettsias from the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with the Candidatus status is herein revised. This is because the Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status. Thus, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis' is revised to Mycoplasma haemofelis comb. nov., nom. nov., 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris'

Harold Neimark; Karl-Erik Johansson; Yasuko Rikihisa; Joseph G. Tully

126

Complexity of the Mycoplasma fermentans M64 Genome and Metabolic Essentiality and Diversity among Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Recently, the genomes of two Mycoplasma fermentans strains, namely M64 and JER, have been completely sequenced. Gross comparison indicated that the genome of M64 is significantly bigger than the other strain and the difference is mainly contributed by the repetitive sequences including seven families of simple and complex transposable elements ranging from 973 to 23,778 bps. Analysis of these repeats resulted in the identification of a new distinct family of Integrative Conjugal Elements of M. fermentans, designated as ICEF-III. Using the concept of “reaction connectivity”, the metabolic capabilities in M. fermentans manifested by the complete and partial connected biomodules were revealed. A comparison of the reported M. pulmonis, M. arthritidis, M. genitalium, B. subtilis, and E. coli essential genes and the genes predicted from the M64 genome indicated that more than 73% of the Mycoplasmas essential genes are preserved in M. fermentans. Further examination of the highly and partly connected reactions by a novel combinatorial phylogenetic tree, metabolic network, and essential gene analysis indicated that some of the pathways (e.g. purine and pyrimidine metabolisms) with partial connected reactions may be important for the conversions of intermediate metabolites. Taken together, in light of systems and network analyses, the diversity among the Mycoplasma species was manifested on the variations of their limited metabolic abilities during evolution. PMID:22509252

Chan, Huang-I; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Shu, Hung-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Hu, Wensi S.; Ng, Wailap Victor

2012-01-01

127

Is Mycoplasma synoviae outrunning Mycoplasma gallisepticum? A viewpoint from the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae are the most relevant mycoplasma species for commercial poultry from the clinical and economic point of view. Although the importance of M. gallisepticum was recognized many decades ago, the relevance of M. synoviae has been a matter of debate. Until the turn of the century, only the respiratory and synovitis forms of the disease were reported, while the majority of infections were subclinical. Since the year 2000 M. synoviae strains with oviduct tropism, able to induce eggshell apex abnormalities and egg drops, have been encountered worldwide. A decreasing incidence of M. gallisepticum has been observed, at least in breeding stock, in countries with control and eradication programmes for this Mycoplasma species. In contrast, the sero-prevalence of M. synoviae is much higher, especially in layer flocks, and in most continents exceeds 70%. Given the emergence of virulent M. synoviae strains with oviduct tropism, its ability to also induce joint and respiratory disease, to act synergistically with other pathogens as well as its much higher sero-prevalence, it seems that M. synoviae is outrunning M. gallisepticum, at least in countries with control and eradication programmes for the latter. This stresses the need to update M. synoviae prevention and control strategies. Thus, in January 2013, the Dutch poultry industry implemented a mandatory control and eradication programme for M. synoviae at all levels of poultry farming with the exception of broilers. PMID:24397240

Landman, Wil J M

2014-01-01

128

Gliding ghosts of Mycoplasma mobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of mycoplasmas glide on solid surfaces, in the direction of their membrane protrusion at a cell pole, by an unknown mechanism. Our recent studies on the fastest species, Mycoplasma mobile, suggested that the gliding machinery, localized at the base of the membrane protrusion (the ``neck''), is composed of two huge proteins. This machinery forms spikes sticking out from

Atsuko Uenoyama; Makoto Miyata

2005-01-01

129

Natural infection of ducks with mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma egg transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), M. cloacale (MC) and M. anatis were isolated from ducks kept in a yard in close contact with chickens that were infected with MG, MS and some other avian Mycoplasma species. MG, MS and MC were isolated also from embryonated duck eggs and from infertile duck eggs laid during the first four weeks of

D. Bencina; Tatjana Tadina; D. Dorrer

1988-01-01

130

Analysis of distribution indicates diverse functions of simple sequence repeats in Mycoplasma genomes.  

PubMed

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) composed of extensive tandem iterations of a single nucleotide or a short oligonucleotide are rare in most bacterial genomes, but they are common among Mycoplasma. Some of these repeats act as contingency loci in association with families of surface antigens. By contraction or expansion during replication, these SSRs increase genetic variance of the population and facilitate avoidance of the immune response of the host. Occurrence and distribution of SSRs are analyzed in complete genomes of 11 Mycoplasma and 3 related Mollicutes in order to gain insights into functional and evolutionary diversity of the SSRs in Mycoplasma. The results revealed an unexpected variety of SSRs with respect to their distribution and composition and suggest that it is unlikely that all SSRs function as contingency loci or recombination hot spots. Various types of SSRs are most abundant in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, whereas Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma mobile, and Mycoplasma synoviae do not contain unusually long SSRs. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma pulmonis feature abundant short adenine and thymine runs periodically spaced at 11 and 12 bp, respectively, which likely affect the supercoiling propensities of the DNA molecule. Physiological roles of long adenine and thymine runs in M. hyopneumoniae appear independent of location upstream or downstream of genes, unlike contingency loci that are typically located in protein-coding regions or upstream regulatory regions. Comparisons among 3 M. hyopneumoniae strains suggest that the adenine and thymine runs are rarely involved in genome rearrangements. The results indicate that the SSRs in the Mycoplasma genomes play diverse roles, including modulating gene expression as contingency loci, facilitating genome rearrangements via recombination, affecting protein structure and possibly protein-protein interactions, and contributing to the organization of the DNA molecule in the cell. PMID:16618962

Mrázek, Jan

2006-07-01

131

Membrane-associated nuclease activities in mycoplasmas.  

PubMed Central

Membrane-associated nucleases of various mycoplasmal species were investigated by using two nuclease assays. A lambda DNA assay was developed to measure nuclease activity associated with whole-cell suspensions, activity released from intact cells, and activity associated with detergent-disrupted cells. In most species, nuclease activities were entirely membrane associated, and disruption by a detergent had a stimulatory effect on these activities. All mycoplasmal species contained nuclease activity, but Mycoplasma capricolum was unusual because its activity was dependent upon magnesium and was inhibited by calcium. We developed a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system that produced reproducible nuclease patterns, and this system was used to determine the apparent molecular weights of the nuclease proteins. An examination of 20 mycoplasmal species failed to identify common bands in their nuclease patterns. An examination of 11 Mycoplasma pulmonis strains, however, indicated that nuclease patterns on polyacrylamide gels may provide a means for categorizing strains within a species. Our results suggest that nucleases are important constituents of mycoplasmal membranes and may be involved in the acquisition of host nucleic acids required for growth. Images PMID:8253673

Minion, F C; Jarvill-Taylor, K J; Billings, D E; Tigges, E

1993-01-01

132

Pulse-field electrophoresis indicates full-length Mycoplasma chromosomes range widely in size.  

PubMed Central

Full-size linear chromosomes were prepared from mycoplasmas by using gamma-irradiation to introduce one (on average) double-strand break in their circular chromosomes. Chromosome sizes were estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) from the mobilities of these full-length molecules relative to DNA size references. Sizes estimated for Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 and 16 Mycoplasma species ranged from 684 kbp (M. hominis) to 1315 kbp (M. iowae). Using this sample, we found no correlation between the mobility of the full-size linear chromosomes and their G + C content. Sizes for A. laidlawii and A. hippikon were within the range expected from renaturation kinetics. PFGE size estimates are in good agreement with sizes determined by other methods, including electron microscopy, an ordered clone library, and summation of restriction fragments. Our estimates also agree with those from renaturation kinetics for both the largest and some of the smallest chromosomes, but in the intermediate size range, renaturation kinetics consistently provides lower values than PFGE or electron microscopy. Our PFGE estimates show that mycoplasma chromosomes span a continual range of sizes, with several intermediate values falling between the previously recognized large and small chromosome size clusters. Images PMID:2216718

Neimark, H C; Lange, C S

1990-01-01

133

Effects of mycoplasma contamination on phenotypic expression of mitochondrial mutants in human cells  

SciTech Connect

HeLa cells sensitive to the mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibitors erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and HeLa variants resistant to the effects of these drugs were purposefully infected with drug-sensitive and -resistnat mycoplasma strains. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and the ERY-resistant strain of Mycoplasma orale, MO-ERY/sup r/, did not influence the growth of HeLa and ERY-resistant ERY2301 cells in the presence or absence of ERY. M. hyorhinis also did not affect the growth of HeLa and CAP-resistant Cap-2 cells in the presence or absence of CAP. However, both HeLa and Cap-2 cells infected with the CAP-resistant strain of M. hyorhinis, MH-CAP/sup r/, were more sensitive to the cytotoxix effect of CAP. This maybe due to the glucose dependence of the cells, which was compromised by the increased utilization of glucose by MH-CAP/sup r/ in these infected cell cultures. In vitro protein synthesis by isolated mitochondria was significantly altered by mycoplasma infection of the various cell lines. A substantial number of mycoplasmas copurified with the mitochondria, resulting in up to a sevenfold increase in the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. More importantly, the apparent drug sensitivity or resistance of mitchondrial preparations from mycoplasma-infected cells reflected the drug sensitivity or resistance of the contaminating mycoplasmas. These results illustrate the hazards in interpreting mitochondrial protein synthesis data derived from mycoplasma-infected cell lines, particularly putative mitochondrially encoded mutants resistant to inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

Doersen, C.J.; Stanbridge, E.J.

1981-04-01

134

The Origin of the 'Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster' Coincides with Domestication of Ruminants  

PubMed Central

The ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ comprises the ruminant pathogens Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae the agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, Mycoplasma leachii and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. CBPP and CCPP are major livestock diseases and impact the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through reduced food-supply and international trade restrictions. In addition, these diseases are a threat to disease-free countries. We used a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach to gain insights into the demographic history of and phylogenetic relationships among the members of the ‘M. mycoides cluster’. We collected partial sequences from seven housekeeping genes representing a total of 3,816 base pairs from 118 strains within this cluster, and five strains isolated from wild Caprinae. Strikingly, the origin of the ‘M. mycoides cluster’ dates to about 10,000 years ago, suggesting that the establishment and spread of the cluster coincided with livestock domestication. In addition, we show that hybridization and recombination may be important factors in the evolutionary history of the cluster. PMID:22558362

Fischer, Anne; Shapiro, Beth; Muriuki, Cecilia; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2012-01-01

135

Direct activation of the J774.1 Murine macrophage cell line by mycoplasma arthritidis.  

PubMed Central

Viable Mycoplasma arthritidis and supernatants from M. arthriditis cultures produced marked morphological changes in the J774.1 continuous macrophage line similar to those seen during activation of these cells by Mycobacterium bovis BCG cell walls. The mycoplasma-treated macrophages developed pronounced tumoricidal activity against syngenic 3T12-3 target cells and developed an enhanced capacity for the killing of intracellular listeriae, including both virulent and laboratory-maintained strains. Increased acid phosphatase levels and [14C]glucosamine uptake were also seen. We conclude that mycoplasmas can profoundly alter the functions of macrophages, an event which may not only have in vivo significance with regard to disease pathogenesis, but which may pose considerable problems for in vitro work when unsuspected mycoplasma contamination is present. Images PMID:6811441

Dietz, J N; Cole, B C

1982-01-01

136

Original article Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs  

E-print Network

Original article Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs: duration of the disease and resistance and a clear resistance to pneumonia following the booster infec- tion. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniaeI reinfection / resistance / pneumonia / antibodies Résumé ― Ã?volution dans le temps de l'infection à Mycoplasma

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Dermatobia hominis: Small Migrants Hidden in Your Skin  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of vertebrate animal tissues due to maggots of two-winged flies (Diptera) that feed on living or necrotic tissue. Dermatobia hominis occurs widely in tropical parts of Latin America; it is the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in this region. The continuous increase in international travel has increased the possibility of observing this pathology outside endemic countries, especially in travelers returning from the tropics. If clinicians are aware of the possibility of the disease and its treatment options, this dermatosis can be easily managed. However, diagnostic delay is very common because the disease is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial skin infection. Here, we report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis caused by D. hominis in travelers returning to Italy from Latin America. Surgical and noninvasive treatment approaches are also described.

Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Viligiardi, Riccardo; Strohmeyer, Marianne

2014-01-01

138

Dermatobia hominis: Small Migrants Hidden in Your Skin.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of vertebrate animal tissues due to maggots of two-winged flies (Diptera) that feed on living or necrotic tissue. Dermatobia hominis occurs widely in tropical parts of Latin America; it is the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in this region. The continuous increase in international travel has increased the possibility of observing this pathology outside endemic countries, especially in travelers returning from the tropics. If clinicians are aware of the possibility of the disease and its treatment options, this dermatosis can be easily managed. However, diagnostic delay is very common because the disease is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial skin infection. Here, we report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis caused by D. hominis in travelers returning to Italy from Latin America. Surgical and noninvasive treatment approaches are also described. PMID:25324659

Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Viligiardi, Riccardo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro

2014-10-01

139

[A case of skin myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis].  

PubMed

A case of erysipelas-like symptoms in a 26-year-old female student of medicine having returned from Nicaragua to Germany is reported. On the removal of the scurf covering the supposed entrance of the erysipelas, a larva of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly, was extracted from the head skin, and the inflammation completely disappeared within a short period of time. PMID:3751213

Bauer, C; Schultz-Ehrenburg, U; Lämmer, D

1986-07-01

140

Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), the smallest self-replicating biological system, is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, leading to a wide range of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. MP pneumonia has been reported in 10 to 40% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and shows an even higher proportion during epidemics. MP infection is endemic in larger communities of the world with cyclic epidemics every 3 to 7 years. In Korea, 3 to 4-year cycles have been observed from the mid-1980s to present. Although a variety of serologic assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are available for the diagnosis of MP infections, early diagnosis of MP pneumonia is limited by the lack of immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies and variable PCR results in the early stages of the infection. Thus, short-term paired IgM serologic tests may be mandatory for an early and definitive diagnosis. MP infection is usually a mild and self-limiting disease without specific treatment, and if needed, macrolides are generally used as a first-choice drug for children. Recently, macrolide-resistant MP strains have been reported worldwide. However, there are few reports of apparent treatment failure, such as progression of pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite macrolide treatment. The immunopathogenesis of MP pneumonia is believed to be a hyperimmune reaction of the host to the insults from MP infection, including cytokine overproduction and immune cell activation (T cells). In this context, immunomodulatory treatment (corticosteroids or/and intravenous Ig), in addition to antibiotic treatment, might be considered for patients with severe infection. PMID:22375148

Youn, You-Sook

2012-01-01

141

Detection and differentiation of avian mycoplasmas by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on a silver nanorod array.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterial pathogen of poultry that is estimated to cause annual losses exceeding $780 million. The National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines recommend regular surveillance and intervention strategies to contain M. gallisepticum infections and ensure mycoplasma-free avian stocks, but several factors make detection of M. gallisepticum and diagnosis of M. gallisepticum infection a major challenge. Current techniques are laborious, require special expertise, and are typically plagued by false results. In this study, we describe a novel detection strategy which uses silver nanorod array-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (NA-SERS) for direct detection of avian mycoplasmas. As a proof of concept for use in avian diagnostics, we used NA-SERS to detect and differentiate multiple strains of avian mycoplasma species, including Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallinaceum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and M. gallisepticum, including vaccine strains 6/85, F, and ts-11. Chemometric multivariate analysis of spectral data was used to classify these species rapidly and accurately, with >93% sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, NA-SERS had a lower limit of detection that was 100-fold greater than that of standard PCR and comparable to that of real-time quantitative PCR. Detection of M. gallisepticum in choanal cleft swabs from experimentally infected birds yielded good sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that NA-SERS is applicable for clinical detection. PMID:22210215

Hennigan, Suzanne L; Driskell, Jeremy D; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Dluhy, Richard A; Zhao, Yiping; Tripp, Ralph A; Krause, Duncan C

2012-03-01

142

Original article In vivo transmission studies of `Candidatus Mycoplasma  

E-print Network

Original article In vivo transmission studies of `Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' in the domestic of the three feline haemotropic mycoplasmas ­ Mycoplasma haemofelis, `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and `Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) ­ are largely unknown. Since CMt has been detected in the saliva

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Toxicity by a Catalase from Mycoplasma iowae  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute. PMID:25127127

Pritchard, Rachel E.; Prassinos, Alexandre J.; Osborne, John D.; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F.

2014-01-01

144

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide accumulation and toxicity by a catalase from Mycoplasma iowae.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute. PMID:25127127

Pritchard, Rachel E; Prassinos, Alexandre J; Osborne, John D; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F

2014-01-01

145

Lipids of a Sterol-Nonrequiring Mycoplasma  

PubMed Central

The lipids of the sterol nonrequiring Mycoplasma strain S743 were found to include both ester glycerophosphatides (phosphatidylglycerol, acylphosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol) and ceramide glycerophosphate compounds containing N-hydroxyacyl groups. The major phosphosphingolipid was tentatively identified as a hydroxyceramidephosphorylglycerol containing an O-acyl group. These compounds became labeled during growth in the presence of 32P-orthophosphate, 14C-glycerol, or 14C-palmitate. The lipid fraction also contained free long-chain base. 14C-palmitate was converted to labeled sphinganine. The long-chain base composition of the lipids was modified by growing the organisms in media containing different fatty acids, which were converted to bases containing two more C atoms per molecule. Ninety per cent of the long-chain base from cells grown in medium supplemented with elaidate consisted of monounsaturated C20 base. Images PMID:5489436

Plackett, P.; Smith, P. F.; Mayberry, W. R.

1970-01-01

146

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents...

2010-04-01

147

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents...

2013-04-01

148

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents...

2011-04-01

149

Mycoplasma agassizii sp., nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (=ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises.

Brown, M. B.; Brown, D. R.; Kelin, P. A.; Mclaughlin, G. S.; Schumacher, I. M.; Jacobson, E. R.; Adams, H.P.; Tully, J.G.

2001-01-01

150

Biomolecular techniques to detect Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis pneumonia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To verify the clinical value of two different polymerase chain reactions (PCBs) for noninvasive diagnosis and follow-up during Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis pneumonia (PCP) and to analyze the P. carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes involved.Methods: Internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) nested PCR was applied to 630 samples (bronchoalveolar lavage, sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and oropharyngeal samples) from 122

Chiara Atzori; Elena Angeli; Fiorenza Agostoni; Annalisa Mainini; Valeria Micheli; Antonietta Cargnel

1999-01-01

151

Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Human-Pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Captive Baboons in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were detected in 42 (17.9%), 6 (2.6%), and 29 (12.3%) of 235 newly captured baboons in Kenya, respectively. Most C. hominis subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes found have been detected in humans in the area, suggesting that cross-species transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis is possible. PMID:21956988

Li, Wei; Kiulia, Nicholas M.; Mwenda, Jason M.; Nyachieo, Atunga; Taylor, Maureen B.; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

2011-01-01

152

Unique Vaginal Microbiota That Includes an Unknown Mycoplasma-Like Organism Is Associated With Trichomonas vaginalis Infection  

PubMed Central

Background.?The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis–infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis–uninfected women. Methods.?Vaginal samples from 30 T. vaginalis–infected women were matched by Nugent score to those from 30 T. vaginalis–uninfected women. Equal numbers of women with Nugent scores categorized as normal, intermediate, and bacterial vaginosis were included. The vaginal microbiota was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction–amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of an unknown organism was obtained by universal bacterial polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Results.?Principal coordinates analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed divergence of the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis–infected and T. vaginalis–uninfected patients among women with normal and those with intermediate Nugent scores but not among women with bacterial vaginosis. Cluster analysis revealed 2 unique groups of T. vaginalis–infected women. One had high abundance of Mycoplasma hominis and other had high abundance of an unknown Mycoplasma species. Women in the former group had clinical evidence of enhanced vaginal inflammation. Conclusions.?T. vaginalis may alter the vaginal microbiota in a manner that is favorable to its survival and/or transmissibility. An unknown Mycoplasma species plays a role in some of these transformations. In other cases, these changes may result in a heightened host inflammatory response. PMID:23482642

Martin, David H.; Zozaya, Marcela; Lillis, Rebecca A.; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M. Jacques; Ferris, Michael J.

2013-01-01

153

Mesenchymal stem cells infected with Mycoplasma arginini secrete complement C3 to regulate immunoglobulin production in b lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory functions such as the suppression of T and B cells. MSCs suppress immunoglobulin (Ig) production by B cells via cell–cell contact as well as via secretion of soluble factors. Our study showed that the conditioned medium (CM) of MSCs infected with a mycoplasma strain, Mycoplasma arginini, has marked inhibitory effects on Ig production by lipopolysaccharide/interleukin-4-induced B cells compared with mycoplasma-free MSC-CM. We analyzed mycoplasma-infected MSC-CM by fast protein liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography to screen the molecules responsible for Ig inhibition. Complement C3 (C3) was the most critical molecule among the candidates identified. C3 was shown to be involved in the suppression of the Ig production of B cells. C3 was secreted by mycoplasma-infected MSCs, but not by mycoplasma-free MSCs or B cells. It was able to directly inhibit Ig production by B cells. In the presence of a C3 inhibitor, Ig inhibition by MSC-CM was abrogated. This inhibitory effect was concomitant with the downregulation of B-cell-induced maturation protein-1, which is a regulator of the differentiation of antibody-secreting plasma cells. These results suggest that C3 secreted from mycoplasma-infected MSCs has an important role in the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs. However, its role in vivo needs to be explored. PMID:24763049

Lee, D-S; Yi, T G; Lee, H-J; Kim, S-N; Park, S; Jeon, M-S; Song, S U

2014-01-01

154

Cryptosporidium hominis infection diagnosed by real-time PCR-RFLP.  

PubMed

There are approximately 20 known species of the genus Cryptosporidium, and among these, 8 infect immunocompetent or immunocompromised humans. C. hominis and C. parvum most commonly infect humans. Differentiating between them is important for evaluating potential sources of infection. We report here the development of a simple and accurate real-time PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method to distinguish between C. parvum and C. hominis. Using the CP2 gene as the target, we found that both Cryptosporidium species yielded 224 bp products. In the subsequent RFLP method using TaqI, 2 bands (99 and 125 bp) specific to C. hominis were detected. Using this method, we detected C. hominis infection in 1 of 21 patients with diarrhea, suggesting that this method could facilitate the detection of C. hominis infections. PMID:23864748

Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sejoung; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Woo-Yoon; Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran

2013-06-01

155

Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040 is a Mg2+-Dependent, Sugar-Nonspecific SNase Recognised by the Host Humoral Response during Natural Infection  

PubMed Central

In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Recombinant GST-MAG_5040 exhibits nuclease activity similar to typical sugar-nonspecific endo- and exonucleases, with DNA as the preferred substrate and optimal activity in the presence of 20 mM MgCl2 at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45°C. According to in silico analyses, the position of the gene encoding MAG_5040 is consistently located upstream an ABC transporter, in most sequenced mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma hominis group. In M. agalactiae, MAG_5040 is transcribed in a polycistronic RNA together with the ABC transporter components and with MAG_5030, which is predicted to be a sugar solute binding protein by 3D modeling and homology search. In a natural model of sheep and goats infection, anti-MAG_5040 antibodies were detected up to 9 months post infection. Taking into account its enzymatic activity, MAG_5040 could play a key role in Mycoplasma agalactiae survival into the host, contributing to host pathogenicity. The identification of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives for the development of suitable tools for the control of contagious agalactia in small ruminants. PMID:23469065

Cacciotto, Carla; Addis, Maria Filippa; Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Carcangiu, Laura; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Tore, Gessica; Dore, Gian Mario; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Uzzau, Sergio; Chessa, Bernardo; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2013-01-01

156

Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring mollicute from a plant surface.  

PubMed

Strain 831-C4T (T = type strain), isolated from the surface of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) obtained from a retail food market, was shown to be a sterol-requiring mollicute. Morphological examination of this organism by electron and dark-field microscopic techniques showed that it consists of small, nonhelical, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccoid cells, with individual cells surrounded by a single cytoplasmic membrane. No evidence of a cell wall was observed. The organism grew rapidly in all conventional culture medium formulations for mollicutes in either aerobic or anaerobic environments. The optimum temperature for growth was 30 degrees C, but multiplication occurred at 18 to 37 degrees C. Strain 831-C4T catabolized glucose, but hydrolysis of arginine or urea could not be demonstrated. The genome size of strain 831-C4T was determined to be about 569 megadaltons, while the base composition (guanine-plus-cytosine content) of the DNA was 30.0 mol%. Recent studies in which we compared the 16S rRNA sequences of strain 831-C4T with those of more than 40 other mollicutes indicated that this organism is phylogenetically related to the Spiroplasma-Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Strain 831-C4T was serologically unrelated to the type strains of previously described Mycoplasma species and to 18 other unclassified sterol-requiring isolates cultivated from various animal, plant, or insect sources. Strain 831-C4T (= ATCC 49193) is the type strain of Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov. PMID:2223606

Rose, D L; Kocka, J P; Somerson, N L; Tully, J G; Whitcomb, R F; Carle, P; Bové, J M; Colflesh, D E; Williamson, D L

1990-04-01

157

Genus- and species-specific identification of mycoplasmas by 16S rRNA amplification.  

PubMed Central

Systematic computer alignment of mycoplasmal 16S rRNA sequences allowed the identification of variable regions with both genus- and species-specific sequences. Species-specific sequences of Mycoplasma collis were elucidated by asymmetric amplification and dideoxynucleotide sequencing of variable regions, using primers complementary to conserved regions of 16S rRNA. Primers selected for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. hominis, M. fermentans, Ureaplasma urealyticum, M. pulmonis, M. arthritidis, M. neurolyticum, M. muris, and M. collis proved to be species specific in the polymerase chain reaction. The genus-specific primers reacted with all mycoplasmal species investigated as well as with members of the genera Ureaplasma, Spiroplasma, and Acholeplasma. No cross-reaction was observed with members of the closely related genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, and Clostridium or with any other microorganism tested. On the basis of the high copy number of rRNA, a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay was developed in which the nucleic acid content equivalent to a single organism could be detected. Images PMID:1381174

van Kuppeveld, F J; van der Logt, J T; Angulo, A F; van Zoest, M J; Quint, W G; Niesters, H G; Galama, J M; Melchers, W J

1992-01-01

158

Natural infection of geese with mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma Synoviae and egg transmission of the mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) were isolated from geese kept for more than a year on a multiple?age chicken farm. Agglutinating antibodies against MG and MS were found in the sera of some geese which were positive also in the haemagglutination?inhibition tests. The isolation of MG and MS from several organs of goose embryos indicates that egg transmission

D. Benöina; Tatjana Tadina; D. Dorrer

1988-01-01

159

In Vitro Cell Invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to invade cultured human epithelial cells (HeLa-229) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was investigated by using the gentamicin invasion assay and a double immunofluorescence microscopic technique for accurate localization of cell-associated mycoplasmas. The presence of intracellular mycoplasmas in both cell lines was clearly demonstrated, with organisms entering the eukaryotic cells within

FLORIAN WINNER; RENATE ROSENGARTEN; CHRISTINE CITTI

2000-01-01

160

Antiphospholipid antibodies and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed Central

Anticardiolipin antibody levels were measured in 57 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and 21 patients with other infections. Significantly more patients in the mycoplasma group had increased IgM and IgG anticardiolipin. Within the mycoplasma group significantly higher titres were found in patients with severe infection (assessed by need for hospital admission) and in patients with cold agglutinins. A tendency for particularly high titres to occur in patients with extra-pulmonary complications was identified. PMID:2371184

Snowden, N.; Wilson, P. B.; Longson, M.; Pumphrey, R. S.

