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Sample records for mycoplasma hominis strains

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to surface antigens of a pathogenic Mycoplasma hominis strain.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, L D; Shane, S W; Karpas, A A; Cunningham, T M; Probst, P S; Barile, M F

    1991-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against an arthritogenic strain of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from the joint aspirates of a patient with chronic septic arthritis. Immunoblots of polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresed proteins before and after surface proteolysis showed that the predominant antigenic determinants were on surface-exposed polypeptides. These polypeptides have extensive hydrophobic characteristics, as demonstrated by Triton X-114 phase partitioning. The electrophoresed proteins from cells grown in medium containing [14C]palmitate were blotted onto nitrocellulose which was both reacted with the MAbs and exposed to X-ray film. Superimposable bands on both the immunoblots and the exposed film suggested that the proteins might be acylated. The MAbs were further tested for reactivity with 16 other strains of M. hominis isolated from patients with septic arthritis (1 strain), septicemia (10 strains), or nongonococcal urethritis (1 strain); from the cervix (1 strain), rectum (1 strain), or surgical wound (1 strain) of patients; and from a contaminated cell culture. No single protein was consistently recognized from strain to strain, although a 94-kDa protein from 16 of the 17 strains tested was bound by at least one of the MAbs. The apparent antigenic heterogeneity among strains of M. hominis, including those isolated from the same tissue source and/or from patients with the same type of clinical disease, might be misleading in that all strains express epitopes associated with a discrete number of proteins to which one, two, or all three MAbs bind. The expression of the epitopes on multiple proteins from the same or different strains may reflect a mechanism for generating antigenic diversity. Images PMID:1708355

  2. Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection

    DOEpatents

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Gallia, Gary L.; McCleskey, Ferne K.

    1997-01-21

    The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

  3. Improved method for expression and isolation of the Mycoplasma hominis arginine deiminase from the recombinant strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fayura, Lyubov R; Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Wheatley, Denys N; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2013-09-20

    Arginine deiminase is a promising anticancer drug active against melanoma, hepatocarcinoma and other tumors. Recombinant strains of Escherichia coli that express arginine deiminase from pathogenic bacteria Mycoplasma have been developed. However, production costs of heterologous arginine deiminase are high due to use of an expensive inducer and extraction buffer, as well as using diluted culture for enzyme induction. We report on a new advanced protocol for Mycoplasma hominis arginine deiminase expression, extraction and renaturation. The main improvements include manipulation with dense suspensions of E. coli, use of lactose instead of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside as an inducer and a cheaper but not less efficient buffer for solubilization of arginine deiminase inclusion bodies. In addition, supplementation of the storage culture medium with glucose and substrate (arginine) significantly stabilized the recombinant arginine deiminase producer. Homogenous preparations of recombinant arginine deiminase were obtained using anion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The purified enzyme retained a specific activity of 30-34 U/mg for 12 months when stored at 4°C in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.2 containing 1 M NaCl. PMID:23928331

  4. Further observations on the murine model of Mycoplasma hominis infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Furr, Patricia M

    2010-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis, the first mycoplasma of human origin to be isolated, has been associated with several diseases, notably bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prematurity and puerperal fever. The mouse model does not mimic closely these features of human disease, but has some notable features. Given intravaginally to mice, M. hominis does not colonize unless the mice have been pre-treated with oestradiol. As shown here, endogenous hormone has no part to play because removal of the ovaries does not interfere with vaginal colonization. Persistent colonization occurs in hysterectomized mice so that organisms in the upper tract, which are sometimes found, are not responsible, by retrograde leakage, for those in the lower tract. Organisms in the lower tract can be eliminated by treating mice with a tetracycline, or progesterone or by natural resolution. Elimination by whatever means results in a rather weak immunity to recolonization. In contrast, intravenous inoculation of viable, and particularly killed, M. hominis organisms results in strong resistance to recolonization. This is, in part, genetically influenced, being seen in mice of strain BALB/c but not of strain CBA. Resistance is inversely proportional to the presence and titre of M. hominis specific serum antibody. The possible role of cell-mediated immunity is discussed. PMID:20448062

  5. Mycoplasma hominis, a Rare but True Cause of Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Grattard, Florence; Morel, Jerome; Suy, Florence; Fuzellier, Jean-François; Verhoeven, Paul; Cazorla, Celine; Guglielminotti, Claire; Fresard, Anne; Lucht, Frederic; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are rarely recognized agents of infective endocarditis. We report a case of Mycoplasma hominis prosthetic valve endocarditis diagnosed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and culture of valves in a 74-year-old man. We reviewed the literature and found only 8 other cases reported. PMID:26135868

  6. Association of Mycoplasma hominis infection with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barykova, Yulia A.; Logunov, Denis Yu.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Vinarov, Andrei Z.; Fiev, Dmitry N.; Vinarova, Natalia A.; Rakovskaya, Irina V.; Baker, Patricia Stanhope; Shyshynova, Inna; Stephenson, Andrew J.; Klein, Eric A.; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.; Gudkov, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of chronic inflammation preceding the development of prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. We investigated possible involvement of mycoplasma infection in PCa by screening prostate biopsies from two groups of Russian men undergoing PCa diagnosis. M. hominis was detected by standard PCR in 15% of the 125 patients in the first group and by quantitative real-time PCR in 37.4% of the 123 men in the second group. In both groups, stratification of patients according to diagnosis showed that M. hominis was present at three times higher frequency in patients with PCa than in those with benign prostatic hyperplasia. No M. hominis was detected in the prostates of 27 men without detectable prostate disease. In addition, PCa-positive men had higher titers of antibodies against M. hominis and average PSA levels were higher in M. hominis-positive men. These data, together with previous observations linking mycoplasma infection with cell transformation, genomic instability and resistance to apoptosis, suggest that M. hominis infection may be involved in PCa development and may, therefore, be a potential PCa marker and/or target for improved prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:21471611

  7. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Gdoura, Radhouane; Kchaou, Wiem; Chaari, Chiraz; Znazen, Abir; Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek; Hammami, Adnane

    2007-01-01

    Background Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen specimens collected from infertile men, and at comparing the seminological variables of semen from infected and non-infected men with these microorganisms. Methods A total of 120 semen samples collected from infertile men were investigated. Semen specimens were examined by in-house PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for the presence of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas DNA. Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Standard parametric techniques (t-tests) and nonparametric techniques (Wilcoxon tests) were used for statistical analysis. Results The frequency of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas detected in semen samples of infertile men was respectively 19.2% (23/120) and 15.8% (19/120). The frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum (15%) was higher than that of Mycoplasma hominis (10.8%), Ureaplasma parvum (4.2%) and Mycoplasma genitalium (5%). Mixed species of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas were detected in 6.7% of semen samples. Comparison of the parameters of the standard semen analysis between the male partners of the infertile couples with and without genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas infection showed that the presence of Mycoplasma hominis DNA in semen samples is associated with low sperm concentration (p = 0.007) and abnormal sperm morphology (p = 0.03) and a negative correlation between sperm concentration and the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in semen samples of infertile men (p = 0.05). The mean values of seminal volume, pH, vitality, motility and leukocyte count were not significantly related either to the detection of genital mycoplasmas DNA or to the detection of ureaplasmas DNA in semen specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas seem to be widespread among the male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia. Genital mycoplasmas infections of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality. Our results also indicate that PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay method provides a rapid and effective technique to detect human genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas which is useful for etiological and epidemiological studies of these pathogens. PMID:17988404

  8. Oestradiol-induced infection of the genital tract of female mice by Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1989-10-01

    Treatment of female BALB/c mice with oestradiol rendered them susceptible to vaginal colonization by three of four different strains of Mycoplasma hominis. Overall, the organisms were recovered persistently from the vagina of 68 (87%) of 78 of these mice. Strain TO mice given one of the strains were at least susceptible, all of ten becoming colonized and larger numbers of organisms being recovered. The hormone arrested the reproductive cycle in the oestrous phase, characterized by non-nucleated, cornified vaginal epithelial cells. In contrast, M. hominis organisms were isolated transiently from only seven (10.5%) of 66 BALB/c mice not treated with oestradiol, after intravaginal inoculation; treatment with progesterone, which induced the dioestrous phase of the cycle, did not render any of 10 BALB/c mice susceptible to vaginal colonization. The minimum number of organisms (2.5 x 10(5)) of one strain of M. hominis and the minimum dose of oestradiol (0.05 mg) required to induce persistent colonization were established. Vaginal colonization persisted for more than 200 d in some mice, the numbers of organisms recovered ranging between 10(1) and 10(8). At autopsy there was evidence of spread to the uterine horns and ovaries, and also to the oropharynx, of some animals but not to other organs. Infection was not associated with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response in the vagina or elsewhere, but a fourfold serum antibody response to M. hominis, measured by the metabolism-inhibition technique, was detected in almost half of the mice tested. PMID:2632670

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis Isolated From Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Azizmohammadi, Sima; Azizmohammadi, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum bring with them an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as premature membrane rupture, vaginitis and preterm birth. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in pregnant women and to study their resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifty high vaginal swabs were taken from pregnant women. Commercial Mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for bacterial isolation. The results of the kits were confirmed using the PCR. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of 350 samples collected, 32 samples (9.14%) were positive for U. urealyticum and 10 samples (2.85%) were positive for M. hominis (P = 0.025). Both U. urealyticum and M. hominis were simultaneously detected in 1.14% of samples. In addition, 40 - 45-year-old pregnant women had the highest levels of U. urealyticum (27.5%), M. hominis (12.5%), and both bacteria (7.5%). U. urealyticum and M. hominis isolates harbored the highest levels of resistance against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Both isolates were susceptible to pefloxacin, clarithromycin, josamycin, and pristinamycin. Conclusions: According to the direct correlation between the increase in the prevalence rate of genital mycoplasmas and increased age of pregnancy, initially, it is better to prevent pregnancy at older ages, and then, should a pregnancy occur, the highest levels of health cares should be provided to older pregnant women. PMID:26756001

  10. Life on Arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: Clues from Its Minimal Genome and Comparison with Other Human Urogenital Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Pereyre, Sabine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Beven, Laure; Charron, Alain; Renaudin, Hélène; Barré, Aurélien; Avenaud, Philippe; Jacob, Daniel; Couloux, Arnaud; Barbe, Valérie; de Daruvar, Antoine; Blanchard, Alain; Bébéar, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs)). Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden–Meyerhoff–Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine) and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes), plus a set of genes required for providing energy. For M. hominis, this set would include 247+9 genes, resulting in a theoretical minimal genome of 256 genes. PMID:19816563

  11. Hematoma and abscess formation caused by Mycoplasma hominis following cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Hisato; Koshiba, Akemi; Daimon, Yasushi; Noguchi, Toshifumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species cannot be identified by routine bacteriological culture methods and are resistant to common antimicrobial agents. Mycoplasma hominis usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and causes pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, rupture of fetal membranes, preterm labor, postpartum fever, postabortal fever, and neonatal infection. This organism is highly prevalent in cervicovaginal cultures of sexually active women. M. hominis, M. genitalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and U. parvum may invade and infect placental and fetal tissues, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. M. hominis occasionally causes nongenitourinary infection of the blood, wounds, central nervous system, joints, or respiratory tract. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who developed abdominal wound hematoma and abscess after cesarean section. The wound was drained, but her high fever persisted, in spite of antibiotic treatment using flomoxef sodium and imipenem·cilastatin sodium. Because the exudate exhibited M. hominis growth in an anaerobic environment, we administered the quinolone ciprofloxacin. This therapy resolved her fever, and her white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level diminished to the normal ranges. To our knowledge, there are four published articles regarding the isolation of M. hominis from postcesarean incisions. Based on the current study and the literature, infection by this pathogen may cause hematoma formation with or without abscess after cesarean section or in immunosuppressed postoperative patients. In such cases, physicians may need to suspect Mycoplasma infection and initiate appropriate antibacterial treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid persistent fever. PMID:21339933

  12. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of this pestering pathogen. PMID:23326599

  13. Identification of a gene in Mycoplasma hominis associated with preterm birth and microbial burden in intra-amniotic infection

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Daniels, Matthew J.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Pflugner, Lindsey P.; Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Prestosa, Melissa A.; Koparde, Vishal N.; Brooks, J. Paul; Strauss, Jerome F.; Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Eschenbach, David A.; Buck, Gregory A.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is associated with spontaneous preterm labor and adverse pregnancy outcome, and Mycoplasma hominis often is present. However, the pathogenic process by which M. hominis invades the amniotic cavity and gestational tissues, often resulting in chorioamnionitis and preterm birth, remains unknown. We hypothesized that strains of M. hominis vary genetically with regards to their potential to invade and colonize the amniotic cavity and placenta. Study Design We sequenced the entire genomes of 2 amniotic fluid isolates and a placental isolate of M. hominis from pregnancies that resulted in preterm births and compared them with the previously sequenced genome of the Type strain PG21. We identified genes that were specific to the amniotic fluid/placental isolates. We then determined the microbial burden and the presence of these genes in another set of subjects from whom samples of amniotic fluid had been collected and were positive for M. hominis. Results We identified 2 genes that encode surface-located membrane proteins (Lmp1 and Lmp-like) in the sequenced amniotic fluid/placental isolates that were severely truncated in PG21. We also identified, for the first time, a microbial gene of unknown function that is referred to in this study as gene of interest C that was significantly associated with bacterial burden in amniotic fluid and the risk of preterm delivery in patients with preterm labor. Conclusion A gene in M. hominis was identified that is associated significantly with colonization and/or infection of the upper reproductive tract during pregnancy and with preterm birth. PMID:25637842

  14. The presence of Mycoplasma hominis in isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis impacts significantly on DNA fingerprinting results.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J C; Xie, L F; Zhao, L; Fang, S L; Lun, Z R

    2008-03-01

    The genetic characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis (Protista: Trichomonadidae), the causative agent of trichomoniasis in humans, is central to understanding the epidemiology, treatment, drug resistance, and virulence as well as the diagnosis and control of this parasite. Various molecular approaches, including DNA fingerprinting, have been employed for this purpose, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) continues to be utilized. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that some T. vaginalis populations can harbor symbiotic Mycoplasma hominis and/or other agents, which could cause artifacts in the RAPD results. In the present study, we demonstrate clearly that the presence of M. hominis from T. vaginalis isolates impacts significantly on RAPD results and on the subsequent analyses and interpretation of data sets. Moreover, symbiotic M. hominis displays an isolate-to-isolate variability in RAPD profile before elimination, suggesting a variability of M. hominis infection. PMID:18058131

  15. A case report of Mycoplasma hominis brain abscess identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pailhoriès, H; Rabier, V; Eveillard, M; Mahaza, C; Joly-Guillou, M-L; Chennebault, J-M; Kempf, M; Lemarié, C

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man with a Mycoplasma hominis brain abscess occurring after a cranial trauma, which was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The presence of colonies on classic blood agar plates and the use of MALDI-TOF MS, a valuable diagnostic tool that identified M. hominis due to its presence in the VITEK MS database, allowed the rapid diagnosis of this infection. PMID:25449252

  16. Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in High Vaginal Swab Samples of Infertile Females

    PubMed Central

    Seifoleslami, Mehri; Safari, Aghdas; Khayyat Khameneie, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important causative agents of vaginitis, cervicitis, postpartum sepsis, reproductive infections and infertility in both males and females. Objectives: According to the uncertain prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in Iranian infertile females, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in high vaginal swab samples of fertile and infertile females. Patients and Methods: A total of 350 high vaginal swab specimens were taken from fertile and infertile females. Samples were cultured and those that were positive for bacteria were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for further confirmation. Results: Of the 350 collected samples, eleven were positive for M. hominis (3.14%), fifteen were positive for U. urealyticum (4.28%) and five were positive for both of them (1.42%). Prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in the high vaginal parts of infertile females was higher than fertile females (P < 0.05). The results of traditional method were also confirmed, using the PCR amplification of urease gene of U. urealyticum and 16SrRNA gene of the M. hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and M. hominis had a higher prevalence in the high vaginal samples collected during the summer season. Conclusions: Considerable prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in the high vaginal swab samples of infertile females compared to the low prevalence in fertile females may suggest that these two pathogens can be cause infertility. Application of the PCR method is recommended for rapid and sensitive detection of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in high vaginal swab samples. PMID:26756000

  17. Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Scott A.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Patel, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0. 5 μL of the extracts were combined with 15 μL of each of the two master mixes. Assays were performed on the LightCycler 480 II system. Culture was performed using routine methods. Results.  M. hominis PCR detected 38/42 M. hominis culture-positive specimens, as well as 2 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 99.2%). Ureaplasma PCR detected 139/144 Ureaplasma culture-positive specimens, as well as 9 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 96.5%; specificity, 93.6%). Of the specimens that tested positive for Ureaplasma species, U. urealyticum alone was detected in 33, U. parvum alone in 109, and both in 6. Conclusion. The described PCR assays are rapid alternatives to culture for detection of M. hominis and Ureaplasma species, and, unlike culture, the Ureaplasma assay easily distinguishes U. urealyticum from parvum. PMID:26904723

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Results Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is recommended. In addition, it is recommended that antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are determined. PMID:24679107

  19. Frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in patients with vaginal discharge.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Leonor; Cabrera, Luis E; Fernández, Tania; Ibáñez, Inailay; Torres, Yulian; Obregón, Yakelí; Rivero, Yanelys

    2013-10-01

    Determination of antimicrobial sensitivity helps establish adequate treatment and avoids future genital tract diseases in women of fertile age. In Cuba, prevalence of mycoplasma in patients with vaginal discharge is unknown. The objective of this research was to determine frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in women with vaginal discharge through analysis of laboratory data from vaginal smears from 255 patients referred to the Municipal Hygiene and Epidemiology Center in Güines, Mayabeque Province, Cuba. Mycoplasma System Plus (Italy) was used for detection, identification, count and sensitivity testing. The finding of mycoplasmas in almost two thirds of specimens examined suggests that the sexually active female population should be screened for these bacteria and that barrier contraception methods should be promoted to decrease their spread and prevent longterm sequelae. Such updating of local patterns of antimicrobial resistance supports decision making for best treatment options in patients with these infections. Our results should help clinicians in our area choose an antibiotic, and also confirm the utility of Mycoplasma System Plus for mycoplasma research in resource-scarce settings, to benefit individual and population health. PMID:24253351

  20. Mycoplasma hominis and Gardnerella vaginalis display a significant synergistic relationship in bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Watt, A P; McKenna, J P; Coyle, P V

    2016-03-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis plays an important role in bacterial vaginosis (BV,) while the role of genital Mollicutes is less obvious. The diagnosis of BV by use of the current Gram stain Nugent score is also suboptimal for defining the role of Mollicutes that lack a cell wall. Since bacterial load and diversity is an important prerequisite for BV, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays enable these to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to define the role of genital Mollicutes and potential patterns of synergy with G. vaginalis in women with BV. Vaginal swabs from 130 women categorised by Nugent score as BV (n = 28), intermediate (n = 22) and non-BV (n = 80) were tested against four qPCR TaqMan assays targeting G. vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum. Statistical analyses were used to compare bacterial prevalence and load between the three groups of women. Mycoplasma hominis and G. vaginalis co-infection was significantly more common in BV (60.7 %) compared to intermediate (36.4 %) and non-BV (8.8 %) Nugent scores (p < 0.001). Significantly higher loads of M. hominis (p = 0.001) and G. vaginalis (p < 0.001) were detected in women with BV and the respective loads in M. hominis and G. vaginalis co-infections displayed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.001; r = 0.60). No significant associations were seen with the other Mollicutes. The findings strengthen the evidence of a role for M. hominis in BV and a potential synergy with G. vaginalis. This synergy could be an important trigger of the condition and sexual contact the conduit for the transmission of an otherwise commensal bacterium that could initiate it. PMID:26796553

  1. Azithromycin treatment for nongonococcal urethritis negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shin-ichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ito, Shin; Seike, Kensaku; Ito, Shin-ichi; Deguchi, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Some patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) are negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasmas, and ureaplasmas. The optimal antimicrobial chemotherapy for such NGU has not fully been clarified. We assessed the efficacy of azithromycin for treatment of nonmycoplasmal, nonureaplasmal, nonchlamydial NGU (NMNUNCNGU). Thirty-eight men whose first-pass urine was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were treated with a single dose of 1 g azithromycin. Urethritis symptoms and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urethral smears or in first-pass urine were assessed before and after treatment with azithromycin. Thirty-two (84.2%) of the 38 men with NMNUNCNGU showed no signs of urethral inflammation after treatment. The efficacy of this azithromycin regimen was comparable to that of the 7-day regimen of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, minocycline, or clarithromycin reported previously. A single dose of 1 g azithromycin, which is effective not only for NGU due to specific pathogens but also for NMNUNCNGU, is an appropriate treatment for NGU. PMID:19228227

  2. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated in Brescia, Italy, over 7 years.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Caracciolo, Sonia; Bonfanti, Carlo; Manca, Nino

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis collected during 2004-2011 were determined. A total of 9956 individuals was analyzed. Identification was performed by use of the mycoplasma IST-2 kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility against doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin was also tested by use of this commercial kit. Our results show a prevalence of 1856 positive patients for genital mycoplasmas (18.6 %). Among positive cultures, 89 and 1.1 % of isolates were Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis, respectively. For 9.8 % of isolates both urogenital mycoplasmas were grown. Doxycycline was the most active tetracycline for mycoplasma infections, and this is still the drug of first choice. Among macrolides, josamycin and clarithromycin are the most active agents against ureaplasmas; josamycin is also active against mycoplasmas and is an alternative to tetracyclines and erythromycin for mixed infections, especially for pregnant women and neonates. Fluoroquinolones had low efficacy against urogenital mycoplasmas. For Ureaplasma urealyticum, cross-resistance was found between erythromycin and macrolides (except josamycin) (40-80 %) and between erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (79 %). Antibiotic resistance over the test period did not vary significantly. Because of geographical differences among antibiotic resistance, local in-vitro susceptibility testing is recommended to avoid failure of therapy. PMID:23192735

  3. Importance of Mycoplasma hominis in acute salpingitis assessed by culture and serological tests.

    PubMed Central

    Lind, K; Kristensen, G B; Bollerup, A C; Ladehoff, P; Larsen, S; Marushak, A; Rasmussen, P; Rolschau, J; Skoven, I; Sørensen, T

    1985-01-01

    In 95 women with a provisional diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, a final diagnosis of acute salpingitis was confirmed by laparoscopy in 46 and 10 had strong clinical evidence of acute salpingitis. The findings in the remaining 39 patients without signs of acute salpingitis by laparoscopy were used as a standard of reference. Criteria for the diagnosis of possible mycoplasmal salpingitis were tentatively defined as the isolation of Mycoplasma hominis from the cervix together with positive test results for M hominis antibodies (a titre of greater than or equal to 1/1280 or a change in titre, or both); these criteria were fulfilled in 12 patients with acute salpingitis. A positive correlation between mycoplasmal salpingitis and chlamydial salpingitis or gonococcal salpingitis, or both, was significant. Mycoplasmal salpingitis was not associated with any characteristic clinical feature different from those of patients with non-mycoplasmal salpingitis. Our findings do not support the view that M hominis is an important primary pathogen in acute salpingitis. PMID:4007861

  4. Microbial and vaginal determinants influencing Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum genital colonization in a population of female patients.