1990-01-01

161

Biodiversity of Pneumocystis carinii hominis: typing with different DNA regions.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the most useful gene for the detection of biodiversity of Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolates and to compare samples from French and Italian subjects. We studied 20 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens from 20 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (10 French and 10 Italian patients) with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by DNA sequencing of the thymidylate synthase (TS), 5S rRNA, large-subunit mitochondrial rRNA (mt LSU rRNA), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) genes. Thirteen of the 20 sequenced samples had the prototype TS gene sequence. Fourteen of the 20 samples showed the prototype sequence of the 5S rRNA gene, and 6 had variant sequences of the 5S rRNA gene. The mt LSU rRNA gene was sequenced for 18 of the 20 samples; all sequences were different from the prototype sequence and were classified into four groups. Thirteen of the 20 ITS1 and ITS2 sequences were analyzed, and all the sequences were found to be different from the prototype sequence and were classified into 10 groups. The internal transcribed spacer regions thus appear to be the most discriminatory region of DNA for analysis of the biodiversity of P. carinii hominis isolates. PMID:9003601

Latouche, S; Ortona, E; Mazars, E; Margutti, P; Tamburrini, E; Siracusano, A; Guyot, K; Nigou, M; Roux, P

1997-01-01

162

Size and genomic location of the pMGA multigene family of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pMGA multigene family encodes variant copies of the cell surface haemagglutinin of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Quantitative Southern blotting, using an oligonucleotide probe complementary to a region conserved in the leader sequence of all known pMGA genes, was used to estimate the number of members of the family in the genome of seven strains of M. gallisepticum. The number of copies

Nina Baseggio; Michelle D. Glew; Philip F. Markham; Kevin G. Whithear; Glenn F. Browning

1996-01-01

163

In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis to Fifty-One Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

By a tube dilution assay technique, 51 antimicrobial agents were singly tested against 9 strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and 1 strain of M. hyorhinis for the purpose of obtaining information useful for selecting an agent for testing in vivo against porcine mycoplasmal pneumonia. Based on determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and chemically grouping the agents into nine classes, all M. hyopneumoniae strains were found resistant to penicillins and peptides and susceptible to sulfonamides and tetracyclines, and, in other classes, were either susceptible or resistant depending on the particular agent being tested. Strains were susceptible to the same 33 of the 51 agents. Minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 9.20 ?g/ml. M. hyorhinis was susceptible to 19 of the 33 agents that M. hyopneumoniae was susceptible to. Minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 8.10 ?g/ml. All strains of M. hyopneumoniae differed from M. hyorhinis in that they were susceptible to cephaloglycin and nitrofurazone. PMID:697348

Williams, Phletus P.

1978-01-01

164

An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease  

PubMed Central

Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

165

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro methods for pathogenicity evaluation for mycoplasma gallisepticum in respiratory infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designated to examine the pathogenicity of several strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (R, F, S?6, 227 and A5969) and laboratory derived substrains. Preliminary results indicated that the nine M. gallisepticum strains differed markedly in their pathogenicity for chickens. A comparison was made between various in vivo and in vitro methods for quantitative evaluation of pathogenicity. Reproducibility, convenience, and

Sharon Levisohn; M. J. Dykstra; M. Y. Lin; S. H. Kleven

1986-01-01

166

Immunoglobulin M-dependent classical complement pathway activation in killing of Pentatrichomonas hominis.  

PubMed Central

Complement pathway activity in the killing of Pentatrichomonas hominis was investigated in this study. At 10(5) organisms per ml, P. hominis was completely killed by the presence of 1% normal human serum. In contrast, no killing effect on P. hominis was observed when specific antibodies were absorbed or when the complement was destroyed. Moreover, Mg2+-ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-treated serum had no killing effect on P. hominis, while serum heated at 50 degrees C or treated with zymosan killed P. hominis as well as did normal human serum. Further study using gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300) and affinity chromatography (protein A) revealed that immunoglobulin M (IgM; 20 micrograms/ml) alone was responsible for the complement activation in the killing of P. hominis, but both IgA (24 micrograms/ml) and IgG (180 micrograms/ml) had no effect on complement-mediated lysis. On the other hand, IgG at 1,260 micrograms/ml completely inhibited complement-mediated killing by IgM, suggesting that a blocking factor is present in IgG. The results of this study indicate that a mechanism of IgM-dependent classical complement pathway activation contributes to the killing effect of normal human serum on P. hominis. PMID:2917791

Shaio, M F; Chen, J G

1989-01-01

167

Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are able to stimulate as well as suppress lymphocytes in a nonspecific, polyclonal manner, both in vitro and in vivo. As well as to affecting various subsets of lymphocytes, mycoplasmas and mycoplasma-derived cell components modulate the activities of monocytes/macrophages and NK cells and trigger the production of a wide variety of up-regulating and down-regulating cytokines and chemokines. Mycoplasma-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6, by macrophages and of up-regulating cytokines by mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes plays a major role in mycoplasma-induced immune system modulation and inflammatory responses. PMID:9841667

Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

1998-01-01

168

The Complete Genome and Proteome of Mycoplasma mobile  

E-print Network

The Complete Genome and Proteome of Mycoplasma mobile Jacob D. Jaffe,1,2 Nicole Stange-Thomann,3 02141, USA Although often considered "minimal" organisms, mycoplasmas show a wide range of diversity sequence and proteogenomic map for the piscine mycoplasma Mycoplasma mobile, noted for its robust gliding

Church, George M.

169

Molecular Methods for the Detection of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques. PMID:22819362

Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M.; Glass, John I.

2012-01-01

170

Intracellular location of Mycoplasma genitalium in cultured Vero cells as demonstrated by electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

The original two strains of Mycoplasma genitalium were isolated from the human urogenital tract. No other strains have been isolated from this site since then. We have recently succeeded in propagating a third strain from a urogenital specimen from a patient with urethritis in Vero cell cultures. By electron microscopy mycoplasmas were demonstrated intracellularly in about 10% of the examined Vero cells. Various stages of penetration into the cells could be observed. The flask-shaped organisms seemed to penetrate into the cells by the tip-end which included a rodlike structure. The intracellular location of normal mycoplasmas were in membrane-bound vacuoles very close to the nucleus, occasionally together with a few disintegrated organisms. In a few cells additional material was entangling the mycoplasmas in the cytoplasmic vacuoles. The potential for intracellular survival of M. genitalium may help the organism to evade the defence mechanisms of the human body. This trait may be considered a pathogenic property which supports the presumption that M. genitalium has clinical importance. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8199010

Jensen, J. S.; Blom, J.; Lind, K.

1994-01-01

171

Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte encapsulation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae for enhanced Raman detection.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans and accounts for as much as 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia. Existing mycoplasma diagnosis is primarily limited by the poor success rate at culturing the bacteria from clinical samples. There is a critical need to develop a new platform for mycoplasma detection that has high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we report the layer-by-layer (LBL) encapsulation of M. pneumoniae cells with Ag nanoparticles in a matrix of the polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS). We evaluated nanoparticle encapsulated mycoplasma cells as a platform for the differentiation of M. pneumoniae strains using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Three separate M. pneumoniae strains (M129, FH and II-3) were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence imaging showed that the Ag nanoparticles were incorporated between the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layers. SERS spectra showed that LBL encapsulation provides excellent spectral reproducibility. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Raman spectra differentiated the three M. pneumoniae strains with 97-100% specificity and sensitivity, and low (0.1-0.4) root mean square error. These results indicated that nanoparticle and polyelectrolyte encapsulation of M. pneumoniae is a potentially powerful platform for rapid and sensitive SERS-based bacterial identification. PMID:25017005

Rivera-Betancourt, Omar E; Sheppard, Edward S; Krause, Duncan C; Dluhy, Richard A

2014-09-01

172

Lipoprotein Multigene Families in Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to evade host defenses, including antigenic variation on their surfaces. Antigenic variation of cell surface lipoproteins has been reported in a number of Mycoplasma species (3). Sequencing of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae genome has re- vealed that it harbors 46 lipoprotein genes in six multigene families, all of unknown function (4, 7). These

K. M. Hallamaa; G. F. Browning; S. L. Tang

2006-01-01

173

Enhancement of HIV1 Cytocidal Effects in CD4^+ Lymphocytes by the AIDS-Associated Mycoplasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coinfection with Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) enhances the ability of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) to induce cytopathic effects on human T lymphocytes in vitro. Syocytium formation of HIV-infected T cells was essentially eliminated in the presence of M. fermentans (incognitus strain), despite prominent cell death. However, replication and production of HIV-1 particles continued during the coinfection. Furthermore, the supernatant

Shyh-Ching Lo; Shien Tsai; Janet R. Benish; James Wai-Kuo Shih; Douglas J. Wear; Dennis M. Wong

1991-01-01

174

Adaptation of Mycoplasmas to Antimicrobial Agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii Extracellular Vesicles Mediate the Export of Ciprofloxacin and a Mutant Gene Related to the Antibiotic Target  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations. PMID:24605048

Medvedeva, Elena S.; Baranova, Natalia B.; Mouzykantov, Alexey A.; Grigorieva, Tatiana Yu.; Davydova, Marina N.; Trushin, Maxim V.; Chernova, Olga A.; Chernov, Vladislav M.

2014-01-01

175

Adjuvant and immunostimulating activities of water-soluble substances extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (var. hominis).  

PubMed

Water-soluble substances have been extracted from two strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis: the native hydrosoluble part (polysaccharide and peptidoglycan), a substance in which the polysaccharide moiety is less abundant than in the latter, the acetylated peptidoglycan and, finally a tetrasaccharide-heptapeptide. All four types of substances, when they were injected together with Freund's incomplete adjuvant, exerted an adjuvant effect on the production of delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin in the guinea pig and on the production of anti-influenza virus antibodies in the rabbit. Injected intravenously in the mouse, they increased the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen and enhanced the graft versus host reaction; no effect was seen on the phagocytic activity of the reticulo-endothelial system. By contrast with wax D, the water-soluble substances were devoid of arthritis-inducing activity in the rat. Altogether, these water-soluble substances seem to be endowed with at least some of the adjuvant activities of Freund's complete adjuvant and some of the immunostimulant activities of a live Mycobacterium like BCG. PMID:4166

Werner, G H; Maral, R; Floch, F; Migliore-Samour, D; Jollès, P

1975-09-01

176

Pathologic lesions caused by coinfection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Chickens were infected under experimental conditions with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07 (H3N8). Two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with M. gallisepticum strain 1226. Seven days later, one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group was challenged with LPAI H3N8 virus; one group without challenge remained as negative control. Eight days later, the birds were euthanized and examined for gross pathologic and histologic lesions. The body weight was measured, and the presence of antimycoplasma and antiviral antibodies was tested before the mycoplasma challenge, before the virus challenge, and at the end of the study to confirm both infections. Chickens in the mycoplasma-infected group developed antibodies against M. gallisepticum but not against the influenza virus. Chickens of the group infected with the influenza virus became serologically positive only against the virus, while the birds in the coinfected group developed antibodies against both agents. The LPAI H3N8 virus strain did not cause decrease in body weight and clinical signs, and macroscopic pathological lesions were not present in the chickens. The M. gallisepticum infection caused respiratory signs, airsacculitis, and peritonitis characteristic of mycoplasma infection. However, the clinical signs and pathologic lesions and the reduction in weight gain were much more significant in the group challenged with both M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus than in the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. PMID:21825309

Stipkovits, L; Glavits, R; Palfi, V; Beres, A; Egyed, L; Denes, B; Somogyi, M; Szathmary, S

2012-03-01

177

Phylogeny of theMycoplasma mycoidesCluster as Determined by Sequence Analysis of the 16S rRNA Genes from the Two rRNA Operons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-calledMycoplasma mycoidescluster consists of six species or subspecies of mycoplasmas (Mollicutes). These species are pathogenic for ruminants and some of them are of great concern in veterinary medicine. The members of theM. mycoidescluster have two rRNA operons (rrnAandrrnB). The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of 10 strains, representing all of the known species and subspecies of theM.

BERTIL PETTERSSON; THOMAS LEITNER; MOSTAFA RONAGHI; GORAN BOLSKE; MATHIAS UHLEN; ANDKARL-ERIK JOHANSSON

1996-01-01

178

Species-specific antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and cross-reactions with other porcine mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell proteins from the porcine mycoplasmasMycoplasma hyorhinis, M. hyopneumoniae, andM. flocculare have been analyzed by SDS-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The protein profiles ofM. hyopneumoniae andM. flocculare were similar, but the protein profile ofM. hyorhinis was quite different from the others. Antisera prepared against whole cells of the above three mycoplasmas were used in immunoblotting of electrophoretically separated antigens and in

Göran Bölske; Marie-Louise Strandberg; Katrin Bergström; Karl-Erik Johansson

1987-01-01

179

Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated mucositis.  

PubMed

We present a case of a young man with severe mucositis following an upper respiratory tract infection limited to the ophthalmic and oral mucosa while sparing the rest of the skin, genitalia and perianal regions. Investigations revealed that the mucositis was a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. He had progressive vision-threatening symptoms despite antibiotics and best supportive care and thus was treated with intravenous corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, temporary ocular amniotic membrane grafts and tarsorrhaphy. The patient made an almost complete recovery over 6 weeks. PMID:24626386

Varghese, Cyril; Sharain, Korosh; Skalski, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

2014-01-01

180

Optimized PCR-based Detection of Mycoplasma  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of contamination-free cell lines is essential to cell-based research. Among the biggest contaminant concerns are mycoplasma contamination. Although mycoplasma do not usually kill contaminated cells, they are difficult to detect and can cause a variety of effects on cultured cells, including altered metabolism, slowed proliferation and chromosomal aberrations. In short, mycoplasma contamination compromises the value of those cell lines in providing accurate data for life science research. The sources of mycoplasma contamination in the laboratory are very challenging to completely control. As certain mycoplasma species are found on human skin, they can be introduced through poor aseptic technique. Additionally, they can come from contaminated supplements such as fetal bovine serum, and most importantly from other contaminated cell cultures. Once mycoplasma contaminates a culture, it can quickly spread to contaminate other areas of the lab. Strict adherence to good laboratory practices such as good aseptic technique are key, and routine testing for mycoplasma is highly recommended for successful control of mycoplasma contamination. PCR-based detection of mycoplasma has become a very popular method for routine cell line maintenance. PCR-based detection methods are highly sensitive and can provide rapid results, which allows researchers to respond quickly to isolate and eliminate contamination once it is detected in comparison to the time required using microbiological techniques. The LookOut Mycoplasma PCR Detection Kit is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of only 2 genomes per ?l. Taking advantage of the highly specific JumpStart Taq DNA Polymerase and a proprietary primer design, false positives are greatly reduced. The convenient 8-tube format, strips pre-coated with dNTPs, and associated primers helps increase the throughput to meet the needs of customers with larger collections of cell lines. Given the extreme sensitivity of the kit, great care must be taken to prevent inadvertent contamination of samples and reagents. The step-by-step protocol we demonstrate highlights the precautions and practices required for reliable mycoplasma detection. We also show and discuss typical results and their interpretation. Our goal is to ensure the success of researchers using the LookOut Mycoplasma PCR Detection Kit. PMID:21712802

Dobrovolny, Paige L.; Bess, Dan

2011-01-01

181

Antibody-mediated neutralization of virus is abrogated by mycoplasma.  

PubMed Central

The ability of a mouse mammary tumor cell line to abrogate antibody neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus was shown to be due to the presence of mycoplasma. The mycoplasma was isolated from the cell line and typed as Mycoplasma orale. Colonies of this mycoplasma were used to deliberately infect cell cultures which then gained the capacity to reactivate antibody-neutralized virus. The extent of the reactivation depended on the source of neutralizing antiserum. Other species of mycoplasma were tested and were found to reactivate neutralized virus, indicating that this may be a general phenomenon of mycoplasma contamination. PMID:6249748

Dickson, C; Elkington, J; Hales, A; Weiss, R

1980-01-01

182

Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

2014-01-01

183

A College Epidemic of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports on an outbreak of mycoplasma pneumoniae at the California Polytechnic State University including a historical background of the disease, clinical features, laboratory findings for treated patients, treatment, and clinical clues for diagnosis. (JMF)

Ralston, David; Cochran, Burt

1979-01-01

184

Mycoplasma lipoproteins and Toll-like receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas, the smallest free-living, self-replicating bacteria with diameters of 200 to 800 nm, have been reported to be\\u000a associated with human diseases. It is well known that the mycoplasma lipoprotein\\/peptide is able to modulate the host immune\\u000a system, whose N-terminal structure is an important factor in inducing immunity and distinguishing Toll-like receptors (TLRs).\\u000a However, there is still no clear elucidation

Ling-ling Zuo; Yi-mou Wu; Xiao-xing You

2009-01-01

185

Mycoplasma genitalium: a cause of male urethritis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Male urethritis may be caused by mycoplasmas. Since Mycoplasma genitalium has previously been isolated from the urethra of two men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), it was the aim of the study further to elucidate its role by measuring the prevalence of this organism in men with NGU. MATERIAL AND METHODS--The polymerase chain reaction was used. Two different sequences of the

J S Jensen; R Orsum; B Dohn; S Uldum; A M Worm; K Lind

1993-01-01

186

Isolation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two breeding flocks of 2?year?old geese in the Landes region of Southwest France were cultured for mycoplasmas. In one flock of 134 birds Mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from three individuals, from a different site in each bird (i.e. oesophagus, trachea, cloaca). M. gallisepticum was also isolated from the semen of one goose in the other flock of 70 birds, but

Benedicte Buntz; Janet M. Bradbury; A. Vuillaume

1986-01-01

187

Organizing pneumonia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is known to produce infiltrative and\\/or nodular opacities that are often localized. A patient presented to us with\\u000a diffuse centrilobular, peribronchovascular, and perilobular opacities after documented Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. A surgical biopsy proved the lung disease to be organizing pneumonia, which dramatically resolved in response\\u000a to treatment with corticosteroid. This case represents an unusual radiological manifestation associated

Hiroki Natori; Takeharu Koga; Kiminori Fujimoto; Jun Taguchi; Tomoko Kamimura; Munetsugu Nishimura

2010-01-01

188

Comparative analysis of the genomes of the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequenced genomes of the two closely related bacteria Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were compared with emphasis on genome organization and coding capacity. All the 470 proposed open reading frames (ORFs) of the smaller M.genitalium genome (580 kb) were contained in the larger genome (816 kb) of M.pneumoniae. There were some discrepancies in annotation, but inspection of the DNA

Ralf Himmelreich; Helga Plagens; Helmut Hilbert; Berta Reiner; Richard Herrmann

1997-01-01

189

Brote familiar de infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae A FAMILIAR OUTBREAK OF Mycoplasma pneumoniae INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the cases of 3 children and their mother, with a respiratory disease by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Diagnosis was made in 4 weeks. They all present respiratory symptoms, in different degrees of severity. Chest X rays show basal infiltrate in the children and no alteration in the mother. Serology for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Ig M) was positive in two kids and

JUAN GARCÍA GUERRERO; TANIA SOLÍS MEZARINO; GIAN MENDIOLA BARRIOS

190

Intranasal and Aerosol Exposure of Gerbils to 'Mycoplasma Pneumoniae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae was administered to Mongolian gerbils by intranasal instillation or by exposure to small-particle aerosols (2 micrometers). From 7 - 14 days after exposure, approximately 5 log of mycoplasma were recovered from the lungs of the major...

J. V. Jemski, S. V. Machotka

1978-01-01

191

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

192

Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to Macrolide Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Throat swabs from children with suspected Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection were cultured for the presence of M. pneumoniae and its species specificity using the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-six M. pneumoniae strains isolated from 580 swabs showed that 70 were erythromycin resistant with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) around 32–512?mg/L. Fifty M. pneumoniae strains (46 resistant, 4 sensitive) were tested for sensitivity to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin had some effect, and gentamicin had an effect on the majority of M. pneumoniae strains. Domains II and V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L4 and L22 genes, both of which are considered to be associated with macrolide resistance, were sequenced and the sequences were compared with the corresponding sequences in M129 registered with NCBI and the FH strain. The 70 resistant strains all showed a 2063 or 2064 site mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA but no mutations in domain II. Site mutations of L4 or L22 can be observed in either resistant or sensitive strains, although it is not known whether this is associated with drug resistance. PMID:24592385

Liu, Xijie; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Xiaogeng; Li, Jing; Shi, Dawei; Xin, Deli

2014-01-01

193

The experimental infection of specific pathogen free lambs with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.  

PubMed

Six colostrum-deprived SPF lambs inoculated endobronchially with a second passage broth culture of a Scottish strain of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, were killed in batches of two at seven, 14 and 28 days post-inoculation. One lamb from each batch showed macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions similar to but milder than those described for respiratory mycoplasmoses in other species of animals and exhibited minor clinical symptoms. Mycoplasma were recovered from all infected but from no control animals: five infected lambs yielded mycoplasma from lung tissue. Two lambs infected with M ovipneumoniae by endobronchial intubation were placed in contact with six other SPF lambs. M ovipneumoniae was recovered from the upper respiratory tract only of all six contact lambs, but no pathological changes were noted in their lungs. Both donor lambs yielded mycoplasma from lung tissue, but microscopic lesions were detected in only one of them, and these were minimal. No seroconversion due to the infection could be demonstrated in any of the lambs by either the indirect haemagglutination or metabolic inhibition tests. PMID:133436

Foggie, A; Jones, G E; Buxton, D

1976-07-01

194

Mycoplasmas and Oncogenesis: Persistent Infection and Multistage Malignant Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncogenic potential of human mycoplasmas was studied using cultured mouse embryo cells, C_3H\\/10T1\\/2 (C_3H). Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma penetrans, mycoplasmas found in unusually high frequencies among patients with AIDS, were examined. Instead of acute transformation, a multistage process in promotion and progression of malignant cell transformation with long latency was noted; after 6 passages (1 wk per passage) of persistent

Shien Tsai; Douglas J. Wear; James Wai-Kuo Shih; Shyh-Ching Lo

1995-01-01

195

Lipid Composition of Mycoplasma neurolyticum  

PubMed Central

The total lipid content of Mycoplasma neurolyticum comprises about 14% of the dry weight of the organisms and is about equally distributed between the phospholipid and the neutral-glycolipid fractions. The neutral lipids were identified as triglycerides, diglycerides, and cholesterol. The glycolipid fraction contained 1-O-?-glucopyranosyl-d-2,3-diglyceride and 1-[O-?-d-glycopyranosyl-(1?6)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-d-2,3-diglyceride. The latter lipid is structurally identical to the diglucosyl diglyceride which occurs in Staphylococcus aureus. The phospholipids of the organism consist of a fully acylated glycerophosphoryl-glycerophosphoryl glycerol, phosphatidic acid, diphosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl glycerol, and amino acyl esters of phosphatidyl glycerol. Phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerol account for greater than 90% of the phospholipids of organisms in the exponential phase of growth. The predominant fatty acids found in all of the acyl lipids were palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids. Images PMID:5079074

Smith, Paul F.

1972-01-01

196

The complete genome sequence of the murine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pulmonis is a wall-less eubacterium belonging to the Mollicutes (trivial name, myco- plasmas) and responsible for murine respiratory diseases. The genome of strain UAB CTIP is composed of a single circular 963 879 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 26.6 mol%, i.e. the lowest reported among bacteria, Ureaplasma urealyticum apart. This genome contains 782 putative coding

Isabelle Chambaud; Roland Heilig; Stéphane Ferris; Valérie Barbe; Delphine Samson; Frédérique Galisson; I van Moszer; Kevin Dybvig; Henri Wróblewski; Alain Viari; Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Alain Blanchard

2001-01-01

197

In vivo variation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen expression in experimentally infected chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigen expression profiles of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates obtained from tracheal swabs of chickens after aerosol-inoculation with M. gallisepticum strain R or clonal variant RE were examined in western immunoblots. A reference anti-M. gallisepticum chicken antiserum and antisera from individual infected chickens as well as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for surface proteins were used to monitor in vivo antigenic variation.

Sharon Levisohn; Renate Rosengarten; David Yogev

1995-01-01

198

A modified live Mycoplasma gallisepticumvaccine to protect chickens from respiratory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a modified live Mycoplasma gallisepticumvaccine (GT5) for the protection of chickens against infection and respiratory disease. GT5 was constructed by the reconstitution of the avirulent high passage R (R high) strain with the gene encoding the major cytadhesin GapA. GT5 expressed GapA on its surface yet retained the phenotypic

L. Papazisi; L. K. Silbart; S. Frasca; D. Rood; X. Liao; M. Gladd; M. A. Javed; S. J. Geary

2002-01-01

199

Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Myco- plasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identifica- tion of large numbers of potentially variable regions,

Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Alain Blanchard

2002-01-01

200

In silico metabolic pathway modeling and analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

E-print Network

In silico metabolic pathway modeling and analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Jin Sik Kim Sang Yup Lee-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea Keywords: metabolic pathway modeling, Mycoplasma pneumoniae 1 Introduction of the metabolic model [2, 5]. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogen causing atypical pneumonia in human beings

201

BIOCHIMICAET BIOPHYSICAACTA 381 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF MYCOPLASMA  

E-print Network

BIOCHIMICAET BIOPHYSICAACTA 381 BBA 75032 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF MYCOPLASMA Mycoplasma laidlawii B are described. The process of sodium dodecyl sulfate solubili- zation of Mycoplasma was chosen as the object of study for a number of reasons. These organisms do not possess a cell

202

Adherence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Involves Variable Surface Membrane Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas are a large group of diverse prokaryotic spe- cies comprising the class Mollicutes. Mycoplasmas lack a cell wall, carry a remarkably small genome, are phylogenetically related to gram-positive eubacteria, and are the smallest known self-replicating organisms (21, 22). Mycoplasmas are parasites in a wide range of hosts and typically cause persistent infections in humans and animals (27, 29). The

A. Athamna; R. Rosengarten; S. Levisohn; I. Kahane; D. Yogev

1997-01-01

203

Unveiling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Promoters: Sequence Definition and Genomic Distribution  

PubMed Central

Several Mycoplasma species have had their genome completely sequenced, including four strains of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Nevertheless, little is known about the nucleotide sequences that control transcriptional initiation in these microorganisms. Therefore, with the objective of investigating the promoter sequences of M. hyopneumoniae, 23 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of distinct genes were mapped. A pattern that resembles the ?70 promoter ?10 element was found upstream of the TSSs. However, no ?35 element was distinguished. Instead, an AT-rich periodic signal was identified. About half of the experimentally defined promoters contained the motif 5?-TRTGn-3?, which was identical to the ?16 element usually found in Gram-positive bacteria. The defined promoters were utilized to build position-specific scoring matrices in order to scan putative promoters upstream of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the M. hyopneumoniae genome. Two hundred and one signals were found associated with 169 CDSs. Most of these sequences were located within 100 nucleotides of the start codons. This study has shown that the number of promoter-like sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is more frequent than expected by chance, indicating that most of the sequences detected are probably biologically functional. PMID:22334569

Weber, Shana de Souto; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Schrank, Irene Silveira

2012-01-01

204

Antigenic heterogeneity in Mycoplasma iowae demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Western blots of proteins of 14 Mycoplasma iowae strains and isolates resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were probed with three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), MI6, MI7, and MI8. MAb MI6 reacted with one or more antigens with apparent molecular weights of 60,000, 70,000, and 94,000. In three strains (N-PHN-D13, R-D2497, and K 1805), antigens located on a single peptide band were recognized, while in others additional epitopes at different molecular-weight positions were revealed. A similar pattern was observed with MAb MI7, although it reacted with fewer antigens than did MAb MI6 and failed to recognize antigens in strains N-PHN-D13 and R-D2497. MAb MI8 reacted with an antigen at an apparent molecular-weight position of 28,000 in four of the 14 strains and isolates. The diverse reaction patterns observed with the MAbs in the 14 M. iowae strains and isolates confirms the occurrence of antigenic variation within this species. Antigenic variation in M. iowae may be pivotal in determining host-parasite interactions, pathogenesis, and the outcome of disease. PMID:1373600

Panangala, V S; Gresham, M M; Morsy, M A

1992-01-01

205

Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Mycoplasma arginini Infection  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) with generalized sclerodermiform skin lesions developed over a 19-month period in a previously healthy 23-year-old man. Although we confirmed EF by skin histology and laboratory tests, the recurrent fevers and the clinical observation of sclerotic prepuce with urethritis indicated further bacteriological analysis by conventional microbiological and DNA-based tests. Urethra cultures were positive for an arginine-hydrolyzing mycoplasma and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient also had serum IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative detection. Mycoplasma arginini was isolated from two independent venous blood serum samples and was identified by conventional microbiological tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes (GenBank sequence accession numbers HM179555 and HM179556, respectively). M. arginini genomic DNA also was detected by species-specific PCR in the skin lesion biopsy sample. Treatment with corticosteroids and long-term courses of selected antibiotics led to remission of skin symptoms and normalization of laboratory values. This report provides the first evidence of EF associated with mycoplasma infection and the second report of human infection with M. arginini and therefore suggests that this mycoplasma infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22189109

Silló, Pálma; Pintér, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mazán, Mercedes; Wikonkál, Norbert; Pónyai, Katinka; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo

2012-01-01

206

Prolonged eradication of urogenital mycoplasmas after administration of tetracycline to men in the Antarctic.  

PubMed Central

Meatal swabs were obtained at intervals over 1 year from 23 men in the Antarctic. A 5-day course of tetracycline was given to twelve of them. In retrospect it was found that the antibiotic had been received by two men who were harbouring ureaplasmas, one of whom also had M. hominis. After treatment, these organisms were not found in any of the swabs taken over the next year, except in a swab from one of the men following sexual contact after this time. One of the twelve men developed N.S.U. just before arriving in the Antarctic. He responded clinically to a shorter course of tetracycline and ureplasmas were not recovered from a meatal swab immediately thereafter. However, without further sexual contact, ureaplasmas and disease recurred about a month later. This time, after a 5-day course of tetracycline, disease was not seen, and ureaplasmas were not isolated, over the next year. In contrast, ureaplasmas were isolated consistently over a year from two men who were not given the antibiotic. The evidence strongly suggests that, under natural conditions, the most likely cause of mycoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, recurring in the genital tract after apparently adequate tetracycline therapy, is re-infection as a result of sexual re-exposure. PMID:1036463

MacLeod, A D; Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

1976-01-01

207

The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback.

Goldberg, D. R.; Samuel, M. D.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Krapu, G. L.; Robb, J. R.

1995-01-01

208

The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback. PMID:8592358

Goldberg, D R; Samuel, M D; Thomas, C B; Sharp, P; Krapu, G L; Robb, J R; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Chipley, W H; Conroy, M J

1995-07-01

209

Multiplex PCR Testing Detection of Higher-than-Expected Rates of Cervical Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Trichomonas and Viral Agent Infections in Sexually Active Australian Women?  

PubMed Central

Knowing the prevalence of potential etiologic agents of nongonococcal and nonchlamydial cervicitis is important for improving the efficacy of empirical treatments for this commonly encountered condition. We describe four multiplex PCRs (mPCRs), designated VDL05, VDL06, VDL07, and VDL09, which facilitate the detection of a wide range of agents either known to be or putatively associated with cervicitis, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus (EV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (VDL05); Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma hominis (VDL06); Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, and group B streptococci (VDL07); and adenovirus species A to E (VDL09). The mPCRs were used to test 233 cervical swabs from 175 women attending a sexual-health clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2006 and 2007. The agents detected alone or in combination in all cervical swabs (percentage of total swabs) included CMV (6.0), EV (2.1), EBV (2.6), VZV (4.7), HSV-1 (2.6), HSV-2 (0.8), HSV-2 and VZV (0.4), U. parvum (57.0), U. urealyticum (6.1), M. genitalium (1.3), M. hominis (13.7), C. trachomatis (0.4), T. vaginalis (3.4), and group B streptococci (0.4). Adenovirus species A to E and T. pallidum were not detected. These assays are adaptable for routine diagnostic laboratories and provide an opportunity to measure the true prevalence of microorganisms potentially associated with cervicitis and other genital infections. PMID:19261782

McIver, Christopher J.; Rismanto, Nikolas; Smith, Catherine; Naing, Zin Wai; Rayner, Ben; Lusk, M. Josephine; Konecny, Pamela; White, Peter A.; Rawlinson, William D.

2009-01-01

210

Infection of the finger-nail by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis.  

PubMed

Infection of the finger-nail of an elderly woman by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is reported. The small lesion was extending slowly into the healthy nail plate. The fungus has been isolated from diseased toe-nails on two previous occasions but its extra-human habitat is unknown. PMID:7426409

English, M P

1980-07-01

211

An initial survey of the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the civil war and the Hurricane-Mitch disaster, cattlemen in Nicaragua were forced to transport their cattle from lowland areas to higher, dryer areas of the country. These areas are natural ecological niches for the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) (Diptera: Cuterebridae). To determine the importance of this infestation, the Agricultural and Livestock-Forestry Ministry selected a central area of

Mario A Villarino; Omar Garcia; Weyman Fussell; Kelly Preston; Gale G Wagner

2003-01-01

212

Epidemiological survey of Giardia spp. and Blastocystis hominis in an Argentinian rural community  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to relate personal data, socio-cultural and environmental characteristics, and the presence of symptoms/signs with the frequencies of Giardia spp. and Blastocystis hominis among a rural population in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Of the surveyed population (350), 3.7% were infected with only Giardia spp. or 22.9% with B. hominis, and 2.3% were infected with both protozoa. The frequency of infection according to sex; 6.1% of males were infected and 1.6% of females by Giardia spp., 26.7% and 19.5% by B. hominis, and 2.4% and 2.2% by both parasites, respectively. Giardia spp. was detected in only three adults (over 14 years), but B. hominis was more frequent in adults than in children. The prevalences of these protozoa in this community are lower than those reported by other Argentinean studies, which is probably associated with the low density of the studied population (5.95 inhab/km2). Statistical analysis revealed that a male sex, flooding of the home, the use of a latrine, and an abdominal pain were correlated with the presence of these parasites, which indicate the importance of these factors in rural communities. PMID:15381860

Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Pezzani, Betina Cecilia; Cordoba, María Alejandra; De Luca, María Marta; Apezteguia, María Carmen

2004-01-01

213

Detection of Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma contamination of cell lines is a major problem in cell culture technology. This unit presents protocols involving either the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to provide independent, fast, and sensitive techniques to monitor mycoplasma contamination in laboratory cultures. Special emphasis is placed on the integration of control reactions to prevent false-negative as well as false-positive results due to reaction inhibition or contamination and background staining, respectively. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 106:28.4.1-28.4.14. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24733240

Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G

2014-01-01

214

Mycoplasma contamination in the 1000 Genomes Project  

PubMed Central

Background In silco Biology is increasingly important and is often based on public data. While the problem of contamination is well recognised in microbiology labs the corresponding problem of database corruption has received less attention. Results Mapping 50 billion next generation DNA sequences from The Thousand Genome Project against published genomes reveals many that match one or more Mycoplasma but are not included in the reference human genome GRCh37.p5. Many of these are of low quality but NCBI BLAST searches confirm some high quality, high entropy sequences match Mycoplasma but no human sequences. Conclusions It appears at least 7% of 1000G samples are contaminated. PMID:24872843

2014-01-01

215

[Severe stomatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection].  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is sometimes followed by systemic reactions such as erythema multiforme major/Stevens-Johnsons syndrome. In the described case, a 30 year-old man developed severe inflammation of the oral mucous membranes following respiratory infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. There was also conjunctivitis and diarrhoea, and a target-like eruption was seen on the penis, but apart from slight perioral erythema and periorbital swelling, no further skin involvement was seen. The patient was treated with macrolide antibiotics for 14 days and gradually recovered. PMID:10611837

Barfod, T S; Pedersen, C

1999-11-15

216

Transposon mutagenesis in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a novel mariner-based system for generating random mutations  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, a chronic respiratory disease associated with significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of infection is poorly understood due to the lack of genetic tools to allow manipulation of the organism and more generally for the Mycoplasma genus. The objective of this study was to develop a system for generating random transposon insertion mutants in M. hyopneumoniae that could prove a powerful tool in enabling the pathogenesis of infection to be unraveled. A novel delivery vector was constructed containing a hyperactive C9 mutant of the Himar1 transposase along with a mini transposon containing the tetracycline resistance cassette, tetM. M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 was electroporated with the construct and tetM-expressing transformants selected on agar containing tetracycline. Individual transformants contained single transposon insertions that were stable upon serial passages in broth medium. The insertion sites of 44 individual transformants were determined and confirmed disruption of several M. hyopneumoniae genes. A large pool of over 10 000 mutants was generated that should allow saturation of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome. This is the first time that transposon mutagenesis has been demonstrated in this important pathogen and could be generally applied for other Mycoplasma species that are intractable to genetic manipulation. The ability to generate random mutant libraries is a powerful tool in the further study of the pathogenesis of this important swine pathogen. PMID:24359443

2013-01-01

217

Mycoplasma cavipharyngis and Mycoplasma fastidiosum, the closest relatives to Eperythrozoon spp. and Haemobartonella spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Mycoplasma cavipharyngis and Mycoplasma fastidiosum have been determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these species formed a new cluster within the so-called pneumoniae group of the mollicutes (class Mollicutes). This cluster will be referred to as the M. fastidiosum cluster. Interestingly, the M. fastidiosum cluster formed a sister lineage to the haemotrophic bacteria, Eperythrozoon spp.

Karl-Erik Johansson; Joseph G Tully; Göran Bölske; Bertil Pettersson

1999-01-01

218

[Adaptation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum to unfavorable growth conditions: changes in morphological and physiological characteristics].  

PubMed

Adaptation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum to unfavorable growth conditions results in altered morphological and physiological characteristics of the cells. M. gallisepticum populations in a complete nutrient medium contain pear-shaped vegetative cells (d approximately 0.3 microm; l approximately 0.8 microm) with pronounced polar and cytoskeleton-like structures. Such mycoplasma cells are able to induce damage in a bacterial genome, causing an SOS response of the test strain (Escherichia coli PQ37). In a starvation medium, M. gallisepticum produces nanoforms, small coccoid cells (d approximately 0.15-0.2 microm) without either polar or cytoskeleton-like structures. Unlike vegetative cells, nanoforms do not induce genome damage. Alleviation of unfavorable growth conditions results in a reversion of nanoforms to typical vegetative cells. PMID:19137716

Chernov, V M; Chernova, O A; Gorshkov, O V; Muzykantov, A A; Sha?mardarova, G F; Pel'nikevich, A D; Margulis, A B; Kolpakov, A I; Il'inskaia, O N

2008-01-01

219

Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Glycerol Metabolism Is Dispensable for Virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the Tracheas of Chickens.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a by-product of glycerol metabolism in mycoplasmas and has been shown to cause cytotoxicity for cocultured eukaryotic cells. There appears to be selective pressure for mycoplasmas to retain the genes needed for glycerol metabolism. This has generated interest and speculation as to their function during infection. However, the actual effects of glycerol metabolism and H2O2 production on virulence in vivo have never been assessed in any Mycoplasma species. To this end, we determined that the wild-type (WT) Rlow strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is capable of producing H2O2 when grown in glycerol and is cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells in culture. Transposon mutants with mutations in the genes present in the glycerol transport and utilization pathway, namely, glpO, glpK, and glpF, were identified. All mutants assessed were incapable of producing H2O2 and were not cytotoxic when grown in glycerol. We also determined that vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 produce little to no H2O2 when grown in glycerol, while the naturally attenuated F strain does produce H2O2. Chickens were infected with one of two glpO mutants, a glpK mutant, Rlow, or growth medium, and tracheal mucosal thickness and lesion scores were assessed. Interestingly, all glp mutants were reproducibly virulent in the respiratory tracts of the chickens. Thus, there appears to be no link between glycerol metabolism/H2O2 production/cytotoxicity and virulence for this Mycoplasma species in its natural host. However, it is possible that glycerol metabolism is required by M. gallisepticum in a niche that we have yet to study. PMID:25156740

Szczepanek, S M; Boccaccio, M; Pflaum, K; Liao, X; Geary, S J

2014-12-01

220

Mycoplasma arthritidis-induced ocular inflammatory disease.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma arthritidis was demonstrated to incite experimental conjunctivitis and uveitis in Swiss Webster mice which have a known susceptibility to the arthritis customarily associated with infection by this mycoplasma. The initial symptom of ocular involvement was conjunctivitis, which appeared as early as 1 day after intravenous injection with viable culture concentrates of M. arthritidis. By day 2, histological analysis showed intraocular localized inflammatory reactions that were confined primarily to the anterior portion of the uvea and produced results which were compatible with those seen in iridocyclitis. Serological assays of the titer and the class of antibodies involved in the early humoral immune response to infection confirmed the predominance of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations over IgM concentrations that was described by others (Cole et al., Infect. Immun. 4:431-440, 1971) and revealed significant titers of the IgG2a and IgG2b subclasses of complement-fixing antibodies. The rapid onset of acute conjunctivitis, together with the early appearance of immunoglobulins of the IgG class, suggests that the M. arthritidis-infected Swiss Webster mice may have experienced an anamnestic response to the mycoplasma antigens. These observations introduce a new animal model for the study of mycoplasma-induced experimental uveitis and conjunctivitis, which are demonstrated here to accompany a disseminated systemic disease process. Images PMID:7200961

Thirkill, C E; Gregerson, D S

1982-01-01

221

Mechanisms of volume regulation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a cell wall-less bacterium, must confront the problem of colloid osmotic swelling. Cell volume was determined by optical density and intracellular water measurements. Transmembrane pH and electrical gradients were determined by the distribution of the weak acid benzoate and lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium respectively. Cells incubated in sodium chloride without glucose exhibited a progressive fall in ATP over several

Linker

1987-01-01

222

Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.  

PubMed

This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ? 0.031/? 64, ? 0.031/2, ? 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ? 0.031/? 0.031, ? 0.031/2, ? 0.031/2, 1/4, ? 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 ?g/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. PMID:21382675

Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

2011-06-01

223

Prevalence of mycoplasmas in eggs from birds of prey using culture and a genus-specific mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are commensals and pathogens of different avian species, especially poultry and passeriforms. The role of mycoplasmas in raptors has not yet been completely determined, and especially not the possibility of vertical transmission. Therefore 424 raptor eggs were examined for the occurrence of mycoplasmas using culture, and 155 of these eggs with a Mycoplasma genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. This PCR was tested for its sensitivity and specificity, especially for use in a bird population of unknown mycoplasma status (prevalence and species). The size of the amplified PCR product was large (1013 base pairs) to enable use of the product for species differentiation by sequencing. Culture and PCR yielded only one positive result, in an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). The isolate was identified as Mycoplasma lipofaciens using an immunobinding assay, as well as by sequencing part of its 16S rRNA gene. PMID:17479375

Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Harcourt-Brown, N; Hernandez-Divers, S J; Lüschow, D; Hafez, H M

2007-04-01

224

Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a reticulated giraffe.  

PubMed

A case of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis was diagnosed in a captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Recurrent episodes of lameness with temporary response to antimicrobial therapy characterized the disease. After the fifth episode, the giraffe was immobilized for arthrocentesis of the right front fetlock joint. Although the culture was negative, Mycoplasma sp. nucleic acid was detected in synovial fluid using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve weeks after completion of enrofloxacin therapy evidence of Mycoplasma sp. was not detectable in the synovial fluid; no relapses occurred after 22 mo. This is the first report of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a giraffe. PMID:12685090

Hammond, Elizabeth E; Miller, Craig A; Sneed, Loyd; Radcliffe, Robin W

2003-01-01

225

Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

226

A gene family in Mycoplasma imitans closely related to the pMGA family of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum possesses a large gene family encoding lipoproteins which function as haemagglutinins. Representative species of the pneumoniae phylogenetic group of mycoplasmas were examined for the presence of genes homologous to members of this multigene family. Antisera against the pMGAl.l lipoprotein recognized a 35 kDa protein in Mycoplasma imitans, but did not recognize proteins of Mycop\\/asma genitalium,

Philip F. Markham; Michael F. Duffy; Michelle D. Glew; Glenn F. Browning

1999-01-01

227

Mycoplasma haemocanis - the canine hemoplasma and its feline counterpart in the genomic era  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed or splenectomized dogs. The genome of the strain Illinois, isolated from blood of a naturally infected dog, has been entirely sequenced and annotated to gain a better understanding of the biology of M. haemocanis. Its single circular chromosome has 919 992 bp and a low G?+?C content (35%), representing a typical mycoplasmal genome. A gene-by-gene comparison against its feline counterpart, M. haemofelis, reveals a very similar composition and architecture with most of the genes having conserved synteny extending over their entire chromosomes and differing only by a small set of unique protein coding sequences. As in M. haemofelis, M. haemocanis metabolic pathways are reduced and apparently rely heavily on the nutrients afforded by its host environment. The presence of a major percentage of its genome dedicated to paralogous genes (63.7%) suggests that this bacterium might use antigenic variation as a mechanism to evade the host’s immune system as also observed in M. haemofelis genome. Phylogenomic comparisons based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide signature suggest that these two pathogens are different species of mycoplasmas, with M. haemocanis infecting dogs and M. haemofelis infecting cats. PMID:23020168

2012-01-01

228

Mycoplasma gallisepticum produces a histone-like protein that recognizes base mismatches in DNA.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are the smallest known microorganisms, with drastically reduced genome sizes. One of the essential biochemical pathways lost in mycoplasmas is methylation-mediated DNA repair (MMR), which is responsible for correction of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions in both bacteria and higher organisms. We found that the histone-like protein encoded by the himA/hup_2 gene of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (mgHU) recognizes typical MMR substrates, in contrast to homologues from other species. The recognition of substitution mismatches is sequence-dependent, with affinities decreasing in the following order: CC > CT = TT > AA = AC. Insertions or deletions of one nucleotide are also specifically recognized with the following sequence-dependent preference: A = T > C. One-nucleotide lesions involving guanine are bound only weakly, and this binding is indistinguishable from binding to intact DNA. Although mgHU is dissimilar to Escherichia coli HU, expression in a slow-growing hupAB E. coli strain restores wild-type growth. The results indicate that mgHU executes all essential functions of bacterial architectural proteins. The origin and the possible role of enhanced specificity for typical MMR substrates are discussed. PMID:21877760

Kamashev, Dmitri; Oberto, Jacques; Serebryakova, Marina; Gorbachev, Alexey; Zhukova, Yulia; Levitskii, Sergei; Mazur, Alexey K; Govorun, Vadim

2011-10-11

229

The first reported cases of human cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in Slovak Republic.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis belongs to the important parasitic infections with zoonotic potential and the occurrence in European countries is rare. The first cases of cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis detected in the Slovak republic were described here. Collection of examined humans consisted of five family members. Faecal specimens were examined by formalin sedimentation, by the Sheather's sugar flotation and by immunochromatography and visualised by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and species was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the endonucleases SspI and VspI. C. hominis was found in faeces of two immunocompetent siblings (a 7-year-old boy and a 2-year-old girl). The symptoms occurred only in the boy as gastrointestinal disorders lasting 5 days, and manifested by abdominal pain, an elevated body temperature (37.2 °C), mild diarrhoea, accompanied by lassitude, depression and anorexia. Ultrasonic scan revealed enlarged spleen and mezenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic examination of the stool sample revealed numerous Cryptosporidium oocysts. The DNA typing identified C. hominis subtype IbA10G2. Cryptosporidium was also detected in the boy's sister without any complications and symptoms. Their father, mother and grandmother were parasitologically negative. The source of infection remained unknown. Human cases in present study reflect necessity of systematic attention on intestinal parasites diagnostic inclusive of cryptosporidia. PMID:22826020

Ondriska, František; Vrabcová, Ivana; Brin?áková, Silvia; Kvá?, Martin; Ditrich, Oleg; Boldiš, Vojtech; Bastlová, Marcela

2013-01-01

230

Genetic recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis virulent subtype IbA10G2.  

PubMed

Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes. PMID:24050210

Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H; Guo, Meijin; Feng, Yaoyu

2013-10-01

231

Effects of sialidase knockout and complementation on virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Reannotation of the pathogenic Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R(low) genome identified the hypothetical gene MGA_0329 as a homolog of the sialidase gene MS53_0199 of Mycoplasma synoviae strain MS53. Potent sialidase activity was subsequently quantitated in several M. gallisepticum strains. Because sialidase activity levels correlate significantly with differing M. synoviae strain virulence, we hypothesized this enzyme may also influence the virulence of M. gallisepticum. MGA_0329 was disrupted in strain R(low) to create mutants 6, 358 and P1C5, which resulted in the loss of sialidase activity in all three mutants. Chickens infected with the knockout mutants had significantly less severe (P<0.05) tracheal lesions and tracheal mucosal thickening than chickens infected with equal doses of strain R(low). Significantly fewer (P<0.05) CCU especially of strains 6 and P1C5 were recovered at necropsy. Mini-Tn4001tet plasmid pTF20 carrying a wild-type copy of MGA_0329 with its native promoter was used to complement the genetic lesion in strain P1C5. Three clones derived from P1C5, each having one copy of MGA_0329 stably transposed into a different site in its genome, expressed sialidase restored to wild-type activity levels (1.58×10(-8)U/CFU). Complementation of P1C5 with MGA_0329 did not restore it to wild-type levels of virulence, indicating that the contribution of sialidase to M. gallisepticum virulence is not straightforward. PMID:22197303

May, Meghan; Szczepanek, Steven M; Frasca, Salvatore; Gates, Amy E; Demcovitz, Dina L; Moneypenny, Craig G; Brown, Daniel R; Geary, Steven J

2012-05-25

232

INFECTION MYCOPLASMA BOVIS : SUIVI PIDMIOLOGIQUE ET CLINIQUE DANS DES LEVAGES BOVINS LAITIERS AU MAROC  

E-print Network

INFECTION � MYCOPLASMA BOVIS : SUIVI �PID�MIOLOGIQUE ET CLINIQUE DANS DES �LEVAGES BOVINS LAITIERS de Lyon, Marcy L'�toile, 69752 Charbonnières cedex, France accepté le 06/10/87 Abstract MYCOPLASMA % of the animals. These results suggest that mycoplasma are important bovine pathogens in Morocco. Mycoplasma bovis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba

W. Al-Momani; E. Abu-Basha; S. Janakat; R. A. J. Nicholas; R. D. Ayling

2007-01-01

234

Induction of antitumor activity in macrophages by mycoplasmas in concert with interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The in vitro growth of tumor cells infected with mycoplasmas was suppressed by macrophages pretreated with interferon (IFN), but the growth of mycoplasma-free tumor cells was not suppressed. Pretreatment of macrophages with IFN plus mycoplasmas or their soluble factors either simultaneously or sequentially, IFN first and mycoplasmas second, but not in the reverse order, was effective in activating macrophages

Kazuko Uno; Morio Takema; Shigetaka Hidaka; Reishi Tanaka; Takao Konishi; Takuma Kato; Shinji Nakamura; Shigeru Muramatsu

1990-01-01

235

Characterization of western X-disease mycoplasma-like organisms  

SciTech Connect

The causal agent of western X-disease, an important disease of cherry (Prunus avium) and peach (Prunus persica) in the western United States, was shown to be a non-culturable, mycoplasma-like organism (WX-MLO). Procedures were developed to purify WX-MLOs from celery and leafhoppers infected with a greenhouse-maintained isolate of the peach yellow leaf roll (ghPYLR) strain of western X-disease. WX-MLOs, purified from ghPYLR-infected leafhoppers, elicited the production of specific antisera (WX antisera) when injected into rabbits. When used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WX antisera quantitatively detected WX-MLOs in celery, periwinkle, and leafhoppers experimentally infected with either ghPYLR or the Green Valley (GVX) strain of western X-disease. Recombinant clones were screened by colony, dot and southern hybridizations using /sup 32/P-nick translated DNA extracted from healthy and ghPYLR-infected celery and leafhoppers. Twenty-four clones were identified which hybridized with DNA from diseased but not healthy hosts. DNA hybridization assays, using radiolabeled, cloned WX-MLO DNA, readily detected WX-MLOs in celery, periwinkle, and leafhoppers infected with either GVX or ghPYLR and in cherry and peach with symptoms of GVX.

Kirkpatrick, B.C.

1986-01-01

236

The Minimal Gene Complement of Mycoplasma genitalium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence (580,070 base pairs) of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism, has been determined by whole-genome random sequencing and assembly. A total of only 470 predicted coding regions were identified that include genes required for DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. Comparison of this genome

Claire M. Fraser; Jeannine D. Gocayne; Owen White; Mark D. Adams; Rebecca A. Clayton; Robert D. Fleischmann; Carol J. Bult; Anthony R. Kerlavage; Granger Sutton; Jenny M. Kelley; Janice L. Fritchman; Janice F. Weidman; Keith V. Small; Mina Sandusky; Joyce Furhmann; David Nguyen; Teresa R. Utterback; Deborah M. Saudek; Cheryl A. Phillips; Joseph M. Merrick; Jean-Francois Tomb; Brian A. Dougherty; Kenneth F. Bott; Ping-Chuan Hu; Thomas S. Lucier; Scott N. Peterson; Hamilton O. Smith; Clyde A. Hutchison III; J. Craig Venter

1995-01-01

237

Blastocystis hominis infection in a post-cardiotomy patient on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Opportunistic pathogens can cause severe damage leading to irreversible complications in immune-compromised patients. Here we describe a patient who sustained Blastocystis hominis infection resulting in severe sepsis while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and the course of treatment taken to treat him. PRESENTATION OF CASE Our case, a 34-year-old Filipino man, was hospitalized for valvular disease and received valve replacements. ECMO and an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) were implemented when the patient developed progressive heart failure after cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from sepsis with persistent fever and diarrhea, and subsequent examinations indicated the patient was infected by B. hominis. After adequate administration of the antibiotic metronidazole, the patient's symptoms subsided and he was discharged. DISCUSSION Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular protozoa commonly found in the intestinal tract, and the prevalence of B. hominis is 1.5–10% in developed countries and 30–50% in developing countries. The patient needed the support of ECMO and IABP, was immunocompromised to a certain extent; B. hominis can be a harmful opportunistic pathogen for them and lead to severe irreversible complications such as death. CONCLUSION This is the first published article showing that the opportunistic pathogen, B. hominis, can cause severe infection in patients on ECMO support, a result that should be kept in mind when patients come from a place with a high prevalence of B. hominis. The prophylactic medication should be administered routinely when patients live in the region and extracorporeal life-support is used. PMID:25160800

Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Chou, Nai-Kuan

2014-01-01

238

Molecular Epidemiology of Cases of Mycoplasma californicum Infection in Japan.  