    PubMed

    Leli, Christian; Meucci, Marta; Vento, Simona; D'Al, Francesco; Farinelli, Senia; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Francesco; Mencacci, Antonella

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery and pelvic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of co-colonization by M. hominis in patients already colonized by U. urealyticum and compare demographic parameters, vaginal pH and microbiota of women colonized by U. urealyticum or M. hominis. A total of 452 patients positive for U. urealyticum or M. hominis were analysed, 421 (93.1%) of whom were positive for U. urealyticum and 31 (6.9%) for M. hominis. Patients positive for M. hominis compared to patients positive for U. urealyticum were more frequently colonized by Gardnerella vaginalis (71% vs 18.5%; p 0.0001), less frequently by lactobacilli (16.1% vs 61.5%; p 0.0001), and more frequently had a pH value higher than 4.5 (96.8% vs 57%; p 0.0001), all conditions associated to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Logistic regression analysis showed that only G. vaginalis colonization and pH higher than 4.5 were independently related to M. hominis colonization (respectively p 0.0001 and p 0.016). Thus, in women colonized by U. urealyticum, BV is an independent risk factor for M. hominis co-colonization. PMID:24008852

  5. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  6. Complete genome sequences of two hemotropic mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma haemofelis strain Ohio2 and Mycoplasma suis Strain Illinois.

    PubMed

    Messick, Joanne B; Santos, Andrea P; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    We report the complete and fully assembled genomes of Mycoplasma haemofelis strain Ohio2 and Mycoplasma suis strain Illinois, which are the first available genomes of these uncultivatable hemoplasma species. The single circular chromosomes of 1,152,484 bp and 742,431 bp for M. haemofelis and M. suis, respectively, are typical of mycoplasma species, having reduced size and low G+C content (38.8% for M. haemofelis and 31.1% for M. suis). Their metabolic pathways are reduced, with evidence of adaption to the blood environment. PMID:21317328

  7. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N.; Zubkova, Olga V.; Ivanova, Tatiana I.; Tukhvatulin, Amir I.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L.

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  8. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Burmistrova, Daria A; Tillib, Sergey V; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N; Zubkova, Olga V; Ivanova, Tatiana I; Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Shmarov, Maxim M; Logunov, Denis Y; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) over a 4-year period study

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidis, A.; Venetis, C.; Georgantzis, D.; Giaslakiotis, V.; Kolovos, V.; Efstathiou, K.; Moschou, M.; Κoutsiaris, Ε.; Panopoulou, M.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M) gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M) gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise. PMID:26862428

  10. Characteristics of Mycoplasma strains isolated from stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Zgrniak-Nowosielska, I; Kosiniak, K; Slagowska, A

    1985-01-01

    Eleven mycoplasma strains were isolated from the semen of 24 stallions. Eight of these strains were identified as Mycoplasma equigenitalium. Three strains which hydrolized arginine could not be identified. The growth inhibition test with immune sera against M. arginini and M. equirhinis was negative. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all strains were sensitive to four antibiotic of tetracycline group (oxytetracyclin, minocycline, transcycline and vibramycin). Lincomycin and gentamycin appeared to be the most active against all the strains. Comparative analysis of routine semen examination did not reveal any difference between ejaculates infected with mycoplasma and free of these organisms. However, the levels of certain biochemical components of the semen plasma (glycerylphosphorylcholine, ergothioneine, fructose and of the semen plasma (glycerylphosphorylcholine, ergothioneine, fructose and total protein) from mycoplasma-positive ejaculates were significantly lower than in the semen plasma from mycoplasma free ejaculates. PMID:3833120

  11. Genomic Analysis of Blastocystis hominis Strains Isolated from Two Long-Term Health Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Abe, Niichiro; Iwasawa, Mizue; Kitano, Syoko; Nagano, Isao; Wu, Zhiliang; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2000-01-01

    The genotype Blastocystis hominis is highly polymorphic. Therefore, a genetic marker would be a powerful tool for the identification or classification of B. hominis subtypes and could be used as a means to resolve the transmission route or origin of the parasite. To this end, 32 B. hominis isolates were collected from patients and/or staff members of two long-term health care facilities (facilities A and B), and these organisms were subjected to genotype analysis based on diagnostic PCR primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of small subunit rRNA gene (rDNA). Based on PCR amplification using diagnostic primers which were developed from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of known strains of B. hominis, the 32 isolates of B. hominis were classified into three different subtypes. Thirty isolates, including twenty-four that were isolated from patients and a staff member, from facility A and all isolates isolated from six patients from facility B showed the same genotype. Two of six patients of facility B had been transferred from facility A, and these two patients also had the same-genotype B. hominis that corresponded to 24 isolates from facility A. This genotype strain may have been transmitted by these two patients from facility A to facility B, suggesting human-to-human transmission. In contrast, 2 of 26 isolates from facility A showed distinct genotypes, suggesting that the colonization by these two isolates is attributable to another infectious route. These different subtypes were subjected to RFLP analysis, and the RFLP profiles were correlated with the results obtained by diagnostic PCR primers. This study presents the first molecular evidence of possible human-to-human B. hominis infection between and/or among two small communities. PMID:10747102

  12. Diversity of Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates from Bordeaux, France, as assessed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma species that can cause various urogenital infections and, less frequently, extragenital infections. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of this species using a molecular typing method based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Results The genome content of M. hominis PG21 was analysed for tandem repeats (TRs), and five of the 130 TRs identified were selected for use in an MLVA assay. The method was based on GeneScan analysis of VNTR loci using multiplex PCR with fluorescent dyes and resolution by capillary electrophoresis. This approach was used on a collection of 210 urogenital and extragenital French clinical isolates collected between 1987 and 2009. Forty MLVA types were found. The discriminatory index of our MLVA scheme was 0.924. Using this new typing tool, persistent infection was suggested for six patients and new infection for one patient. Furthermore, mother-to-child transmission was confirmed in the two cases studied. Application of MLVA to a wide range of M. hominis isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and no obvious link between the MLVA type and the isolate year of collection, the patient’s age or sex, the anatomical origin of the isolates or resistance to antibiotics was found. Conclusions Our MLVA scheme highlights the high genetic heterogeneity of the M. hominis species. It seems too discriminatory to be used for large epidemiological studies but has proven its usefulness for molecular studies at the individual level. PMID:23710536

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Sylvie; Creno, Sophie; Ma, Laurence; Clermont, Dominique; Loux, Valentin; Bizet, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the strain Lactobacillus hominis CRBIP 24.179T, isolated from a human clinical sample. The total length of the 28 contigs is about 1.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 37% and 1,983 coding sequences. PMID:23969062

  14. Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Carvalho, Marcos O.; Pinto, Paulo M.; Almeida, Darcy F.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assunção, Enedina N.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.; Bogo, Maurício R.; Brigido, Marcelo M.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Camargo, Sandro S.; Carepo, Marta S.; Carraro, Dirce M.; de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C.; Castro, Luiza A.; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambrós, Bibiana P.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Falcão, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R.; Freitas, Nara S. A.; Frías, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Guimarães, Claudia T.; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Sílvia N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Laurino, Jomar P.; Lima, Lucymara F. A.; Lopes, Maryellen I.; Loreto, Élgion L. S.; Madeira, Humberto M. F.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Maranhão, Andrea Q.; Martinkovics, Christyanne T.; Medeiros, Sílvia R. B.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Neiva, Márcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Paixão, Roger F. C.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S.; Potrich, Deise P.; Salim, Anna C. M.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S.; Schuck, Adriana F.; Seuanez, Hector N.; Silva, Denise W.; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sérgio C.; Soares, Célia M. A.; Souza, Kelly R. L.; Souza, Rangel C.; Staats, Charley C.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

  15. Swine and poultry pathogens: the complete genome sequences of two strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of Mycoplasma synoviae.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Ferreira, Henrique B; Bizarro, Cristiano V; Bonatto, Sandro L; Carvalho, Marcos O; Pinto, Paulo M; Almeida, Darcy F; Almeida, Luiz G P; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assuno, Enedina N; Azevedo, Vasco A C; Bogo, Maurcio R; Brigido, Marcelo M; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A; Camargo, Anamaria A; Camargo, Sandro S; Carepo, Marta S; Carraro, Dirce M; de Mattos Cascardo, Jlio C; Castro, Luiza A; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G; Cunha, Cristina W; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambrs, Bibiana P; Dellagostin, Odir A; Falco, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S S; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R; Freitas, Nara S A; Fras, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Grisard, Edmundo C; Guimares, Claudia T; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Slvia N; Krieger, Marco A; Laurino, Jomar P; Lima, Lucymara F A; Lopes, Maryellen I; Loreto, Elgion L S; Madeira, Humberto M F; Manfio, Gilson P; Maranho, Andrea Q; Martinkovics, Christyanne T; Medeiros, Slvia R B; Moreira, Miguel A M; Neiva, Mrcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E; Nicols, Marisa F; Oliveira, Sergio C; Paixo, Roger F C; Pedrosa, Fbio O; Pena, Srgio D J; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S; Potrich, Deise P; Salim, Anna C M; Santos, Fabrcio R; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P C; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S; Schuck, Adriana F; Seuanez, Hector N; Silva, Denise W; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Srgio C; Soares, Clia M A; Souza, Kelly R L; Souza, Rangel C; Staats, Charley C; Steffens, Maria B R; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Urmenyi, Turan P; Vainstein, Marilene H; Zuccherato, Luciana W; Simpson, Andrew J G; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2005-08-01

    This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

  16. Proteomic analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain F

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and displacement abilities of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain F (F-strain) are well documented. Understanding the mechanism(s) of colonization and persistence of F-strain will aid in the current intervention strategies to diagnose and control MG infections in poultry. In ...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma synoviae Strain WVU 1853T

    PubMed Central

    Kutish, Gerald F.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Michaels, Dina L.

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid sequence assembly of the complete Mycoplasma synoviae type strain WVU 1853T genome was compared to that of strain MS53. The findings support prior conclusions about M. synoviae, based on the genome of that otherwise uncharacterized field strain, and provide the first evidence of epigenetic modifications in M. synoviae. PMID:26021934

  18. Mycoplasma hominis infection of Trichomonas vaginalis is not associated with metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis in clinical isolates from the United States.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sara E; Augostini, Peter; Secor, W Evan

    2010-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that is the cause of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease, trichomoniasis. Metronidazole and tinidazole are the only drugs approved for treatment of T. vaginalis infections in the USA. However, drug resistance exists and some patients are allergic to these medications. Furthermore, the exact mechanism of metronidazole resistance remains undefined and current testing methods require several weeks before results are available. Identification of the mechanism of drug resistance may lead to the development of molecular tools to detect drug resistance, and quicker results for clinical treatment. In a recent study, Chinese T. vaginalis isolates that were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Mycoplasma hominis DNA demonstrated greater in vitro resistance to metronidazole than isolates with no evidence of M. hominis infection. To evaluate this finding in isolates from a distinct epidemiologic setting, we tested 55 T. vaginalis isolates collected from patients in the USA through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metronidazole susceptibility testing service. One half of the isolates demonstrated resistance to metronidazole by an in vitro sensitivity assay. Of the metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis isolates, 18% were PCR positive for M. hominis, as were 22% of the metronidazole-susceptible T. vaginalis isolates (p = 0.746). We also observed no change in metronidazole sensitivity of two infected T. vaginalis isolates after they were cleared of their M. hominis infection by culturing the isolates in antibiotics. Thus, M. hominis infection of USA T. vaginalis isolates did not correlate with in vitro resistance to metronidazole. PMID:20652315

  19. Genital mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The first described pathogenic organisms that caused urethritis were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The significance of detecting mycoplasma with genital swabs remained unclear for a long time. Culture can differentiate between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. After introduction of nuclear acid amplification, Mycoplasma genitalium was additionally detected, while gene analysis differentiates between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. Mycoplasma genitalium has become the third most frequent pathogen causing non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU); Ureaplasma urealyticum is less often isolated. Because urethritis caused by Mycoplasma genitalium does not always respond to tetracycline, it is advisable to begin therapy with a macrolide. Mycoplasma hominis is a cofactor for bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). During therapy with metronidazole, the colonization of this mycoplasma is decreased indirectly. PMID:19500195

  20. Genome Sequence of a Mycoplasma meleagridis Field Strain.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ticiana S; Bertolotti, Luigi; Catania, Salvatore; Pourquier, Philippe; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma meleagridis is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Here, we report the genome sequence of an M. meleagridis field strain, which enlarges the knowledge about this bacterium and helps the identification of possible coding sequences for drug resistance genes and specific antigens. PMID:26941131

  1. Genome Sequence of a Mycoplasma meleagridis Field Strain

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotti, Luigi; Catania, Salvatore; Pourquier, Philippe; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma meleagridis is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Here, we report the genome sequence of an M. meleagridis field strain, which enlarges the knowledge about this bacterium and helps the identification of possible coding sequences for drug resistance genes and specific antigens. PMID:26941131

  2. Highly specific and efficient primers for in-house multiplex PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although sophisticated methodologies are available, the use of endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect 16S rDNA genes remains a good approach for estimating the incidence and prevalence of specific infections and for monitoring infections. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the development of a sensitive and affordable method for identifying pathogens in clinical samples is needed. Highly specific and efficient primers for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) system were designed in silico to detect the 16S rDNA genes of four bacteria that cause genital infections, and the PCR method was developed. Methods The Genosensor Probe Designer (GPD) (version 1.0a) software was initially used to design highly specific and efficient primers for in-house m-PCR. Single-locus PCR reactions were performed and standardised, and then primers for each locus in turn were added individually in subsequent amplifications until m-PCR was achieved. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained from each of the four bacterial gene fragments. Finally, the analytical specificity and limits of detection were tested. Results Because they did not amplify any product from non-STI tested species, the primers were specific. The detection limits for the Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum primer sets were 5.12 × 105, 3.9 × 103, 61.19 × 106 and 6.37 × 105 copies of a DNA template, respectively. Conclusions The methodology designed and standardised here could be applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous or individual detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. This method is at least as efficient as other previously described methods; however, this method is more affordable for low-income countries. PMID:24997675

  3. Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins in Staphylococcus hominis strains isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Szczuka, Ewa; Makowska, Nicoletta; Bosacka, Karolina; Słotwińska, Anna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most frequently isolated bacteria from the blood and the predominant cause of nosocomial infections. Macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics, especially erythromycin and clindamycin, are important therapeutic agents in the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococci infections. Among CoNS, Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism. In spite of its clinical significance, very little is known about its mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics, especially MLSB. Fifty-five S. hominis isolates from the blood and the surgical wounds of hospitalized patients were studied. The erm(C) gene was predominant in erythromycin-resistant S. hominis isolates. The methylase genes, erm(A) and erm(B), were present in 15 and 25 % of clinical isolates, respectively. A combination of various erythromycin resistance methylase (erm) genes was detected in 15 % S. hominis isolates. The efflux gene msr(A) was detected in 18 % of isolates, alone in four isolates, and in different combinations in a further six. The lnu(A) gene, responsible for enzymatic inactivation of lincosamides was carried by 31 % of the isolates. No erythromycin resistance that could not be attributed to the genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C) and msr(A) was detected. In S. hominis, 75 and 84 %, respectively, were erythromycin resistant and clindamycin susceptible. Among erythromycin-resistant S. hominis isolates, 68 % of these strains showed the inducible MLSB phenotype. Four isolates harbouring the msr(A) genes alone displayed the MSB phenotype. These studies indicated that resistance to MLSB in S. hominis is mostly based on the ribosomal target modification mechanism mediated by erm genes, mainly the erm(C), and enzymatic drug inactivation mediated by lnu(A). PMID:26253583

  4. [In vitro activity of nitroxoline on urogenital mycoplasmas].

    PubMed

    Bonissol, C; Pua, K; Stoïljkovic, B

    1986-11-01

    The product nitroxoline was studied in vitro for its activity towards Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. In view of the low MIC values obtained, it seems nitroxoline could be used in the treatment of urinary infections. It is bactericidal, and should not produce resistant strains. PMID:3543811

  5. MLVA typing of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterins and field strains

    PubMed Central

    Tamiozzo, P.; Zamora, R.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Estanguet, A.; Parada, J.; Carranza, A.; Camacho, P.; Ambrogi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the lack of information about both the genetic characteristics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae commercial vaccines and their relationship with field strains, the authors attempted to identify genetic subtypes of some M hyopneumoniae bacterins, and to compare them with M. hyopneumoniae field strains. Six commercial M hyopneumoniae bacterins and 28 bronchoalveolar lavages from pigs at slaughter from three herds were analysed by Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) on p146R1, p146R3, H4, H5 and p95 loci. The results obtained showed the presence of more than one M hyopneumoniae genotype in some pigs and also in one of the bacterins analysed. It is also worth noting that MLVA typing allowed the distinction among circulating field strains and also when comparing them with vaccine strains, which, knowing the relatedness among them, could be useful in the research of the efficacy of the vaccines. PMID:26495127

  6. Presence of the Arginine Dihydrolase Pathway in Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Barile, Michael F.; Schimke, Robert T.; Riggs, Donald B.

    1966-01-01

    Barile, Michael F. (Division of Biologics Standards, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.), Robert T. Schimke, and Donald B. Riggs. Presence of the arginine dihydrolase pathway in Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 91:189–192. 1966.—The presence of the arginine dihydrolase pathway was examined in 61 Mycoplasma strains representing at least 18 Mycoplasma species isolated from nine different sources: human, bovine, avian, murine, swine, goat, canine, sewage, and tissue cell culture origin. Some species were represented by only one or two strains. Different strains of the same species gave the same results. Ten species (56%) were positive. Many nonpathogenic Mycoplasma species (M. hominis, type 1 and 2, M. fermentans, M. salivarium, and M. gallinarum) were positive, whereas most pathogenic species (M. pneumoniae, M. gallisepticum, M. neurolyticum, and M. hyorhinis) were negative. The presence of arginine dihydrolase activity among Mycoplasma species may prove to be useful for purposes of identification and classification. PMID:16562098

  7. Biosynthesis of Glucosyl Diglycerides by Mycoplasma laidlawii Strain B

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.

    1969-01-01

    Monoglucosyl diglyceride is synthesized from 1,2-diglyceride and uridine-5′-diphosphoglucose (UDP); diglucosyl diglyceride from monoglucosyl diglyceride, and uridine-5′-diphosphoglucose by membranes of Mycoplasma laidlawii strain B. All of these enzymatic activities reside in the membrane. Membranes solubilized by detergent action or succinylation and acetone powders of membranes were inactive. Requirements for Mg2+, UDP, and appropriate lipid acceptor were demonstrated for biosynthesis of both glycolipids. Glucose-1-phosphate plus uridine triphosphate could replace the UDP requirement. A medium of relatively high ionic strength and a critical concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate stimulated biosynthesis of the monoglucosyl diglyceride. The optimal pH for both reactions was 8.0. A specificity for 1,2-diglyceride from the homologous organism was found for optimal synthesis of the monoglucosyl diglyceride, and a specificity for monoglucosyl diglyceride was found in the case of diglucosyl diglyceride synthesis. Both reactions were specific for UDP. PMID:5808075

  8. Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) at 22 or 45 weeks of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85 strain MG at 10 weeks of age. The treatment groups include unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens r...

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Bumgardner, Eric A; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E; Lawrence, Paulraj K

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae can result in debilitating arthritis in pigs, particularly those aged 10 weeks or older. Strategies for controlling this pathogen are becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of cases of arthritis that have been attributed to infection in recent years. In order to begin to develop interventions to prevent arthritis caused by M. hyosynoviae, more information regarding the specific proteins and potential virulence factors that its genome encodes was needed. However, the genome of this emerging swine pathogen had not been sequenced previously. In this report, we present a comparative analysis of the genomes of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae isolated from different locations in North America during the years 2010 to 2013. We identified several putative virulence factors that may contribute to the ability of this pathogen to adhere to host cells. Additionally, we discovered several prophage genes present within the genomes of three strains that show significant similarity to MAV1, a phage isolated from the related species, M. arthritidis. We also identified CRISPR-Cas and type III restriction and modification systems present in two strains that may contribute to their ability to defend against phage infection. PMID:25693846

  10. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, M. pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to GAR-936, Dalfopristin, Dirithromycin, Evernimicin, Gatifloxacin, Linezolid, Moxifloxacin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Telithromycin Compared to Their Susceptibilities to Reference Macrolides, Tetracyclines, and Quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, George E.; Cartwright, Frank D.