PubMed

Bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma californicum is often accompanied by huge economic losses, and the disease spreads very quickly. An appropriate molecular epidemiological analysis is needed to prevent and control infectious disease, but molecular epidemiological analysis methods for M. californicum have not yet been reported. Here we developed a combination of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods, which are common genotyping methods for various bacteria, for M. californicum. The MLVA is based on four interspersed repeat units that were found in the M. californicum genome data. The MLVA using these repeat units showed sufficient discriminatory power for a molecular epidemiological analysis; i.e., a Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI) of 0.949, against M. californicum strains in Japan and M. californicum strain ATCC 33461. The PFGE for M. californicum also showed sufficient discriminatory power, with an HGDI of 0.985. Strain ATCC 33461 showed MLVA profiles and pulsotypes that differed greatly from those of strains from Japan. These results indicate that MLVA and PFGE are good tools for identifying M. californicum transmission events more accurately. Our combined MLVA and PFGE analysis suggests the persistence of M. californicum infection among herds in a specific area for a long period of time, as well as the movement of cows and heifers accompanying the expansion of M. californicum infection. Failure to identify asymptomatic infected cows is suspected as one of the central causes of the present M. californicum infection scenario in Japan. PMID:25281385

Hata, Eiji; Suzuki, Kan-Ichiro; Hanyu, Hideki; Itoh, Megumi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Hideki

2014-12-15

239

The development and application of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum sequence database.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis was conducted on 36 Mycoplasma gallisepticum DNA extracts from tracheal swab samples of commercial poultry in seven South African provinces between 2009 and 2012. Twelve unique M. gallisepticum genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGSR), M. gallisepticum cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), MGA_0319 and gapA genetic regions. The DNA sequences of these genotypes were distinct from those of M. gallisepticum isolates in a database composed of sequences from other countries, vaccine and reference strains. The most prevalent genotype (SA-WT#7) was detected in samples from commercial broilers, broiler breeders and layers in five provinces. South African M. gallisepticum sequences were more similar to those of the live vaccines commercially available in South Africa, but were distinct from that of F strain vaccine, which is not registered for use in South Africa. The IGSR, mgc2 or MGA_0319 sequences of three South African genotypes were identical to those of the ts-11 vaccine strain, necessitating a combination of mgc2 and IGSR targeted sequencing to differentiate South African wild-type genotypes from ts-11 vaccine. To identify and differentiate all 12 wild-types, mgc2, IGSR and MGA_0319 sequencing was required. Sequencing of gapA was least effective at strain differentiation. This research serves as a model for the development of an M. gallisepticum sequence database, and illustrates its application to characterize M. gallisepticum genotypes, select diagnostic tests and better understand the epidemiology of M. gallisepticum. PMID:23889487

Armour, Natalie K; Laibinis, Victoria A; Collett, Stephen R; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

2013-01-01

240

Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious agalactia (CA) is among the most significant diseases affecting small ruminant populations in Mediterranean countries. This study was designed to detect the excretion in semen of CA-causing mycoplasmas in goats (Capra hircus) reared in Spain, where the disease is considered endemic. Culture techniques and PCR were conducted on 147 semen samples collected from 113 goat bucks to detect mycoplasmas.

C. de la Fe; J. Amores; A. Gómez Martín; A. Sánchez; A. Contreras; J. C. Corrales

2009-01-01

241

Isolation of mycoplasma spp. From racing pigeons (Columba livia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live and dead racing pigeons (Columba livia) from five lofts in Norfolk and Suffolk were examined clinically and cultured for Mycoplasma spp. Both clinically healthy birds and those showing signs of mild respiratory disease were included. The oropharynx was the culture site for 130 live birds, the nasal sinuses and other tissues for 58 carcases. Mycoplasma columbinum, M. columborale and

I. F. Keymer; R. H. Leach; R. A. Clarke; M. E. Bardsley; R. R. McINTYRE

1984-01-01

242

Exacerbation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in Turkeys by rhinotracheitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 1?day?old turkey poults from a parent flock free of antibodies to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (TRTV) and the pathogenic mycoplasmas, were infected by eyedrop with virulent TRTV, with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) or with both agents together. Dual infection resulted in increased morbidity compared with those groups given single infections. The presence of the Mg in the dual infection had

C. J. Naylor; J. M. Bradbury; R. C. Jones

1992-01-01

243

Sialic Acid Binding Sites: Role in Hemagglutination by Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemagglutination of turkey erythrocytes by Mycoplasma gallisepticum was inhibited by mucoproteins containing sialic acid, by sialic acid itself, and by treatment of the erythrocytes with neuraminidase. Neuraminidase treatment of the mucoprotein-rich inhibitors reduced or abolished their inhibitory activity. The findings indicate that sialic acid on the erythrocyte surface provides binding sites for Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

Bertram Gesner; Lewis Thomas

1966-01-01

244

Mycoplasma ovis in captive cervids: Prevalence, molecular characterization and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria that attach to red blood cells of mammals, leading to acute and\\/or subclinical disease in infected animals. It has been suggested that Mycoplasma ovis, a hemoplasma that infects sheep and goats worldwide, may also infect deer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether South American deer are infected with M. ovis. EDTA-anticoagulated blood

Ana Laura Grazziotin; Andrea Pires Santos; Ana Marcia Sa Guimaraes; Ahmed Mohamed; Zalmir Silvino Cubas; Marcos Jose de Oliveira; Leonilda Correia dos Santos; Wanderlei de Moraes; Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira; Lucelia Donatti; Ivan Roque de Barros Filho; Alexander Welker Biondo; Joanne Belle Messick

2011-01-01

245

THE OCCURRENCE OF MYCOPLASMAS IN SELECTED WILD NORTH AMERICAN WATERFOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya va!isineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples

D. R. Goldberg; M. D. Samuel; C. B. Thomas; P. Sharp; G. L Krapu; J. R. Robb; K. P. Kenow; C. E. Korschgen; W. H. Chipley; M. J. Conroy; S. H. Kleven

246

Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ?1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Pra Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bebear, C.

2013-01-01

247

Adaptation of the Sensititre broth microdilution technique to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

A technique is described for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, using the Sensititre broth microdilution system. Fourteen M. gallisepticum field isolates and one reference isolate (R-strain) were tested in duplicate against seven antimicrobials. Isolates were susceptible to oxytetracycline, furaltadone, and lincomycin/spectinomycin, but not to amoxycillin and apramycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and tylosin varied. These data are in agreement with those reported by other workers using more traditional methods, but this adaptation of the broth microdilution technique eliminates any variation attributable to the time-consuming preparation of antimicrobial dilutions associated with these methods. PMID:1417601

Tanner, A C; Wu, C C

1992-01-01

248

Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Lipoprotein LppQ from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

PubMed Central

Lipoprotein LppQ, a predominant 48-kDa antigen, and its corresponding gene, lppQ, were characterized in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. The lppQ gene is specific to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and was found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccinal strains. LppQ is encoded as a precursor with a consensus sequence for prokaryotic signal peptidase II and a lipid attachment site. The leader sequence shows significant prominent transmembrane helix structure with a predicted outside-to-inside helix formation capacity. The N-terminal domain of the mature LppQ was shown to be surface exposed. It induced a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. The C-terminal domain of LppQ possesses an integral membrane structure built up of repeated units, rich in hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids, which have a pore formation potential. A recombinant peptide representing the N-terminal domain of LppQ was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of nine Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons into universal TGG (Trp) codons and expression in Escherichia coli hosts. It was used for serodetection of cattle infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, in which it was detected postinfection for significantly longer than conventional serological test reactions. PMID:10882657

Abdo, El-Mostafa; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

2000-01-01

249

Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)  

PubMed Central

Background Hemotropic mycoplasmas are epicellular erythrocytic bacteria that can cause infectious anemia in some mammalian species. Worldwide, hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens potentially causing serious and significant health problems in wildlife. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with and without Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destrucans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS) that causes significant mortality events in bats. Methods In order to establish the prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in a population of 68 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with (n?=?53) and without (n?=?15) white-nose syndrome (WNS), PCR was performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results The overall prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasmas in bats was 47%, with similar (p?=?0.5725) prevalence between bats with WNS (49%) and without WNS (40%). 16S rDNA sequence analysis (~1,200 bp) supports the presence of a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species with 91.75% sequence homology with Mycoplasma haemomuris. No differences were found in gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals. Conclusions Gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals suggest that little brown bats could serve as a natural reservoir for this potentially novel Mycoplasma species. Currently, there is minimal information about the prevalence, host-specificity, or the route of transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. among bats. Finally, the potential role of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. as co-factors in the development of disease manifestations in bats, including WNS in Myotis lucifugus, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24655520

2014-01-01

250

Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?  

PubMed Central

Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:20702675

Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2010-01-01

251

Adaptation of the Sensititre broth microdilution technique to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.  

PubMed

A broth microdilution technique is described for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, using commercially prepared Sensititre plates. Twenty-five field isolates and two reference strains (J & 232), were tested against seven antimicrobials. Field isolates were tested in duplicate and reference strains, four times to estimate reproducibility. Ninety-seven percent of the duplicate MIC results for the field isolates were in agreement, or within one log2 dilution. Similar results were obtained with the reference strains. The isolates were susceptible to lincomycin-spectinomycin, tylosin and oxytetracycline or resistant to amoxycillin, apramycin and erythromycin. Susceptibility to furaltadone varied. This method retains the accuracy and reproducibility of broth MIC determinations, while avoiding the lengthy preparation of antimicrobial dilutions normally associated with more traditional methods. PMID:8273275

Tanner, A C; Erickson, B Z; Ross, R F

1993-09-01

252

Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA  

SciTech Connect

Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

Dybvig, K.

1981-01-01

253

Multilocus sequence typing of an emerging Cryptosporidium hominis subtype in the United States.  

PubMed

The United States has experienced a substantial increase in the reported incidence of cryptosporidiosis since 2005. Accompanying this is the emergence of a new subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis based on variation at the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus, IaA28R4, which has become a frequently identified subtype in both sporadic and outbreak-related cases. In this study, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at eight genetic loci, we characterized 62 specimens of IaA28R4 and 33 specimens of three other gp60 subtypes of C. hominis from four U.S. states with increased cryptosporidiosis incidences during the summer of 2008. Extensive genetic heterogeneity was seen within the gp60 subtype IaA28R4, but specimens from Ohio and southwestern states formed two distinct subpopulations, suggesting that there were at least two origins of IaA28R4 within the United States. Discordance in typing results was observed between gp60 and other genetic markers, especially DZ-HRGP, and this discordance was largely the result of genetic recombination within the gp60 subtype IaA28R4. The results of population genetic analyses supported the presence of two subpopulations of IaA28R4 and the occurrence of genetic recombination within this gp60 subtype. Thus, the IaA28R4 subtype at gp60 is likely a fitness marker for C. hominis, and genetic recombination is potentially a driving force in the emergence of the virulent IaA28R4 subtype in the United States. A rapid evolution of IaA28R4 was indicated by the observation of multiple MLST subtypes of IaA28R4 within two large outbreaks that lasted for extended periods and involved multiple swimming pools. PMID:24478483

Feng, Yaoyu; Tiao, Narry; Li, Na; Hlavsa, Michele; Xiao, Lihua

2014-02-01

254

Multilocus Sequence Typing of an Emerging Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype in the United States  

PubMed Central

The United States has experienced a substantial increase in the reported incidence of cryptosporidiosis since 2005. Accompanying this is the emergence of a new subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis based on variation at the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus, IaA28R4, which has become a frequently identified subtype in both sporadic and outbreak-related cases. In this study, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at eight genetic loci, we characterized 62 specimens of IaA28R4 and 33 specimens of three other gp60 subtypes of C. hominis from four U.S. states with increased cryptosporidiosis incidences during the summer of 2008. Extensive genetic heterogeneity was seen within the gp60 subtype IaA28R4, but specimens from Ohio and southwestern states formed two distinct subpopulations, suggesting that there were at least two origins of IaA28R4 within the United States. Discordance in typing results was observed between gp60 and other genetic markers, especially DZ-HRGP, and this discordance was largely the result of genetic recombination within the gp60 subtype IaA28R4. The results of population genetic analyses supported the presence of two subpopulations of IaA28R4 and the occurrence of genetic recombination within this gp60 subtype. Thus, the IaA28R4 subtype at gp60 is likely a fitness marker for C. hominis, and genetic recombination is potentially a driving force in the emergence of the virulent IaA28R4 subtype in the United States. A rapid evolution of IaA28R4 was indicated by the observation of multiple MLST subtypes of IaA28R4 within two large outbreaks that lasted for extended periods and involved multiple swimming pools. PMID:24478483

Tiao, Narry; Li, Na; Hlavsa, Michele

2014-01-01

255

Surface parasitism by Mycoplasma pneumoniae of respiratory epithelium  

PubMed Central

Identification of the attachment factor on virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms which permits surface parasitism of respiratory epithelium was attempted. Brief pretreatment of M. pneumoniae monolayers with protease prevented mycoplasma attachment ot sensitive host cells without reducing viability of the microorganisms. Gel electrophoretic analysis of mycoplasma proteins before and after exposure of intact mycoplasmas to protease revealed the absence of a major protein species (P1) in enzyme-treated preparations while other protein bands with the exception of P2 were virtually unaffected. The absence of P1 correlated with the failure of enzyme-treated mycoplasmas to attach to tracheal explants. P1 regeneration after protease treatment of mycoplasma monolayers was directly associated with reattachment capabilities in M. pneumoniae. Erythromycin inhibited P1 resynthesis, thus preventing resumed attachment activity by mycoplasmas. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of intact M. pneumoniae organisms further confirmed that P1 was an external membrane protein and suggested that his surface component was required for the successful membrane-membrane interaction between host and parasite. PMID:870608

1977-01-01

256

Role of mycoplasma infection in the cytopathic effect induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in infected cell lines.  

PubMed Central

In addition to previously reported tetracycline analogs, other antibiotics known for antimycoplasmal activities inhibited the cytopathic effect in CEM cl13 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or HIV-2 but were unable to block virus replication. A contaminating mycoplasma was isolated from our CEM cl13 cells and identified as a strain of Mycoplasma fermentans. Following infection of lymphoblastoid (CEM) or promonocytic (U937 and THP1) cell lines with HIV-1, cytopathic effect was observed only in association with mycoplasmal contamination. Moreover, HIV-1 infection of U937 cells after experimental inoculation with a human isolate of M. fermentans led to pronounced cell killing. We have verified that this effect is not merely an artifact caused by arginine and/or glucose depletion in the cell culture medium. These results confirm that mollicutes, in particular M. fermentans, are able to act synergistically with HIV-1 to kill infected cells in some in vitro systems. Images PMID:1371767

Lemaitre, M; Henin, Y; Destouesse, F; Ferrieux, C; Montagnier, L; Blanchard, A

1992-01-01

257

Laser radiation effects on Mycoplasma agalactiae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological effects of the laser radiation emitted by the Nd:YAG laser (second harmonic, wavelength 532 nm /fluence 32 mJ/cm2/pulse duration 6 ns) on the Mycoplasma agalactiae bacterium were studied. The radiation was found to intensify the multiplication of the bacteria irradiated in TRIS buffer (0.125 M), without however affecting the proteinic composition of the cell membrane. When the bacteria were irradiated in their growth medium (PPLO broth) being later cultivated on a solid medium (PPLO agar), the exclusive presence of the atypical colonies (granular and T-like ones) was noticed.

Dinu, Cerasela Z.; Grigoriu, Constantin; Dinescu, Maria; Pascale, Florentina; Popovici, Adrian; Gheorghescu, Lavinia; Cismileanu, Ana; Avram, Eugenia

2002-08-01

258

The minimal gene complement of mycoplasma genitalium  

SciTech Connect

The complete nucleotide sequence (580,070 base pairs) of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism, has been determined by whole-genome random sequencing and assembly. A total of only 470 predicted coding regions were identified that include genes required for DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. Comparison of this genome to that of Haemophilus influenzae suggests that differences in genome content are reflected as profound differences in physiology and metabolic capacity between these two organisms. 43 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Fraser, C.M.; Gocayne, J.D.; White, O. [Inst. for Genomic Research, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

1995-10-20

259

Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

1981-11-01

260

Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in HIV-infected persons in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon are common opportunistic pathogens in HIV+ patients in developing countries, especially those do not have access to antiretroviral therapy. To determine the distribution of genotypes/subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, faecal specimens were collected from 132 HIV+ persons attending a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. By polymerase chain reaction, eight and ten patients were identified as positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Seven of the Cryptosporidium specimens were identified as C. hominis, while the remaining one as the new species C. viatorum recently identified in the United Kingdom. DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene showed that the C. hominis belonged to three common subtype families: Ia (in three patients), Ib (in one patient) and Ie (in one patient). In contrast, DNA sequencing of the E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer products showed the occurrence of genotypes associated with both humans (Peru 8 in one patient, Nig2 in two patients and a new genotype in one patient) and animals (D in one patient and Type IV in five patients). Low CD4+ cell count was identified as a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. PMID:23870732

Ayinmode, A B; Zhang, H; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Xiao, L

2014-06-01

261

Substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by a protozoan Cryptosporidium hominis is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. There is little clinical data to show that the existing treatment by nitazoxanide and paromomycin is effective in immunocompromised individuals. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer and malaria. A novel series of classical antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been evaluated as Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase (ChTS) inhibitors. Crystal structure in complex with the most potent compound, a 2'-chlorophenyl with a sulfur bridge with a Ki of 8.83±0.67 nM is discussed in terms of several Van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate. Of these interactions, two interactions with the non-conserved residues (A287 and S290) offer an opportunity to develop ChTS specific inhibitors. Compound 6 serves as a lead compound for analog design and its crystal structure provides clues for the design of ChTS specific inhibitors. PMID:23927969

Kumar, Vidya P; Frey, Kathleen M; Wang, Yiqiang; Jain, Hitesh K; Gangjee, Aleem; Anderson, Karen S

2013-10-01

262

New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences that may help to explain why one species is pathogenic and the other is considered to be commensal. However, it was not possible to identify specific virulence determinant factors that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the analyzed species. The M. hyorhinis genome contains differences in some components involved in metabolism and evasion of the host’s immune system that may contribute to its growth aggressiveness. Several horizontal gene transfer events were identified. The phylogenomic analysis places M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis in the hyopneumoniae clade. PMID:23497205

2013-01-01

263

The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'  

PubMed Central

Background Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas) and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca. P. australiense', examined so far have circular chromosomes, as is the case for almost all walled bacteria. Results Our work has shown that 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali', the causative agent of apple proliferation disease, has a linear chromosome. Linear chromosomes were also identified in the closely related provisional species 'Ca. P. pyri' and 'Ca. P. prunorum'. The chromosome of 'Ca. P. mali' strain AT is 601,943 bp in size and has a GC content of 21.4%. The chromosome is further characterized by large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends. Analysis of the protein-coding genes revealed that glycolysis, the major energy-yielding pathway supposed for 'Ca. P. asteris', is incomplete in 'Ca. P. mali'. Due to the apparent lack of other metabolic pathways present in mycoplasmas, it is proposed that maltose and malate are utilized as carbon and energy sources. However, complete ATP-yielding pathways were not identified. 'Ca. P. mali' also differs from 'Ca. P. asteris' by a smaller genome, a lower GC content, a lower number of paralogous genes, fewer insertions of potential mobile DNA elements, and a strongly reduced number of ABC transporters for amino acids. In contrast, 'Ca. P. mali' has an extended set of genes for homologous recombination, excision repair and SOS response than 'Ca. P. asteris'. Conclusion The small linear chromosome with large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends, the extremely low GC content and the limited metabolic capabilities reflect unique features of 'Ca. P. mali', not only within phytoplasmas, but all mycoplasmas. It is expected that the genome information obtained here will contribute to a better understanding of the reduced metabolism of phytoplasmas, their fastidious nutrition requirements that prevented axenic cultivation, and the mechanisms involved in pathogenicity. PMID:18582369

Kube, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Kuhl, Heiner; Dandekar, Thomas; Heitmann, Katja; Migdoll, Alexander M; Reinhardt, Richard; Seemuller, Erich

2008-01-01

264

Mycoplasma bovis in respiratory disease of feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as an important cause of chronic caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia, arthritis, and tenosynovitis in beef cattle. Mycoplasma bovis can act as a primary pathogen, yet many cases are coinfected with other bacteria or viruses, and evidence suggests that M. bovis colonizes and perpetuates lung lesions that were initiated by other bacteria, such as M. haemolytica. Mycoplasma bovis elicits a robust humoral immune response, but the resulting antibodies are not protective because of the variable surface proteins, and vaccines have not yet been shown to prevent disease. Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for a high proportion of the chronic disease occurring in feedlots, and the welfare of such animals is an important aspect of feedlot health management. PMID:20619190

Caswell, Jeff L; Bateman, Ken G; Cai, Hugh Y; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda

2010-07-01

265

IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOGENS OF 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' BY PROTEIN BLOTTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet by blotting. Sera obtained from infected hamsters and immunized rabbits were then incubated with the nitrocellulose strips. Proteins which are capa...

266

Association of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection with Primary Atypical Pneumonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A controlled epidemiologic experiment was conducted at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center to measure the relationship of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and the syndrome of primary atypical pneumonia. Recruits admitted with pneumonia were matched with ...

J. P. Griffin, Y. E. Crawford

1969-01-01

267

Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, Reemerging, and Burdened by Their Notoriety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas are most unusual self-replicating bacteria, possessing very small genomes, lacking cell wall components, requiring cholesterol for membrane function and growth, using UGA codon for tryptophan, passing through \\

Joel B. Baseman; Joseph G. Tully; Thomas Henry Huxley

1997-01-01

268

Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells  

SciTech Connect

Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

1985-06-01

269

Rhamnose Biosynthesis in Mycoplasmas Requires Precursor Glycans Larger than Monosaccharide  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite the apparent absence of genes coding for the known pathways for biosynthesis, the monosaccharide rhamnose was detected in the D configuration in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pulmonis, and in both the D and L configurations in Mycoplasma arthritidis. Surprisingly, the monosaccharide glucose was not a precursor for rhamnose biosynthesis and was not incorporated at detectable levels in glucose-containing polysaccharides or glycoconjugates. In contrast, carbon atoms from starch, a polymer of glucose, were incorporated into rhamnose in each of the three species examined. When grown in a serum-free medium supplemented with starch, M. arthritidis synthesized higher levels of rhamnose, with a shift in the relative amounts of the D and L configurations. Our findings suggest the presence of a novel pathway for rhamnose synthesis that is widespread in the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:23826905

Jordan, David S.; Daubenspeck, James M.; Dybvig, Kevin

2013-01-01

270

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a)...

2010-04-01

271

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a)...

2014-04-01

272

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a)...

2011-04-01

273

DNA and protein sequence homologies between the adhesins of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are morphologically and serologically related pathogens that colonize the human host. Their successful parasitism appears to be dependent on the product, an adhesin protein, of a gene that is carried by each of these mycoplasmas. Here we describe the cloning and determine the sequence of the structural gene for the putative adhesin of M. genitalium and compare its sequence to the counterpart P1 gene of M. pneumoniae. Regions of homology that were consistent with the observed serological cross-reactivity between these adhesins were detected at both DNA and protein levels. However, the degree of homology between these two genes and their products was much higher than anticipated. Interestingly, the A + T content of the M. genitalium adhesin gene was calculated as 60.1%, which is substantially higher tham that of the P1 gene (46.5%). Comparisons of codon usage between the two organisms revealed that M. genitalium preferentially used A- and T-rich codons. A total of 65% of positions 3 and 56% of positions 1 in M. genitalium codons were either A or T, whereas M. pneumoniae utilized A or T for positions 3 and 1 at a frequency of 40 and 47%, respectively. The biased choice of the A- and T-rich codons in M. genitalium could also account for the preferential use of A- and T-rich codons in conservative amino acid substitutions found in the M. genitalium adhesin. These facts suggest that M. genitalium might have evolved independently of other human mycoplasma species, including M. pneumoniae. Images PMID:2925238

Dallo, S F; Chavoya, A; Su, C J; Baseman, J B

1989-01-01

274

Mycoplasma pneumoniae induced popliteal artery thrombosis treated with urokinase  

PubMed Central

A 5 year old boy with serological and clinical evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, which was complicated by popliteal artery thrombosis, is described. Intra-arterial urokinase, in conjunction with medical treatment, resulted in clinical recovery and angiographic resolution of the thrombus. The variety of extrapulmonary complications associated with the M pneumoniae infections continues to broaden. Thrombolytic therapies should be considered when similar clinical circumstances arise.???Keywords: Mycoplasma pneumoniae; arterial thrombosis; urokinase PMID:11677283

Joo, C; Kim, J; Han, Y

2001-01-01

275

The identification of mycoplasma species by gas chromatography  

E-print Network

THE IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPLASMA SPECIES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis MILTON DONALD SHULT& JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AFM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1969... Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology THE IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPLASMA SPECIES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis MILTON DONALD SHULT& JR, Approved as to style and content by: I ( airman o Commit e H a o Department (Member Member Member cQ Mmer...

Shult, Milton Donald

2012-06-07

276

Isolation of a Mycoplasma sp. from three buzzards (Buteo spp.).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the respiratory tissues of three buzzards. Bird I, a rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus), showed airsacculitis, catarrhal-fibrinous pneumonia, and catarrhal tracheitis. Bird II, a common buzzard (Buteo buteo), revealed mycotic airsacculitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Bird III was a healthy rough-legged buzzard. All isolates metabolized glucose but not arginine and were serologically identical by immunofluorescence and growth-inhibition tests. No serological cross-reactions were seen with several known Mycoplasma species. PMID:7049150

Bölske, G; Mörner, T

1982-01-01

277

Selective inhibition of DNA amplification in nonadhering Mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of amplification of various genome regions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was observed in the polymerase chain reaction, and was dependent on cultivation conditions. A protein stably associated with DNA is responsible for the inhibitory effect. It is assumed that when the protein selectively associates with separate DNA regions, it can inhibit genes encoding pathogenicity factors, thus promoting mycoplasma transformation into persistent variants. 16 refs., 2 figs.