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to eight new antimicrobial agents were determined by agar dilution. M. pneumoniae was susceptible to the new glycylcycline GAR-936 at 0.12 μg/ml and evernimicin at 4 μg/ml, but it was resistant to linezolid. It was most susceptible to dirithromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, telithromycin, reference macrolides, and josamycin. M. hominis was susceptible to linezolid, evernimicin, and GAR-936. It was resistant to macrolides and the ketolide telithromycin but susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin and josamycin. U. urealyticum was susceptible to evernimicin (8 to 16 μg/ml) and resistant to linezolid. It was less susceptible to GAR-936 (4.0 μg/ml) than to tetracycline (0.5 μg/ml). Telithromycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin were the most active agents against ureaplasmas (0.06 μg/ml). The new quinolone gatifloxacin was active against M. pneumoniae and M. hominis at 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml and active against ureaplasmas at 1.0 μg/ml. The MICs of macrolides were markedly affected by pH, with an 8- to 32-fold increase in the susceptibility of M. pneumoniae as the pH increased from 6.9 to 7.8. A similar increase in susceptibility with increasing pH was also observed with ureaplasmas. Tetracyclines showed a fourfold increase of activity as the pH decreased 1 U, whereas GAR-936 showed a fourfold decrease in activity with a decrease in pH. PMID:11502536

  11. Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 from commonly used Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge strains by PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important avian pathogen causing significant economic losses within the poultry layer industry. In an effort to develop tools to aid in MG research and diagnostics, we have compared available sequences of the attenuated MG vaccine strain ts-11 to those of commonl...

  12. Observations on Membranes of Mycoplasma laidlawii Strain B

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P. F.; Koostra, W. L.; Mayberry, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of Mycoplasma laidlawii strain B is solubilized by anionic and nonionic detergents, succinylation, phospholipase A, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Cationic detergents are without effect, as are chelating agents, even in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cation. The detergent-solubilized membrane exhibits one peak in the analytical ultracentrifuge, but the sedimentation coefficient is dependent upon concentration of detergent. Simple dialysis does not remove all of the sodium dodecylsulfate except from lipid-depleted membrane particles. Membranes bind sodium dodecylsulfate but acetone powders of membranes do not. Sulfated alcohols with chain lengths of C14 and C16 are more tightly bound than dodecylsulfate. A constant amount of di- and trivalent cation is bound by the membrane upon aggregation. Only a portion of this cation is removable with chelating agents. No chelating agent is bound by these aggregates. A portion of the lipid-depleted membrane particles is solubilized by negatively charged lipids and detergents, giving rise to aggregates in the presence of divalent cation. Fractionations of detergent-solubilized membranes by preparative gel electrophoresis and ammonium sulfate were inconclusive. Density gradient centrifugation of succinylated membranes yielded at least five fractions which exhibited homogeneity by ultracentrifugation. Analytical gel electrophoresis of these fractions demonstrated heterogeneity. The composition of these five fractions suggested separation of protein from lipid. PMID:5361209

  13. Growth Inhibition of Mycoplasma by Inhibitors of Polyterpene Biosynthesis and Its Reversal by Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Henrikson, Carl V.

    1966-01-01

    Smith, Paul F. (University of South Dakota, Vermillion), and Carl V. Henrikson. Growth inhibition of Mycoplasma by inhibitors of polyterpene biosynthesis and its reversal by cholesterol. J. Bacteriol. 91:1854–1858. 1966.—Compounds which inhibit enzymatic reactions in the biosynthetic pathway to carotenoids inhibited growth of a sterol-nonrequiring species, Mycoplasma laidlawii, strain B, and M. hominis, strain 07. Since M. hominis lacks the enzymes for polyterpene biosynthesis, the inhibitory compounds must act also at other sites. Most inhibitors exerted a lytic effect at bactericidal levels. The inhibition of M. laidlawii is reversed by exogenous cholesterol. M. laidlawii exhibited a greatly increased content of cholesterol and a greatly decreased content of carotenoids when grown in the presence of phenethylbiguanide and cholesterol. These results are considered as further evidence for a common function for sterols and carotenols in Mycoplasma. PMID:5937241

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Strain C267 in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaoli; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Hanqing; Zhu, Baoli; Lv, Na

    2016-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains can cause severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strain C267, deposited in GenBank under accession number CP014267, which provides new insights for other potential macrolide-resistant mechanisms in M. pneumoniae clinical isolates in China. PMID:27056229

  15. A comparative study of live attenuated F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  16. Genital Mycoplasma infections and their resistance phenotypes in an African setting.

    PubMed

    Kouegnigan Rerambiah, L; Ndong, J-C; Medzegue, S; Elisee-Ndam, M; Djoba Siawaya, J F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of mycoplasmas in Gabonese men and women. A total of 1,332 men and women were included in the study. Sperm, urine, ureteral or vaginal swabs were collected from the subjects. Mycoplasmas identification and antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the Mycoplasma IST 2 kit. 794 subjects were positive for Mycoplasma. Respectively, 1.6 % and 82.24 % of subjects were singly infected with M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum and 15.87 % had a mixed infection. M. hominis isolates were resistant to erythromycin and had an intermediate (I) to resistant (R) profile to azithromycin and clarithromycin. 84.6 % of M. hominis strains were sensitive (S) to josamycin and pristinamycin. 30.8 % and 92.3 % of M. hominis strains were sensitive to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. 76.9 and 84.6 % of M. hominis isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. The sensitivity rates of U. urealyticum strains were 45.23 %, 47.7 %, 63.84 %, 90.8 % and 92 % for azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, pristinamycin and josamycin, respectively. U. urealyticum strains showed 62.2 % and 79.7 % sensitivity to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. The resistance rates to azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin for samples with mixed infection were 72.8 %, 84.7 % and 85.6 %, respectively. Josamycin and pristinamycin were 81.5 % effective on samples with mixed infection. The sensitivity rates of samples with mixed infection to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were 32 %, 69.6 %, 8.9 % and 18.5 %, respectively. Sub-Saharan Africa needs to use antibiotics rationally, as falling to do so would compromise the management of infectious diseases. PMID:25630539

  17. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and facilitate the design of new vaccines. PMID:23384176

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoidessubsp.mycoidesis the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Strain S355, Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaoli; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Baoli; Lv, Na; Xue, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae plays an important role in refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Here, we present the whole-genome sequencing of the macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strain S355. The annotated full-genome sequence might provide a new insight into drug resistance in M. pneumoniae and can help pediatricians recognize the disease earlier. PMID:26988036

  1. INITIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS FROM MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAINS TS-11 AND F DETECTED BY WESTERN BLOTTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) reduces the number of eggs produced by layer chickens. Three live MG vaccine strains are available for use in layer chickens and include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bi...

  2. Clearance of different strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis from the respiratory tract of C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M K; Davis, J K; Lindsey, J R; Cassell, G H

    1988-01-01

    Pathogen-free C3H/HeN mice were exposed by aerosol to Mycoplasma pulmonis PG34(ASH), UAB 5782C, M1, UAB T, or UAB CT, and clearance of mycoplasmas from the nasal passages, trachea, and lungs was determined during the first 72 h postinoculation (PI). There were differences among strains of mycoplasmas in physical removal of organisms and in killing by nonspecific factors in the nasal passages and trachea. The avirulent strain, PG34(ASH), was quickly removed from the nasal passages and trachea. Physical removal of the other mycoplasmal strains occurred slowly, with 60 to 89% of the radioactive label remaining in the nasal passages and trachea even after 72 h. There were significant differences in killing among mycoplasmal strains by nonspecific host mechanisms in the nasal passages, trachea, and lungs. Strain UAB T was quickly killed at all levels of the respiratory tract. Strains UAB 5782C and M1 were killed at all three sites by 2 to 4 h PI. The most virulent strain, UAB CT, was killed much more slowly than the other strains. However, there was no statistical difference in the relative numbers of mycoplasmas present in the lungs at 72 h PI among strains UAB CT, UAB 5782C, and M1. These studies showed that the different mycoplasmal strains were cleared from the respiratory tract by different mechanisms and suggest that the differences in virulence among the mycoplasma strains can be explained, in part, by the differences in elimination of the organisms from the respiratory tract by nonspecific host defense mechanisms. PMID:3397188

  3. Phospholipids and Glycolipids of Sterol-requiring Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Koostra, Walter L.

    1967-01-01

    The phospholipids of Mycoplasma hominis type 2 strain 07 are composed almost entirely of phosphatidyl glycerol. Traces of other glycerophospholipids may exist. No glycolipids are found. The phospholipids of Mycoplasma sp. avian strain J are composed of diphosphatidyl glycerol, which predominates in older cultures, a monoacyl glycerophosphoryl glycerophosphate, which may serve as a precursor of diphosphatidyl glycerol, and phosphatidyl glycerophosphate. This organism also contains cholesteryl glucoside and an unidentified glycolipid which appears to be similar to a monoglucosyl diglyceride. No turnover or radioisotope labeling of the phospholipids occurs during metabolism. This lack of turnover during growth is indicative of a structural role for these glycerophospholipids. A concomitant decrease of monoacyl glycerophosphoryl glycerophosphate and increase of diphosphatidyl glycerol occurs during growth. PMID:6025304

  4. Integrative Conjugative Elements Are Widespread in Field Isolates of Mycoplasma Species Pathogenic for Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Virginie; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Marenda, Marc Serge; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genomics have revealed massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between Mycoplasma species sharing common ruminant hosts. Further results pointed toward an integrative conjugative element (ICE) as an important contributor of HGT in the small-ruminant-pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae. To estimate the prevalence of ICEs in ruminant mycoplasmas, we surveyed their occurrence in a collection of 166 field strains representing 4 (sub)species that are recognized as major pathogens. Based on available sequenced genomes, we first defined the conserved, minimal ICE backbone as composed of 4 coding sequences (CDSs) that are evenly distributed and predicted to be essential for ICE chromosomal integration-excision and horizontal transfer. Screening of the strain collection revealed that these 4 CDSs are well represented in ruminant Mycoplasma species, suggesting widespread occurrence of ICEs. Yet their prevalence varies within and among species, with no correlation found with the individual strain history. Extrachromosomal ICE forms were also often detected, suggesting that ICEs are able to circularize in all species, a first and essential step in ICE horizontal transfer. Examination of the junction of the circular forms and comparative sequence analysis of conserved CDSs clearly pointed toward two types of ICE, the hominis and spiroplasma types, most likely differing in their mechanism of excision-integration. Overall, our data indicate the occurrence and maintenance of functional ICEs in a large number of field isolates of ruminant mycoplasmas. These may contribute to genome plasticity and gene exchanges and, presumably, to the emergence of diverse genotypes within pathogenic mycoplasmas of veterinary importance. PMID:25527550

  5. Integrative conjugative elements are widespread in field isolates of Mycoplasma species pathogenic for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Florence; Mick, Virginie; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Marenda, Marc Serge; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Citti, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Comparative genomics have revealed massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between Mycoplasma species sharing common ruminant hosts. Further results pointed toward an integrative conjugative element (ICE) as an important contributor of HGT in the small-ruminant-pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae. To estimate the prevalence of ICEs in ruminant mycoplasmas, we surveyed their occurrence in a collection of 166 field strains representing 4 (sub)species that are recognized as major pathogens. Based on available sequenced genomes, we first defined the conserved, minimal ICE backbone as composed of 4 coding sequences (CDSs) that are evenly distributed and predicted to be essential for ICE chromosomal integration-excision and horizontal transfer. Screening of the strain collection revealed that these 4 CDSs are well represented in ruminant Mycoplasma species, suggesting widespread occurrence of ICEs. Yet their prevalence varies within and among species, with no correlation found with the individual strain history. Extrachromosomal ICE forms were also often detected, suggesting that ICEs are able to circularize in all species, a first and essential step in ICE horizontal transfer. Examination of the junction of the circular forms and comparative sequence analysis of conserved CDSs clearly pointed toward two types of ICE, the hominis and spiroplasma types, most likely differing in their mechanism of excision-integration. Overall, our data indicate the occurrence and maintenance of functional ICEs in a large number of field isolates of ruminant mycoplasmas. These may contribute to genome plasticity and gene exchanges and, presumably, to the emergence of diverse genotypes within pathogenic mycoplasmas of veterinary importance. PMID:25527550

  6. Mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: Comparison of commercial F-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine [Trial 1] or two inocula of layer complex-derived MG strains (LCD-MG) [Trial 2]. In each of the two trials, four commercial turkeys were housed in each of two adjoining pens ...

  7. Effects of Prelay 6/85-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Alone or in Conjunction with the Inoculation of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum During Lay on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 6/85 Mycoplasma gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. Gallisepticum (FMG) overlays and their timing on the blood characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inoculations at 10 wk of age. Birds in ...

  8. Changes in pathogenicity and immunogenicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides strains revealed by comparative genomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Yongqiang; Liu, Suli; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Gao, Liping; Zhou, Changping; Liu, Henggui; Wang, Xiumei; Zheng, Huajun; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A pathogenic strain BEN-1 was isolated from bovine lung and underwent continuous passages in rabbits for 468 generations. During this process, the strain's strong virulence became weak and, gradually, it lost the ability to confer protective immunity in cattle but developed virulence in rabbits. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms behind the reduction in virulence and the loss of immunogenicity, we sequenced five representative strains of the BEN series, including the original strain (BEN-1), the strain generation that first acquired virulence in rabbits (BEN-50), the two vaccine strain generations (BEN-181 and BEN-326), and the strain generation showing the greatest loss of immunogenicity (BEN-468). The gene mutation rate in the four different propagation stages varied greatly, and over half of variations observed in each generation were removed during the propagation process. However, the variation maintained in the BEN-468 generation might contribute to its changes in virulence and immunogenicity. We thus identified 18 genes associated with host adaptation, six genes contributing to virulence in cattle, and 35 genes participating in conferring immunity in cattle. These findings might help us optimize the vaccine to obtain more effective immunization results. PMID:26750304

  9. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  10. Differential clustering of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains by PCR-REA of the bgl locus.

    PubMed

    Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim

    2004-06-01

    In order to develop a specific tool differentiating the African field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC from other potentially less virulent strains, including the vaccine strains, we have developed a PCR followed by a restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA). This approach also differentiates the African field strains from the Australian strains and the type strain PG1. The genomic marker detected by the PCR-REA is based on a single nucleotide change in the bgl gene that codes for 6-phospho-beta-glucosidase (Bgl), an enzyme that is involved in sugar metabolism. PMID:15145506

  11. Changes in pathogenicity and immunogenicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides strains revealed by comparative genomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Yongqiang; Liu, Suli; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Gao, Liping; Zhou, Changping; Liu, Henggui; Wang, Xiumei; Zheng, Huajun; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A pathogenic strain BEN-1 was isolated from bovine lung and underwent continuous passages in rabbits for 468 generations. During this process, the strain’s strong virulence became weak and, gradually, it lost the ability to confer protective immunity in cattle but developed virulence in rabbits. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms behind the reduction in virulence and the loss of immunogenicity, we sequenced five representative strains of the BEN series, including the original strain (BEN-1), the strain generation that first acquired virulence in rabbits (BEN-50), the two vaccine strain generations (BEN-181 and BEN-326), and the strain generation showing the greatest loss of immunogenicity (BEN-468). The gene mutation rate in the four different propagation stages varied greatly, and over half of variations observed in each generation were removed during the propagation process. However, the variation maintained in the BEN-468 generation might contribute to its changes in virulence and immunogenicity. We thus identified 18 genes associated with host adaptation, six genes contributing to virulence in cattle, and 35 genes participating in conferring immunity in cattle. These findings might help us optimize the vaccine to obtain more effective immunization results. PMID:26750304

  12. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of genital mycoplasmas in sexually active individuals in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Pónyai, K; Mihalik, N; Ostorházi, E; Farkas, B; Párducz, L; Marschalkó, M; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis strains cultured from the genital discharges of sexually active individuals who attended our STD outpatient service. Samples were taken with universal swab (Biolab®, Budapest, Hungary) into the Urea-Myco DUO kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) and incubated in ambient air for 48 h at 37 °C. The determination of antibiotic sensitivity was performed in U9 and arginin broth using the SIR Mycoplasma kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) under the same conditions. Between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2011, 373/4,466 (8.35 %) genito-urethral samples with U. urealyticum and 41/4,466 (0.91 %) genito-urethral samples with M. hominis infection were diagnosed in sexually active individuals in the National STD Center, Semmelweis University. U. urealyticum was isolated in 12.54 % in the cervix and 4.1 % in the male urethra, while M. hominis was isolated in 1.33 % in the cervix and 0.51 % in the male urethra. The affected age group was between 21 and 60 years old. U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to tetracycline (95.9 %), doxycycline (97.32 %), and azithromycin (85.79 %), and resistant to erythromycin (81.23 %), clindamycin (75.06 %), and ofloxacin (25.2 %). Cross-resistance occurred in 38.71 % of patients to erythromycin and clindamycin. M. hominis strains were sensitive to clindamycin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline in more than 95 %, to tetracycline in 82.92 %, and no cross-resistance was detected among the antibiotics. Our study confirms that the continuously changing antibiotic resistance of ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas should be followed at least in a few centers in every country, so as to determine the best local therapy options for sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients. PMID:23686458

  13. Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

  14. Mycoplasmas in diseases of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Embree, J E; Embil, J A

    1980-01-01

    The roles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in diseases of humans are currently under investigation. M. pneumoniae, which causes primary atypical pneumonia, is a well established pathogen of the respiratory tract. Complications of infection by this organism are also being recognized; they include disorders of the hematopoietic, cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal, cutaneous and gastrointestinal systems. The roles of the genital mycoplasmas M. hominis and U. urealyticum are controversial but may include infections of the genitourinary tract and in pregnancy as well as diseases of the newborn, such as neonatal pneumonia and meningitis. In this review atypical pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae is described and the role of mycoplasmas in other diseases is discussed. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B FIG. 2 PMID:6790148

  15. Characterisation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains involved in respiratory disease in pheasants and peafowl.

    PubMed

    Bencina, D; Mrzel, I; RoJs, O Zorman; Bidovec, A; Dovc, A

    2003-02-22

    Two cases of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in different avian species in backyard gamebird operations in Slovenia were investigated. In the first case, M gallisepticum was associated with severe respiratory disease with almost 20 per cent mortality in pheasants, whereas the infection was less pathogenic for chickens and turkeys reared at the same site. The M gallisepticum isolates from pheasants had a unique pMGA gene sequence containing a repeat of 12 nucleotides, and they contained only small amounts of the cytadhesins MGC1 and MGC3 and no PvpA protein. However, they expressed some typical M gallisepticum proteins and several proteins which were immunogenic for pheasants, chickens and turkeys. A strain of M gallisepticum isolated from the sinus of a pheasant was highly pathogenic for chicken embryos. In the second case, the M gallisepticum strain that was associated with respiratory disease and mortality in peafowl also affected chickens. M gallisepticum strain ULB 992 was isolated from the infraorbital sinus of a dead peafowl. The ULB 992 strain synthesised a small amount of MGC3, a truncated form of MGC1 and lacked PvpA. However, it expressed several proteins which were immunogenic for the birds infected with M gallisepticum at both gamebird operations. PMID:12625537

  16. Use of antibodies against the P36 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae for the identification of M. hyopneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Stipkovits, L; Nicolet, J; Haldimann, A; Frey, J

    1991-12-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the principal aetiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, synthesizes a 36 kDa protein (P36) which is an early and strong immunogenic factor in experimentally and naturally infected swine. Polyclonal antibodies were made against the recombinant P36 protein in rabbits and used for the identification of M. hyopneumoniae by the immunoblot technique. The proteins from the M. hyopneumoniae reference strains and from 13 M. hyopneumoniae field strains isolated from naturally infected pigs in Switzerland, Hungary, France and Canada were analysed by the immunoblot technique using anti-P36 antibodies. All 13 field strains and the three reference J strains of M. hyopneumoniae, received from different collections and laboratories, exhibited a strong reaction with a protein of 36 kDa indicating that the P36 protein is a common M. hyopneumoniae antigen. None of the different porcine Mycoplasma species including M. flocculare, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae, A. axanthum, A. laidlawii and A. granularum showed any reaction on the immunoblot with the anti-P36 antibodies. In addition, we have found no reaction with anti-P36 antibodies using 47 different Mycoplasma or Acholeplasma species isolated from human, mice, rat, poultry, ruminant, dog and cat. In conclusion we have shown that P36 is a protein that is a common antigen of M. hyopneumoniae strains and is not found in other Mycoplasma or Acholeplasma species tested. Because of its high specificity, P36 protein, or antibodies made against this protein can be used for the identification of M. hyopneumoniae strains. PMID:1723490

  17. Factors influencing the ability of different mycoplasmas to colonize the genital tract of hormone-treated female mice.

    PubMed

    Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1993-02-01

    Colonization of the genital tract of female mice, mainly BALB/c, by Mycoplasma genitalium, M. pneumoniae and M. pulmonis was enhanced by pretreatment of the mice with progesterone. M. fermentans, M. hominis and M. salivarium, and three serotypes and two untyped strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum colonized under the influence of oestradiol but not progesterone. Mycoplasmas dependent on progesterone were glucose-metabolizing, with strong haemadsorptive and other attachment properties, and possessed a terminal structure. Mycoplasmas dependent on oestradiol were arginine or arginine/glucose metabolizing. Ureaplasmas also required oestradiol. The oestradiol-requiring group appeared to be less cytadsorptive and devoid of a morphological terminal structure. Mycoplasmas that had had multiple passes in media were less able to colonize. This may be one, but not the only, reason for the failure of seven mycoplasmas to colonize under the influence of either hormone. The observations suggest the existence of a receptor mechanism for colonization, progesterone-requiring mycoplasmas being exposed to, and needing, genital tract cells different from those exposed to oestradiol-requiring mycoplasmas. PMID:8471540

  18. In vitro activity of tylvalosin against Spanish field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tavío, M M; Poveda, C; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Poveda, J B

    2014-11-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is involved in the porcine enzootic pneumonia and respiratory disease complex; therefore, the search for new treatment options that contribute to the control of this organism is relevant. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations of tylvalosin and 19 other antimicrobial agents against 20 Spanish field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae were determined using the broth microdilution method, with the type strain (J) as a control strain. Tylvalosin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.016 and 0.06 µg/ml, respectively, and was the second-most effective of the assayed antibiotics, after valnemulin. Tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin were also among the antibiotics with the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values against the 20 field isolates (0.06-0.25 µg/ml). However, resistance to tylosin and spiramycin, which like tylvalosin, are 16-membered macrolides, was observed. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin ranged from 0.125 to 1 µg/ml; the corresponding values ranged from 2 to 4 µg/ml for oxytetracyline, which was the most active tetracycline. Furthermore, tylvalosin and valnemulin exhibited the highest bactericidal activities. In conclusion, the macrolide tylvalosin and the pleuromutilin valnemulin exhibited the highest in vitro antimicrobial activities against M. hyopneumoniae field isolates in comparison with the other tested antibiotics. PMID:25185108

  19. Effects of time specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on pre-lay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on performance characteristics of commercial laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bacteria are virtually ubiquitous in layer chicken flocks and M. gallisepticum is the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines were initially approved by the USDA for use in commercial layers in 1988 to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks...

  20. Isolation and analysis of tetracycline-resistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains from an infected goat herd in Cyprus - short communication.

    PubMed

    Filioussis, George; Ioannou, Ioannis; Petridou, Evanthia; Avraam, Maria; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

    2013-09-01

    A major concern with the use of tetracycline against mycoplasmas is the development of resistance. Infections in small ruminants due to tetracyclineresistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains are becoming a frequent problem worldwide. In the present paper the detection and analysis of three tetracycline-resistant M. agalactiae strains, isolated from infected goats in Cyprus, are reported. The three field isolates were identified as M. agalactiae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showing 98% identity to the M. agalactiae PG2 reference strain. Furthermore, they were found sensitive to tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin. In contrast, they were resistant to tetracycline. None of the putative genes [tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S)] that commonly contribute to high-level resistance to tetracycline could be amplified from their genome. Contrarily, the field isolates were found to carry ISMag1, an insertion sequence related to the IS30 family of mobile elements. Although ISMag1 is widely believed to induce high-frequency chromosomal rearrangements resulting in phenotypic changes of microorganisms, its potential role in tetracycline resistance of mycoplasmas requires further studies. PMID:23921341

  1. Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus hominis Strains ShAs1, ShAs2, and ShAs3, Isolated from the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Grant L.; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Koundal, Vikas; Mwangi, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus hominis is a culturable component of the bacterial microbiome of Anopheles stephensi. Here, we present the annotated draft genome sequences of three S. hominis isolates from A. stephensi. These genomic resources will facilitate experiments to further our understanding of the role of bacteria in mosquito biology. PMID:26966197

  2. Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus hominis Strains ShAs1, ShAs2, and ShAs3, Isolated from the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Grant L; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Koundal, Vikas; Rasgon, Jason L; Mwangi, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus hominis is a culturable component of the bacterial microbiome of Anopheles stephensi. Here, we present the annotated draft genome sequences of three S. hominis isolates from A. stephensi. These genomic resources will facilitate experiments to further our understanding of the role of bacteria in mosquito biology. PMID:26966197

  3. Identification of some clinical strains of CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria as Cellulomonas species and proposal of Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov. for some group A-3 strains.

    PubMed

    Funke, G; Ramos, C P; Collins, M D

    1995-08-01

    CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria were defined by Hollis and Weaver in 1981, but their taxonomic position is still unclear. By using biochemical and chemotaxonomical methods, four clinical strains belonging to CDC coryneform groups A-3 (n = 2) and A-4 (n = 2) were studied and could be assigned to the genus Cellulomonas, resulting in the first description of Cellulomonas strains isolated from clinical specimens. CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains were compared with the type strains of the seven species constituting the genus Cellulomonas at present as well as with the closely related species Oerskovia turbata, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, and Jonesia denitrificans, but their biochemical patterns were not compatible with the patterns of any of those species. Almost the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of one representative strain of both CDC taxa were determined, and comparative sequence analysis confirmed the placement of the CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains studied in the Cellulomonas-Oerskovia subbranch of the actinomycetes. Both CDC taxa exhibited > 99% base pair homology within their 16S rDNAs. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular data, we formally propose a new species, Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov., for the CDC coryneform group A-3 bacteria examined. The type strain is DSM 9581. The precise taxonomic status of the CDC coryneform group A-4 strains studied remains to be established by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations. PMID:7559954

  4. Identification of some clinical strains of CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria as Cellulomonas species and proposal of Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov. for some group A-3 strains.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; Ramos, C P; Collins, M D

    1995-01-01

    CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria were defined by Hollis and Weaver in 1981, but their taxonomic position is still unclear. By using biochemical and chemotaxonomical methods, four clinical strains belonging to CDC coryneform groups A-3 (n = 2) and A-4 (n = 2) were studied and could be assigned to the genus Cellulomonas, resulting in the first description of Cellulomonas strains isolated from clinical specimens. CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains were compared with the type strains of the seven species constituting the genus Cellulomonas at present as well as with the closely related species Oerskovia turbata, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, and Jonesia denitrificans, but their biochemical patterns were not compatible with the patterns of any of those species. Almost the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of one representative strain of both CDC taxa were determined, and comparative sequence analysis confirmed the placement of the CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains studied in the Cellulomonas-Oerskovia subbranch of the actinomycetes. Both CDC taxa exhibited > 99% base pair homology within their 16S rDNAs. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular data, we formally propose a new species, Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov., for the CDC coryneform group A-3 bacteria examined. The type strain is DSM 9581. The precise taxonomic status of the CDC coryneform group A-4 strains studied remains to be established by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations. PMID:7559954

  5. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans. PMID:23298636

  6. Analysis of the 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of Mycoplasma synoviae field strains.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ana S; Naylor, Clive J; Yavari, Christine A; Dare, Cynthia M; Bradbury, Janet M

    2011-02-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae has been associated with economic loss in the chicken and turkey industries. The molecular characterization of M. synoviae at strain level allows the analysis of relationships between strains that may be valuable in epidemiological investigations. In the present study, the intergenic spacer region (ISR) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes was examined to see whether useful information about strains could be derived. M. synoviae has two copies of this region, which may not be exactly the same (intercistronic heterogeneity). Sequencing of the ISRs of 21 M. synoviae isolates and the type strain revealed that 19 of them had such heterogeneity so DNA cloning was performed where necessary. All sequences were analysed and aligned; the percentage similarity of the DNA was calculated and a dendrogram was constructed. The length of the ISRs varied between 305 and 309 base pairs. Apart from having extra A/Ts in poly-A or poly-T regions and the presence of a few polymorphisms, the sequences of the M. synoviae strains were similar. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the strains were assigned to 10 groups-taking into account that within each group the DNA similarity was 100%, while the lowest similarity between groups was 95.8%. The results were compared with those obtained with the vlhA gene, resulting in very similar M. synoviae groups. Although the ISR could be a good target for strain typing, as has been shown by others for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the method may be too cumbersome for routine use with M. synoviae because of complications with intercistronic heterogeneity. However, if the ISR sequence information was to be combined with other mutation detection techniques it could increase the discriminatory power. PMID:21331951

  7. A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Weisburg, W G; Tully, J G; Rose, D L; Petzel, J P; Oyaizu, H; Yang, D; Mandelco, L; Sechrest, J; Lawrence, T G; Van Etten, J

    1989-01-01

    Small-subunit rRNA sequences were determined for almost 50 species of mycoplasmas and their walled relatives, providing the basis for a phylogenetic systematic analysis of these organisms. Five groups of mycoplasmas per se were recognized (provisional names are given): the hominis group (which included species such as Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma lipophilum, Mycoplasma pulmonis, and Mycoplasma neurolyticum), the pneumoniae group (which included species such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma muris), the spiroplasma group (which included species such as Mycoplasma mycoides, Spiroplasma citri, and Spiroplasma apis), the anaeroplasma group (which encompassed the anaeroplasmas and acholeplasmas), and a group known to contain only the isolated species Asteroleplasma anaerobium. In addition to these five mycoplasma groups, a sixth group of variously named gram-positive, walled organisms (which included lactobacilli, clostridia, and other organisms) was also included in the overall phylogenetic unit. In each of these six primary groups, subgroups were readily recognized and defined. Although the phylogenetic units identified by rRNA comparisons are difficult to recognize on the basis of mutually exclusive phenotypic characters alone, phenotypic justification can be given a posteriori for a number of them. PMID:2592342

  8. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kelley C.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Waites, Ken B.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Krause, Duncan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains. PMID:26121242

  9. Performance evaluation of two microbial transport media designed for preservation and transport of Chlamydiae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara L; Madhusudhan, Kunapuli T; Agans, Krystle; Dearen, Karen; Knight, Jennifer; Brasel, Trevor; Karamchi, Mehdi; Sherwood, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The ability of a non-propagating transport device (test device) to maintain the viability of clinically relevant bacteria was compared with a similar commercial device (predicate device) to establish performance equivalence. Test bacteria, namely Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were inoculated into the test [Puritan Medical Products Universal Transport System (UniTranz-RT(TM))] and predicate (BD Universal Viral Transport System) devices, and incubated at 4 °C and room temperature for up to 72 h. Bacterial viability was assessed at selected time points post-incubation using shell vial assays followed by immunofluorescence staining (for Chlamydia) or by standard culture techniques (for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma). Results indicated that the Chlamydia strains were equally stable in both test and predicate devices through 72 h storage, at both test temperatures. Quantifiable levels of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were recovered from the test and predicate devices throughout the storage period. Low-temperature storage improved bacterial viability when compared with room temperature storage. In addition, the predicate device demonstrated slightly improved performance versus the test device in the context of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma following 72 h storage. The overall results of the study confirmed the full performance of UniTranz-RT(TM) as a microbial transport medium and established equal performance with the predicate device. PMID:25713205

  10. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Yolk Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay)...

  11. EFFECTS OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TWELVE WEEKS OF AGE ON EGG YOLK COMPOSITION IN COMMERCIAL EGG LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the content of egg yolks from commercial Single Combed White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of eight (Trial 1) or sixteen (Trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass bi...

  12. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study. PMID:24035026

  13. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by vaccine strain T1/44 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC.

    PubMed

    Mbulu, Rosa-Stella; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Lelli, Rosella; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola; Vilei, Edy M; Mettler, Felix; Nicholas, Robin A J; Huebschle, Otto J B

    2004-03-01

    A study was carried out on four adult cattle to assess the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strain T1/44, currently used as a vaccine for the control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Namibia. Post mortem examination 9 weeks after endobronchial inoculation of the vaccine strain to three of the four animals revealed unilateral pleuropneumonic lesions, pleuritis and well-developed sequesters in two of the three inoculated animals and several small sequesters surrounded by pleuropneumonic lesions in the diaphragmatic and apical lobes in one animal. The fourth animal, which was not directly inoculated but was in close contact with the inoculated animals, revealed only an adhesion area of the lung to the ribcage. Serological examination carried out using the complement fixation test (CFT) detected positive titres in all three intubated animals and the indirect CBPP-LppQ-ELISA was positive for two of the three inoculated animals. The contact animal showed no seroconversion. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC was isolated from the sequesters of two of the inoculated animals. Isolation of mycoplasmas was not possible from the third inoculated animal due to heavy contamination of the samples by other bacteria, but the presence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC could be evidenced by PCR from clinical samples. The identity of the T1/44 vaccine strain isolated from the sequesters of two animals was confirmed by T1/44-specific PCR analysis and by IS1296 typing using Southern blot. These results clearly show that inoculation of T1/44 vaccine via the endobronchial route can lead to CBPP. PMID:15036531

  14. Molecular Variability of the Adhesin-Encoding Gene pvpA among Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains and Its Application in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T.; García, M.; Levisohn, S.; Yogev, D.; Kleven, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important pathogen of chickens and turkeys that causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The reemergence of M. gallisepticum outbreaks among poultry, the increased use of live M. gallisepticum vaccines, and the detection of M. gallisepticum in game and free-flying song birds has strengthened the need for molecular diagnostic and strain differentiation tests. Molecular techniques, including restriction fragment length polymorphism of genomic DNA (RFLP) and PCR-based random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), have already been utilized as powerful tools to detect intraspecies variation. However, certain intrinsic drawbacks constrain the application of these methods. The main goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using an M. gallisepticum-specific gene encoding a phase-variable putative adhesin protein (PvpA) as the target for molecular typing. This was accomplished using a pvpA PCR-RFLP assay. Size variations among PCR products and nucleotide divergence of the C-terminus-encoding region of the pvpA gene were the basis for strain differentiation. This method can be used for rapid differentiation of vaccine strains from field isolates by amplification directly from clinical samples without the need for isolation by culture. Moreover, molecular epidemiology of M. gallisepticum outbreaks can be performed using RFLP and/or sequence analysis of the pvpA gene. PMID:11326008

  15. Measurement of the cytotoxic effects of different strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube using a calmodulin assay.

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, V M; Miller, R B; Rosendal, S; Fernando, M A; Johnson, W H; O'Brien, P J

    1992-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced by five strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium for cells of equine uterine tube explants were tested by measuring changes in cellular and extracellular concentrations of calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin concentrations in samples of total homogenate (TH) and total homogenate supernates (THS) of the infected equine uterine tube explants were significantly lower than respective measurements on noninfected controls. In tissue culture medium fractions (TCM) of some infected explants, CaM concentrations were significantly higher than noninfected controls (p > 0.95). The results suggest that M. equigenitalium colonization on ciliated cells of the equine uterine tube can affect the permeability of the cell membrane leading to leakage or release of CaM during cell breakdown. Measurement of CaM concentrations in samples of TH revealed significant differences in the cytotoxic effects induced by different strains of M. equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube (EUT). The data suggests that some strains of M. equigenitalium may have a role in reproductive failure in the mare. In addition comparisons of the means of the concentrations of CaM in samples of TH or THS in EUT explants from four mares in the follicular and four in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were found to be not significantly different. PMID:1477802

  16. Clonal Spread of a Unique Strain of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Within a Single Family in Italy.

    PubMed

    Chironna, Maria; Loconsole, Daniela; De Robertis, Anna Lisa; Morea, Anna; Scalini, Egidio; Quarto, Michele; Tafuri, Silvio; Germinario, Cinzia; Manzionna, Mariano

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MR-MP) is an increasing problem worldwide. This study describes the clonal spread of a unique strain of MR-MP within a single family.On January 23, 2015, nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum samples were collected from the index case (a 9-year-old girl) in southern Italy. The patient had pneumonia and was initially treated with clarithromycin. MR-MP infection was suspected due to prolonged symptoms despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Two further cases of pneumonia occurred in relatives (a 7-year-old cousin and the 36-year-old mother of the index case); therefore, respiratory samples were also collected from other family members. Sequence analysis identified mutations associated with resistance to macrolides. Both P1 major adhesion protein typing and multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing were performed to assess the relatedness of the strains.The index case, the cousin, the mother, and another 4 family members (twin siblings of the index case, a 3-year-old cousin, and the grandmother) were positive for MR-MP. All strains harbored the mutation A2063G, had the same P1 subtype (1), and were MLVA (7/4/5/7/2) type Z. In addition, the index case's aunt (31 years of age and the probable source of infection) harbored an M pneumoniae strain with the same molecular profile; however, this strain was susceptible to macrolides.This cluster of MR-MP infection/carriage caused by a clonal strain suggests a high transmission rate within this family and highlights the need for increased awareness among clinicians regarding the circulation of MR-MP. Novel strategies for the treatment and prevention of M pneumoniae infections are required. PMID:26986172

  17. [Blastocystis hominis- parasites or commensals? ].

    PubMed

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha, Natalia; Szymański, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a cosmopolitan pro- tozoa which parasitizes the human large intestine. This parasite had been considered to be commensal of the large intestine for a long time, because even an intense invasion may be asymptomatic. However, this species is now being regarded as a parasitic organism. In this paper the latest data concerning the epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of B. hominis invasion have been cited and discussed. PMID:25518089

  18. Blastocystis hominis revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, D J; Boreham, P F

    1996-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular organism found commonly in the intestinal tract of humans and many other animals. Very little is known of the basic biology of the organism, and controversy surrounds its taxonomy and pathogenicity. There morphological forms (vacuolar, granular, and ameboid) have been recognized, but recent studies have revealed several additional forms (cyst, avacuolar, and multivacuolar). The biochemistry of the organism has not been studied to any extent, and organelles and structures of unknown function and composition are present in the cells. Several life cycles have been proposed but not experimentally validated. The form used for transmission has not been defined. Infections with the organism are worldwide and appear in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals. Symptoms generally attributed to B. hominis infection are nonspecific, and the need for treatment is debated. If treatment appears warranted, metronidazole is suggested as the drug of choice, although failures of this drug in eradicating the organism have been reported. Infection is diagnosed by light microscopic examination of stained smears or wet mounts of fecal material. Most laboratories identify B. hominis by observing the vacuolar form, although morphological studies indicate that other forms, such as the cyst form and multivacuolar form, also should be sought for diagnosis. PMID:8894352

  19. Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, a hemotropic mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Barker, Emily N; Helps, Chris R; Peters, Iain R; Darby, Alistair C; Radford, Alan D; Tasker, Séverine

    2011-04-01

    Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis strain Langford 1, representing the first hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) species to be completely sequenced and annotated. Originally isolated from a cat with hemolytic anemia, this strain induces severe hemolytic anemia when inoculated into specific-pathogen-free-derived cats. The genome sequence has provided insights into the biology of this uncultivatable hemoplasma and has identified potential molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. PMID:21317334

  20. A chronicle of serologic response in commercial layer chickens to vaccination with commercial F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initial efforts by the poultry industry at controlling and containing Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) included testing and slaughter of reactor flocks. Ultimately, using the aforementioned measures coupled with heat treatment of hatching eggs together with biosecurity and biosurveillance procedures, ...

  1. Comparison of the new Mycofast Revolution assay with a molecular assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas from clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genital mycoplasmas are opportunistic bacteria that are associated with undesirable gynaecologic and reproductive events. Mycoplasmas are fastidious bacteria with increasing resistance to routine antimicrobials and often fail to grow on conventional culture methods. The commercial Mycofast Revolution assay permits the phenotypic detection and identification of genital mycoplasmas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against five antimicrobial agents with MICs corresponding to the CLSI guidelines can also be performed. This study aimed to compare the new commercially available Mycofast Revolution assay with a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Self-collected swabs were obtained from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in Pretoria, South Africa from October 2012 to November 2012. These swabs were used to seed UMMt and modified Amies transport media. The seeded UMMt transported medium was used to inoculate the Mycofast Revolution assay for the identification, enumeration and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of genital mycoplasmas. Following DNA extraction from the modified Amies transport medium, specimens were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas. Results The Mycofast Revolution kit had a sensitivity and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI: 62.15% to 88.51%) and 80% (95% CI: 28.81% to 96.70%), respectively, against the PCR assay. The positive and negative predictive values were 97.1% (95% CI: 85.03% to 99.52%) and 28.6% (95% CI: 8.57% to 58.08%). Genital mycoplasmas were detected in 71.4% (35/49) of samples with the Mycofast Revolution assay with 49% (24/49) being Ureaplasma spp. and 22.4% (11/49) mixed strains. The multiplex PCR assay had a positivity rate of 89.8% (44/49) for genital mycoplasmas; mixed strains were present in 51% (25/49) of samples, Ureaplasma spp. in 16.3% (8/49) and M. hominis in 22.4% (11/49) of samples. Conclusions There was a fair agreement (κ = 0.319) between the Mycofast Revolution assay and the mPCR assay. With the high prevalence rates of genital mycoplasmas, fast and efficient diagnostic methods are imperative to treat infections and minimise complications. The Mycofast Revolution assay is simple to use, has a short turn-around time and interpretation of results are straightforward. This assay circumvents common problems experienced with conventional culture and molecular methods in diagnostic laboratories where skilled personnel are limited and can be used as an alternative diagnostic assay. PMID:24079603

  2. Comparison of immune responses to intranasal and intrapulmonary vaccinations with the attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 168 strain in pigs

    PubMed Central

    LI, Pengcheng; LI, Yunfeng; SHAO, Guoqing; YU, Qinghua; YANG, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune responses to intranasal and intrapulmonary vaccinations with the attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) 168 strain in the local respiratory tract in pigs. Twenty-four pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: an intranasal immunization group, an intrapulmonary immunization group, an intramuscular immunization group and a control group. The levels of local respiratory tract cellular and humoral immune responses were investigated. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in the early stage of immunization (P<0.01), local specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in nasal swab samples (P<0.01); and IgA- and IgG-secreting cells in the nasal mucosa and trachea were higher after intranasal vaccination (P<0.01) than in the control group. Interestingly, intrapulmonary immunization induced much stronger immune responses than intranasal immunization. Intrapulmonary immunization also significantly increased the secretion of IL-6 and local specific sIgA and the numbers of IgA- and IgG-secreting cells. The levels of IL-10 and interferon-γ in the nasal swab samples and the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the lung and hilar lymph nodes were significantly increased by intrapulmonary immunization compared with those in the control group (P<0.01). These data suggest that intrapulmonary immunization with attenuated Mhp is effective in evoking local cellular and humoral immune responses in the respiratory tract. Intrapulmonary immunization with Mhp may be a promising route for defense against Mhp in pigs. PMID:25649413

  3. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS strain) surface lipoprotein pMGA interacts with host apolipoprotein A-I during infection in chicken.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuli; Zhao, Chengcheng; Bi, Dingren; Tian, Wei; Chen, Jiao; Sun, Jianjun; Peng, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    The adhesin protein from Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS strain), namely pMGA1.2, is required for M. gallisepticum (MG) infection in chicken. However, the host factor(s) that interact with pMGA1.2 is not known. In this study, we prepared the membrane fraction of trachea epithelial cells from chicken embryos. Using an improved virus overlay protein blot assay (VOPBA) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, we found that pMGA1.2 specifically bound to a ∼30 kDa host protein. This host protein was further identified by mass spectrometry as chicken apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). We expressed and purified the recombinant ApoA-I protein in Escherichia coli and confirmed that it bound to the purified pMGA1.2 protein in vitro. Transiently expressed pMGA1.2 and ApoA-I were colocalized in HeLa cells. Finally, we designed small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules to knock down the expression of either ApoA-I or pMGA1.2, which inhibited the MG-induced cell cycle disruption in cells of chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1). Similarly, knockdown of ApoA-I inhibited the cilia loss and damage in chicken trachea cells in MG infection. In summary, ApoA-I may be an essential host factor in MG infection through interacting with pMGA1.2. PMID:26549235

  4. Comparison of the Ultrastructure of Several Rickettsiae, Ornithosis Virus, and Mycoplasma in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Douglas R.; Hopps, Hope E.; Barile, Michael F.; Bernheim, Barbara C.