Zigangirova, N.A.; Solov`eva, S.V.; Rakovskaya, I.V. [Gamaleya Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-08-01

278

Excision of a dermatobia hominis larva from the heel of a south american traveler: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although foot and ankle specialists are well versed in treating insect bites and foreign bodies, many physicians in the United States are unfamiliar with parasitic organisms that are common in other parts of the world. This article presents a case of a patient inoculated in the posterior heel with the larva of a Dermatobia hominis, or human bot fly. Excision

Donald W Adams; Ryan T Cooney

2004-01-01

279

Rapid identification of Mycoplasma pulmonis isolated from laboratory mice and rats using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma species identification is based on biochemical, immunological, and molecular methods that require several days for accurate identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a novel method for identification of bacteria and has recently been introduced into the clinical microbiology laboratory as a rapid and accurate technique. This method allows a characteristic mass spectral fingerprint to be obtained from whole inactivated mycoplasmal cells. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of Mycoplasma by comparison with standard sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. We developed the first database of MALDI-TOF MS profiles of Mycoplasma species, containing Mycoplasma pulmonis, M. arthritidis, and M. neurolyticum, which are the most common pathogens in mice and/or rats, and species-specific spectra were recorded. Using the database, 6 clinical isolates were identified. Six tracheal swabs from 4 mice and 2 rats were cultured on PPLO agar for 4 to 7 days, and the colonies were directly applied to analyze the protein profiles. Five strains were identified as M. pulmonis, and 1 strain from a mouse was identified as M. neurolyticum (spectral scores were >2.00); the results were consistent with the results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (homologies>97.0%). These data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a clearly rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for the identification of M. pulmonis isolates, and this system may represent a serious alternative for clinical laboratories to identify Mycoplasma species. PMID:22498928

Goto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Asahara, Miwa; Tamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Makimura, Koichi

2012-08-01

280

Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin are all suitable candidates for further investigation as potential treatments for CBPP. This study also highlights the importance of testing drug activity in biological matrices as well as artificial media. PMID:22952911

Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.

2012-01-01

281

MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INFECTION, a common disease of poultry, was first diagnosed in the  

E-print Network

MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INFECTION, a common disease of poultry, was first diagnosed in the House of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection epizo- otic in the east, the eastern and western popula- tions

Badyaev, Alex

282

In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae are two very closely related species which cause mastitis in cows and goats, respectively. M. bovis can also cause arthritis and respiratory disease in cattle. It has recently been shown that the 16S rRNA sequences differ only in 8 nucleotide positions between the two species [J.G. Mattsson, B. Guss and K.-E. Johansson (1994) FEMS Microbiol.

Yleana R. Chávez González; Carlos Ros Bascuñana; Göran Bölske; Jens G. Mattsson; Carmen Fernández Molina; Karl-Erik Johansson

1995-01-01

283

Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. PMID:21856079

Mostegl, Meike M.; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenbock, Herbert

2012-01-01

284

Contribution of Topoisomerase IV Mutation to Quinolone Resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium remains poorly understood due to difficulties with in vitro culture, especially of clinical isolates. In this study, to confirm the association between mutations in topoisomerases and antimicrobial susceptibilities to quinolones, ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant strains were selected using the cultivable type strain ATCC 33530. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant strains harbored mutations in topoisomerase IV: Gly81Cys in ParC, Pro261Thr in ParC, or Asn466Lys in ParE. The MICs of all quinolones tested against the mutant strains were 2- to 16-fold higher than those against the wild-type strain. No cross-resistance was observed with macrolides or tetracyclines. We determined the inhibitory activities of quinolones against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in order to investigate the correlation between antimicrobial susceptibility and inhibitory activity against the target enzymes, considered the primary targets of quinolones. Furthermore, using enzymatic analysis, we confirmed that Gly81Cys in the ParC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) contributed to quinolone resistance. This is the first study to isolate quinolone-resistant mutant strains of M. genitalium harboring substitutions in the parC or parE gene in vitro and to measure the inhibitory activities against the purified topoisomerases of M. genitalium. PMID:23357772

Takei, Masaya; Kishii, Ryuta; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

2013-01-01

285

Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from patients with urogenital infections: first report from the Latin-American region  

PubMed Central

Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult. We describe a modified culture system based on Vero cells grown in medium 199 with 2% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The culture system was evaluated using early passage M. genitalium strains M6271 and M6311 with growth monitoring by quantitative TaqMan PCR. Eleven endocervical swabs and one male urethral swab positive by 16S rRNA and MgPa1–3 PCRs were quantified and inoculated into Vero cell suspensions in medium 199 supplemented with 2% FBS and antibiotics. Cultures were incubated for 14 days. Cell passages and growth monitoring by TaqMan PCR were performed until the growth of M. genitalium reached ?106 geq/mL. Confirmation of the new M. genitalium strains was performed by sequencing a 281 bp fragment of mgpB. The growth of Mycoplasma genitalium strains was recorded for all urogenital swab specimens in the modified cell-culture system. Growth of M. genitalium was obtained within 2 months and yielded 12 M. genitalium strains with all 11 isolates from females of an identical, but unique genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first successful isolation of M. genitalium in the Latin-American region. The use of Vero cell culture in 199 medium with 2% FBS is a method comparable to the Ultroser G culture system for isolation of M. genitalium. Genotyping of clinical samples and isolates should be performed to document the absence of cross-contamination. PMID:25356322

Mondeja, B A; Jensen, J S; Rodriguez, I; Morier, L F; Kouri, V; Rodriguez, N M; Fernandez, C

2013-01-01

286

Neuraminidase of Mycoplasma synoviae desialylates heavy chain of the chicken immunoglobulin G and glycoproteins of chicken tracheal mucus.  

PubMed

Major poultry pathogens, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae share several genes, including nanH that encodes their sialidases (neuraminidases). Previous studies have shown considerable differences in neuraminidase enzymatic activity (NEAC) in M. synoviae strains and NEAC absence in individual cultures of two strains, ULB 925 and ULB 9122. The present study shows that the cultures lacking NEAC did not express NanH neuraminidase detectable by specific antibodies. In cultures of M. synoviae ULB 925 and ULB 9122, which lacked NEAC and detectable NanH, deletions of a single adenine in different nanH regions of each strain created translational frameshifts resulting in TAA (UAA) stop codons and premature termination of translation. ULB 925 and ULB 9122 with such nanH mutations did not desialylate reference fetuin and transferrin or chicken glycoproteins that M. synoviae strains with NEAC efficiently desialylated. They desialylated several chicken serum glycoproteins with SA?(2-6)gal moieties, including the immunoglobulin G heavy chain. Neuraminidase inhibitor 2,3-didehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid inhibited such desialylation otherwise caused by M. synoviae WVU 1853 neuraminidase. WVU 1853 also cleaved sialic acid from SA?(2-3)gal moieties from glycoproteins of mucus from chicken tracheas. This is the first demonstration that M. synoviae desialylates glycoproteins of its host. PMID:21711189

Ber?i?, Rebeka Lucijana; Cizelj, Ivanka; Dušani?, Daliborka; Narat, Mojca; Zorman-Rojs, Olga; Dov?, Peter; Ben?ina, Dušan

2011-06-01

287

Role of the GapA and CrmA cytadhesins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in promoting virulence and host colonization.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important avian pathogen that commonly induces chronic respiratory disease in chicken. To better understand the mycoplasma factors involved in host colonization, chickens were infected via aerosol with two hemadsorption-negative (HA(-)) mutants, mHAD3 and RCL2, that were derived from a low passage of the pathogenic strain R (Rlow) and are both deficient in the two major cytadhesins GapA and CrmA. After 9 days of infection, chickens were monitored for air sac lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas in various organs. The data showed that mHAD3, in which the crmA gene has been disrupted, did not promote efficient colonization or significant air sac lesions. In contrast, the spontaneous HA(-) RCL2 mutant, which contains a point mutation in the gapA structural gene, successfully colonized the respiratory tract and displayed an attenuated virulence compared to that of Rlow. It has previously been shown in vitro that the point mutation of RCL2 spontaneously reverts with a high frequency, resulting in on-and-off switching of the HA phenotype. Detailed analyses further revealed that such an event is not responsible for the observed in vivo outcome, since 98.4% of the mycoplasma populations recovered from RCL2-infected chickens still display the mutation and the associated phenotype. Unlike Rlow, however, RCL2 was unable to colonize inner organs. These findings demonstrate the major role played by the GapA and CrmA proteins in M. gallisepticum host colonization and virulence. PMID:23460514

Indiková, Ivana; Much, Peter; Stipkovits, László; Siebert-Gulle, Karin; Szostak, Michael P; Rosengarten, Renate; Citti, Christine

2013-05-01

288

Role of the GapA and CrmA Cytadhesins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Promoting Virulence and Host Colonization  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important avian pathogen that commonly induces chronic respiratory disease in chicken. To better understand the mycoplasma factors involved in host colonization, chickens were infected via aerosol with two hemadsorption-negative (HA?) mutants, mHAD3 and RCL2, that were derived from a low passage of the pathogenic strain R (Rlow) and are both deficient in the two major cytadhesins GapA and CrmA. After 9 days of infection, chickens were monitored for air sac lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas in various organs. The data showed that mHAD3, in which the crmA gene has been disrupted, did not promote efficient colonization or significant air sac lesions. In contrast, the spontaneous HA? RCL2 mutant, which contains a point mutation in the gapA structural gene, successfully colonized the respiratory tract and displayed an attenuated virulence compared to that of Rlow. It has previously been shown in vitro that the point mutation of RCL2 spontaneously reverts with a high frequency, resulting in on-and-off switching of the HA phenotype. Detailed analyses further revealed that such an event is not responsible for the observed in vivo outcome, since 98.4% of the mycoplasma populations recovered from RCL2-infected chickens still display the mutation and the associated phenotype. Unlike Rlow, however, RCL2 was unable to colonize inner organs. These findings demonstrate the major role played by the GapA and CrmA proteins in M. gallisepticum host colonization and virulence. PMID:23460514

Indikova, Ivana; Much, Peter; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Siebert-Gulle, Karin; Citti, Christine

2013-01-01

289

Acute childhood encephalitis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

In a prospective 5-year study of children with acute encephalitis, evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was demonstrated in 50 (31%) of 159 children. In 11 (6.9%) of these patients, M. pneumoniae was determined to be the probable cause of encephalitis on the basis of its detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or by positive results of serologic tests for M. pneumoniae and detection of the organism in the throat by PCR. CSF PCR positivity correlated with a shorter prodromal illness (P=.015) and lack of respiratory symptoms (P=.06). Long-term neurologic sequelae occurred in 64% of probable cases. Thirty children (18.9%) who were seropositive for M. pneumoniae but did not have the organism detected by culture or PCR had convincing evidence implicating other organisms as the cause of encephalitis, suggesting that current serologic assays for M. pneumoniae are not sufficiently specific to establish a diagnosis of M. pneumoniae encephalitis. PMID:11360206

Bitnun, A; Ford-Jones, E L; Petric, M; MacGregor, D; Heurter, H; Nelson, S; Johnson, G; Richardson, S

2001-06-15

290

[Extrapulmonary infections due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae].  

PubMed

Pneumonia is the main site of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae in paediatric age. Nevertheless it can also give rise to other manifestations, with or without respiratory involvement. In the present review are described some unusual clinical features of M. pneumoniae in children. Encephalitis and meningoencephalitis is the most frequent neurological manifestation, but cases of meningitis, myelitis, and polyradiculitis, have been reported. Cardiac involvement is potentially severe, including pericarditis and myocarditis. Cold agglutinin haemolytic anaemia is the most frequent haematologic manifestation. Skin, renal, gastro-intestinal, osteoarticular, and other manifestations have also been reported in the literature. The pathogeny of these extrapulmonary infections is not fully elucidated and the treatment remains partly controversial. Extrapulmonary complications can occur as a result of direct invasion and/or autoimmune response. PMID:15893232

Garnier, J-M; Noël, G; Retornaz, K; Blanc, P; Minodier, P

2005-04-01

291

Cytoskeletal elements in the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogenic eubacterium lacking a cell wall. Three decades ago, a "rod", an intracellular cytoskeletal structure, was discovered that was assumed to define and stabilize the elongated cell shape. Later, by treatment with detergent, a "Triton shell" (i.e. a fraction of detergent-insoluble cell material) could be obtained, believed to contain additional cytoskeletal elements. Now, by application of a modified Triton X-100 treatment, we are able to demonstrate that M. pneumoniae possesses a cytoskeleton consisting of a blade-like rod and a peripheral lining located close to the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane, exhibiting features of a highly regular network. Attached "stalks" may support the cytoplasmic membrane. The rod was connected to the cell periphery by "spokes" and showed a defined ultrastructure. Its proximal end was found to be attached to a wheel-like complex. Fibrils extended from the proximal end of the rod into the cytoplasm.

Hegermann, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Mayer, Frank

2002-09-01

292

Mycoplasma genitalium: a cause of male urethritis?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Male urethritis may be caused by mycoplasmas. Since Mycoplasma genitalium has previously been isolated from the urethra of two men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), it was the aim of the study further to elucidate its role by measuring the prevalence of this organism in men with NGU. MATERIAL AND METHODS--The polymerase chain reaction was used. Two different sequences of the gene coding for the main adhesin MgPa were amplified. Urethral, rectal, and throat samples from 99 male sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients with and without urethritis were studied. RESULTS--M genitalium DNA was demonstrated in 17/99 (17%) of the urethral swabs, but in none of the rectal and throat swabs. Significantly more patients with urethritis (13/52) were positive for M genitalium DNA than were patients without urethritis (4/47) (p < 0.03). In those with urethritis M genitalium DNA was found more often in Chlamydia trachomatis negative NGU (12/34) than in those with chlamydial NGU (1/14) (p = 0.05). Attempts to culture M genitalium from the PCR positive specimens were unsuccessful. CONCLUSION--M genitalium DNA was found significantly more often in male STD patients with non-chlamydial NGU than in men with chlamydial urethritis (p = 0.05) and in men without urethritis (p = 0.003), suggesting that M genitalium may be a cause of NGU. M genitalium DNA was not demonstrated in any of the throat or rectal swabsindicating that the urogenital tract is probably the primary site of infection or colonisation of this species. PMID:7721285

Jensen, J S; Orsum, R; Dohn, B; Uldum, S; Worm, A M; Lind, K

1993-01-01

293

Biofilms Protect Mycoplasma pulmonis Cells from Lytic Effects of Complement and Gramicidin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The length of the tandem repeat region of the Vsa protein of Mycoplasma pulmonis has previously been shown to modulate the susceptibility of mycoplasmas to killing by complement: cells that produce a short form of the Vsa protein are highly sensitive, and cells producing the long Vsa protein are resistant. In contrast to their differing susceptibilities to complement, the mycoplasmas

Warren L. Simmons; Kevin Dybvig

2007-01-01

294

Identification of 'T' Mycoplasmas in Primary Agar Cultures by Means of a Direct Test for Urease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A direct test for urease has been described that can be applied directly to colonies of T mycoplasmas in agar cultures. The test is specific for T mycoplasmas, since these are the only members of the mycoplasma group known to possess a urease enzyme syste...

M. C. Shepard, D. R. Howard

1970-01-01

295

Treatment of racing pigeons naturally infected with Mycoplasma columborale and M columbinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of six racing pigeons naturally infected with Mycoplasma columborale and M columbinum were housed in isolation and treated with tiamulin hydrogen fumarate in the drinking water for 35 days. Swabs from the oropharynx, the oesophagus and the trachea were negative for mycoplasmas at the end of this period. Mycoplasmas were recovered from two of the birds after a

JN Howse; FT Jordan

1983-01-01

296

Effect in vitro and in vivo of spiramycin (embonate) on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae  

E-print Network

Effect in vitro and in vivo of spiramycin (embonate) on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Marylène KOBISCH P biologique), 03600 Coiiiiiielitry France The effect of spiramycin on Mycoplasma hyopiieitnioiiiae was checked efficiency of spiramycin (embonate) was controlled in SPF piglets experimentally infected with Mycoplasma

Boyer, Edmond

297

Ab initio protein structure prediction on a genomic scale: Application to the Mycoplasma  

E-print Network

Ab initio protein structure prediction on a genomic scale: Application to the Mycoplasma genitalium of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome. TOUCHSTONE is based on a Monte Carlo refinement of a lattice model of proteins structure of all the small proteins in the Mycoplasma genitalium genome. Methods The TOUCHSTONE Procedure

Kihara, Daisuke

298

A Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Mycoplasma genitalium, iPS189  

E-print Network

A Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Mycoplasma genitalium, iPS189 Patrick F. Suthers1, Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the smallest known self-replicating organisms and, additionally, has, Kumar VS, Denisov G, Glass JI, et al. (2009) A Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Mycoplasma

Maranas, Costas

299

Motor-Substrate Interactions in Mycoplasma Motility Explains Non-Arrhenius Temperature Dependence  

E-print Network

Motor-Substrate Interactions in Mycoplasma Motility Explains Non-Arrhenius Temperature Dependence, California ABSTRACT Mycoplasmas exhibit a novel, substrate-dependent gliding motility that is driven by ~400 biochemistry, but by the motor-substrate interaction. INTRODUCTION Mycoplasmas are a genus of wall

Oster, George

300

Antibody-mediated selection of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum phenotype expressing variable proteins  

E-print Network

Antibody-mediated selection of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum phenotype expressing variable proteins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum S6 was isolated from an in vitro antibody-culture system utilizing metabolism-inhibiting effects of the specific antibodies. Keywords : Mycoplasma gallisepticum ; Antibody-mediated selection

Geary, Steven J.

301

Occurrence of mycoplasma-like bodies in phloem cells of beech trees affected by bark necrosis  

E-print Network

Occurrence of mycoplasma-like bodies in phloem cells of beech trees affected by « bark necrosis » N R., 1970. Mycoplasma — or virus-like particles in pine trees and in insects. J. Jap. For. Soc with viruses, mycoplasmas, rickettsias and flagellates. Ann. Rev. Phytopath., it, 119-146. SELISKAR C. E., 1976

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

What are mycoplasmas: The relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed havespecific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly

C. R. Woese; E. Stackebrandt; W. Ludwig

1985-01-01

303

Lymphocytic infiltration in the chicken trachea in response to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent feature of disease induced by Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a lymphoproliferative response in the respiratory tract. Although this is also seen in other mycoplasma infections, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, the phenotype of the lymphocytes infiltrating the respiratory tract has not been determined. In this study, the numbers and distribution of lymphocytes in the tracheas of chickens infected with a virulent

J. E. Gaunson; C. J. Philip; K. G. Whithear; G. F. Browning

304

Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.  

PubMed

In November 2010, ?27,000 (?45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens. PMID:24655474

Widerström, Micael; Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

2014-04-01

305

Large Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In November 2010, ?27,000 (?45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens. PMID:24655474

Schonning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Gorel; Ferm, Martin; Bjorkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Langmark, Jonas; Lofdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

2014-01-01

306

Characterization of MGC2, a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Cytadhesin with Homology to the Mycoplasma pneumoniae 30-Kilodalton Protein P30 and Mycoplasma genitalium P32†  

PubMed Central

A second cytadhesin-like protein, MGC2, was identified in the avian respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The 912-nucleotide mgc2 gene encodes a 32.6-kDa protein with 40.9 and 31.4% identity with the M. pneumoniae P30 and M. genitalium P32 cytadhesins, respectively. Functional studies with reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, double-sided immunogold labeling, and attachment inhibition assays demonstrated homology to the human mycoplasmal P30 and P32 cytadhesins. These findings suggest that there is a family of cytadhesin genes conserved among pathogenic mycoplasmas infecting widely divergent hosts. PMID:9632619

Hnatow, Linda L.; Keeler, Calvin L.; Tessmer, Laura L.; Czymmek, Kirk; Dohms, John E.

1998-01-01

307

Microorganisms of the Pleuropneumonia group (family of Mycoplasmataceae ) in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Serological methods enabled us to confirm the provisional classification which was made on the basis of biochemical behaviour,\\u000a growth requirements and morphological aspects of P.P.L.O. strains isolated in man.\\u000a \\u000a The growth inhibition test was very specific and allowed of differentiation of nearly all our strains into three species,Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma salivarius andMycoplasma fermentans. Two strains could not be classified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The

A. G. M. Huijsmans-Evers; A. Charlotte Ruys

1956-01-01

308

Extended survival times of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae on kanekalon synthetic hair fibres.  

PubMed

The survival times of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms) on washed and unwashed natural and synthetic kanekalon hair samples over a 5-d period were evaluated using the color changing unit method for comparison with results of previous studies conducted on natural hair. Regardless of whether synthetic or natural hair samples prewashed with a disinfectant shampoo were spiked with Mg or Ms, all viable organisms rapidly dropped below a count of 1 × 10(1)/mL of culture. Unwashed natural hair seeded with a titer of approximately 1 × 10(6)/mL of viable Mg or Ms decreased to 6 × 10(5)/mL and 6 × 10(3)/mL, respectively, by 4 h postseeding, but no viable Mg or Ms were detected on natural hair from 8 h onwards. By contrast, the titers of Mg and Ms on synthetic hair did not decline from the initial 1 × 10(6)/mL seed dose up to 96 h postseeding, and, in fact, viable Mg and Ms was still detectable at 9 d postinfection. Application of a real-time quantitative single-tube duplex PCR assay confirmed that no proliferation of Mg or Ms had occurred on the synthetic hair samples, the cells simply remained viable. The unexpected finding that Mg and Ms survive for extended periods on synthetic kanekalon hair fibers raises the question of whether attachment to a surface is a prerequisite for the survival and persistence of Mg and Ms in the extra-host environment. Future studies should be aimed at determining whether other synthetic hair types or indeed other types of plastics commonly found in the poultry house offer similar survival advantages to mycoplasmas. PMID:24570416

Abolnik, Celia; Gouws, Johan

2014-01-01

309

The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens , Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led\\u000a to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32

W. Al-Momani; E. Abu-Basha; R. D. Ayling; R. A. J. Nicholas; S. Janakat

2006-01-01

310

In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species.  

PubMed

The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens with MIC ranges from 3.125-12.5 mg/ml. Allium sativum and Punica grantum showed limited activity against some Mycoplasma isolates. Olea europea and Citrullus colocynthis showed no in vitro activity against any of the Mycoplasma species tested. Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens may therefore be useful for the treatment of mycoplasma infections. PMID:17969714

Al-Momani, W; Abu-Basha, E; Janakat, S; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

2007-10-01

311

Lung abscess in a child secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

We present a case of a lung abscess in a child 6-year-old admitted with a history of right hemithorax pain lasting for 15 days and the onset of mild fever in the last two days. Etiological research showed positivity of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae after seven days of admission. The child has been successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, without the use of macrolides, for a duration of 4 weeks. Our study suggests that the Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may predispose to severe infections, such as lung abscess, caused by typical respiratory pathogens. The reported case of lung abscess is one of the few reported in the literature in the modern antibiotic era and is the first preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. PMID:25004644

Ruffini, E; De Petris, L; Candelotti, P; Tulli, M; Sabatini, M R; Luciani, L; Carlucci, A

2014-01-01

312

Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma mycoides Subspecies capri from Milk of Natural Goat Mastitis Cases  

PubMed Central

Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples (n = 171) of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strain variation was also studied by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (16S ARDRA). The study recovered a total of 6 Mmc isolates (3.5%). Three types of intraspecies variants among the recovered Mmc isolates were found by 16S ARDRA. The study concluded that Mmc may be an etiological agent of mycoplasmal mastitis in Indian goat herds. PMID:23762593

Kumar, Vijay; Rana, Rajneesh; Mehra, Somya; Rout, Pramod Kumar

2013-01-01

313

Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289  

SciTech Connect

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

2009-01-01

314

A unique case of facial burn superinfected with Dermatobia Hominis larvae resulting in a bilateral enucleation of the eyes.  

PubMed

We present a case of a female Ecuadorian patient who presented a deep facial burn injury complicated with a severe infestation of Dermatobia Hominis larvae. The burn injury was complicated by severe myiasis attributable to the poor management of the wound received at home, using tropical plants, which caused a secondary infection and severe necrosis of the tissue involving the forehead, cheeks, chin, scalp, nose, mouth and the eyes resulting in a bilateral enucleation and long inpatient hospital care. PMID:24728977

Pinos, Victor Hugo; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Bermeo, Carlos; León, Juan; Armijos, Luciana; Almeida, Estibaliz

2014-10-01

315

Comprehensive Methylome Characterization of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae at Single-Base Resolution  

PubMed Central

In the bacterial world, methylation is most commonly associated with restriction-modification systems that provide a defense mechanism against invading foreign genomes. In addition, it is known that methylation plays functionally important roles, including timing of DNA replication, chromosome partitioning, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression. However, full DNA methylome analyses are scarce due to a lack of a simple methodology for rapid and sensitive detection of common epigenetic marks (ie N6-methyladenine (6 mA) and N4-methylcytosine (4 mC)), in these organisms. Here, we use Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing to determine the methylomes of two related human pathogen species, Mycoplasma genitalium G-37 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129, with single-base resolution. Our analysis identified two new methylation motifs not previously described in bacteria: a widespread 6 mA methylation motif common to both bacteria (5?-CTAT-3?), as well as a more complex Type I m6A sequence motif in M. pneumoniae (5?-GAN7TAY-3?/3?-CTN7ATR-5?). We identify the methyltransferase responsible for the common motif and suggest the one involved in M. pneumoniae only. Analysis of the distribution of methylation sites across the genome of M. pneumoniae suggests a potential role for methylation in regulating the cell cycle, as well as in regulation of gene expression. To our knowledge, this is one of the first direct methylome profiling studies with single-base resolution from a bacterial organism. PMID:23300489

Llorens-Rico, Veronica; Delgado, Javier; Fang, Gang; Spittle, Kristi; Clark, Tyson A.; Schadt, Eric; Turner, Stephen W.; Korlach, Jonas; Serrano, Luis

2013-01-01

316

Unusual Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes and Cryptosporidium hominis Subtypes in HIV-Infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in both developed and developing countries, particularly patients with CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/?L; 285 HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were enrolled in this study, and both stool and blood specimens were collected from participants. The stool specimens were analyzed and typed for E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. CD4 count was analyzed using flow cytometry. E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium were detected in 18 (6.3%) and 4 (1.4%) patients, respectively. The E. bieneusi detected mostly belonged to a new genotype group that, thus far, has only been found in a few humans: genotype Nig4 in 2 patients and two new genotypes related to Nig4 in 12 patients. The Cryptosporidium detected included C. hominis (two patients), C. parvum (one patient), and C. felis (one patient), with the two C. hominis infections belonging to an unusual subtype family. Additional studies are required to determine whether some E. bieneusi genotypes and C. hominis subtypes are more prevalent in HIV patients on HAART. PMID:23629938

Akinbo, Frederick O.; Okaka, Christopher E.; Omoregie, Richard; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Xiao, Lihua

2013-01-01

317

Major membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae selectively modified by covalently bound lipid  

SciTech Connect

Surface protein antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were identified by direct antibody-surface binding or by radioimmunoprecipitation of surface /sup 125/I-labeled proteins with a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Radioimmunoprecipitation of TX-114-phase proteins from cells labeled with (/sup 35/S) methionine, /sup 14/C-amino acids, or (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid showed that proteins p65, p50, and p44 were abundant and (with one other hydrophobic protein, p60) were selectively labeled with lipid. Alkaline hydroxylamine treatment of labeled proteins indicated linkage of lipids by amide or stable O-linked ester bonds. Proteins p65, p50, and p44 were highly immunogenic in the natural host as measured by immunoblots of TX-114-phase proteins with antisera from swine inoculated with whole organisms. These proteins were antigenically and structurally unrelated, since hyperimmune mouse antibodies to individual gel-purified proteins were monospecific and gave distinct proteolytic epitope maps. Intraspecies size variants of one surface antigen of M. hyopneumoniae were revealed by a MAb to p70 (defined in strain J, ATCC 25934), which recognized a large p73 component on strain VPP11 (ATCC 25617). In addition, MAb to internal, aqueous-phase protein p82 of strain J failed to bind an analogous antigen in strain VPP11.