    1965-01-01

    Anderson, Douglas R. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.), Hope E. Hopps, Michael F. Barile, and Barbara C. Bernheim. Comparison of the ultrastructure of several rickettsiae, ornithosis virus, and Mycoplasma in tissue culture. J. Bacteriol. 90:1387–1404. 1965.—In an effort to make a valid comparison of the ultrastructure of several intracellular parasites, selected agents were propagated under identical conditions in a single type of tissue culture cell; such infected preparations were processed for examination by electron microscopy by use of a standardized procedure for fixation and embedding. The organisms studied were: the Breinl and E strains of epidemic typhus, Rickettsia prowazeki; the Bitterroot strain of R. rickettsii; the Karp strain of R. tsutsugamushi (R. orientalis); R. sennetsu; the P-4 strain of ornithosis virus; and the HEp-2 strain of Mycoplasma hominis type I. Each of the rickettsial species examined had a cell wall and a plasma membrane, and contained ribosomes and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a ground substance. However, certain differences were noted. Both strains of R. prowazeki contained numerous intracytoplasmic electron-lucent spherical structures (4 to 10 mμ), not previously described. R. sennetsu, unlike the other rickettsiae, was not free in the host cytoplasm but was always enclosed in a vacuole. R. rickettsii was observed intranuclearly and in digestive organelles of the host cell as well as in the cytoplasm. Cells infected with ornithosis virus contained several forms representing the stages in its life cycle. The “initial bodies,” made up of ribosomes and DNA strands, were morphologically similar to the rickettsiae. In cultures infected with M. hominis, most of the cells became large and multinucleate. Although the Mycoplasma organisms were readily cultivated from these cultures, only a few could be found in the electron microscope preparations. These organisms were extracellular and lacked a cell wall, being bound only by a unit membrane. Again, the internal components were ribosomes and DNA strands. Under the uniform preparative conditions employed here, the three groups of organisms were morphologically distinguishable from one another. Images PMID:4954556

  5. Effects of prelay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation and time specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma infections are pandemic in multiage layer chicken flocks with M. gallisepticum being the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines are presently being used to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks. However, vaccination of layers with F-str...

  6. Evaluation of the Capacity of PCR and High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis for Identification of Mixed Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Seyed A.; Kanci, Anna; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenicity and presentation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection may differ from one strain to another and this may have implications on control measures. Infection of individual birds with more than one MG strain has been reported. A PCR followed by high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis has been developed in our laboratory and routinely used for detection and differentiation of MG strains. However the potential of this test for identification of MG strains in a mixed specimen has not been evaluated. In the present study, the capability of PCR-HRM curve analysis technique, targeting vlhA and pvpA genes was assessed for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed population. Different DNA ratios of two MG strains from 1 to 10-4 ng were tested with some generated conventional and normalized curves distinct from those of individual strains alone. Using genotype confidence percentages (GCP) generated from HRM curve analysis, it was found that vlhA PCR-HRM was more consistent than pvpA PCR-HRM for the detection of MG ts-11 vaccine strain mixed with any of the MG strains 6/85, F, S6 or a field isolate. The potential of vlhA PCR-HRM to detect mixed MG strains in a specimen was found to be primarily dependent on quantity and proportion of the target DNAs in the mixture. This is the first study examining the capacity of PCR-HRM technique for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed strain population. PMID:25970590

  7. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat, Phytase, and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 2 levels of supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the performance of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were ...

  8. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG ino...

  9. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers at 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (e...

  10. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed. Experimental layer diets, w...

  11. Dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristic of commercial...at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum 1 , 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) w...

  12. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculatio...

  13. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma galli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supple mentation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-D3) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallis...

  14. EFFECTS OF S6-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TEN, TWENTY-TWO, OR FORTY-FIVE WEEKS OF AGE ON THE BLOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL EGG LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of the age of application of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) inoculation on the blood characteristics of commercial layers housed and maintained under controlled conditions was determined. The ages of inoculation compared were tho...

  15. Mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: comparison of commercial F-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house.

    PubMed

    Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Collier, S D; Olanrewaju, H A; Kim, E J; Pharr, G T; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L

    2012-12-01

    Two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine (trial 1) or 2 inocula of layer complex-derived MG strains (LCD-MG; trial 2). In each of the 2 trials, 4 commercial turkeys were housed in each of 2 adjoining pens immediately adjacent to air inlets. The turkeys (8/trial) were inoculated in the right eye with either a 1× dose of FMG (trial 1) or with 0.02 mL of 1 of 2 actively growing LCD-MG inocula (4 turkeys/inoculum; trial 2). In each of the 2 trials, one pen housing 4 inoculated turkeys was maintained without the addition of other poultry, whereas 16 MG-free broilers and 4 MG-free layers were added to the other pen of 4 inoculated turkeys. Within each of the trials and at increasing intervals, either 4 layers (3 pens) or 4 turkeys (3 pens) were placed down-airstream from the inoculated pens. The distance of the first pen from the inoculated turkeys was separated by the width of one pen that was empty. Succeeding down-airstream pens were situated such that the empty distance (absence of any poultry) between pens that contained poultry doubled from one pen to the next such that the final pen that contained poultry had 4 empty pens between it and the next up-airstream pen that also contained poultry. At 106 d postinoculation, all poultry were bled, swabbed for MG from the choanal cleft, and then euthanized and necropsied. No commingled poultry in trial 1 (FMG), whether inoculated (turkeys) or commingled (layers and broilers), died during the course of the trial, and 5 of the 8 FMG-vaccinated turkeys exhibited serological but not cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. In trial 2 (LCD-MG), 2 commingled broilers died and no inoculated turkeys exhibited either serological or cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. In both trials, no poultry housed down-airstream from the inoculated poultry showed evidence of clinical signs of mycocplasmosis and none showed either serological or cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. PMID:23155015

  16. Immunogenicity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Soeripto; Whithear, K G; Cottew, G S; Harrigan, K E

    1989-03-01

    The serological response and protective immunity elicited in the chicken by the pathogenic Ap3AS strain and the moderately pathogenic 80083 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and variants of strain 80083 attenuated by repeated passage in mycoplasma broth were investigated. Strain 80083 elicited a substantial serum antibody response after administration either in drinking water or by conjunctival sac instillation to 7-week-old SPF chickens. No vaccinated chickens developed air sac lesions when challenged by intra-abdominal (IA) injection with the virulent Ap3AS strain. Chickens vaccinated with strain 80083M (50 broth passages) showed only a weak serological response but were substantially protected when challenged 4 weeks after vaccination. Chickens vaccinated with 80083H (100 broth passages) were serologically negative 4 weeks after vaccination and developed severe air sac lesions after challenge. Thirty-seven-week-old hens vaccinated 6 months previously with strain 80083 had high serum antibody levels and were completely protected against IA challenge with the homologous strain. However, 4/6 showed mild air sac lesions when challenged intra-abdominally with strain Ap3AS. Another group showed high M. gallisepticum serum antibody levels 6 months after vaccination with strain Ap3AS but 4/6 and 2/6 showed mild lesions after IA challenge with strains Ap3AS or 80083, respectively. Strains 80083 or 80083M were administered by conjunctival sac instillation to susceptible 11-week-old commercial pullets at the time of fowl pox vaccination. The concurrent use of both vaccines had no apparent adverse effect on the health of the chickens. Similar protection against IA challenge with strain Ap3AS was produced with the M. gallisepticum vaccines whether used alone or in combination with fowl pox. PMID:2540737

  17. Co-administration of attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 168 strain with bacterial DNA enhances the local and systemic immune response after intranasal vaccination in pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xueping; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2012-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. M. hyopneumoniae infects pigs at mucosal surfaces of respiratory tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the protection rate against M. hyopneumoniae infection following intranasal immunization with attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain is improved by administration of bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs. Thirty pigs were immunized intranasally or intramuscularly and the levels of local respiratory tract and systemic immune responses were detected. The results showed that the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the tracheal fork, the levels of cytokine IL-6, and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA in local nasal cavity increased respectively after intranasal vaccination with the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain alone. However, the levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in local nasal cavity, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in trachea, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the lung and hilar lymph nodes, the specific IgG antibody level in serum on 35 day post immunization were all increased significantly after intranasal vaccination of the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain adjuvanted with bacterial DNA. We concluded that intranasal administration of attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain adjuvanted with bacterial DNA may be effective in evoking the local cellular and humoral immune response in the respiratory tract and the systemic immune response. Intranasal vaccination will be effective in prevention of the transmission and prevalence of MPS. PMID:22266290

  18. Gga-miR-101-3p Plays a Key Role in Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS Strain) Infection of Chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Zaiwei; Bi, Dingren; Hou, Yue; Zhao, Yabo; Sun, Jianjun; Peng, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), one of the most pathogenic Mycoplasma, has caused tremendous economic loss in the poultry industry. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. However, little is known about potential roles of miRNAs in MG infection of chicken. In the present study, using miRNA Solexa sequencing we have found that gga-miR-101-3p was up-regulated in the lungs of MG-infected chicken embryos. Moreover, gga-miR-101-3p regulated expression of the host enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) through binding to the 3' un-translated region (3'-UTR) of EZH2 gene. Over-expression of gga-miR-101-3p significantly inhibited EZH2 expression and hence inhibited proliferation of chicken embryonic fibroblast (DF-1 cells) by blocking the G1-to-S phase transition. Similar results were obtained in MG-infected chicken embryos and DF-1 cells, where gga-miR-101-3p was significantly up-regulated, while EZH2 was significantly down-regulated. This study reveals that gga-miR-101-3p plays an important role in MG infection through regulation of EZH2 expression and provides a new insight into the mechanisms of MG pathogenesis. PMID:26633386

  19. gga-miR-101-3p Plays a Key Role in Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS Strain) Infection of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Zaiwei; Bi, Dingren; Hou, Yue; Zhao, Yabo; Sun, Jianjun; Peng, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), one of the most pathogenic Mycoplasma, has caused tremendous economic loss in the poultry industry. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. However, little is known about potential roles of miRNAs in MG infection of chicken. In the present study, using miRNA Solexa sequencing we have found that gga-miR-101-3p was up-regulated in the lungs of MG-infected chicken embryos. Moreover, gga-miR-101-3p regulated expression of the host enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) through binding to the 3’ un-translated region (3’-UTR) of EZH2 gene. Over-expression of gga-miR-101-3p significantly inhibited EZH2 expression and hence inhibited proliferation of chicken embryonic fibroblast (DF-1 cells) by blocking the G1-to-S phase transition. Similar results were obtained in MG-infected chicken embryos and DF-1 cells, where gga-miR-101-3p was significantly up-regulated, while EZH2 was significantly down-regulated. This study reveals that gga-miR-101-3p plays an important role in MG infection through regulation of EZH2 expression and provides a new insight into the mechanisms of MG pathogenesis. PMID:26633386

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

  1. Urogenital mycoplasmas and human papilloma virus in hemodialysed women.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, Alicja; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Wiechuła, Barbara; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Mazanowska, Natalia; Rady, Dominika; Kamiński, Paweł; Martirosian, Gayane

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20-48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required. PMID:24363622

  2. Survey of Surface Proteins from the Pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 7448 Using a Biotin Cell Surface Labeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia. PMID:25386928

  3. Mycoplasma agassizii strain variation and distinct host antibody responses explain differences between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot assays.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Lori D; Klein, Paul A; Jacobson, Elliott R; Brown, Mary B

    2010-11-01

    The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A₄₀₅ values were significantly correlated (r² goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations. PMID:20810678

  4. Mycoplasma agassizii Strain Variation and Distinct Host Antibody Responses Explain Differences between Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Western Blot Assays ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, Lori D.; Klein, Paul A.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Brown, Mary B.

    2010-01-01

    The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A405 values were significantly correlated (r2 goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations. PMID:20810678

  5. Simultaneous detection and identification of common cell culture contaminant and pathogenic mollicutes strains by reverse line blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; James, Gregory; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay to detect and identify the commonest mollicutes causing cell line contamination (Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) and human infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum). We developed a nested PCR assay with "universal" primers targeting the mollicute 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Amplified biotin-labeled PCR products were hybridized to membrane-bound species-specific oligonucleotide probes. The assay correctly identified reference strains of 10 mollicute species. Cell cultures submitted for detection of mollicute contamination, clinical specimens, and clinical isolates were initially tested by PCR assay targeting a presumed mollicute-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Any that were positive were assessed by the RLB assay, with species-specific PCR assay as the reference method. Initially, 100 clinical and 88 of 92 cell culture specimens gave concordant results, including 18 in which two or more mollicute species were detected by both methods. PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and subsequent retesting by species-specific PCR assay of the four cell culture specimens for which results were initially discrepant confirmed the original RLB results. Sequencing of amplicons from 12 cell culture specimens that were positive in the 16S rRNA PCR assay but negative by both the RLB and species-specific PCR assays failed to identify any mollicute species. The RLB hybridization assay is sensitive and specific and able to rapidly detect and identify mollicute species from clinical and cell line specimens. PMID:15006769

  6. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to Multicolored Butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The history, replication, genetics, characteristics (both biological and physical), and factors involved in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium are presented. The latter factors include adhesion, the influence of hormones, motility, possible toxin production, and immunological responses. The preferred site of colonization, together with current detection procedures, mainly by PCR technology, is discussed. The relationships between M. genitalium and various diseases are highlighted. These diseases include acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis, balanoposthitis, chronic prostatitis, and acute epididymitis in men and urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and reproductive disease in women. A causative relationship, or otherwise strong association, between several of these diseases and M. genitalium is apparent, and the extent of this, on a subjective basis, is presented; also provided is a comparison between M. genitalium and two other genital tract-orientated mollicutes, namely, Mycoplasma hominis, the first mycoplasma of human origin to be discovered, and Ureaplasma species. Also discussed is the relationship between M. genitalium and infertility and also arthritis in both men and women, as is infection in homosexual and immunodeficient patients. Decreased immunity, as in HIV infections, may enhance mycoplasmal detection and increase disease severity. Finally, aspects of the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of M. genitalium, together with the treatment and possible prevention of mycoplasmal disease, are discussed. PMID:21734246

  7. Effects of 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation alone at 10 weeks of age or in conjunction with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays at 22 or 45 weeks of age on the performance of commercial ....

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with a F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) over-lay and its timing on the performance of commercial egg laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inoculations at 10 wk of age. A second treated gro...

  8. Effects of a Prelay 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Alone or in Conjunction with Subsepuent F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation During Lay on the Internal Egg Characteristics of .....

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a pre-lay 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays during lay on the internal egg characteristics of commercial egg laying hens were investigated. In the first 2 treatment groups, birds were sh...

  9. Extensive Variation and Rapid Shift of the MG192 Sequence in Mycoplasma genitalium Strains from Patients with Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Miriam; Williams, James A.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Jia, Qiuyao; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium causes persistent urogenital tract infection in humans. Antigenic variation of the protein encoded by the MG192 gene has been proposed as one of the mechanisms for persistence. The aims of this study were to determine MG192 sequence variation in patients with chronic M. genitalium infection and to analyze the sequence structural features of the MG192 gene and its encoded protein. Urogenital specimens were obtained from 13 patients who were followed for 10 days to 14 months. The variable region of the MG192 gene was PCR amplified, subcloned into plasmids, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 220 plasmid clones yielded 97 unique MG192 variant sequences. MG192 sequence shift was identified between sequential specimens from all but one patient. Despite great variation of the MG192 gene among and within clinical specimens from different patients, MG192 sequences were more related within M. genitalium specimens from an individual patient than between patients. The MG192 variable region consisted of 11 discrete subvariable regions with different degrees of variability. Analysis of the two most variable regions (V4 and V6) in five sequential specimens from one patient showed that sequence changes increased over time and that most sequences were present at only one time point, suggesting immune selection. Topology analysis of the deduced MG192 protein predicted a surface-exposed membrane protein. Extensive variation of the MG192 sequence may not only change the antigenicity of the protein to allow immune evasion but also alter the mobility and adhesion ability of the organism to adapt to diverse host microenvironments, thus facilitating persistent infection. PMID:24396043

  10. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation in the case of inactivated virus vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest pool and control fluid pool shall be... Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one...

  11. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  12. Specific Evolution of F1-Like ATPases in Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Dautant, Alain; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Labroussaa, Fabien; Sköllermo, Anna; Persson, Anja; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    F1F0 ATPases have been identified in most bacteria, including mycoplasmas which have very small genomes associated with a host-dependent lifestyle. In addition to the typical operon of eight genes encoding genuine F1F0 ATPase (Type 1), we identified related clusters of seven genes in many mycoplasma species. Four of the encoded proteins have predicted structures similar to the α, β, γ and ε subunits of F1 ATPases and could form an F1-like ATPase. The other three proteins display no similarity to any other known proteins. Two of these proteins are probably located in the membrane, as they have three and twelve predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenomic studies identified two types of F1-like ATPase clusters, Type 2 and Type 3, characterized by a rapid evolution of sequences with the conservation of structural features. Clusters encoding Type 2 and Type 3 ATPases were assumed to originate from the Hominis group of mycoplasmas. We suggest that Type 3 ATPase clusters may spread to other phylogenetic groups by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasmas in the same host, based on phylogeny and genomic context. Functional analyses in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides showed that the Type 3 cluster genes were organized into an operon. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that the seven encoded proteins were produced during growth in axenic media. Mutagenesis and complementation studies demonstrated an association of the Type 3 cluster with a major ATPase activity of membrane fractions. Thus, despite their tendency toward genome reduction, mycoplasmas have evolved and exchanged specific F1-like ATPases with no known equivalent in other bacteria. We propose a model, in which the F1-like structure is associated with a hypothetical X0 sector located in the membrane of mycoplasma cells. PMID:22685606

  13. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-11-01

    Three species of hemotropic mycoplasmas are known to infect cats worldwide, Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum." These organisms were previously known as Haemobartonella felis, but are now known to be mycoplasmas. Assays based on polymerase chain reaction technology are the most sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available for these organisms. M haemofelis is the most pathogenic species, and causes hemolytic anemia in immunocompetent cats. Other differential diagnoses for hemolytic anemia should be considered in cats testing positive for "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," because the presence of these organisms is not always associated with anemia. Blood from infected cats should be handled with care because of the potential zoonotic nature of hemoplasma infections. The treatment of choice for cats with clinical disease is doxycycline. PMID:20933142

  14. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, P W; Helgason, M M; Mathias, R G; Proctor, E M

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study was performed on a large outpatient population to evaluate the epidemiology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis. Patients with stool specimens positive for B. hominis and negative for other bacterial and parasitic pathogens were sent a questionnaire and were requested to submit a follow-up specimen for ova-and-parasite examination. B. hominis was identified in 530 of 16,545 specimens (3.2%). There was a spectrum of clinical-pathological presentations in the 143 patients evaluated. An asymptomatic carrier state was seen in 19 patients. Fifteen patients had an illness consistent with acute self-limited B. hominis gastroenteritis, and 21 patients had chronic gastroenteritis associated with B. hominis. In the epidemiological evaluation of 130 patients, the most common symptoms were watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gas. We did not find a statistically significant association between the number of organisms present and the disease state. In summary, our results are consistent with a role for B. hominis in acute and chronic gastroenteritis; however, further detailed studies are necessary to determine whether that role is one of association or causation. PMID:2298869

  15. Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on performance and egg characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Burnham, M R; Branton, S L; Peebles, E D; Lott, B D; Gerard, P D

    2002-10-01

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent performance and egg characteristics of commercial Single Combed White Leghorn hens were evaluated. In two trials, BW, feed consumption, egg production (EP), egg weight, egg size class, relative eggshell water vapor conductance, and relative percentages of eggshell, yolk and albumen weights were determined through approximately 60 wk of age. In each trial, pullets at 12 wk of age were randomly assigned to negative pressure biological isolation units. Birds in one-half of the total units were inoculated with FMG, and the other half were sham-inoculated with sterile media. In both trials, onset of lay was delayed approximately 1 wk in layers inoculated with FMG. Control birds that had not been previously inoculated with FMG laid their first egg at 18 wk of age, while birds that had been previously inoculated with FMG laid their first egg at 19 wk of age. In Trial 1, FMG-inoculated hens laid significantly fewer total eggs, which became apparent at each week after Week 42. In Trial 2, a numerical decrease in total EP occurred, and the percentage of undersized eggs laid by FMG-inoculated birds was significantly lower at 19 wk of age but was higher at 20 and 21 wk when compared to controls. Mortality was not significantly different between the treatments in either trial. These data demonstrate that when birds are housed in isolation facilities and inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age, onset of lay is delayed. These data also suggest that FMG may lead to delays in undersize EP and decreases in total EP. However, because significant FMG effects on these parameters were observed in only one trial, additional studies may be necessary to verify these effects. PMID:12412912

  16. Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray application is a commonly used time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and vaccine suspension...

  17. Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the commercial egg-laying hen: an historical perspective considering effects of pathogen strain, age of bird at inoculation, and diet on performance and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a pathogenic organism, primarily causes respiratory distress, but can also spread systemically to subsequently reduce egg production and egg quality in laying hens. However, the effects of MG on the performance and physiology of the commercial laying hen have been sho...

  18. Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

    2013-06-01

    The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

  19. Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma bovis is associated with pneumonia in calves characterized by the development of chronic caseonecrotic lesions with the agent persisting within the lesion. The purposes of this study were to characterize the morphology of lung lesions, examine the presence of M. bovis variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and study the local immune responses in calves after infection with M. bovis strain 1067. Methods Lung tissue samples from eight calves euthanased three weeks after experimental infection with M. bovis were examined by bacteriology and pathology. Lung lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for wide spectrum cytokeratin and for M. bovis Vsp antigens and pMB67 antigen. IHC identification and quantitative evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA)-containing plasma cells was performed. Additionally, expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) was studied by IHC. Results Suppurative pneumonic lesions were found in all calves. In two calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia, necrotic foci were surrounded by epithelial cells resembling bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium. In all calves, M. bovis Vsp antigens were constantly present in the cytoplasm of macrophages and were also present extracellularly at the periphery of necrotic foci. There was a considerable increase in numbers of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves. In M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells, but only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Conclusions The results from this study show that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins. PMID:22305416

  20. Ether-linked lipids of Dermabacter hominis, a human skin actinobacterium.

    PubMed

    Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Marrodán-Ciordia, Teresa; Tauch, Andreas; Soriano, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Dermabacter hominis is a medically important actinobacterial inhabitant of human skin, although it is rarely implicated in infections. The lipid composition of D. hominis is revisited in this study in the context of its natural resistance to daptomycin, an antibiotic whose activity is influenced by membrane lipids. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that this species contains phospholipids and glycolipids. Using electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (exact mass) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the major phospholipid of D. hominis was identified as plasmanyl-phosphatidylglycerol (pPG), because it presented one alkyl chain and one acyl chain in the glycerol moiety of the molecule. The structure of the major glycolipid (GL1) was studied by combined gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, and was established as galactosyl-α-(1→2)-glucosyl-alkyl-acyl-glycerol. Lipid analyses showed differences between one daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) strain and one daptomycin-sensitive (DAP-S) strain growing in the presence of the antibiotic: DAP-R tended to accumulate GL1 and to reduce pPG, whereas DAP-S maintained high proportions of pPG. The results demonstrate the existence of ether-linked lipids in D. hominis and reveal a differential distribution of phospholipids and glycolipids according to the sensitivity or resistance to daptomycin, although the mechanism(s) operating in the resistance to the antibiotic remain(s) to be elucidated. PMID:26867985

  1. Role of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma species in female lower genital tract infections.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meghan Arvind; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are commonly found in the female genital tract. Despite ongoing debate, the evidence that they cause lower genital tract disease in women remains sparse. The data that Mycoplasma genitalium is primarily transmitted sexually are accumulating, but its role as a cause of symptomatic urethritis or cervicitis is open to debate. Although Mycoplasma hominis may be a co-factor in bacterial vaginosis, it has otherwise not been implicated as a cause of lower tract disease. Now that Ureaplasma urealyticum has been divided into U. urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, their role in causing urethritis and cervicitis remains even more unclear. To date, no convincing evidence exists that antimicrobial therapy should be directed solely at these organisms when treating women with urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, or cervicitis. PMID:21308549

  2. In Vitro Cell Invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Florian; Rosengarten, Renate; Citti, Christine

    2000-01-01

    The ability of the widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to invade cultured human epithelial cells (HeLa-229) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was investigated by using the gentamicin invasion assay and a double immunofluorescence microscopic technique for accurate localization of cell-associated mycoplasmas. The presence of intracellular mycoplasmas in both cell lines was clearly demonstrated, with organisms entering the eukaryotic cells within 20 min. Internalized mycoplasmas have the ability to leave the cell, but also to survive within the intracellular space over a 48-h period. Frequencies of invasion were shown to differ between the two cell lines, but were also considerably dependent on the mycoplasma input population. Of the prototype strain R, a low-passage population in artificial medium, Rlow, was capable of active cell invasion, while a high-passage population, Rhigh, showed adherence to but nearly no uptake into HeLa-229 and CEF. By passaging Rlow and Rhigh multiple times through HeLa-229 cells, the invasion frequency was significantly increased. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that M. gallisepticum has the capability of entering nonphagocytic host cells that may provide this pathogen with the opportunity for resisting host defenses and selective antibiotic therapy, establishing chronic infections, and passing through the respiratory mucosal barrier to cause systemic infections. PMID:10858241

  3. Interaction of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) and mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E; Westermark, B; Pontén, J

    1981-05-01

    A factor present in the supernatant of an established human glioma cell line U-251 MG strongly suppresses feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) focus forming activity on feline embryo fibroblasts. The factor was identified as mycoplasma arginini. The enriched mycoplasma fraction had no cytpathogenic effect on the glioma cells or on the embryonic feline indicator cells. An antiserum prepared against this strain of mycoplasma abolished the inhibition. The exact mechanism is not known but arginine depletion in the medium seems to be an important factor. PMID:6274139

  4. Enzootic Pneumonia in Pigs: Propagation of a Causative Mycoplasma in Cell Cultures and in Artificial Medium

    PubMed Central

    L'Ecuyer, C.

    1969-01-01

    Three strains of a new species of mycoplasma were recovered from pneumonic pig lungs, known free of Mycoplasma hyorhinis, by prolonged incubation in pig testicle cell cultures. The three strains produced a characteristic cytopathic effect in the cell cultures. A highly enriched meat-infusion-broth medium was evolved and permitted regular propagation of these organisms. Pneumonia could consistently be produced by intratracheal inoculation of pigs with the mycoplasma propagated in the enriched broth medium or in cell cultures. The mycoplasma were recovered from the lungs of experimentally infected pigs by inoculation into the broth medium. Comparative studies of the pneumonia producing mycoplasma and of M. hyorhinis were carried out in cell cultures, broth media, and in pigs infected experimentally by different routes. The morphological characteristics of the mycoplasma, grown in the different media, are described and illustrated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4237289

  5. Blastocystis hominis--past and future.

    PubMed Central

    Zierdt, C H

    1991-01-01

    The history of B. hominis is unique. Few infectious agents have provoked the many misconceptions that plague this enigmatic parasitic ameba. Conflicting descriptions of its nature and pathogenesis have continued throughout the 20th century. As seen by the greatly expanded number of reports in recent years, B. hominis is now a major subject of study, particularly for evidence of disease causation. Physicians are treating patients with intestinal disease caused by B. hominis. Many mild cases resolve in about 3 days without treatment, but others are acute and chronic disease is common. As with E. histolytica, the carrier state is often seen without symptoms. Treatment is usually with metronidazole, but emetine (for refractory infections), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and pentamidine are also effective. In fecal samples, this complex protozoan appears in a variety of cell forms which makes microscopic diagnosis difficult. As yet, no specific fluorescent-antibody test is available for diagnosis. A culture method to demonstrate the more easily recognized CB form is available, but probably not feasible for most diagnostic laboratories. The common cell forms are the CB form, the granular (mitochondria) form, and the ameba form. The unexpected size range of these forms in clinical material, from yeast size (ca. 7 microns) to giant cells of 20 to 40 microns, makes diagnosis difficult Pseudopodia may be demonstrated by the ameba form in heated microscope stage culture chambers. The anaerobic B. hominis has no cyst form. Its mitochondria are uniquely anaerobic and have no cytochrome protein or oxidative mitochondrial enzymes. Because of its many cell forms and anaerobic mitochondria, B. hominis is an organism of great interest for morphologic and biochemical study. Reproduction is asexual, usually by binary fission. Shizogony occurs in cultured cells. The CB appears to be an organelle whose specific purpose is for reproduction by shizogony. From 2 to 30 progeny are derived from schizogony. The ameba form reproduces by plasmotomy; it has no CB. The pathology of B. hominis infections has been studied in gnotobiotic guinea pigs in which inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and invasion of the superficial layers were seen. Only limited studies of human pathology are available. Those who have studied mucosal histopathology report inflammation and cellular changes that resolve after treatment. More study in this area is strongly indicated (32, 44, 57, 62, 67, 75). Ultrastructural details of B. hominis major forms, except for the schizont, are complete. The organism has no cell wall. The concentric CB takes up as much as 95% of the cell. The major organelles, which include multiple nuclei, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, fat, and other inclusions, are confined in two or four opposed pods in a thin band of peripheral cytoplasm between the spherical entire plasma membrane and the CB membrane. The pods buldge the CB membrane inward. There is evidence of a bacteroid endosymbiont. Education about B. hominis is needed. Entry of recent findings into new textbooks is imperative for its understanding among medical practitioners. Laboratory workers need to be aware of it for many reasons. The College of American Pathologists includes B. hominis in its proficiency testing samples and requires that it be reported from clinical samples. Images PMID:2004348

  6. Treatment of genital mycoplasma in colonized pregnant women in late pregnancy is associated with a lower rate of premature labour and neonatal complications.

    PubMed

    Vouga, M; Greub, G; Prod'hom, G; Durussel, C; Roth-Kleiner, M; Vasilevsky, S; Baud, D

    2014-10-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. may colonize the human genital tract and have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes. However, as these bacteria can reside in the normal vaginal flora, there are controversies regarding their true role during pregnancy and so the need to treat these organisms. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the treatment of genital mycoplasma in 5377 pregnant patients showing symptoms of potential obstetric complications at 25-37 weeks of gestation. Women presenting with symptoms were routinely screened by culture for the presence of these bacteria and treated with clindamycin when positive. Compared with uninfected untreated patients, women treated for genital mycoplasma demonstrated lower rates of premature labour. Indeed preterm birth rates were, respectively, 40.9% and 37.7% in women colonized with Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis, compared with 44.1% in uncolonized women (Ureaplasma spp., p 0.024; M. hominis, p 0.001). Moreover, a reduction of neonatal complications rates was observed, with 10.9% of newborns developing respiratory diseases in case of Ureaplasma spp. colonization and 5.9% in the presence of M. hominis, compared with 12.8% in the absence of those bacteria (Ureaplasma spp., p 0.050; M. hominis, p <0.001). Microbiological screening of Ureaplasma spp. and/or M. hominis and pre-emptive antibiotic therapy of symptomatic pregnant women in late pregnancy might represent a beneficial strategy to reduce premature labour and neonatal complications. PMID:24849820

  7. Revisiting the reference genomes of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species: reannotation of C. parvum Iowa and a new C. hominis reference.

    PubMed

    Isaza, Juan P; Galván, Ana Luz; Polanco, Victor; Huang, Bernice; Matveyev, Andrey V; Serrano, Myrna G; Manque, Patricio; Buck, Gregory A; Alzate, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are the most relevant species of this genus for human health. Both cause a self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals, but cause potentially life-threatening disease in the immunocompromised. Despite the importance of these pathogens, only one reference genome of each has been analyzed and published. These two reference genomes were sequenced using automated capillary sequencing; as of yet, no next generation sequencing technology has been applied to improve their assemblies and annotations. For C. hominis, the main challenge that prevents a larger number of genomes to be sequenced is its resistance to axenic culture. In the present study, we employed next generation technology to analyse the genomic DNA and RNA to generate a new reference genome sequence of a C. hominis strain isolated directly from human stool and a new genome annotation of the C. parvum Iowa reference genome. PMID:26549794

  8. Revisiting the reference genomes of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species: reannotation of C. parvum Iowa and a new C. hominis reference

    PubMed Central

    Isaza, Juan P.; Galván, Ana Luz; Polanco, Victor; Huang, Bernice; Matveyev, Andrey V.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Manque, Patricio; Buck, Gregory A.; Alzate, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are the most relevant species of this genus for human health. Both cause a self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals, but cause potentially life-threatening disease in the immunocompromised. Despite the importance of these pathogens, only one reference genome of each has been analyzed and published. These two reference genomes were sequenced using automated capillary sequencing; as of yet, no next generation sequencing technology has been applied to improve their assemblies and annotations. For C. hominis, the main challenge that prevents a larger number of genomes to be sequenced is its resistance to axenic culture. In the present study, we employed next generation technology to analyse the genomic DNA and RNA to generate a new reference genome sequence of a C. hominis strain isolated directly from human stool and a new genome annotation of the C. parvum Iowa reference genome. PMID:26549794

  9. Detection of Blastocystis hominis: a controversial human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Basak, Silpi; Rajurkar, Monali N; Mallick, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis has been reclassified as a protozoan parasite. Its role as a human pathogen is somewhat controversial. There has been a dramatic increase in the frequency of B. hominis infection in association with diarrhea especially in immunocompromised hosts like AIDS patients, travelers, homosexuals, day care children, animal handlers especially zoo keepers, etc. Recent reports suggest that B. hominis is an emerging pathogen; hence, we have undertaken this study to detect B. hominis from stool samples of patients attending our hospital. About 200 stool samples were tested by light microscopic examination, for observing wet mounts with saline and Lugol's iodine. Permanent staining of fecal smear by Gram's staining and modified acid fast staining was done. The stool sample which was microscopically positive for B. hominis was cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen's (LJ) medium. In one patient, the vacuolated form of B. hominis was observed in wet mount with saline preparation of stool sample. This was very clearly seen in wet mount with Lugol's iodine. In Gram's stained preparation, also the vacuolated form was observed. Detection of B. hominis was not possible by modified acid fast staining. B. hominis was also grown on LJ medium which is an egg-containing medium. Clinical microbiology laboratories should start screening of stool samples for B. hominis as it is an emerging pathogen. PMID:24169810

  10. UV Inactivation of Cryptosporidium hominis as Measured in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anne M.; Linden, Karl; Ciociola, Kristina M.; De Leon, Ricardo; Widmer, Giovanni; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The Cryptosporidium spp. UV disinfection studies conducted to date have used Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. However, Cryptosporidium hominis predominates in human cryptosporidiosis infections, so there is a critical need to assess the efficacy of UV disinfection of C. hominis. This study utilized cell culture-based methods to demonstrate that C. hominis oocysts displayed similar levels of infectivity and had the same sensitivity to UV light as C. parvum. Therefore, the water industry can be confident about extrapolating C. parvum UV disinfection data to C. hominis oocysts. PMID:15870378

  11. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma acquisition in male HIV-1 infected patients: a multistage cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, L-S; Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Yang, T; Yuan, R; Zhao, Y-Y; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

    2015-11-01

    Mycoplasma infections are most frequently associated with disease in the urogenital or respiratory tracts and, in most cases, mycoplasmas infect the host persistently. In HIV-infected individuals the prevalence and role of genital mycoplasmas has not been well studied. To investigate the six species of Mycoplasma and the risk factors for infection in Jiangsu province, first-void urine and venous blood samples were collected and epidemiological questionnaires were administered after informed consent. A total of 1541 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in this study. The overall infection rates of six Mycoplasma species were: Ureaplasma urealyticum (26·7%), Mycoplasma hominis (25·3%), M. fermentans (5·1%), M. genitalium (20·1%), M. penetrans (1·6%) and M. pirum (15·4%). The Mycoplasma infection rate in the unmarried group was lower than that of the married, divorced and widowed groups [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·432, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·077-1·904, P < 0·05]. The patients who refused highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) had a much higher risk of Mucoplasma infection (aOR 1·357, 95% CI 1·097-1·679, P < 0·05). Otherwise, a high CD4+ T cell count was a protective factor against Mycoplasma infection (aOR 0·576, 95% CI 0·460-0·719, P < 0·05). Further research will be required to confirm a causal relationship and to identify risk factors for Mycoplasma infection in HIV/AIDS populations. PMID:25792346

  12. Validation of nested PCR and a selective biochemical method as alternatives for mycoplasma detection.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kyung Ah; Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Lee, Ai-Young

    2011-04-01

    Direct culture is the most common way to reliably detect mycoplasma, but it is not practical for the qualitative control of cell therapeutics because of the elaborate culture medium, the prolonged incubation time, and the large sample volumes. Here, we chose two alternative methods using commercial detection kits, the PCR mycoplasma detection kit with nested PCR and the selective biochemical method, MycoAlert(®), and validated them with the direct culture method as a reference. We tested eight mycoplasma species and five validation parameters: specificity, detection limit, robustness, repeatability, and ruggedness, based on the regulatory guidelines in the US Pharmacopoeia. All experiments were performed using fibroblasts spiked with mycoplasma. Specificity tests for both methods included all mycoplasma species, except Mycoplasma pneumonia and M. genitalium for the nested PCR and Ureaplasma urealyticum for the MycoAlert(®) assay. Regarding the detection limit, the nested PCR proved to be as sensitive as the direct culture method and more sensitive than the MycoAlert(®) assay. The predicted median for probit = 0.9 was 54 (44-76) CFU/ml for M. hyorhinis and 16 (13-23) CFU/ml for M. hominis by the nested PCR, but 431 (346-593) CFU/ml and 105 (87-142) CFU/ml, respectively, with MycoAlert(®). Changes in the concentration of reagents, reagent lot, or individual analysts did not influence the results of the examined methods. The results of this study support nested PCR as a valuable alternative for mycoplasma detection. PMID:20806253

  13. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM HUMANS, HOMO SAPIENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on biological and molecular data, the species of Cryptosporidium infecting the intestine of humans is considered a new species for which the name Cryptosporidium hominis is proposed. The structure and infectivity of the oocysts of C. hominis from the feces of humans are described. Oocysts are ...

  14. Cardiobacterium hominis bioprosthetic mitral valve endocarditis presenting as septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Johnson, Raymond M; Braverman, Alan C; Dunne, William Michael; Little, J Russell

    2002-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Cardiobacterium hominis bioprosthetic valve endocarditis presenting as septic arthritis. This remarkable presentation had clinical features consistent with endocarditis generally associated with highly virulent pathogens. A literature search has failed to disclose a report of septic arthiritis as a manifestation of C. hominis endocarditis. PMID:11821177

  15. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalshingi, Habu A; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Gouws, Johan; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50%) were identified as M. arginini with 99% - 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% - 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA) is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species. PMID:26244581

  16. Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats. PMID:11972343

  17. Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Baumgartner, Martina; Gamper, Erika; Innerebner, Carmen; Zimmermann, Martina; Schilcher, Franz; Tichy, Alexander; Winter, Petra; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae are encoded on a genomic pathogenicity island–like locus and are considered as one of the well-characterized model systems of mycoplasma surface antigenic variation. The present study assesses the role of these phase-variable Vpmas in the molecular pathogenesis of M. agalactiae by testing the wild-type strain PG2 in comparison with the xer1-disrupted Vpma ‘phase-locked’ mutants in sheep infection models. The data clearly illustrate that although Xer1 recombinase is not a virulence factor of M. agalactiae and Vpma phase variation is not necessary for establishing an infection, it might critically influence the survival and persistence of the pathogen under natural field conditions, mainly due to a better capacity for dissemination and evoking systemic responses. This is the first study where mycoplasma ‘phase-locked’ mutants are tested in vivo to elucidate the role of phase variation during infection. PMID:22809092

  18. Mycoplasma bovis research update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis in bison is a newly emerging and potentially devastating threat to the bison industry. This bacterium is increasingly being identified, both in the United States and Canada, as the cause of severe respiratory disease outbreaks with devastating consequences for the health of the ani...

  19. Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, J P; Rosendal, S; McCraw, B M; Ruhnke, H L

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3742358

  20. A minimized motile machinery for Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    The cell wall-less bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium uses specialized adhesins located at the terminal organelle to adhere to host cells and surfaces. The terminal organelle is a polar structure protruding from the cell body that is internally supported by a cytoskeleton and also has an important role in cell motility. We have engineered a M. genitalium null mutant for MG491 protein showing a massive downstream destabilization of proteins involved in the terminal organelle organization. This mutant strain exhibited striking similarities with the previously isolated MG_218 null mutant strain. Upon introduction of an extra copy of MG_318 gene in both strains, the amount of main adhesins P140 and P110 dramatically increased. These strains were characterized by microcinematography, epifluorescence microscopy and cryo-electron microcopy, revealing the presence of motile cells and filaments in the absence of many proteins considered essential for cell adhesion and motility. These results indicate that adhesin complexes play a major role in the motile machinery of M. genitalium and demonstrate that the rod element of the cytoskeleton core is not the molecular motor propelling mycoplasma cells. These strains containing a minimized motile machinery also provide a valuable cell model to investigate the adhesion and gliding properties of this human pathogen. PMID:26712501

  1. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of Mycoplasmas isolated from the bovine genital tract.

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R B; Onoviran, O; Ruhnke, H L; Fish, N A; Barker, C A

    1975-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 14 mycoplasma and 13 ureaplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of bulls was examined. It was found that at relatively low concentrations, tetracycline, declomycin and tylosin were lethal to both types of organisms. Lincospectin, berenil, streptomycin and erythromycin were lethal to mycoplasmas but were only inhibitory to the ureaplasma strains at the same concentrations. Polymyxin B and novobiocin were ineffective at the levels tested. PMID:169970

  2. Unusually low prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples from infertile men and healthy controls: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. Methods The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Results Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. Conclusions In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. PMID:25157184

  3. [Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jia, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Lan; Xin, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Hong-Yin; Shi, Lin-Chun; Yao, Hui; Liu, Dong; Wu, Zhen-Hong

    2014-06-01

    In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method. PMID:25244745

  4. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis. PMID:12760663

  5. Fulminant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, E D; Welsh, C H

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of fulminant pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae is relatively rare despite the high prevalence of Mycoplasma species infection in the general population. We recently encountered such a case and have reviewed the English-language literature on cases of M pneumoniae pneumonia that have resulted in respiratory failure or death. Due to host factors or on epidemiologic grounds, fulminant cases seem to be more common in young healthy adults, in males, and possibly in smokers among the 46 patients we found. An enhanced host cellular immune response may be responsible for the development of severe cases. A spectrum of small airways disease is characteristic, including cellular bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis obliterans with and without organizing pneumonia. Based largely on anecdotal experience, corticosteroid use may be salutary in patients with respiratory failure. For reasons that are not well known, the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism is increased in fatal cases. Images PMID:7725685

  6. Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomics of Hemotrophic Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Timenetsky, Jorge; Messick, Joanne B.