Wise K.S.; Kim, M.F.

1987-12-01

318

Characterization of a ts-1-like Mycoplasma galisepticum isolate from commercial broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Several commercial broiler flocks in northeastern Georgia that were the progeny of the same parent flock (Flock 40) were diagnosed as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) positive by serology, culture, and PCR. Flock 40 had been vaccinated with ts-11 live MG vaccine. Several isolates were obtained from the MG-positive broiler flocks, and these isolates were indistinguishable from the ts-11 vaccine strain by the molecular strain differentiation methods used. A pathogenicity study was performed to compare the virulence of one of the isolates, K6216D, to the ts-11 vaccine strain. K6216D elicited a significantly stronger antibody response and significantly increased colonization of the tracheas and air sacs. K6216D also elicited significantly greater air sac and tracheal lesions than the ts-11 vaccine strain at 10 and 21 days postinoculation (P < or = 0.05). This is the first report of a field case of the apparent reversion to virulence and vertical transmission of the ts-11 vaccine. PMID:22312975

El Gazzar, M; Laibinis, V A; Ferguson-Noel, N

2011-12-01

319

Genetic map of the Mycoplasma genitalium chromosome.  

PubMed Central

At 600 kb, the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium is among the smallest known for cellular organisms capable of independent replication. As such, elucidation of the genetic makeup and chromosome architecture of this organism is of considerable interest. We have located 631 markers on the physical map of M. genitalium. The clones have been mapped by hybridizing 20 overlapping cosmid and lambda clones which encompass the entire M. genitalium chromosome to replica filters containing 856 genomic DNA clones. Three hundred fifty-six of these clones represent sequence tag sites, which were previously characterized by database searches. The remaining markers represent clones with an average size of 2.5 kb derived from Sau3A1 partial digestion of genomic DNA. The hybridization data can be divided into three classes: clones which hybridized to only one cosmid; clones which hybridized to two adjacent and overlapping cosmids; and clones which hybridized to several cosmids, which represent repetitive DNA. This rapid approach for placing clones on the physical map has allowed useful comparisons to be made with other bacterial chromosomes, especially that of the closely related organism M. pneumoniae, and has provided insight to the types of events which may have led to the reduction in size of this genome. Future use of these data is discussed. PMID:7768819

Peterson, S N; Lucier, T; Heitzman, K; Smith, E A; Bott, K F; Hu, P C; Hutchison, C A

1995-01-01

320

Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics were evaluated. Results. Compared to women without M. genitalium, women with M. genitalium were more likely to report nulliparity (41.7% versus 17.4%, P = .04), history of pelvic inflammatory disease (27.3% versus 8.8%, P = .08), prior C. trachomatis infection (63.6% versus 36.9%, P = .11,) and problems getting pregnant (18.2% versus 4.4%, P = .10). M. genitalium was not associated with SAB (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.2–3.8). Conclusions. Pregnant women who test positive for M. genitalium do not have an increased risk of SAB but report a history of reproductive morbidities. PMID:20379360

Short, Vanessa L.; Jensen, J?rgen S.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Murray, Pamela J.; Ness, Roberta B.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2010-01-01

321

Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species  

PubMed Central

Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:21860605

Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Joshi, Adwait; Rani, Sane Sudha; Offmann, Bernard; Sowdhamini, R.

2011-01-01

322

Validation of PCR Assay for Identification of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis  

PubMed Central

Background Infestation of the skin by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis results in a contagious skin infection in humans called “scabies”. By resolving morphology issues, the present study was designed to be acquainted with itch mite by molecular markers. Methods The mite samples were collected from scabies patients by visiting government hospitals of twin City, Pakistan. For successful molecular detection approach, preparation of Sarcoptes mite DNA by commercial DNA extraction kit method. Furthermore, two primers i.e. Sarms 15 F/R and 16S D1/D2 were used to amplify target sequence by using PCR. The amplified products were then separated by agarose gel, electrophoresis and analyzed after staining and visualizing in UV transilluminator. Results Analysis of PCR product showed one specific band of 178 bp with primer Sarms 15 F/R, while, with primer 16S D1/D2 bands of 460 bp and 600 bp were observed on 2% agarose gel. The appearance of different band of 600 bp revealed that it might be due to heteroplasmy state present in the Pakistani Sarcoptes mites population. Conclusion Current study adds validity to the claim that PCR is more accurate, specific and sensitive in the detection of the ectoparasites even in smallest amount. PMID:24454438

NAZ, Shumaila; RIZVI, Dilwar ABBAS; JAVAID, Amara; ISMAIL, Muhammad; CHAUDHRY, Farhana RIAZ

2013-01-01

323

Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of rhabdomyolysis in a patient infected with antimicrobial drug–resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae The patient’s acute-phase serum levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor–? were high, which suggests a pathogenic role for M. pneumoniae. In an era of increasing antimicrobial drug resistance, a system for rapidly identifying resistant M. pneumoniae would be beneficial. PMID:22515975

Narita, Mitsuo; Ohya, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Takayuki; Aizawa, Yuta; Matsuo, Mai; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Tsukano, Shinya; Taguchi, Testuo

2012-01-01

324

Applying network theory epidemics: Control measures for outbreaks Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

E-print Network

Applying network theory epidemics: Control measures for outbreaks Mycoplasma pneumoniae Lauren W after the outbreak underway. Since experimental approach epidemic intervention is often impractical even­called percolation theory model epidemics (9­14). Agent­ based simulation also being used increasingly derive

Newman, Mark

325

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

2004-01-01

326

Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

2014-01-01

327

UGA is Read as Tryptophan in Mycoplasma capricolum  

Microsoft Academic Search

UGA is a nonsense or termination (opal) codon throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, mitochondria use not only UGG but also UGA as a tryptophan codon. Here, we show that UGA also codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma capricolum, a wall-less bacterium having a genome only 20-25% the size of the Escherichia coli genome. This conclusion is based on the following evidence.

Fumiaki Yamao; Akira Muto; Yasushi Kawauchi; Masafumi Iwami; Shoji Iwagami; Yoshitaka Azumi; Syozo Osawa

1985-01-01

328

Phenotypic Switching in Mycoplasmas: Phase Variation of Diverse Surface Lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of some microorganisms to rapidly alter the expression and structure of surface components reflects an important strategy for adaptation to changing environments, including those encountered by infectious agents within respective host organisms. Mycoplasma hyorhinis, a wall-less prokaryotic pathogen of the class Mollicutes, is shown to undergo high-frequency phase transitions in colony morphology and opacity and in the expression

Renate Rosengarten; Kim S. Wise

1990-01-01

329

Multigene Families Encoding the Major Hemagglutinins in Phylogenetically Distinct Mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma synoviae has two major membrane antigens, MSPA and MSPB, both of which are phase variable and which may be coordinately involved in adhesion of the organism to erythrocytes. A single gene (vlhA) from M. synoviae was characterized, and polypeptides were expressed from nonoverlapping 5* and 3* regions in Escherichia coli. The expression product of the vlhA 5* region reacted

A. H. NOORMOHAMMADI; P. F. MARKHAM; M. F. DUFFY; K. G. WHITHEAR; G. F. BROWNING

1998-01-01

330

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES WITH MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has caused an endemic upper respiratory and ocular infection in the eastern house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) after the epidemic first described in 1994. The disease has been studied by a number of investigators at a population level and reports describe experimental infection in group-housed MG-free house finches. Because detailed observation and evaluation of individual birds in group

George V. Kollias; Keila V. Sydenstricker; Heidi W. Kollias; David H. Ley

331

DYNAMICS OF CONJUNCTIVITIS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INFECTIONS IN HOUSE FINCHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjunctivitis, an infectious disease caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), has produced a significant decline in eastern House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) of North America. In this paper, we present findings from two complementary studies de- signed to clarify annual and seasonal trends of MG infections in House Finches from the northeastern United States. The first was a field study of House

BARRY K. HARTUP; JEAN M. BICKAL; ANDRE A. DHONDT; DAVID H. LEY; GEORGE V. KOLLIAS

2004-01-01

332

Hospital treatment and diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study was started in 1972 in order to determine the true etiology of patients who presented with obscure pulmonary infiltrates. Patients who were included in this study had sera drawn on two occasions. Complete testing was performed for the various viruses and also forMycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies. The study continued through 1975 and a total of 159 patients were

M. Van der Straeten; M. De Vos; E. Druyts

1976-01-01

333

Mycoplasma blood infection in chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are characterised by a lack of consistent laboratory and clinical abnormalities. Although they are distinguishable as separate syndromes based on established criteria, a great number of patients are diagnosed with both. In studies using polymerase chain reaction methods, mycoplasma blood infection has been detected in about 50% of patients with CFS and\\/or

Gerhard K. M. Endresen

2003-01-01

334

Molecular Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Respiratory Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for 10 to 20% of the cases of community-acquired pneumonia and has been associ- ated with acute exacerbations of asthma (22). M. pneumoniae is also implicated in mild acute respiratory infections, such as sore throat, pharyngitis, rhinitis, and tracheobronchitis (2). Correct diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infections is important to allow the appropriate antibiotic treatment of patients,

K. Loens; D. Ursi; H. Goossens; M. Ieven

2003-01-01

335

Characterization of MGC2, a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Cytadhesin with Homology to the Mycoplasma pneumoniae 30-Kilodalton Protein P30 and Mycoplasma genitalium P32  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second cytadhesin-like protein, MGC2, was identified in the avian respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The 912-nucleotide mgc2 gene encodes a 32.6-kDa protein with 40.9 and 31.4% identity with the M. pneumoniae P30 and M. genitalium P32 cytadhesins, respectively. Functional studies with reverse transcrip- tion-PCR, immunoblotting, double-sided immunogold labeling, and attachment inhibition assays demon- strated homology to the human mycoplasmal P30

LINDA L. HNATOW; CALVIN L. KEELER; LAURA L. TESSMER; KIRK CZYMMEK; JOHN E. DOHMS

1998-01-01

336

MalF is essential for persistence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in vivo.  

PubMed

There is limited understanding of the molecular basis of virulence in the important avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To define genes that may be involved in colonization of chickens, a collection of mutants of the virulent Ap3AS strain of M. gallisepticum were generated by signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis. The collection included mutants with single insertions in the genes encoding the adhesin GapA and the cytadherence-related protein CrmA, and Western blotting confirmed that these mutants did not express these proteins. In two separate in vivo screenings, two GapA-deficient mutants (ST mutants 02-1 and 06-1) were occasionally recovered from birds, suggesting that GapA expression may not always be essential for persistence of strain Ap3AS. CrmA-deficient ST mutant 33-1 colonized birds poorly and had reduced virulence, indicating that CrmA was a significant virulence factor, but was not absolutely essential for colonization. ST mutant 04-1 contained a single transposon insertion in malF, a predicted ABC sugar transport permease, and could not be reisolated even when inoculated by itself into a group of birds, suggesting that expression of MalF was essential for persistence of M. galliseptium strain Ap3AS in infected birds. PMID:23657682

Tseng, Chi-Wen; Kanci, Anna; Citti, Christine; Rosengarten, Renate; Chiu, Chien-Ju; Chen, Zheng-Hong; Geary, Steven J; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

2013-07-01

337

The efficacy of three commercial Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in laying hens.  

PubMed

The efficacy of three commercial Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) immunizing agents-a bacterin, a recombinant fowlpox-MG vaccine, and a live F-strain vaccine-was compared in specific-pathogen-free hens in egg production. Three groups of 25 chickens were vaccinated with one of the vaccines at 10 wk of age and 25 birds were not vaccinated. At 25 wk of age (and approximately 50% egg production), 20 birds from each of the three vaccinated groups and 15 nonvaccinated controls were challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol; the birds were necropsied and evaluated at 10 days post-challenge. The MG bacterin and live F-strain vaccinations were both protective and resulted in significant differences in air sac lesions, tracheal lesions, and ovarian regression compared to the nonvaccinated controls and the recombinant fowlpox-MG vaccine (P < or = 0.05). The evaluation of ovarian regression is a useful method of testing the efficacy of MG vaccines in laying hens. PMID:22856181

Ferguson-Noel, N; Cookson, K; Laibinis, V A; Kleven, S H

2012-06-01

338

Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of three Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has become a common cause of conjunctivitis in free-living house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) since its emergence in the early 1990s. To date, temporal and spatial genotypic variation in MG has been documented, but phenotypic variation in pathogenicity and immunogenicity has not been examined. House finches were inoculated with MG isolates Virginia (VA)1994, California (CA)2006, or North Carolina (NC)2006, which were cultured from free-living house finches with conjunctivitis in 1994, 2006, and 2006, respectively. Infection with NC2006 resulted in the most severe eye lesions, highest pathogen loads, and highest levels of pathogen-specific lachrymal and serum antibodies. Infection with CA2006 caused the least severe eye lesions, lowest pathogen load, and lowest levels of antibodies. A small number of birds in each group developed protracted, severe disease in spite of robust antibody responses, suggesting that immunopathology may contribute to the lesions. Immunoblot analyses indicated that isolates are antigenically similar; thus, there may be partial cross-protection if a house finch encounters two or more strains of MG throughout the course of its lifetime. This study provides evidence that MG strains or strain variants circulating in house finch populations vary in their ability to cause disease, induce antibody responses, and persist in the host. PMID:21885217

Grodio, Jessica L; Hawley, Dana M; Osnas, Erik E; Ley, David H; Dhondt, Keila V; Dhondt, André A; Schat, Karel A

2012-02-24

339

Infection with Hemotropic Mycoplasma Species in Patients with or without Extensive Arthropod or Animal Contact  

PubMed Central

PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact than in a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small-vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, a Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with “Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum” and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized, hemotropic Mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and in the evaluation of individual patients. PMID:23863574

Compton, Sarah M.; Trull, Chelsea L.; Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Mozayeni, B. Robert; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2013-01-01

340

What are mycoplasmas: the relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

Woese, C. R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Ludwig, W.

1984-01-01

341

What are mycoplasmas - The relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

Woese, C. R.; Stackebrand, E.; Ludwig, W.

1985-01-01

342

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

343

Distribution and diversity of mycoplasma plasmids: lessons from cryptic genetic elements  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of mycoplasmas from a common ancestor with Firmicutes has been characterized not only by genome down-sizing but also by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasma species sharing a common host. The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. In particular, only a few plasmids have been described within the Mycoplasma genus. Results We have shown that several species of ruminant mycoplasmas carry plasmids that are members of a large family of elements and replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. All plasmids were isolated from species that either belonged or were closely related to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster; none was from the Mycoplasma bovis-Mycoplasma agalactiae group. Twenty one plasmids were completely sequenced, named and compared with each other and with the five mycoplasma plasmids previously reported. All plasmids share similar size and genetic organization, and present a mosaic structure. A peculiar case is that of the plasmid pMyBK1 from M. yeatsii; it is larger in size and is predicted to be mobilizable. Its origin of replication and replication protein were identified. In addition, pMyBK1 derivatives were shown to replicate in various species of the M. mycoides cluster, and therefore hold considerable promise for developing gene vectors. The phylogenetic analysis of these plasmids confirms the uniqueness of pMyBK1 and indicates that the other mycoplasma plasmids cluster together, apart from the related replicons found in phytoplasmas and in species of the clade Firmicutes. Conclusions Our results unraveled a totally new picture of mycoplasma plasmids. Although they probably play a limited role in the gene exchanges that participate in mycoplasma evolution, they are abundant in some species. Evidence for the occurrence of frequent genetic recombination strongly suggests they are transmitted between species sharing a common host or niche. PMID:23145790

2012-01-01

344

THE INTERACTION IN VITRO OF MYCOPLASMA PULMONIS WITH MOUSE PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES AND L-CELLS  

PubMed Central

Methods have been devised for establishing infection in vitro of mouse macrophages and fibroblasts with Mycoplasma pulmonis. The mycoplasmas attached to the cells and under appropriate cultural conditions grew into a lawn of microorganisms covering most of the cell surface. The mycoplasmas grew abundantly on fibroblasts cultured in minimal essential medium containing 20% fetal calf serum; supplementation of this medium with heart infusion broth was necessary to obtain similar growth on macrophages. The infection of these cells appeared to be essentially an extracellular process; only rarely were partially degraded mycoplasmas seen with phagocytic vacuoles. The addition to heavily infected macrophage cultures of low concentrations of anti-mycoplasma antibody stimulated rapid, massive phagocytosis of the surface microorganisms. In sharp contrast, the same antiserum had no discernable effect on the mycoplasma-fibroblast relationship. The antibody effect in the macrophage system was apparently a direct opsonic one rather than an indirect result of microbial killing, since the mycoplasmas in macrophage or fibroblast cultures incorporated labelled thymidine into DNA after the addition of antiserum to the medium. The phagocytic event and the subsequent fate of the mycoplasmas were studied in detail after the addition of antibody to the macrophage cultures. Phase-contrast cinemicrophotography revealed membrane ruffles surrounding the surface mycoplasmas and disappearance from view of the organisms; 10–30 min later translucent grapelike clusters were seen in large phagocytic vacuoles. On electronmicroscopic study the surface mycoplasmas were surrounded by pincers-like projections of the macrophage. Numerous mycoplasmas were seen in phagocytic vacuoles; in the early minutes after the addition of antibody the intracellular mycoplasmas appeared normal, but within 2 hr they appeared partially degraded with a central electron-lucent area and electron-opaque deposits at the microbial cell margin. 24 hr after the addition of antiserum, digestion of the mycoplasmas was nearly complete; the cells appeared normal except for large residual bodies composed of amorphous moderately dense material and increased lipid deposits. Degradation of mycoplasmas within macrophages was also studied using infected cultures in which the mycoplasmas, but not the macrophages, had incorporated tritiated thymidine into DNA. The appearance of large amounts of acid-soluble radiolabel after phagocytosis stimulated by antibody confirmed the degradation of the intracellular mycoplasmas. PMID:4943930

Jones, Thomas C.; Hirsch, James G.

1971-01-01

345

Mycoplasma detection and isolation from one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

In scientific literature, a small amount of information is found concerning mycoplasmosis in camel species. Mycoplasma (M.) arginini, Acholeplasma (A.) laidlawii, and Acholeplasma oculi have been reported to be isolated from these host species. Serologically positive results have been reported for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC type, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, and M. mycoides subsp. capri. The aims of this study were to detect, isolate, and identify mycoplasmas from camels (Camelus dromedarius). Initially, saliva and ear smears plus conjunctival and vaginal secretions were taken from five female animals, but only conjunctival secretions in three male animals, all belonging to the same farm. An unknown mycoplasma was isolated from one of the vagina samples. Additionally, another unknown and uncultured mycoplasma was detected with molecular biology in the same sample. In the second stage, 23 vaginal secretions were taken from the same farm plus another secretion from a different one. Ten isolates of the same unknown and previously isolated mycoplasma were detected, nine of them recovered from the vagina of female camels. Some mycoplasmas have been related to reproductive disorders; however, there is no evidence that the isolated mycoplasmas are related to such disorders. PMID:25059705

Mederos-Iriarte, Lidia E; Poveda, José B; Poveda, Carlos G; Vega-Orellana, Orestes M; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Corbera, Juan A; Ramírez, Ana S

2014-10-01

346

[The philosophical influences of Empedocles in the Hippocratic medical treatise De Natura Hominis].  

PubMed

The Hippocratic treatise De Natura Hominis (On the Nature of Man) has been very influential in the history of western medical thought from antiquity, because it argues the theory of four humors as the essential constituents of human body. There has been a traditional view on the theory among scholars that the author Polybos referred to Empedocles' philosophical doctrine of four elements as a model in the formation of the humoral physiology of his own. However, the theory of four humors, as compared with the doctrine of four elements, turns out to be different on the following points. 1) The four elements are introduced as substantial entities, which always remain self-identical, whereas the four humors change into one another, according to the degree of the four elemental qualities (Hot and Cold, Humid and Dry), which constitute their own nature. 2) In the Empedoclean doctrine, human nature comes into being emergently from the four elements, when they come together, or when they separate out of their primordial lump. In NH, the generation process seems to be dependent on human nature, which exists as the determinant of the conditions under which the generation can take place. 3) The Empedoclean cosmic cycle functions as a structural framework, within which the generation takes place. The cosmic system in NH has its own purpose of giving a causal explanation about how the four humors increase and decrease reciprocally in the human body, according to the alternation of the four seasons. These results will make us suppose that the philosophical influences of Empedocles on the theory of four humors remained within a very limited scope, although there are traces in some phrases and sentences as well as forms of argumentation in NH, which may be judged to be a reflection of the Empedoclean philosophical poems. PMID:17152610

Masahiro, Imai

2006-01-01

347

Novel strategy for typing Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with ClinProTools.  

PubMed

The typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae mainly relies on the detection of nucleic acid, which is limited by the use of a single gene target, complex operation procedures, and a lengthy assay time. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to ClinProTools was used to discover MALDI-TOF MS biomarker peaks and to generate a classification model based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 M. pneumoniae isolates. Twenty-five M. pneumoniae strains were used to construct an analysis model, and 43 Mycoplasma strains were used for validation. For the GA typing model, the cross-validation values, which reflect the ability of the model to handle variability among the test spectra and the recognition capability value, which reflects the model's ability to correctly identify its component spectra, were all 100%. This model contained 7 biomarker peaks (m/z 3,318.8, 3,215.0, 5,091.8, 5,766.8, 6,337.1, 6,431.1, and 6,979.9) used to correctly identify 31 type 1 and 7 type 2 M. pneumoniae isolates from 43 Mycoplasma strains with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The strain distribution map and principle component analysis based on the GA classification model also clearly showed that the type 1 and type 2 M. pneumoniae isolates can be divided into two categories based on their peptide mass fingerprints. With the obvious advantages of being rapid, highly accurate, and highly sensitive and having a low cost and high throughput, MALDI-TOF MS ClinProTools is a powerful and reliable tool for M. pneumoniae typing. PMID:24920781

Xiao, Di; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Huifang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

2014-08-01

348

The associated microflora to the larvae of human bot fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae) and its furuncular lesions in cattle.  

PubMed

The microflora associated to furuncular lesions, larvae and pupae of Dermatobia hominis, as well as the relationships between parasite, host and microflora associated, as a comprehensive microsystem, has been studied. One hundred and two furuncular myiasis due to D. hominis larvae in several breeds of cattle were studied and the following bacterial species were significant: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Closely related, the microflora associated to 141 samples from first, second, third instar larva and both external surface and larval cavities has been studied. The representative associated microflora to the larvae were: S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. hycus and Moraxella phenylpiruvica, Moerella wisconsiensis, Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris, M. phenylpiruvica, M. wisconsiensis, P. mirabilis and P. rettgeri were the representative microflora associated to 64 pupae of D. hominis. PMID:9040848

Sancho, E; Caballero, M; Ruíz-Martínez, I

1996-01-01

349

Detection and Antibiotic Treatment of Mycoplasma arginini Contamination in a Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Restore Normal Cell Physiology  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material. PMID:24772428

Resnick, Andrew

2014-01-01

350

Detection and antibiotic treatment of Mycoplasma arginini contamination in a mouse epithelial cell line restore normal cell physiology.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material. PMID:24772428

Boslett, Brianna; Nag, Subhra; Resnick, Andrew

2014-01-01

351

Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control. PMID:24828562

Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

2014-08-01

352

Experimental infection of SPF pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 alone or in1 association with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.2  

E-print Network

association with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.2 3 Corinne Marois1* , Marcelo Gottschalk2 , Hervé Morvan3 infection.36 37 Keywords: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; dual of multiple bacterial and viral agents. Two pathogenic bacteria,45 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (the primary agent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Detection of feline Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma and chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

Little is known about the aetiology of inflammatory lower airway disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma (FA) and chronic bronchitis (CB). The study population consisted of 17 cats with FA/CB, and 14 sick cats without clinical and historical signs of respiratory disease, which were euthanased for various other reasons. Nasal swabs, nasal lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from patients from both groups. Mycoplasma species culture with modified Hayflick agar and Mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on all samples followed by sequencing of all Mycoplasma species-positive samples for differentiation of subspecies. PCR testing detected significantly more Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples than Mycoplasma culture (P = 0.021). When cats with oropharyngeal contamination were excluded from comparison, the numbers of Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples in the group with FA/CB (6/17) and the control group (4/9) were not significantly different (P = 0.6924). While all nasal samples of the cats with FA/CB were negative for Mycoplasma organisms, five samples in the control group (P = 0.041) were positive on PCR. Sequencing revealed Mycoplasma felis in all PCR-positive samples. Mycoplasma species can be detected in the lower airways of cats with FA/CB, as well as in the BALF of sick cats without respiratory signs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possibility that Mycoplasma species represent commensals of the lower respiratory tract of cats. PMID:24574148

Schulz, Bianka S; Richter, Petra; Weber, Karin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Zenker, Isabella; Hartmann, Katrin

2014-12-01

354

Restless legs syndrome: association with streptococcal or mycoplasma infection.  

PubMed

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections have been reported to cause neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as chorea, tics, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, presumably through autoimmune damage to basal ganglia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have also been reported to cause damage to the basal ganglia. Restless legs syndrome is a movement disorder with focal restlessness, an irresistible desire to move, and exacerbation by long periods of sitting or lying. We present three children with transient restless legs syndrome-like symptoms possibly associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. One of three patients had persistently elevated enzyme-linked immunosorbent optical density values against human caudate and putamen. PMID:15301831

Matsuo, Muneaki; Tsuchiya, Katsunori; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Singer, Harvey S

2004-08-01

355

Mycoplasma testudineum in free-ranging desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We performed clinico-pathological evaluations of 11 wild Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) from a translocation project in the central Mojave Desert, California, USA. Group 1 consisted of nine tortoises that were selected primarily due to serologic status, indicating exposure to Mycoplasma testudineum (seven) or both M. agassizii and M. testudineum (two), and secondarily due to clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Group 2 consisted of two tortoises that were antibody-negative for Mycoplasma and had no clinical signs of URTD, but did have other signs of illness. Of the Group 1 tortoises, M. testudineum, but not M. agassizii, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA fingerprinted from two tortoises. Using light microscopy, mild to severe pathologic changes were observed in one or more histologic sections of either one or both nasal cavities of each tortoise in Group 1. Our findings support a causal relationship between M. testudineum and URTD in desert tortoises.

Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

2012-01-01

356

Interaction of Mycoplasma mobile 163K with erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma (M.) mobile 163K isolated from fish was investigated for its hemadsorbing, hemagglutinating, and hemolysing capacities and for its ability to adhere to erythrocytes. Hemadsorption to the colonies of M. mobile occurred with ovine, bovine, equine, trout, and carp erythrocytes and was inhibited by treatment of the mycoplasmas with substances acting on proteins (pronase, trypsin, glutaraldehyde), heat, UV-irradiation and homologous antiserum. Hemadsorption could be prevented also by treatment of the erythrocytes with neuraminidase. In liquid medium ovine erythrocytes were agglutinated and afterwards lysed by M. mobile. The erythrocytes which were adsorbed to the colonies of M. mobile were finally lysed also. Darkfield preparations showed the ability of M. mobile to adhere to erythrocytes and also its hemagglutinating properties. PMID:3439386

Fischer, M; Kirchhoff, H

1987-10-01

357

Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical samples.  

PubMed Central

We have used the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycoplasma genitalium in artificially seeded human throat swab samples as well as in clinical material. On the basis of the published nucleotide sequence of the M. genitalium 140-kDa adhesin gene, primers were chosen to produce an amplified fragment of 281 bp. Five different previously isolated strains, including the type strain of M. genitalium, could all be detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and DNAs from other mycoplasmal and bacterial species yielded negative results. The detection limits were estimated to be approximately 50 organisms by inspection of ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels and 4 organisms when a biotinylated oligonucleotide probe was used in filter hybridization. The amplified DNA fragments were subjected to restriction enzyme analysis. DNAs from the five different isolates all possessed EcoRI, SspI, AluI, Sau3AI, and DdeI restriction sites, as predicted from the published sequence. A total of 150 urogenital swabs collected from 100 patients for culturing of Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of M. genitalium DNA. Ten samples from eight patients were found positive. The amplified DNA fragments from all of our clinical samples possessed the AluI, Sau3AI, and DdeI restriction sites, but three samples from two patients did not contain the SspI site and none of the samples contained the EcoRI site. Images PMID:1993766

Jensen, J S; Uldum, S A; S?ndergard-Andersen, J; Vuust, J; Lind, K

1991-01-01

358

Molecular Characterization of Acquired Enrofloxacin Resistance in Mycoplasma synoviae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of enrofloxacin against 73 Mycoplasma synoviae field strains isolated in Israel and Europe was determined by broth microdilution. Decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin was identified in 59% of strains, with the MICs ranging from 1 to >16 ?g/ml. The estimated MIC50 and MIC90 values for enrofloxacin were 2 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. Moreover, this study showed that 92% of recent Israeli field isolates (2009 to 2011) of M. synoviae have MICs of ?2 ?g/ml to enrofloxacin. Comparison of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in M. synoviae isolates revealed a clear correlation between the presence of one of the amino acid substitutions Asp79-Asn, Thr80-Ala/Ile, Ser81-Pro, and Asp84-Asn/Tyr/His of the ParC QRDR and decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml). Amino acid substitutions at positions GyrA 87, GyrB 401/402, and ParE 420/454 were also identified, but there was no clear-cut correlation with susceptibility to enrofloxacin. Comparison of vlhA molecular profiles revealed the presence of 9 different genotypes in the Israeli M. synoviae field isolates and 10 genotypes in the European isolates; only one vlhA genotype (type 4) was identified in both cohorts. Based on results of vlhA molecular typing, several mechanisms for emergence and dissemination of Israeli enrofloxacin-resistant M. synoviae isolates are suggested. PMID:23612192

Gerchman, I.; Mikula, I.; Gobbo, F.; Catania, S.; Levisohn, S.

2013-01-01

359

Pulmonary function in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nine children between the ages of seven to 12 were studied. All of these children had an acute unilateral pneumonia caused byMycoplasma pneumoniae. Regional pulmonary function studies were performed with the aid of an Xe133 radio-spirometry. It was shown with this technique that the ventilation of the infected part was more reduced than the perfusion during the acute stage.

B. Kjellman

1976-01-01

360

Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides  

PubMed Central

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical ?(1?>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an antigenic switch constitutes a finely tuned mechanism that may be involved in virulence. PMID:23869216

Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

2013-01-01

361

A change in the genetic code in Mycoplasma capricolum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mycoplasma capricolum was previously found to use UGA instead of UGG as its codon for tryptophan and to contain 75 percent A + T in its DNA. The codon change could have been due to mutational pressure to replace C + G by A + T, resulting in the replacement of UGA stop codons by UAA, change of the anticodon in tryptophan tRNA from CCA to UCA, and replacement of UGG tryptophan codons by UGA. None of these changes should have been deleterious.

Jukes, T. H.

1985-01-01

362

Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Healthy Adolescents in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This study was designed to understand the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in healthy Taiwanese adolescents. The study included 2,233 college freshmen (female:male = 1.29:1; mean age, 19.7 years). The percentages of subjects residing in northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan were 66.91, 15.89, 9.0, and 8.2%, respectively. All enrolled subjects underwent a serologic agglutination test to detect serum

Chien-Min Kung; Hai-Lung Wang

363

Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors. PMID:25127103

Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

2014-09-01

364

High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT), M. hominis (MH), and U. urealyticum (UU) infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED), since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n = 114) and nondry eye control (n = 98) groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them. PMID:24967096

Boiko, Ernest V.; Pozniak, Alexei L.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.; Suetov, Alexei A.; Nuralova, Irina V.

2014-01-01

365

Serological Cross-Reaction Between Lipids of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma neurolyticum  

PubMed Central

The complement-fixing activity of crude lipid extracts of 10 Mycoplasma species was compared with that of whole organism antigens employing immune rabbit serum. Five species (M. pneumoniae, M. neurolyticum, M. granularum, M. laidlawii, and M. fermentans) showed serological activity, whereas the remaining five species (M. canis, M. felis, M. gallisepticum, M. hyorhinis, and M. pulmonis) did not show significant activity in their lipid fractions. The lipid fractions of the five species which had serological activity in their lipid fractions showed three groups of serological specificity. M. pneumoniae cross-reacted with M. neurolyticum, M. granularum cross-reacted with M. laidlawii, and M. fermentans showed specific activity. Acute and convalescent sera from human pneumonia patients from whom M. pneumoniae had been isolated showed antibody increases which could be measured nearly as well by lipids of M. neurolyticum as by those of M. pneumoniae. Only a few human convalescent sera showed antibody measureable by lipids of M. granularum, M. pneumoniae did not cross-react with M. neurolyticum by other serological parameters such as growth inhibition on agar or double immunodiffusion, indicating that only the lipid antigens of these two species cross-react. PMID:5154878

Kenny, George E.

1971-01-01

366

Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from local and imported cattle.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is an important and emerging pathogen of cattle. In this study, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was used to differentiate M. bovis type strain PG45 and 68 M. bovis field isolates, including 34 isolates from calves imported to Israel from Australia, Lithuania and Hungary in the period 2006-2011, 32 isolates from mastitic dairy cows in Israel in the period 2000-2011, one isolate from the pneumonic lungs of a calf in Israel in 2010 and one isolate from frozen bull semen in Israel in 2008. A total of 35 VNTR types were distinguished, including three, eight and 10 different VNTR types among isolates from calves imported from Australia, Hungary and Lithuania, respectively, and 17 VNTR types among isolates from dairy cows in Israel. The VNTR types in isolates from Lithuanian calves were not identified among isolates from Israeli dairy cows. VNTR type XX, present in the Hungarian group, was identified in one Israeli mastitis-associated isolate. A cluster of 16 M. bovis isolates from Israeli dairy cows possessed the same VNTR type III as three Australian isolates from a single shipment of calves in 2006. The other cluster of isolates contained M. bovis strain 883, isolated from a mastitic cow, strain 72236, isolated from a calf with pneumonia, two isolates from calves imported from Australia to the same farm 3 months previously and four isolates from calves in quarantine imported to Israel from Australia in 2009-2010. Multiple locus VNTR analysis is a useful tool for understanding the movement and spread of strains of M. bovis within and across international boundaries. PMID:23639372

Amram, Eytan; Freed, Mor; Khateb, Nihaya; Mikula, Inna; Blum, Shlomo; Spergser, Joachim; Sharir, Beny; Ozeri, Roni; Harrus, Shimon; Lysnyansky, Inna

2013-08-01

367

Kinetics and distribution of alcohol oxidising activity in Acholeplasma and Mycoplasma species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol metabolism by Acholeplasma and Mycoplasma cell suspensions was determined using changes in dissolved oxygen tension to monitor oxygen uptake. All seven Acholeplasma test species oxidised ethanol and (where tested) propanol, butanol and pentanol. The rate of oxidation, at any particular substrate concentration, decreased with increasing alcohol molecular mass. Amongst 20 Mycoplasma species tested, M. agalactiae, M. bovis, M. dispar,

Khaled K Abu-Amero; Elsir A. M Abu-Groun; Mahmoud A Halablab; Roger J Miles

2000-01-01

368

Reactive Species Mediate Inhibition of Alveolar Type II Sodium Transport during Mycoplasma Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant cause of pneumo- nia in humans. Objectives: To determine the impact of mycoplasma infection and the host inflammatory response on alveolar type II (ATII) cell ion transport in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Mice were infected with M. pulmonis for measurements of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in vivo and isolation of ATII cells. ATII

Judy M. Hickman-Davis; Ian C. Davis; He-Ping Ma; Glenda C. Davis; Charles A. Bosworth; Sadis Matalon

369

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Potentiation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Induced Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental model that demonstrates a mycoplasma species acting to potentiate a viral pneumonia was developed. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic, lymphohistiocytic bronchopneumonia in pigs, was found to potentiate the severity and the duration of a virus-induced pneumonia in pigs. Pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to, simultaneously with, or 10 days after inoculation with porcine

EILEEN L. THACKER; PATRICK G. HALBUR; RICHARD F. ROSS; ROONGROJE THANAWONGNUWECH; BRAD J. THACKER

370

Recovery of Mycoplasmas in the Study of Human Leukæmia and Other Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NUMEROUS reports have been published concerning the necessity of testing for the presence of mycoplasmas before the interpretation of experiments performed in cell cultures1-3,6. Such tests are especially important when the presence of viruses is suspected, since recent evidence indicates that some mycoplasmas are capable of eliciting a transmissible cytopathic effect4-7.

Anthony J. Girardi; Leonard Hayflick; ANDREW M. LEWIS; NORMAN L. SOMERSON

1965-01-01

371

Comparativestudyofmethods using Hoechst reagent and polychromatic staining for the detection of mycoplasma-  

E-print Network

of mycoplasma- like organisms in plants Marie-Thérèse COUSIN Pascale JOUY LN.R.A., Station de Pathologie of the plant. Howe- ver, no accurate information was provided on the presence of mycoplasmas. Use of aniline

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Autopsy and Open-Lung Biopsy Tissues by Nested PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nested PCR specific for the Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 gene was used to diagnose mycoplasma infection in two cohort patients with severe pneumonia within 24 h of tissue receipt. A postmortem diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection was obtained for the first patient, who died without the collection of appropriate paired samples for serodiagnosis. An open-lung biopsy obtained from the second

DEBORAH F. TALKINGTON; W. LANIER THACKER; DAVID W. KELLER; JØRGEN S. JENSEN

1998-01-01

373

Occurrence of mycoplasmas in free-ranging birds of prey in Germany.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are well-known avian pathogens of poultry and some passerines. Although reported in birds of prey, their role as pathogens is still unclear. Healthy, free-ranging raptor nestlings sampled during a routine ringing (banding) program, and birds of prey from rehabilitation centers, tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. by culture and a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given the lack of clinical signs and disease, we suggest that mycoplasmas in raptors may be commensal rather than pathogenic. Using immunobinding assay and species-specific PCR tests, Mycoplasma buteonis, M. falconis, and M. gypis were identified; M. falconis was only detected in falcons. Additionally, some isolates could not be identified. This is the first report of Mycoplasma spp. isolations from Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeroginosus), a Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo), and a Barn Owl (Tyto alba). PMID:18957640

Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Hernadez-Divers, S J; Hafez, H M

2008-10-01

374

Molecular identification of Mycoplasma cynos from laboratory beagle dogs with respiratory disease  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined a colony of 20 beagle dogs in a laboratory animal facility. Mycoplasma was detected by consensus PCR assay in 1 dog with respiratory and constitutional symptoms. None of the other dogs were affected. The dog was euthanized and necropsied. In postmortem examinations, gray or plum-colored gross lesions were found on the lung, most commonly in the apical and cardiac lobes. Some lesions showed clear demarcation and consolidation. Microscopic examination showed peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplasia and interstitial thickening, lesions pathognomonic for mycoplasma pneumonia. To identify canine Mycoplasma species, we used species-specific PCR reactions for M. arginini, M. canis, M. cynos, M. edwardii, M. felis, M. gateae, M. maculosum, M. molare, M. opalescens, M. spumans, Mycoplasma sp. HRC 689, and M. collis. As the result, we identified Mycoplasma cynos by amplification of DNA extracted from lung tissue of the laboratory beagle dog with respiratory disease. PMID:22474476

Hong, Sunhwa

2012-01-01

375

Cytoskeletal asymmetrical dumbbell structure of a gliding mycoplasma, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, revealed by negative-staining electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Several mycoplasma species feature a membrane protrusion at a cell pole, and unknown mechanisms provide gliding motility in the direction of the pole defined by the protrusion. Mycoplasma gallisepticum, an avian pathogen, is known to form a membrane protrusion composed of bleb and infrableb and to glide. Here, we analyzed the gliding motility of M. gallisepticum cells in detail. They glided in the direction of the bleb at an average speed of 0.4 microm/s and remained attached around the bleb to a glass surface, suggesting that the gliding mechanism is similar to that of a related species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Next, to elucidate the cytoskeletal structure of M. gallisepticum, we stripped the envelopes by treatment with Triton X-100 under various conditions and observed the remaining structure by negative-staining transmission electron microscopy. A unique cytoskeletal structure, about 300 nm long and 100 nm wide, was found in the bleb and infrableb. The structure, resembling an asymmetrical dumbbell, is composed of five major parts from the distal end: a cap, a small oval, a rod, a large oval, and a bowl. Sonication likely divided the asymmetrical dumbbell into a core and other structures. The cytoskeletal structures of M. gallisepticum were compared with those of M. pneumoniae in detail, and the possible protein components of these structures were considered. PMID:19286806

Nakane, Daisuke; Miyata, Makoto

2009-05-01

376

Characterization of a highly immunogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae lipoprotein Mhp366 identified by peptide-spot array.  

PubMed

Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly prevalent, chronic respiratory disease, which causes considerable economic losses in the swine industry. Most herds are vaccinated, but classical bacterin vaccines do not prevent colonization and it is not possible to detect flourishing M. hyopneumoniae infections in vaccinated herds since commonly used commercial ELISAs cannot differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. To solve this problem, new immunogenic proteins, up-regulated or solely expressed during infection, need to be identified. For this purpose a peptide-spot array was constructed which presents 105 potential linear B-cell epitopes identified by in silico analysis in 35 putative lipoproteins encoded on the genome of M. hyopneumoniae type strain 232. Subjecting this array to immunoblotting using porcine convalescent serum revealed a single strongly immunoreactive epitope on the Mhp366 protein which did not react with serum from bacterin-immunized pigs. In addition, it was not possible to detect Mhp366 in total cell lysates of in vitro grown M. hyopneumoniae strains, using a polyclonal rabbit serum raised against a recombinant GST-Mhp366 fusion protein. To investigate the possibility of using an Mhp366-based ELISA in the field for differentiating vaccinated herds with and without a flourishing infection it was shown that (i) homologues of the corresponding mhp366 gene were present in all 17 M. hyopneumoniae strains and porcine lung samples tested from different geographic origins and (ii) an ELISA based on epitope-specific synthetic peptides as solid phase antigen allowed a classification of field samples. Therefore, Mhp366 might be the first antigen identified which facilitates the detection of flourishing M. hyopneumoniae infections even in vaccinated herds. PMID:19913364

Meens, J; Bolotin, V; Frank, R; Böhmer, J; Gerlach, G-F

2010-05-19

377

Clinical and haematological characterisation of Mycoplasma suis infections in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anaemia in pigs (IAP), which can manifest in various degrees of severity depending on the virulence and the host's susceptibility. As M. suis cannot be cultured in vitro experimental infections of splenectomised animals play an essential role for pathogenesis research. The aim of the present study was to characterise the course of experimental infection using the highly virulent and red blood cell (RBC-) invasive M. suis strain KI3806, to compare the experimental course in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs and to correlate clinical and haematological parameters with M. suis blood loads. All infected splenectomised pigs (n=7) were PCR-positive 2 days post infection (DPI) with maximum mean bacterial loads of 1.61 × 10(10)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed severe anaemia and massive hypoglycaemia by 8 DPI and had to be euthanised preterm (until 8 DPI) without seroconversion. The non-splenectomised pigs (n=7) became PCR-positive within 23 DPI and reached a maximum mean M. suis load of 1.64 × 10(5)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed mild anaemia, massive skin alterations with petechiae and haemorrhagic diathesis and seroconverted within 35 DPI. The study demonstrated that experimental infection of splenectomised pigs with the highly virulent M. suis strain KI3806 induces a fulminant course of infection. In contrast, M. suis strain KI3806 induces a mild course of disease in non-splenectomised pigs, which resembles the situation in naturally infected pigs. Therefore, these infection models are valuable for future pathogenesis studies on acute and chronic M. suis infections. PMID:24933162

Stadler, J; Jannasch, C; Mack, S L; Dietz, S; Zöls, S; Ritzmann, M; Hoelzle, K; Hoelzle, L E

2014-08-01

378

Factors influencing the cell adhesion and invasion capacity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background The cell invasiveness of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the causative agent of respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, may be a substantial factor in the well-known chronicity of these diseases and in the systemic spread of infection. To date, not much is known about the host factors and mechanisms involved in promotion or obstruction of M. gallisepticum adherence and/or cell invasion. In the current study, the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin, collagen type IV and heparin, as well as plasminogen/plasmin, on the adhesion and cell invasion levels of M. gallisepticum to chicken erythrocytes and HeLa cells was investigated in vitro. Two strains, Rhigh and Rlow, which differ in their adhesion and invasion capacity, were analyzed by applying a modified gentamicin invasion assay. Binding of selected ECM molecules to M. gallisepticum was proven by Western blot analysis. Results Collagen type IV, fibronectin, and plasminogen exerted positive effects on adhesion and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum, with varying degrees, depending on the strain used. Especially strain Rhigh, with its highly reduced cell adhesion and invasion capabilities seemed to profit from the addition of plasminogen. Western and dot blot analyses showed that Rhigh as well as Rlow are able to adsorb horse fibronectin and plasminogen present in the growth medium. Depletion of HeLa cell membranes from cholesterol resulted in increased adhesion, but decreased cell invasion. Conclusion ECM molecules seem to play a supportive role in the adhesion/cell invasion process of M. gallisepticum. Cholesterol depletion known to affect lipid rafts on the host cell surface had contrary effects on cell adherence and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum. PMID:24011130

2013-01-01

379

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mycoplasma bovis? †  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis field isolates to antibiotics is important for the appropriate choice of treatment. However, in vitro susceptibility testing of mycoplasmas is technically demanding and time-consuming, especially for clinical isolates, and is rarely performed in mycoplasma diagnostic laboratories. Thus, the development of methods allowing rapid real-time detection of resistant strains of M. bovis in clinical samples is a high priority for successful treatment. In this study, a novel TaqMan single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) real-time PCR assay, which enables the rapid identification of M. bovis strains with different susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, was developed and evaluated. The TaqMan SNP real-time PCR assay is based on the amplification of a 97-bp fragment of the parC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) and allows the specific detection of four possible genotypes: GAC or GAT (susceptible to fluoroquinolones) and AAC or AAT (resistant to fluoroquinolones). Four TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probes identifying 1-base mismatches were designed and applied in a dual-probe assay with two reaction tubes. The TaqMan SNP real-time PCRs developed are highly specific for M. bovis, with a detection limit of 5 fg/?l (about 5 M. bovis genomes). In addition, all four SNP real-time PCR tests have almost the same efficiency (97.7% [GAC], 94% [AAC], 99.99% [GAT], and 98% [AAT]). Taken together, the data suggest that this SNP real-time PCR assay has potential as a routine diagnostic test for the detection of decreased susceptibility of M. bovis to fluoroquinolones. PMID:20534803

Ben Shabat, M.; Mikula, I.; Gerchman, I.; Lysnyansky, I.

2010-01-01

380

Molecular detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in a lion (Panthera leo) from a Brazilian zoological garden.  

PubMed

Although Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections have been reported in wild cats from United States, their presence among native and captive wild cats in Brazil is still unknown. A 12 year old healthy male lion (Panthera leo) from the Zoological Garden of Curitiba, Brazil was anesthetized for transportation and dental evaluation. A blood sample was obtained for a complete blood cell count (CBC) and PCR analysis. DNA was extracted and fragments of Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified in PCR assays. CBC results were within reference intervals. A weak band of 192 pb for "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was observed, and no band was amplified from Mycoplasma haemofelis reaction. A weak PCR band associated with normal CBC results and without visible parasitemia or clinical signs may suggest a chronic subclinical infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum". The lack of clinical signs may also represent the low pathogenicity of this organism; however, it is noteworthy that immune suppression caused by management and/or corticoids treatment may induce parasitemia and anemia in this animal. This detection suggests further studies in captive wild cats in Brazilian Zoological Gardens. PMID:17625699

Guimaraes, Ana M S; Javorouski, Manoel L; Bonat, Marcelo; Lacerda, Oneida; Balbinotti, Bruna; Queiroz, Lucyenne G P B; Timenetsky, Jorge; Biondo, Alexander W; Messick, Joanne B

2007-01-01

381

Mycoplasmas isolated from stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) used in falconry in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. from quarry to hunting falcons in the Middle East. Groups of 17 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata) and 29 stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) kept at three different private collections in Dubai were evaluated for the presence of Mycoplasma. Additionally, 10 falcons used for hunting were investigated for comparison. The falcons showed no clinical signs and were examined within the scope of a routine health check. From all birds, conjunctival and choanal swabs were taken and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction and culture. Although mycoplasmas were not recovered from choanal and conjunctival swabs taken from the houbara bustards, Mycoplasma gypis and M. falconis were isolated from the majority (28/29; 97%) of the stone curlews from choanal and conjunctival swabs. Most of the birds had no associated pathologic findings. Mycoplasma falconis was also detected in samples collected from 2 of the 10 falcons, and M. buteonis was isolated from the majority of falcons (6/10 falcons) from choanal (n = 5) and conjunctival (n = 1) swabs. Mycoplasma gypis could also be isolated from tissue samples (liver, oviduct, syrinx) of one dead stone curlew. This study presents the first isolation of mycoplasmas from stone curlews. PMID:19569479

Schmidt, Volker; Spergser, Joachim; Cramer, Kerstin; Di Somma, Antonio; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bailey, Tom

2009-06-01

382

Development and validation of an attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and low mortality in swine, and has been presented as a major cause of growth retardation in the swine industry. Aerosol vaccination presents a needle free, high throughput, and efficient platform for vaccine delivery, and has been widely applied in poultry vaccination. However, aerosol vaccines have rarely been used in swine vaccination primarily because the long and curving respiratory track of swine presents a barrier for vaccine particle delivery. To develop an effective M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine, three major barriers need to be overcome: to optimize particle size for aerosol delivery, to maintain the viability of mycoplasma cells in the vaccine, and to optimize the environmental conditions for vaccine delivery. In this study, an aerosol mycoplasma vaccine was successfully developed based on a conventional live attenuated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. Specifically, the Pari LCD nebulizer was used to produce an aerosol vaccine particle size less than 5 ?m; and a buffer with 5% glycerol was developed and optimized to prevent inactivation of M. hyopneumoniae caused by aerosolization and evaporation. Before nebulization, the room temperature and relative humidity were control to 20-25 °C and 70-75%, respectively, which helped maintain the viability of aerosol vaccine. Animal experiments demonstrated that this newly developed aerosol vaccine was effectively delivered to swine low respiratory track, being confirmed by nested-PCR, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae specific sIgA secretion was detected in the nasal swab samples at 14 days post-immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a live M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine. PMID:24035264

Feng, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Yan-Na; Li, Gui-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Pharr, G Todd; Wang, Zhan-Wei; Kong, Meng; Gan, Yuan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

2013-12-27

383

Dendritic Cells Are the Major Antigen Presenting Cells in Inflammatory Lesions of Murine Mycoplasma Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas cause chronic respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and to date, development of vaccines have been problematic. Using a murine model of mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphocyte responses, specifically T cells, were shown to confer protection as well as promote immunopathology in mycoplasma disease. Because T cells play such a critical role, it is important to define the role of antigen presenting cells (APC) as these cells may influence either exacerbation of mycoplasma disease pathogenesis or enhancement of protective immunity. The roles of APC, such as dendritic cells and/or macrophages, and their ability to modulate adaptive immunity in mycoplasma disease are currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify individual pulmonary APC populations that may contribute to the activation of T cell responses during mycoplasma disease pathogenesis. The present study indeed demonstrates increasing numbers of CD11c? F4/80+ cells, which contain macrophages, and more mature/activated CD11c+ F4/80? cells, containing DC, in the lungs after infection. CD11c? F4/80+ macrophage-enriched cells and CD11c+ F4/80? dendritic cell-enriched populations showed different patterns of cytokine mRNA expression, supporting the idea that these cells have different impacts on immunity in response to infection. In fact, DC containing CD11c+ F4/80? cell populations from the lungs of infected mice were most capable of stimulating mycoplasma-specific CD4+ Th cell responses in vitro. In vivo, these CD11c+F4/80? cells were co-localized with CD4+ Th cells in inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs of mycoplasma-infected mice. Thus, CD11c+F4/80? dendritic cells appear to be the major APC population responsible for pulmonary T cell stimulation in mycoplasma-infected mice, and these dendritic cells likely contribute to responses impacting disease pathogenesis. PMID:23390557

Sun, Xiangle; Jones, Harlan P.; Dobbs, Nicole; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Simecka, Jerry W.

2013-01-01

384

Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with ?-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the ?-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and ?-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to ?-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class. PMID:24643287

Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

2014-12-01

385

Hydrogen peroxide production and free radical-mediated cell stress in Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis causes chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot cattle. M. bovis infects the lungs of most feedlot cattle, but the majority of calves never develop disease. Competing explanations are that some strains of M. bovis are more virulent than others or, alternatively, that calves require some other abnormality to be present in order for M. bovis to cause disease. We hypothesize that H2O2 production is an important virulence factor of M. bovis, causing oxidative injury to lung tissue. A second hypothesis is that isolates associated with caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia have an increased capacity for H2O2 production. Immunohistochemical markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal, HN) and nitrative stress (3-nitrotyrosine, NT) were compared in lungs of calves with caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia characteristic of M. bovis infection, with other forms of bronchopneumonia or with non-inflamed lungs. HN and NT were identified in M. bovis pneumonia, mainly in foci of caseous necrosis. HN was not observed in inflamed non-necrotic tissue in lesions typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. H2O2 production by M. bovis was identified, but the levels did not differ in isolates from calves with caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia compared with those with non-inflamed lungs or other forms of pneumonia. These findings provide evidence that oxidative and nitrative injury contribute to the formation of the caseonecrotic lesions that are characteristic of M. bovis pneumonia and that production of H2O2 by M. bovis may contribute to this oxidative injury. PMID:24064048

Schott, C; Cai, H; Parker, L; Bateman, K G; Caswell, J L

2014-01-01

386

Experimental reproduction of Mycoplasma gallisepticum disease in chukar partridges (Alectoris graeca).  