    2014-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are a group of animal pathogens of the Mollicutes class. Recently, the genomes of 8 hemoplasmas have been completely sequenced. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of their genomic features and relationship to other Mycoplasma species. The genome structure and dynamics of hemoplasmas were analyzed by evaluating gene synteny, adaptive evolution of paralogous gene families (PGF) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The Mollicutes class was then phylogenetically analyzed by constructing a distance matrix of the 16S rRNA genes and a phylogenetic tree with 32 conserved, concatenated proteins. Our results suggest that the hemoplasmas have dynamic genomes. The genome size variation (from 547 to 1,545 genes) indicates substantial gene gain/loss throughout evolution. Poorly conserved gene syntenies among hemoplasmas, positional shuffling of paralogous genes between strains, HGT, and codons under positive selection in PGFs were also observed. When compared to other Mollicutes species, the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic reduction, and the 16S rRNA gene distance matrix of the available mollicutes suggests that these organisms presently constitute the most divergent clade within its class. Our phylogenetic tree of concatenated proteins showed some differences when compared to the 16S rRNA gene tree, but non-mycoplasma organisms, such as Ureaplasma spp. and Mesoplasma spp., continue to branch within Mycoplasma clades. In conclusion, while the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic shrinkage through gene loss, PGFs with positively selected codons are likely beneficial to these species. Phylogeny of the mollicutes based on 16S rRNA genes or concatenated proteins do not obey the current taxonomy. The metabolism and genetic diversity of the mollicutes, the presence of HGT, and lack of standard for genus circumscription are likely to hinder attempts to classify these organisms based on phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24642917

  7. Filamentous Structures of Type 2 Herpesvirus hominis Infection of the Chorioallantoic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Ernest F.; Nahmias, André J.

    1969-01-01

    In view of recent recognition of the existence of two Herpesvirus hominis (HVH) types with antigenic and biological differences, an electron microscopic study was undertaken of pocks produced on the choriallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs after infection with type 1 and type 2 HVH strains. Besides the typical morphological features of herpesvirus infection noted by several investigators, it was observed that type 2 HVH also produced microtubules measuring approximately 19 nm in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Although the nature of these filamentous structures is still unclear, consideration is given in this paper to the possibility that they may represent viral structural subunits, aberrant forms or neoantigens. Images PMID:4304447

  8. Mycoplasma-Latex Agglutination Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Harry E.

    1966-01-01

    Morton, Harry E. (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia). Mycoplasma-latex agglutination reaction. J. Bacteriol. 92:1196–1205. 1966.—The building up of Mycoplasma cell mass through adsorption to carrier particles as a method for enhancing the agglutination reaction to identify Mycoplasma is described. Mycoplasma cells of human, avian, swine, goat, sewage, and tissue-culture origin were adsorbed to latex particles (0.81 μ) and then were agglutinated by immune sera. The adsorption was demonstrated by electron microscopy. Either the cells or their antibodies, depending on which came into contact with the latex particles first, were adsorbed. The test, completed in less than 2 hr, consisted of serially diluting immune sera with buffered saline, adding the antigen, incubating in a water bath, centrifuging, and reading the reaction under 50 × microscope magnification. The antigen in each reaction tube, representing the growth from about 1.6 ml of culture, was estimated to contain 23 μg of protein (approximately one-tenth the amount of Mycoplasma cells needed for a direct agglutination reaction). In the sera from rabbits undergoing immunization with Mycoplasma antigens, the presence of anti-Mycoplasma antibodies was detected much sooner in the Mycoplasma-latex agglutination reaction test than in the agar-gel diffusion reaction and the growth inhibition tests. Four different lots of latex particles showed excellent uniformity of behavior and stability during storage and testing. Images PMID:4959043

  9. [Study of Mycoplasma from the genital apparatus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Savov, N; Buchvarova, Ia

    1976-01-01

    The study on vaginal mucous secretion in cows with metritis and vaginitis, on fetuses and placentae of cows that had miscarried as well as on preputial secretion of bulls revealed the presence of Mycoplasma organisms associated with V. fetus and other bacterial species. By their reaction to cholesterol, digitonin, sodium polyanetol sulfonate as well as their serum and temperature requirements, the formation of films and spots, their phosphatase activity and biochemical and serologic behaviour the mycoplasmas isolated from the genital tract of cows were specified as A. laidlawii and A. axanthum. From both cows and bulls T-forms of mycoplasmas were isolated. The strains determined as A. laidlawi showed deviations from the species characteristics by the fermentation of glucose, hydrolysis of esculine, and reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride. PMID:960549

  10. Cellular Microbiology of Mycoplasma canis.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Dina L; Leibowitz, Jeffrey A; Azaiza, Mohammed T; Shil, Pollob K; Shama, Suzanne M; Kutish, Gerald F; Distelhorst, Steven L; Balish, Mitchell F; May, Meghan A; Brown, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma canis can infect many mammalian hosts but is best known as a commensal or opportunistic pathogen of dogs. The unexpected presence of M. canis in brains of dogs with idiopathic meningoencephalitis prompted new in vitro studies to help fill the void of basic knowledge about the organism's candidate virulence factors, the host responses that it elicits, and its potential roles in pathogenesis. Secretion of reactive oxygen species and sialidase varied quantitatively (P < 0.01) among strains of M. canis isolated from canine brain tissue or mucosal surfaces. All strains colonized the surface of canine MDCK epithelial and DH82 histiocyte cells and murine C8-D1A astrocytes. Transit through MDCK and DH82 cells was demonstrated by gentamicin protection assays and three-dimensional immunofluorescence imaging. Strains further varied (P < 0.01) in the extents to which they influenced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the neuroendocrine regulatory peptide endothelin-1 by DH82 cells. Inoculation with M. canis also decreased major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen expression by DH82 cells (P < 0.01), while secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and complement factor H was unaffected. The basis for differences in the responses elicited by these strains was not obvious in their genome sequences. No acute cytopathic effects on any homogeneous cell line, or consistent patterns of M. canis polyvalent antigen distribution in canine meningoencephalitis case brain tissues, were apparent. Thus, while it is not likely a primary neuropathogen, M. canis has the capacity to influence meningoencephalitis through complex interactions within the multicellular and neurochemical in vivo milieu. PMID:27045036

  11. Complexity of the Mycoplasma fermentans M64 Genome and Metabolic Essentiality and Diversity among Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Huang-I; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Shu, Hung-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Hu, Wensi S.; Ng, Wailap Victor

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the genomes of two Mycoplasma fermentans strains, namely M64 and JER, have been completely sequenced. Gross comparison indicated that the genome of M64 is significantly bigger than the other strain and the difference is mainly contributed by the repetitive sequences including seven families of simple and complex transposable elements ranging from 973 to 23,778 bps. Analysis of these repeats resulted in the identification of a new distinct family of Integrative Conjugal Elements of M. fermentans, designated as ICEF-III. Using the concept of “reaction connectivity”, the metabolic capabilities in M. fermentans manifested by the complete and partial connected biomodules were revealed. A comparison of the reported M. pulmonis, M. arthritidis, M. genitalium, B. subtilis, and E. coli essential genes and the genes predicted from the M64 genome indicated that more than 73% of the Mycoplasmas essential genes are preserved in M. fermentans. Further examination of the highly and partly connected reactions by a novel combinatorial phylogenetic tree, metabolic network, and essential gene analysis indicated that some of the pathways (e.g. purine and pyrimidine metabolisms) with partial connected reactions may be important for the conversions of intermediate metabolites. Taken together, in light of systems and network analyses, the diversity among the Mycoplasma species was manifested on the variations of their limited metabolic abilities during evolution. PMID:22509252

  12. [Furunculoid myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis].

    PubMed

    Mirande, L M; Landolfi, J M; Pedemonte, L H; Pepe, C M

    1976-01-01

    The authors report a case of forunculoid miasis by "Dermatobia hominis" ("Ura" fly). a process that being not very common in the Argentine Republic is sometimes misjudged as a furunculosis. The patient reported, a white woman, 51, travelled to a zone where this parasitose is endemid. After some time of her stay there, she noted three small nodes in her vulvar region. They grew on until reaching nearly the size of a walnut. At her first consultation with a gynecologist it was taken as a case of furuncolosis and treated with antibiotics. As the treatment didn't prove succesful, she asked for dermatological advice. It was then possible to verify the presence of three nodes. In the central hole of one of them, there could be seen a whitish body that soon disappeared inwards. This lead to the diagnosis of forunculoid miasis. An accurate and easy-to-perform treatment was carried out: a 1% solution of formaldehyde in distilled water was infused through the central hole of each node. This determined the larva's caudal extremity to appear in search of air. It was taken advantage of this situation to remove the larvae with a pair of nippers. "Dermatobia hominis" is widely spread in the warm-climated Argentine northern provinces of Chaco, Formosa and Misiones, as well as in Brazil, Paraguay and some regions of Uruguay. It is also known under the name of "Ura". It is a large fly, yellow faced, with dark-blue thorax; an almost rombic metallic-blue abdomen, orange antennae and legs, and dark-brown wings. It lives on the nutrients spared during its larval stage and both fecundation and oviposition, take place along its week-long life. The fecundated female catches different haematophagus insects on the wing, sticking sets of eggs to their abdomens. An embryo developes in each egg, being ready to emerge in a week but does this only when the bearer insect settles on a homeothermal being piercing and penetrating the skin of the new guest in about 10 minutes. PMID:1035397

  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium mixture in synovial fluid isolate.

    PubMed Central

    Tully, J G; Rose, D L; Baseman, J B; Dallo, S F; Lazzell, A L; Davis, C P

    1995-01-01

    A mycoplasma cultured from synovial fluid specimens from a patient with pneumonia and subsequent polyarthritis was identified initially as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In retrospective studies, the culture was shown also to contain Mycoplasma genitalium. In this paper, the laboratory techniques employed in the identification and separation of the two species are presented, and evidence to implicate postinfectious autoimmunity is provided. An increasing number of reports of M. genitalium in human tissue sites and difficulties in isolation and identification of the organism in the clinical laboratory suggest the need for more extensive application of rapid and specific detection systems for both M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae in the clinical laboratory. PMID:7545182

  14. Mycoplasmas and their host: emerging and re-emerging minimal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Citti, Christine; Blanchard, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Commonly known as mycoplasmas, bacteria of the class Mollicutes include the smallest and simplest life forms capable of self replication outside of a host. Yet, this minimalism hides major human and animal pathogens whose prevalence and occurrence have long been underestimated. Owing to advances in sequencing methods, large data sets have become available for a number of mycoplasma species and strains, providing new diagnostic approaches, typing strategies, and means for comprehensive studies. A broader picture is thus emerging in which mycoplasmas are successful pathogens having evolved a number of mechanisms and strategies for surviving hostile environments and adapting to new niches or hosts. PMID:23419218

  15. The Recognition of a vlhA Protein from the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with Monoclonal Antibody 6F10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to identify the genes encoding M. gallisepticum F-strain surface proteins recognized by specific antibody reagents to characterize the individual role of each gene product in host colonization. Here we report the characterization of a 70-kDa surface protein recognized by ...

  16. Evaluation of the transmission mode of B. hominis by using PCR method.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Fadime; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2010-09-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite observed in fecal examination. On the other hand, the transmission of this parasite is certainly unknown. The transmission of B. hominis can be realized by animal contact and the contamination by water and food with excreted cysts from the reservoir hosts. B. hominis isolated from 25 humans, their pets, and tap water was identified by polymerase chain reaction using sequenced tag site primers in this study. B. hominis isolates obtained from humans and pets were identified as subtype1, subtype2, and subtype3 while B. hominis isolates obtained from tap water were also identified as subtype1. The B. hominis isolates obtained from humans in this study were defined as the same as the subtypes of the B. hominis isolates obtained from the pets, of which these people keep at their homes, and the tap water. These findings reveal that the source of B. hominis infection could be pets and tap water. PMID:20544220

  17. Clinical significance and prevalence of Blastocystis hominis in Van, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Cengiz, Zeynep T.; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the associated clinical symptoms and prevalence of Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis). Methods: Stool samples of 50,185 patients (26,784 males and 23,401 females) who were received at the Parasitology Laboratory of Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Van, Turkey in the last 5 years were inspected microscopically using saline and iodine-stained wet-mount preparations. Age, gender, and symptoms of patients were recorded and their significance was evaluated. Results: The prevalence of B. hominis in the total sample was 0.54% (275/50185). Out of 275 infected patients, 143 (52%) were males, and 132 (48%) were female (χ2=0.884; p=0.348). The distribution of B. hominis infection was high in 7-13 aged children (34.9%) (χ2=306.8; p=0.001). Blastocystis was higher among symptomatic patients (70.2%) compared with asymptomatic patients (29.8%) (χ2=107.13; p=0.001). The most frequent clinical symptoms associated with the disease were abdominal pain (27.3%) and diarrhea (19.6%) followed by anorexia, fever, saliva, anal itching, and nausea. Conclusion: Blastocystis hominis is considered a causative agent of human disease in patients with recurrent symptoms. Due to the significant risk for zoonotic transmission, molecular techniques must be used to determine the route and source of infection. PMID:26318472

  18. Pentatrichomonas hominis in laboratory-bred common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takashi; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Yasuda, Masahiko; Sasaki, Erika; Itoh, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonadid protozoa have been found in the intestinal tracts of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). However, there is little information available on species identification and the pathogenicity of these trichomonads. In this study, we conducted a fecal survey of a common marmoset colony maintained as laboratory animals in Japan and identified the trichomonad species. Screening using a fecal smear examination revealed that 66% (58/88) of the marmosets had trichomonadid trophozoites in their feces. The trichomonads were found in both normal feces (31/49, 63%) and diarrhea (27/39, 69%), with no significant difference in frequency. The protozoa were identified as Pentatrichomonas hominis using morphological characters and the 100% identity of the nucleotide sequence of the partial 18S rRNA gene (297 bp). The intraspecific genetic variability between P. hominis from the marmosets in this study and P. hominis from other reported mammal hosts was ≤1% in the nucleotide sequence, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS-2 (293 bp). P. hominis inhabits the large intestine of various mammalian hosts, including primates, and is considered nonpathogenic. These results suggest that P. hominis is transmitted among marmosets and other mammals but is not a primary cause of bowel disease in marmosets. PMID:26156572

  19. Increasing the value of hominy feed as a coproduct by fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hominy feed is a low value ($83.7/metric ton) coproduct of the corn dry milling process that accounts for nearly 35% of the starting corn quantity. The average composition of hominy feed on a dry basis is 56.9% starch, 25.2% neutral detergent fiber, 11.1% protein, and 5.3% fat. Starch in hominy fe...

  20. Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly.

    PubMed

    Maier, Harald; Hönigsmann, Herbert

    2004-02-01

    Myiasis is a common travel-associated dermatosis. Travelers to many parts of Central and South America are susceptible to infestation by Dermatobia hominis. Despite the common name of human botfly, D hominis infests a broad range of mammals and is a severe pest to economically important farm animals in endemic regions. The adult female does not lay the eggs on the host. Instead, the adult female infests hosts indirectly by using blood-feeding arthropods to serve as phoretic vectors to transport the eggs. We present a patient who acquired Dermatobia when bitten by a day-active mosquito during a visit to Guatemala. He had a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion with a central pore that drained serosanguineous exudates. The patient applied an occlusive ointment and recovered the larva after it emerged. In this report we discuss the life cycle of D hominis, the differential diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:14726861

  1. Effects of mycoplasma contamination on phenotypic expression of mitochondrial mutants in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doersen, C.J.; Stanbridge, E.J.

    1981-04-01

    HeLa cells sensitive to the mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibitors erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and HeLa variants resistant to the effects of these drugs were purposefully infected with drug-sensitive and -resistnat mycoplasma strains. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and the ERY-resistant strain of Mycoplasma orale, MO-ERY/sup r/, did not influence the growth of HeLa and ERY-resistant ERY2301 cells in the presence or absence of ERY. M. hyorhinis also did not affect the growth of HeLa and CAP-resistant Cap-2 cells in the presence or absence of CAP. However, both HeLa and Cap-2 cells infected with the CAP-resistant strain of M. hyorhinis, MH-CAP/sup r/, were more sensitive to the cytotoxix effect of CAP. This maybe due to the glucose dependence of the cells, which was compromised by the increased utilization of glucose by MH-CAP/sup r/ in these infected cell cultures. In vitro protein synthesis by isolated mitochondria was significantly altered by mycoplasma infection of the various cell lines. A substantial number of mycoplasmas copurified with the mitochondria, resulting in up to a sevenfold increase in the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. More importantly, the apparent drug sensitivity or resistance of mitchondrial preparations from mycoplasma-infected cells reflected the drug sensitivity or resistance of the contaminating mycoplasmas. These results illustrate the hazards in interpreting mitochondrial protein synthesis data derived from mycoplasma-infected cell lines, particularly putative mitochondrially encoded mutants resistant to inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  2. Infection With Cryptosporidium hominis Provides Incomplete Protection of the Host Against Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Wiffin, Anthony; Widmer, Giovanni; Singh, Pradeep; Tzipori, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, which infect humans equally, are genetically/antigenically almost identical. It remains unclear, however, whether infection with C. hominis protects against C. parvum. Gnotobiotic piglets were used to investigate cross-protection. After ?3 days of recovery from C. hominis infection, the piglets were completely protected against subsequent challenge with C. hominis but only partially against challenge with C. parvum, as compared with age-matched control animals challenged with either species. In conclusion, C. hominisspecific immunity was sufficient to completely protect against challenge with the same species but insufficient to provide the same level of protection against C. parvum. PMID:22279124

  3. Effects of Time Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts11-strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays at 2 different age periods during lay on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commerci...

  4. Effects of 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccination Alone at Ten Weeks of Age or in Conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays at 22 or 45 Weeks of Age on the Reproductive and Digestive....Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum (6/85MG) vaccination alone or in conjunction with time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays on the gross reproductive and digestive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens...

  5. The origin of the 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' coincides with domestication of ruminants.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Anne; Shapiro, Beth; Muriuki, Cecilia; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' comprises the ruminant pathogens Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae the agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, Mycoplasma leachii and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. CBPP and CCPP are major livestock diseases and impact the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through reduced food-supply and international trade restrictions. In addition, these diseases are a threat to disease-free countries. We used a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach to gain insights into the demographic history of and phylogenetic relationships among the members of the 'M. mycoides cluster'. We collected partial sequences from seven housekeeping genes representing a total of 3,816 base pairs from 118 strains within this cluster, and five strains isolated from wild Caprinae. Strikingly, the origin of the 'M. mycoides cluster' dates to about 10,000 years ago, suggesting that the establishment and spread of the cluster coincided with livestock domestication. In addition, we show that hybridization and recombination may be important factors in the evolutionary history of the cluster. PMID:22558362

  6. Detection and Discrimination of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Takada, Chieko; Hosaka, Mitsugu

    2005-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis have been the cause of large and serious outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis. A specific and sensitive recovery-detection method is required for control of this pathogen in drinking water. In the present study, nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), which targets the divergent Cpgp40/15 gene, was developed. This nested PCR detected only the gene derived from C. parvum and C. hominis strains, and RFLP was able to discriminate between the PCR products from C. parvum and C. hominis. To evaluate the sensitivity of nested PCR, C. parvum oocysts inoculated in water samples of two different turbidities were recovered by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and detected by nested PCR and fluorescent antibody assay (FA). Genetic detection by nested PCR and oocyst number confirmed by FA were compared, and the results suggested that detection by nested PCR depends on the confirmed oocyst number and that nested PCR in combination with IMS has the ability to detect a single oocyst in a water sample. We applied an agitation procedure with river water solids to which oocysts were added to evaluate the recovery and detection by the procedure in environmental samples and found some decrease in the rate of detection by IMS. PMID:15691946

  7. Association of Blastocystis hominis genetic subtypes with urticaria.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Dina M Abdel; Hassanin, Omayma M; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    Although intestinal parasites are a possible cause of skin disorders, there are few case reports concerning the role of Blastocystis hominis in urticaria. To clarify this association, we determined the frequency of B. hominis genetic subtype in urticarial patients by stool culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and evaluated the clinical and parasitological recovery of urticarial patients after treatment with metronidazole. Of 54 urticarial patients (group I), 18 (33.3%) were diagnosed as acute urticaria (group IA) and 36 (66.7%) were diagnosed as chronic (group IB). Thirty-three (61.1%) out of 54 urticarial (group I) patients were Blastocystis positive by stool culture and PCR. Out of these 33 patients, 21 were symptomatic and 12 were asymptomatic. The amoeboid form was found in 20 (95.2%) out of 21 symptomatic Blastocystis urticarial patients assuring their pathogenic potential. Of 50 normal control group (group II), four (8%) Blastocystis isolates were found with no amoeboid form. B. hominis subtype 3 was the only detected genotype in both groups. Of 20 symptomatic Blastocystis urticarial patients, 12 (60%) patients recovered symptomatically and parasitologically after one course of metronidazole. Recovery reached 100% on repeating the treatment for a second course with disappearance of the amoeboid form. It was concluded that acute urticaria of unknown etiology and chronic idiopathic urticaria patients who are resistant to the ordinary regimen of urticaria treatment might be examined for infection with B. hominis, in order to prescribe the proper specific anti-protozoan treatment. PMID:20922413

  8. First identification of Sarcocystis hominis in Iranian traditional hamburger.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M Moghaddam; Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Yasini Ardakani, S A; Zohourtabar, A; Zare, S

    2015-12-01

    Zoonotic concerns of cattle sarcocystosis are of importance, because humans are the final host for Sarcocystis hominis. Therefore the meat products containing beef may encompass sarcocysts which endanger food safety. In this study, we described the first report of molecular identification of S. hominis in Iranian traditional hamburgers using PCR-RFLP. Throughout a pilot research that was carried out to setup a molecular approach to identify the Sarcocystis spp., using PCR-RFLP, a sample of raw Iranian traditional hamburger was purchased from a street food seller located in Yazd, central Iran in May 2013. DNA extraction was done, by salting out method; briefly, the sample was lysed with NET buffer. The DNA purification and precipitation was then performed. Amplicon and digestion results were analyzed, using gel agarose electrophoresis. The results showed a PCR product with 926 bp in length after amplification and 376 and 550 bp in length after digestion. This product was identified as S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. hominis infection in Iranian hamburger. PMID:26688649

  9. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

  10. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects ...