PubMed

An outbreak of conjunctivitis and severe respiratory disease occurred in an integrated chukar partridge (Alectoris graeca) operation that involved about 8000 birds. The main clinical features were conjunctivitis and sinusitis and frequent mouth breathing, but almost no gasping or coughing. In 1000 breeders, egg production declined from 73% to 20%. Morbidity reached 100%, and losses from mortality and culling approached 60%. At necropsy, a conjunctivitis (often bilateral) and extensive caseated sinusitis were common. There was an occasional slight mucoid tracheitis, but no significant air sac lesions were noted. Mycoplasma gallisepticum, designated strain GM1125, was isolated and identified. Exposure of susceptible chukars to GM1125 reproduced the field disease. GM1125 was reisolated from the conjunctiva of all exposed birds 12 days postinfection, but infrequently from there or the respiratory system 36 days postexposure, even though clinical disease was still present. The experimental disease was confined to the conjunctiva and the upper respiratory tract. An occasional mucoid tracheitis was noted, but generally, the lungs and air sacs were not involved. Infection was followed by an appreciable serological response to M. gallisepticum. PMID:8790893

McMartin, D A; DaMassa, A J; McKeen, W D; Read, D; Daft, B; Lam, K M

1996-01-01

387

Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep

2014-01-01

388

Recovery of Mycoplasma agalactiae from the ears of goats experimentally infected by the intramammary route.  

PubMed

The role of inapparent carriers of Mycoplasma agalactiae and the strategies used to colonise the external ear canal in goats remain unclear. This study examined the ability of M. agalactiae to colonise the ears of goats infected experimentally by the intramammary route. The right mammary glands of 15 lactating goats were inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu) of M. agalactiae. The goats were randomly assigned to three groups of five animals each and sampled at slaughter at 5, 15 or 45 days post-infection (dpi). A further four goats served as uninfected controls. Right and left ear swabs were collected for detection of M. agalactiae by culture before and after sacrifice. M. agalactiae was detected in 19/20 (95%) ear swabs from goats sampled at 15 and 45dpi, whereas all ear swabs collected before inoculation, ear swabs collected from the group sampled at 5dpi and ear swabs from control goats at the time of sacrifice were negative for M. agalactiae. Blood samples collected at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h post-infection for detection of M. agalactiae by culture were also negative. There were differences in the antigenic profiles of isolates recovered from the ears compared to the 7MAG strain used to inoculate the animals and most isolates from the mammary gland, milk and supramammary lymph nodes. PMID:20961778

de la Fe, Christian; Castro-Alonso, A; Herráez, P; Poveda, José B

2011-10-01

389

GapA+ Mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 has improved vaccine characteristics.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important poultry pathogen that causes respiratory disease and loss of production worldwide, and is currently controlled with live attenuated vaccines. These vaccines have limitations as they vary in their pathogenicity, the protection afforded and their transmissibility, but have been shown to effectively reduce losses associated with challenge in the field. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of M. gallisepticum in several countries. This vaccine is highly dose-dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. GapA is the primary cytadherence molecule in M. gallisepticum, and the absence of GapA expression has been observed in the vast majority of cells in the ts-11 vaccine strain. In this study the immunogenicity of a GapA(+) M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine was investigated in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Birds vaccinated with GapA(+) M. gallisepticum ts-11 were protected against clinical signs of disease following challenge with virulent M. gallisepticum, and GapA(+) M. gallisepticum ts-11 was shown to be non-pathogenic and more immunogenic at a lower dose than the currently available M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine. Thus, GapA(+) M. gallisepticum ts-11 appears to have improved potential as a vaccine candidate. PMID:21310786

Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Marenda, Marc S; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Markham, Philip F

2011-06-01

390

Detection and characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae during an outbreak of respiratory illness at a university.  

PubMed

An outbreak at a university in Georgia was identified after 83 cases of probable pneumonia were reported among students. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 21 students for the outbreak investigation. The TaqMan array card (TAC), a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based multipathogen detection technology, was used to initially identify Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the causative agent in this outbreak. TAC demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity and sensitivity compared to those of the multiplex qPCR assay for this agent. All M. pneumoniae specimens (n=12) and isolates (n=10) were found through genetic analysis to be susceptible to macrolide antibiotics. The strain diversity of M. pneumoniae associated with this outbreak setting was identified using a variety of molecular typing procedures, resulting in two P1 genotypes (types 1 [60%] and 2 [40%]) and seven different multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles. Continued molecular typing of this organism, particularly during outbreaks, may enhance the current understanding of the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae and may ultimately lead to a more effective public health response. PMID:24371236

Waller, Jessica L; Diaz, Maureen H; Petrone, Brianna L; Benitez, Alvaro J; Wolff, Bernard J; Edison, Laura; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Moore, Ashley; Martyn, Audrey; Dishman, Hope; Drenzek, Cherie L; Turner, Kim; Hicks, Lauri A; Winchell, Jonas M

2014-03-01

391

Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA) isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA) was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers. PMID:22920649

2012-01-01

392

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia—Experience at a Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia is usually a benign illness, and respiratory complications and extrapulmonary manifestations occur rarely. In this series, patients admitted to a referral hospital with this disorder had unusual symptoms, signs and findings on chest roentgenograms and laboratory studies. Pneumonia was often severe and extrapulmonary manifestations were frequent, resulting in prolonged hospital stays and illnesses. Although this extreme end of the spectrum of disease caused by M pneumoniae is not representative of this type of pneumonia as seen in outpatients, it is important to realize that patients admitted to hospital with severe, complicated pneumonia frequently have unusual manifestations of a common disease. PMID:6741120

Linz, Douglas H.; Tolle, Susan W.; Elliot, Diane L.

1984-01-01

393

Mycoplasma felis pleuritis in two show-jumper horses.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma felis was identified as the cause of acute pleuritis in 2 show-jumping horses. The pleural exudate was proteinaceous, contained large numbers of neutrophils, and had a markedly increased lactate concentration. M. felis was isolated in pure culture from pleural fluid. Rising serum antibody titers to M. felis as well as a precipitous decline in titers to equine influenza virus were demonstrated in both horses. Pleural effusion in both horses and a pneumothorax detected in one of the horses resolved following a single drainage of pleural fluid and intravenous fluid, antibiotic, and analgesic therapy. PMID:1623728

Hoffman, A M; Baird, J D; Kloeze, H J; Rosendal, S; Bell, M

1992-04-01

394

[Liver disorders in patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia].  

PubMed

Liver disorders were reviewed in 76 patients with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) admitted to Kamo Hospital from 1979 to 1989. Liver dysfunction was detected in 16 patients (21%). Liver disorder were detected in 10% of MP from 1979 to 1980, but in 20% from 1984 to 1985, and in 36% from 1988 to 1989. By multiple regression analysis CRP was found to be the most significant factor among other factors such as prevalence, age, sex, history of smoking, history of drinking, and days after onset of fever. PMID:1895585

Watanabe, Y; Kanayama, H; Kato, K; Kanbe, T; Matsui, H; Mitani, S; Yoshino, M; Nishiyama, Y

1991-06-01

395

The metabolic pathways of Acholeplasma and Mycoplasma: an overview.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of the Mollicutes Acholeplasma and Mycoplasma may be characterized as restricted, for example, by virtue of the apparent absence of cytochrome pigments. Some Mollicutes have lowered ECA values during their logarithmic growth phase, which we speculate may be related to insufficient substrate phosphorylation or insufficient ATP synthesis linked to glycolysis. We found that PEP is carboxylated by preparations of A. laidlawii, but not by other Mollicutes; thus in this organism oxaloacetate from PEP may be a link to other pathways. We found phosphoribosylpyrophosphate in A. laidlawii, which suggests that ribosylation of purines and pyrimidines occurs in Mollicutes other than M. mycoides. PMID:6206660

Pollack, J. D.; Tryon, V. V.; Beaman, K. D.

1983-01-01

396

Pyothorax associated with a Mycoplasma sp and Arcanobacterium pyogenes in a kitten.  

PubMed

Pyothorax associated with a Mycoplasma sp and Arcanobacterium pyogenes was diagnosed at necropsy in a 1-month-old female Van kitten. The pleural cavity contained approximately 50 mL of blood-tinged, reddish-brown, nonodourous fluid bilaterally. Gram positive coccobacilli were seen in the exudate from necrotic plaques on the pleurae. Mycoplasma sp and A pyogenes were isolated from a sample of the fluid in the pleural cavity. The concomitant presence of Mycoplasma sp and A pyogenes could be considered another variation on the polymicrobial nature of pyothorax and associated pleural lesions in cats. PMID:12153057

Gulbahar, M Y; Gurturk, K

2002-06-01

397

Isolation of acholeplasmas and a mycoplasma from vegetables.  

PubMed Central

The isolation of Mollicutes from food has not been reported. To isolate Mollicutes in the presence of high levels of unwanted bacteria, we first incubated fresh vegetables in liquid culture media containing lysozyme, ampicillin, and thallous acetate. Culture fluids were than separated from the vegetable samples, subjected to one freeze-thaw cycle, and passed through a filter of 0.4-micron porosity. Filtered samples were cultured in SP4 medium and in a conventional medium containing horse serum. With this procedure 21 acholeplasma isolations representing three species were obtained from endive, broccoli, and kale. Of 35 food samples tested, 11 were positive for acholeplasmas; acholeplasmas isolated from 6 of these samples were recovered only in SP4 medium. In seven single vegetable samples, two or more Acholeplasma spp. were isolated. A. laidlawii was isolated from all three vegetables and A. axanthum was found in broccoli and kale. Four isolates were serologically identified as A. oculi. Mycoplasma verecundum was the only Mycoplasma species recovered. Several isolates could not be typed serologically, as they reacted with antisera to both A. morum and A. hippikon. these isolates may include new Acholeplasma spp. PMID:7036899

Somerson, N L; Kocka, J P; Rose, D; Del Giudice, R A

1982-01-01

398

Identification of Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutants of Mycoplasma pulmonis  

PubMed Central

Summary The presence of capsular exopolysaccharide (EPS) in Mollicutes has been inferred from electron micrographs for over fifty years without conclusive data to support the production of complex carbohydrates by the organism. Mycoplasma pulmonis binds the lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I (GS-I), which is specific for terminal ?-linked galactose residues. Mutants that failed to produce the EPS bound by GS-I were isolated from a transposon library. All of the mutants had the transposon located in open reading frame MYPU_7410 or MYPU_7420. These overlapping genes are predicted to code for a heterodimeric pair of ABC transporter permeases and may code for part of a new pathway for synthesis of EPS. Analysis by lectin-affinity chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography demonstrated that the wild-type mycoplasma produced an EPS (EPS-I) composed of equimolar amounts of glucose and galactose that was lacking in the mutants. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the mutants had an increased propensity to form a biofilm on glass surfaces, colonized mouse lung and trachea efficiently, but had a decreased association with the A549 lung cell line. Confounding the interpretation of these results is the observation that the mutants missing EPS-I had an 8-fold overproduction of an apparent second EPS (EPS-II) containing N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:19432800

Daubenspeck, James M.; Bolland, Jeffrey R.; Luo, Wenyi; Simmons, Warren L.; Dybvig, Kevin

2009-01-01

399

Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W., III; Stephenson, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

400

Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks.  

PubMed

Contagious agalactia (CA) is among the most significant diseases affecting small ruminant populations in Mediterranean countries. This study was designed to detect the excretion in semen of CA-causing mycoplasmas in goats (Capra hircus) reared in Spain, where the disease is considered endemic. Culture techniques and PCR were conducted on 147 semen samples collected from 113 goat bucks to detect mycoplasmas. No animal showed clinical symptoms of CA at the moment of the screening. M. agalactiae was identified using both diagnostic methods in three semen samples collected from three different bucks. These animals belonged to a group of animals in which semen had been analyzed twice and only the second sample proved positive, suggesting the possibility of intermittent excretion. This is the first report of the isolation of M. agalactiae from semen collected from naturally infected goats. Future studies should investigate whether semen could be a real source of CA infection by determining if the agent may be transmitted during natural service or when semen is used for artificial insemination. PMID:19773063

de la Fe, C; Amores, J; Martín, A Gómez; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C

2009-12-01

401

Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides and Stress Response in Mycoplasma pulmonis  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are widely distributed in nature, and in vertebrates, they play a key function in the innate immune defense system. It is generally agreed that these molecules may provide new antibiotics with therapeutic value. However, there are still many unsolved questions regarding the mechanisms underlying their antimicrobial activity as well as the mechanisms of resistance evolved by microorganisms against these molecules. The second point was addressed in this study. After determining the activity of 10 antimicrobial peptides against Mycoplasma pulmonis, a murine respiratory pathogen, the development of resistance was investigated. Following in vitro selection using subinhibitory concentrations of peptides, clones of this bacterium showing increased resistance to melittin or gramicidin D were obtained. For some of the clones, a cross-resistance was observed between these two peptides, in spite of their deep structural differences, and also with tetracycline. A proteomic analysis suggested that the stress response in these clones was constitutively activated, and this was confirmed by finding mutations in the hrcA gene; in mycoplasmas, bacteria which lack alternative sigma factors, the HrcA protein is supposed to play a key role as a negative regulator of heat shock proteins. By complementation of the hrcA mutants with the wild-type gene, the initial MICs of melittin and gramicidin D decreased to values close to the initial ones. This indicates that the resistance of M. pulmonis to these two antimicrobial peptides could result from a stress response involving HrcA-regulated genes. PMID:16189093

Fehri, Lina Fassi; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gourgues, Geraldine; Jan, Gwenael; Wroblewski, Henri; Blanchard, Alain

2005-01-01

402

Can American goldfinches function as reservoirs for Mycoplasma gallisepticum?  

PubMed

We performed experiments to test if American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) could be a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and play a role in the epidemic spread of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis among House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in North America. We infected one of two individuals housed together in a cage and determined if transmission occurred to the second bird. Probability of transmission between an American Goldfinch and a House Finch (in either direction) was similar to that between two House Finches. In a second experiment small groups of birds (6-8) were housed in large aviaries. Two source birds were inoculated with M. gallisepticum, and transmission to the naive birds in the aviary was recorded. Transmission occurred among House Finches, among American Goldfinches, and from House Finches to American Goldfinches. Transmission was more likely between House Finches than among American Goldfinches, and between House Finches and American Goldfinches. We conclude that American Goldfinches are a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and could have played a role in the spread of the epidemic as they are more migratory than House Finches. PMID:23307371

Dhondt, André A; Dhondt, Keila V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Schat, Karel A

2013-01-01

403

Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli mixed infection model in broiler chickens for studying valnemulin pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

A Mycoplasma gallisepticum-Escherichia coli mixed infection model was developed in broiler chickens, which was applied to pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in the present experiment. The velogenic M. gallisepticum standard strain S6 was rejuvenated to establish the animal model, and the wild E. coli strain O78 was injected as supplementary inoculum to induce chronic respiratory disease in chickens. The disease model was evaluated based on its clinical signs, histopathological examination, bacteriological assay, and serum plate agglutination test. The pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in infected chickens was determined by intramuscular (i.m.) injection and oral administration (per os, p.o.) of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration-time curve of valnemulin was analyzed using the noncompartmental method. After the i.m. administration, the mean values of Cmax , Tmax , AUClast , MRT, CL? /F, Vz /F, and t1?2? , were 27.94 ?g/mL, 1.57 h, 171.63 ?g·h/mL, 4.51 h, 0.06 L/h/kg, 0.56 L/kg, and 6.50 h, respectively. By contrast, the corresponding values after p.o. administration were 5.93 ?g/mL, 7.14 h, 47.60 ?g·h/mL, 9.80 h, 0.22 L/h/kg, 3.35 L/kg, and 10.60 h. The disposition of valnemulin was retarded in infected chickens after both modes of extravascular administration as compared to the healthy controls. More attention should be given to monitoring the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of mixed infection because of higher required plasma drug concentration and enlarged AUC with valnemulin treatment. PMID:23782411

Xiao, X; Zhao, D H; Yang, X; Shi, W; Deng, H; Ma, J; Zhang, S; Liu, Y H

2014-02-01

404

Role of Mycoplasma Membranes in the Pathogenesis of Primary Atypical Pneumonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary atypical pneumonia, caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, is a significant health problem among military recruits. The current study was designed to yield information on the mechanism of pathogenesis in this disease. Special processes for the cultivati...

M. G. Gabridge

1973-01-01

405

DEMONSTRATION OF MULTIPLE ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS ON 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' ATTACHMENT PROTEIN BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Distinct multiple antigenic determinants of the attachment protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been identified by limited proteolytic cleavage using specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blots prepared from the gels containing the cleaved fragments were probed with antiserum ...

406

9 CFR 147.7 - Standard test procedures for mycoplasma. 5  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for mycoplasma. 5 147.7 Section 147.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.7 Standard test...

2012-01-01

407

9 CFR 147.7 - Standard test procedures for mycoplasma. 5  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for mycoplasma. 5 147.7 Section 147.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.7 Standard test...

2011-01-01

408

9 CFR 147.7 - Standard test procedures for mycoplasma. 5  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for mycoplasma. 5 147.7 Section 147.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.7 Standard test...

2010-01-01

409

9 CFR 147.7 - Standard test procedures for mycoplasma. 5  

...for mycoplasma. 5 147.7 Section 147.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.7 Standard test...

2014-01-01

410

9 CFR 147.7 - Standard test procedures for mycoplasma. 5  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for mycoplasma. 5 147.7 Section 147.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.7 Standard test...

2013-01-01

411

Mycoplasma Contamination of Cell Cultures: Vesicular Traffic in Bacteria and Control over Infectious Agents.  

PubMed

Cell cultures are subject to contamination either with cells of other cultures or with microorganisms, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is of particular importance. Since cell cultures are used for the production of vaccines and physiologically active compounds, designing a system for controlling contaminants becomes topical for fundamental science and biotechnological production. The discovery of extracellular membrane vesicles in mycoplasmas makes it necessary to take into consideration the bacterial vesicular traffic in systems designed for controlling infectious agents. The extracellular vesicles of bacteria mediate the traffic of proteins and genes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions, as well as in the pathogenesis and development of resistance to antibiotics. The present review discusses the features of mycoplasmas, their extracellular vesicles, and the interaction between contaminants and eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, it provides an analysis of the problems associated with modern methods of diagnosis and eradication of mycoplasma contamination from cell cultures and prospects for their solution. PMID:25349713

Chernov, V M; Chernova, O A; Sanchez-Vega, J T; Kolpakov, A I; Ilinskaya, O N

2014-07-01

412

Mycoplasma Contamination of Cell Cultures: Vesicular Traffic in Bacteria and Control over Infectious Agents  

PubMed Central

Cell cultures are subject to contamination either with cells of other cultures or with microorganisms, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is of particular importance. Since cell cultures are used for the production of vaccines and physiologically active compounds, designing a system for controlling contaminants becomes topical for fundamental science and biotechnological production. The discovery of extracellular membrane vesicles in mycoplasmas makes it necessary to take into consideration the bacterial vesicular traffic in systems designed for controlling infectious agents. The extracellular vesicles of bacteria mediate the traffic of proteins and genes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions, as well as in the pathogenesis and development of resistance to antibiotics. The present review discusses the features of mycoplasmas, their extracellular vesicles, and the interaction between contaminants and eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, it provides an analysis of the problems associated with modern methods of diagnosis and eradication of mycoplasma contamination from cell cultures and prospects for their solution. PMID:25349713

Chernov, V. M.; Chernova, O. A.; Sanchez-Vega, J. T.; Kolpakov, A. I.; Ilinskaya, O. N.

2014-01-01

413

Cluster of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections in Illinois in 2012  

PubMed Central

Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an increasing problem worldwide but is not well documented in the United States. We report a cluster of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae cases among a mother and two daughters. PMID:23966493

Pritzker, Bernard B.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Hicks, Lauri A.; Petrone, Brianna; Benitez, Alvaro; Wolff, Bernard J.; Soyemi, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

414

MRI appearances of the CNS manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients are reported with Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related cervical myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging in each case demonstrated clinically silent lesions suggesting more extensive neurological involvement. This supports the concept of widespread immunologically mediated disease occurring as a remote effect of initial M. pneumoniae respiratory infection. Differences from the MRI appearances of a patient with mycoplasma-related Guillian-Barré syndrome imply that more than

D. A. Francis; A. Brown; D. H. Miller; C. M. Wiles; E. D. Bennett; N. Leigh

1988-01-01

415

MRI appearances of the CNS manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two patients are reported with Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related cervical myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging in each case demonstrated clinically silent lesions suggesting more extensive neurological involvement. This supports the concept of widespread immunologically mediated disease occurring as a remote effect of initial M. pneumoniae respiratory infection. Differences from the MRI appearances of a patient with mycoplasma-related Guillian-Barré syndrome imply that more than one antigenic determinant is involved. PMID:3221251

Francis, D A; Brown, A; Miller, D H; Wiles, C M; Bennett, E D; Leigh, N

1988-09-01

416

Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry environment samples by culture and polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) by culture and PCR from samples collected in the environment of experimentally infected chickens and turkeys, or under field conditions, is described. Results showed that in the experimental infection, 10\\/96 and 46\\/96 samples of food, drinking water, feathers, droppings or dust were positive by culture and Mycoplasma-PCR. In field conditions, the number of positive

Corinne Marois; Fabienne Oufour-Gesbert; Isabelle Kempf

2000-01-01

417

Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms,\\u000a the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally\\u000a detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory

Edward Yang; Talissa Altes; Sudha A. Anupindi

2008-01-01

418

The minimum inhibitory concentration of kitasamycin, tylosin and tiamulin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and their protective effect on infected chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentration (m.i.c.) of kitasamycin, tylosin and tiamulin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) were compared with 10, 10, and 10 CFU\\/ml of the organisms with the drug incorporated in mycoplasma agar. The lowest m.i.c. was obtained with tiamulin and the highest with kitasamycin and, in general, the m.i.c.’s were directly influenced by the concentration of mycoplasmas.Chick embryos at 19

F. T. W. Jordan; Daryl Knight

1984-01-01

419

Molecular Characterization of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum pvpA Gene Which Encodes a Putative Variable Cytadhesin Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A putative cytadhesin-related protein (PvpA) undergoing variation in its expression was identified in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The pvpA gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and se- quenced. It exhibits 54 and 52% homology with the P30 and P32 cytadhesin proteins of the human pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. In addition, 50% homology was found with

S. Boguslavsky; D. Menaker; I. Lysnyansky; T. Liu; S. Levisohn; R. Rosengarten; M. Garcia; D. Yogev

2000-01-01

420

Electrophoretic Analysis of Indian Isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis by SDS-PAGE and Immunoblotting.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis both are responsible for respiratory conditions in sheep and goats. M. agalactiae is a major pathogen of sheep and goats and accounts for almost 90% of outbreaks of contagious agalactia syndrome in goats and almost 100% in sheep. On the basis of clinical signs and cultural, morphological, and biochemical characterization it is almost impossible to differentiate between both the species. Moreover, due to presence of genomic and proteomic similarity most of the time routine diagnostic tests fail to differentiate between them. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the protein profile of isolates of both the species by SDS-PAGE and to find out the cross-reacting as well as differentiating immunogenic proteins by Immunoblotting, which can be of immunoprophylactic as well as diagnostic values. The study revealed 6-7 major immunogenic cross-reactive proteins with the presence of two important non-cross-reacting species specific polypeptides particularly 25.50 and 24.54?kDa in M. agalactiae and M. bovis, respectively, that might be of diagnostic values. PMID:24808973

Kumar, Amit; Srivastava, N C; Singh, V P; Sunder, Jai

2014-01-01

421

The Effect of Multiple Evolutionary Selections on Synonymous Codon Usage of Genes in the Mycoplasma bovis Genome  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen causing arthritis, respiratory disease and mastitis in cattle. A better understanding of its genetic features and evolution might represent evidences of surviving host environments. In this study, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in M. bovis (three strains’ genomes) were analyzed. The overall nucleotide content of genes in the M. bovis genome is AT-rich. Although the G and C contents at the third codon position of genes in the leading strand differ from those in the lagging strand (p<0.05), the 59 synonymous codon usage patterns of genes in the leading strand are highly similar to those in the lagging strand. The over-represented codons and the under-represented codons were identified. A comparison of the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis and cattle (susceptible host) indicated the independent formation of synonymous codon usage of M. bovis. Principal component analysis revealed that (i) strand-specific mutational bias fails to affect the synonymous codon usage pattern in the leading and lagging strands, (ii) mutation pressure from nucleotide content plays a role in shaping the overall codon usage, and (iii) the major trend of synonymous codon usage has a significant correlation with the gene expression level that is estimated by the codon adaptation index. The plot of the effective number of codons against the G+C content at the third codon position also reveals that mutation pressure undoubtedly contributes to the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis. Additionally, the formation of the overall codon usage is determined by certain evolutionary selections for gene function classification (30S protein, 50S protein, transposase, membrane protein, and lipoprotein) and translation elongation region of genes in M. bovis. The information could be helpful in further investigations of evolutionary mechanisms of the Mycoplasma family and heterologous expression of its functionally important proteins. PMID:25350396

Zhou, Jian-hua; Ding, Yao-zhong; He, Ying; Chu, Yue-feng; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Li-ya; Wang, Xin-jun; Li, Xue-rui; Liu, Yong-sheng

2014-01-01

422

Ultrafast Evolution and Loss of CRISPRs Following a Host Shift in a Novel Wildlife Pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ?2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8?1.2×10?5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007) House Finch MG strains retain only ?50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994–95) strains and have lost the CRISPR–associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs. PMID:22346765

Delaney, Nigel F.; Balenger, Susan; Bonneaud, Camille; Marx, Christopher J.; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Tsai, Peter; Rodrigo, Allen; Edwards, Scott V.

2012-01-01

423

Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ?2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5) per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007) House Finch MG strains retain only ?50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95) strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs. PMID:22346765

Delaney, Nigel F; Balenger, Susan; Bonneaud, Camille; Marx, Christopher J; Hill, Geoffrey E; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Tsai, Peter; Rodrigo, Allen; Edwards, Scott V

2012-02-01

424

Analysis of energy sources for Mycoplasma penetrans gliding motility  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma penetrans, a potential human pathogen found mainly in HIV-infected individuals, uses a tip structure for both adherence and gliding motility. To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of M. penetrans gliding motility, we used chemical inhibitors of energy sources associated with motility of other organisms to determine which of these is used by M. penetrans, and also tested whether gliding speed responded to temperature and pH. M. penetrans gliding motility was not eliminated in the presence of a proton motive force inhibitor, a sodium motive force inhibitor, or an agent that depletes cellular ATP. At near-neutral pH, gliding speed increased as temperature increased. The absence of a clear chemical energy source for gliding motility and a positive correlation between speed and temperature suggest that energy derived from heat provides the major source of power for the gliding motor of M. penetrans. PMID:23066969

Jurkovic, Dominika A.; Hughes, Michael R.; Balish, Mitchell F.