  11. Functional Analysis of the Superfamily 1 DNA Helicases Encoded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Estevão, Silvia; van der Heul, Helga U.; Sluijter, Marcel; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hartwig, Nico G.; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Vink, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The DNA recombination and repair machinery of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is composed of a limited set of approximately 11 proteins. Two of these proteins were predicted to be encoded by neighboring open reading frames (ORFs) MPN340 and MPN341. Both ORFs were found to have sequence similarity with genes that encode proteins belonging to the DNA helicase superfamily 1 (SF1). Interestingly, while a homolog of the MPN341 ORF is present in the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium (ORF MG244), MPN340 is an M. pneumoniae-specific ORF that is not found in other mycoplasmas. Moreover, the length of MPN340 (1590 base pairs [bp]) is considerably shorter than that of MPN341 (2148 bp). Examination of the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence indicated that it may lack a so-called 2B subdomain, which is found in most SF1 DNA helicases. Also, the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence was found to differ between subtype 1 strain M129 and subtype 2 strain FH at three amino acid positions. Both protein variants, which were termed PcrAsM129 and PcrAsFH, respectively, as well as the MPN341- and MG244-encoded proteins (PcrAMpn and PcrAMge, respectively), were purified, and tested for their ability to interact with DNA. While PcrAMpn and PcrAMge were found to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA, both PcrAsM129 and PcrAsFH did not demonstrate significant DNA binding. However, all four proteins were found to have divalent cation- and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity. The proteins displayed highest activity on partially double-stranded DNA substrates carrying 3′ single-stranded extensions. PMID:23894687

  12. High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of obg Gene to Differentiate the Temperature-Sensitive Mycoplasma synoviae Vaccine Strain MS-H from Non-Temperature-Sensitive Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Muhammad A.; Markham, Philip F.; Marenda, Marc S.; Agnew-Crumpton, Rebecca; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive (ts+) vaccine strain MS-H is the only live attenuated M. synoviae vaccine commercially available for use in poultry. With increasing use of this vaccine to control M. synoviae infections, differentiation of MS-H from field M. synoviae strains and from rarely occurring non-temperature-sensitive (ts–) MS-H revertants has become important, especially in countries where local strains are indistinguishable from MS-H by sequence analysis of variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the obg of MS-H have been found to associate with ts phenotype. In this study, four PCRs followed by high-resolution melting (HRM)-curve analysis of the regions encompassing these SNPs were developed and evaluated for their potential to differentiate MS-H from 36 M. synoviae strains/isolates. The nested-obg PCR-HRM differentiated ts+ MS-H vaccine not only from field M. synoviae strains/isolates but also from ts– MS-H revertants. The mean genotype confidence percentages, 96.9±3.4 and 8.8±11.2 for ts+ and ts– strains, respectively, demonstrated high differentiating power of the nested-obg PCR-HRM. Using a combination of nested-obg and obg-F3R3 PCR-HRM, 97% of the isolates/strains were typed according to their ts phenotype with all MS-H isolates typed as MS-H. A set of respiratory swabs from MS-H vaccinated specific pathogen free chickens and M. synoviae infected commercial chicken flocks were tested using obg PCR-HRM system and results were consistent with those of vlhA genotyping. The PCR-HRM system developed in this study, proved to be a rapid and reliable tool using pure M. synoviae cultures as well as direct clinical specimens. PMID:24643035

  13. Comparison of mitogens from Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma neurolyticum.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, R.; Siman-Tov, R.; Naot, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma neurolyticum mitogenesis demonstrated that macrophages are not essential for the interactions of M. neurolyticum with B lymphocytes, whereas M. pulmonis that stimulates B and T lymphocytes depends on macrophages to fully exert its mitogenic effects. Membranes of both species carry the mitogenic as well as pathogenic potentials. However, M. neurolyticum major mitogens are biochemically distinct from those of M. pulmonis. Furthermore, M. pulmonis mitogenesis is directly correlated to the mycoplasmal-induced pathogenic effects, while no such correlation could be established with M. neurolyticum. It was, therefore, concluded that M. pulmonis and M. neurolyticum differ in the biochemical and biological natures of their mitogens. PMID:6332429

  14. Study of internal transcribed spacer and mitochondrial large-subunit genes of Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolated by repeated bronchoalveolar lavage from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients during one or several episodes of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Latouche, S; Poirot, J L; Bernard, C; Roux, P

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to type, analyze, and compare Pneumocystis carinii hominis strains obtained from different samples during a given or recurrent episodes of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) for epidemiologic purposes. We studied 36 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or induced sputum (IS) samples from 16 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with one or several episodes of PCP. PCR amplification and direct sequencing were performed on the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of P. carinii hominis rRNA genes by using DNA extracted from BAL or IS samples, and the sequences were compared to the mitochondrial large-subunit (mt LSU) gene sequence determined in a previous study in our laboratory. The studies of the mt LSU and ITS sequences showed that some patients (n = 10) were infected with the same strains of P. carinii hominis during a given episode of PCP. In one patient infected with strains with identical sequences in several episodes, the recurrence could have been due to reactivation of organisms not eliminated by treatment during the first episode or to de novo infection by an identical strain. In five patients infected with strains with different sequences in each episode, recurrence was due to de novo infection. Sequence analysis of these two P. carinii hominis gene regions showed that de novo infection can occur in AIDS patients with recurrent PCP. PMID:9196174

  15. Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Toxicity by a Catalase from Mycoplasma iowae

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Rachel E.; Prassinos, Alexandre J.; Osborne, John D.; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute. PMID:25127127

  16. Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

  17. Liquid-Based Urine Cytology as a Tool for Detection of Human Papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The β-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis. PMID:22135257

  18. Liquid-based urine cytology as a tool for detection of human papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in men.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

    2012-02-01

    Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The β-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis. PMID:22135257

  19. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, bu...

  20. Intestinal colonization of symptomatic and asymptomatic schoolchildren with Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Nimri, L; Batchoun, R

    1994-01-01

    A study of single stool specimens was done to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 1,000 primary school children. A questionnaire was completed by each child's parents. Specimens were examined by using wet-mount preparation, formaline-ether concentration, and Sheather's flotation technique. Trichrome and acid-fast stains were done. Blastocystis hominis was observed in 203 (20.3%) of the specimens examined, and 175 specimens contained this organism in the absence of other pathogenic parasites. Older children had fewer B. hominis infections (6 to 7 years old, 50% infection rate; 8 to 9 years, 27.5%; 10 to 12 years, 9.5%). The most common complaints reported by 75 children harboring the parasite were a mild recurrent diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia, and fatigue. Blastocystosis is quite common among schoolchildren. Contaminated drinking water is suspected to be the source of infection. PMID:7852590

  1. Dermatobia hominis: Small Migrants Hidden in Your Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Viligiardi, Riccardo; Strohmeyer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of vertebrate animal tissues due to maggots of two-winged flies (Diptera) that feed on living or necrotic tissue. Dermatobia hominis occurs widely in tropical parts of Latin America; it is the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in this region. The continuous increase in international travel has increased the possibility of observing this pathology outside endemic countries, especially in travelers returning from the tropics. If clinicians are aware of the possibility of the disease and its treatment options, this dermatosis can be easily managed. However, diagnostic delay is very common because the disease is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial skin infection. Here, we report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis caused by D. hominis in travelers returning to Italy from Latin America. Surgical and noninvasive treatment approaches are also described. PMID:25324659

  2. [Mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Tolboom, R K; Snoep, J J; Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2008-02-01

    The most important characteristics of Mycoplasma mastitis on dairy farms are described, based on two case studies. Clinical symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, and a plan of action are presented. In the herds investigated, Mycoplasma mastitis was characterized by multiple affected quarters unresponsive to treatment with antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory agents. Most striking were a sandy sediment, brown colouring, and rice-like structure of the milk of affected animals. Clinical symptoms differed in the two affected herds. Diagnosis was based on bacteriological investigation of samples of milk and synovial fluid taken from infected cows. Affected animals were culled immediately, and the herds were monitored by repeated testing of bulk milk samples. It was concluded that a consequence of the increasing size of cattle herds in the Netherlands is that subclinical/clinical Mycoplasma mastitis may be diagnosed more frequently than in the past. In the case of Mycoplasma mastitis, farmers and veterinary practitioners are advised to draw up a plan of action together, incorporating aspects such as diagnostics at cow level, direct culling of affected animals, hygiene during milking, including post-milking teat disinfection, and routine monitoring of bulk milk. Unpasteurized milk should not be given to calves. PMID:18309823

  3. Sebaceous cysts with unpleasant twists: cutaneous myiasis with Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M; O'Shearn, M K

    2013-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis (human Bot fly) causes furuncular myiasis (larval infection) in Central and South America. This report describes a case in a member of the UK Armed Forces who had recently taken part in an overseas training exercise in Belize. The importance of clinical history (including travel history) is highlighted. We also describe the outcomes of conservative treatment and surgical intervention for separate lesions in the same patient. PMID:24079201

  4. [A case of skin myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis].

    PubMed

    Bauer, C; Schultz-Ehrenburg, U; Lämmer, D

    1986-07-01

    A case of erysipelas-like symptoms in a 26-year-old female student of medicine having returned from Nicaragua to Germany is reported. On the removal of the scurf covering the supposed entrance of the erysipelas, a larva of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly, was extracted from the head skin, and the inflammation completely disappeared within a short period of time. PMID:3751213

  5. Immunostimulation by phospholipopeptide biosurfactant from Staphylococcus hominis in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Veluchamy; Kalaivani Priyadarshini, Sekaran; Saranya, Viswanathan; Suguna, Ponnusamy; Shenbagarathai, Rajaiah

    2016-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effect of phospholipopeptide biosurfactant from Staphylococcus hominis (GenBank Accession No: KJ564272) was assessed with Oreochromis mossambicus. The non-specific (serum lysozyme activity, serum antiprotease activity, serum peroxidase activity and serum bactericidal activity), specific (bacterial agglutination assay) immune responses and disease resistance activity against Aeromonas hydrophila were examined. Fish were intraperitonially injected with water soluble secondary metabolite (biosurfactant) of S. hominis at a dose of 2 mg, 20 mg and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight. Commercial surfactant surfactin (sigma) at 20 mg kg(-1) was used as standard and saline as negative control. All the doses of water soluble biosurfactant tested, significantly enhanced the specific, nonspecific immunity and disease resistance from the day of post administration of phospholipopeptide biosurfactant till the tail of the experimental period. These results clearly indicated that the secondary metabolite isolated from S. hominis stimulates the immunity of finfish thereby could enhance aquaculture production. PMID:26549172

  6. Mycoplasma lagogenitalium sp. nov., from the preputial smegma of Afghan pikas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Runge, M; Schmidt, R; Kubo, M; Yamamoto, K; Kirchhoff, H

    1997-10-01

    Organisms with characteristics typical of mycoplasmas were isolated from the preputial smegma of Afghan picas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens). The results of growth inhibition tests, metabolic inhibition tests, and immunobinding assays showed that the isolated strains were identical and that they were distinct from previously described Mycoplasma, Entomoplasma, Mesoplasma, and Acholeplasma species. These organisms represent a new species, for which the name Mycoplasma lagogenitalium is proposed. M. lagogenitalium ferments glucose, does not hydrolyze arginine or urea, reduces tetrazolium chloride, possesses phosphatase activity, does not digest gelatin or casein, and does not produce films or spots. It lyses sheep erythrocytes and does not adsorb sheep, rabbit, or horse erythrocytes. Cholesterol or serum is required for growth. The growth temperature is 37 degrees C. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA is 23.0 +/- 1.0 mol%. The type strain is M. lagogenitalium 12MS (= ATCC 700289T). PMID:9336930

  7. Induction of Interferon in Mice by Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldo, Charles R.; Cole, Barry C.; Overall, James C.; Glasgow, Lowell A.

    1974-01-01

    Interferon was induced in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation with four different mycoplasmas. Peak levels of between 100 and 300 U of interferon per ml were attained by 6 h postinfection with each of the mycoplasmas except Mycoplasma arthritidis, which induced higher titers (400 to 11,800 U/ml) by this time. A fifth mycoplasma, M. pulmonis, induced interferon inconsistently and at a later (72 to 96 h) time. Mycoplasmatales virus MVL51 and sterile mycoplasmal broth did not stimulate interferon production in vivo. All of the mycoplasmas and MVL51 failed to induce interferon in murine spleen cell, peritoneal exudate cell, or peripheral blood leukocyte cultures. Preinfecting the mycoplasmas with MVL51 or treating the organisms with trypsin or dilutions of specific antisera did not enhance their ability to induce interferon in vitro. PMID:4373395

  8. Mycoplasma agassizii sp., nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Mary E.; Brown, D.R.; Kelin, P.A.; McLaughlin, G.S.; Schumacher, I.M.; Jacobson, E.R.; Adams, H.P.; Tully, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (=ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises.

  9. Mycoplasma agassizii sp. nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Brown, D R; Klein, P A; McLaughlin, G S; Schumacher, I M; Jacobson, E R; Adams, H P; Tully, J G

    2001-03-01

    Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (= ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises. PMID:11321087

  10. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture. PMID:23508237

  11. Isolation of mycoplasmas from fantail pigeons.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, H; Kato, H; Shimizu, T; Katayama, B

    1997-06-01

    Isolation of mycoplasmas from the oropharynxes of 60 fantails reared under natural conditions at different zoological parks in Miyazaki prefecture was carried out. Mycoplasma columbinum, M. columborale and M. columbinasale were isolated from 28 (46.7%), 22 (36.7%), and 1 (1.7%) of 60 oropharynxes, respectively, but no Mycoplasma was isolated from 5 cloacas tested. Ureaplasma was not isolated from any of the 28 oropharynxes or 5 cloacas examined. We report that 41 (68.3%) of 60 fantails had one or two species of mycoplasmas in their oropharynxes, and make the first confirmation of M. columbinasale inhabiting a Japanese pigeon. PMID:9234221

  12. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock. PMID:23091137

  13. Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring mollicute from a plant surface.

    PubMed

    Rose, D L; Kocka, J P; Somerson, N L; Tully, J G; Whitcomb, R F; Carle, P; Bov, J M; Colflesh, D E; Williamson, D L

    1990-04-01

    Strain 831-C4T (T = type strain), isolated from the surface of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) obtained from a retail food market, was shown to be a sterol-requiring mollicute. Morphological examination of this organism by electron and dark-field microscopic techniques showed that it consists of small, nonhelical, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccoid cells, with individual cells surrounded by a single cytoplasmic membrane. No evidence of a cell wall was observed. The organism grew rapidly in all conventional culture medium formulations for mollicutes in either aerobic or anaerobic environments. The optimum temperature for growth was 30 degrees C, but multiplication occurred at 18 to 37 degrees C. Strain 831-C4T catabolized glucose, but hydrolysis of arginine or urea could not be demonstrated. The genome size of strain 831-C4T was determined to be about 569 megadaltons, while the base composition (guanine-plus-cytosine content) of the DNA was 30.0 mol%. Recent studies in which we compared the 16S rRNA sequences of strain 831-C4T with those of more than 40 other mollicutes indicated that this organism is phylogenetically related to the Spiroplasma-Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Strain 831-C4T was serologically unrelated to the type strains of previously described Mycoplasma species and to 18 other unclassified sterol-requiring isolates cultivated from various animal, plant, or insect sources. Strain 831-C4T (= ATCC 49193) is the type strain of Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov. PMID:2223606

  14. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J Paul; Glascock, Abigail L; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

  15. An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

  16. Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

    1998-01-01

    The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are able to stimulate as well as suppress lymphocytes in a nonspecific, polyclonal manner, both in vitro and in vivo. As well as to affecting various subsets of lymphocytes, mycoplasmas and mycoplasma-derived cell components modulate the activities of monocytes/macrophages and NK cells and trigger the production of a wide variety of up-regulating and down-regulating cytokines and chemokines. Mycoplasma-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6, by macrophages and of up-regulating cytokines by mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes plays a major role in mycoplasma-induced immune system modulation and inflammatory responses. PMID:9841667

  17. INDUCTION OF A MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM PMGA GENE IN THE CHICKEN TRACHEAL RING ORGAN CULTURE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To search for Mycoplasma gallisepticum genes involved in colonization of the poultry respiratory tract, a transposon containing a promoterless lacZ gene was employed as a transcriptional reporter. The transposon was used to randomly mutagenize the chromosome of the M. gallisepticum S6 strain and a ...

  18. Interaction of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with the porcine respiratory epithelium as observed by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, M; Yagihashi, T

    1982-01-01

    An in vivo-passaged strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae attained viability titers of 10(6) to 10(8) color-changing units per mg of tissue in pig lungs and caused gross and histological pulmonic lesions. Mycoplasmas were readily located in the lumina of the respiratory tract by electron microscopy. In sections of tissue fixed in glutaraldehyde-osmium, the organisms were found to possess many radial fibrils on the outer surface of the limiting membrane. These fibrils appeared to interconnect adjacent mycoplasmas and to extend between the organism and epithelial cell. Ruthenium red staining demonstrated a thick, dark layer of capsular material enveloping the entire mycoplasma cell. The capsular material was seen to bridge the space between the mycoplasma and host cell. The general morphology of the in vitro-passaged strains grown in broth medium was essentially similar to that of the in vivo-passaged strain. In these organisms, however, no long fibrils were seen, although a fuzzy layer was present outside the cell membrane. The ruthenium red-positive capsule was stained less intensely, and its width was only about one-half that observed for the in vivo-passaged strain. In negatively stained preparations, the cells had an outer fringe of amorphous material apparently corresponding to the fuzzy layer seen in thin sections. The in vitro-passaged strain grew poorly in pig lungs and lost its ability to produce gross pulmonic lesions. The organisms in the respiratory tract had a capsule much thinner than that of the in vivo-passaged strain. Images PMID:7129633

  19. Genetic and Serological Analysis of Lipoprotein LppA in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Marie-Pierre; Thiaucourt, François; Poveda, Jose B.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding the 62-kDa lipoproteins from the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type (LC) strain Y-goat and the M. mycoides subsp. capri strain PG3 were cloned and analyzed by sequencing. These two lipoproteins have been named LppA[MmymyLC] and LppA[Mmyca], and their corresponding genes have been named lppA[MmymyLC] and lppA[Mmyca], respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of these two lipoproteins showed a very high degree of similarity between these two mycoplasmas. Given the sequence data, LppA seems to fulfill the same structural functions as the previously described major lipoproteins P72 of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type and P67 of the Mycoplasma species bovine group 7. Based on lppA gene sequences of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and M. mycoides subsp. capri type strains, a specific PCR assay was developed so that it amplified this gene in all field strains of the two species analyzed in this study but not in the other members of the M. mycoides cluster. Analysis of the PCR-amplified lppA genes with frequently cutting restriction enzymes showed a certain degree of genetic variability which, however, did not cluster the two subspecies. This PCR therefore allows a rapid identification of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and M. mycoides subsp. capri but does not distinguish between these two closely related subspecies. LppA was expressed in Escherichia coli K-12 and used for the production of polyclonal mouse antiserum. Antibodies against recombinant LppA[MmymyLC] reacted with a 62-kDa protein in all M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and M. mycoides subsp. capri type strains and field strains tested but not with the other members of the M. mycoides cluster, thus showing the antigenic specificity of LppA and further supporting the concept that a close relationship exists between these two mycoplasmas. PMID:10066658

  20. Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis is not infectious for SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Recourt, Céline; Guyot, Karine; François, Nadine; Wauquier, Michèle; Camus, Daniel; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

    2002-05-01

    The infectious power of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis was explored by inoculating SCID mice intranasally with either P. carinii f. sp. hominis or P. carinii f. sp. muris isolates. Only mice inoculated with mouse parasites developed Pneumocystis pneumonia, as assessed by microscopy and PCR. These results suggest that humans do not contract pneumocystosis from animals. PMID:11980979

  1. Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Is Not Infectious for SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Recourt, Céline; Guyot, Karine; François, Nadine; Wauquier, Michèle; Camus, Daniel; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The infectious power of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis was explored by inoculating SCID mice intranasally with either P. carinii f. sp. hominis or P. carinii f. sp. muris isolates. Only mice inoculated with mouse parasites developed Pneumocystis pneumonia, as assessed by microscopy and PCR. These results suggest that humans do not contract pneumocystosis from animals. PMID:11980979

  2. [Mycoplasmas and antibodies anti-Chlamydia in semen of infertile men and their relationship with seminal quality and markers of male accessory sex glands].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Muñoz de Vera, María Gladys

    2012-06-01

    Male infertility may be due to inflammation or infection of the genital tract among other causes. Male accessory sex glands and sperm function may also be involved in the problem of infertility. This study tries to associate the most frequent bacteria in semen of infertile men including Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with the seminal characteristics and levels of fructose, citric acid and alpha-neutral glucosidase as markers of the accessory glands. Detection of antibodies anti Chlamydia trachomatis indicated that it was the most prevalent germ. Antibodies (Ab) anti-Chlamydia, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were associated with a decrease of the glandular markers fructose and alpha-neutral glucosidase. On the other hand, there were increased pH and leukocytospermia in men positive for antibodies anti-Chlamydia. Microbiological and biochemical evaluation of semen could orient more about the spread of infection and allow for the selection of the most effective therapy. We find that microbiological and glandular accessory markers assessments in semen are important to diagnose and to treat infections. PMID:22978046

  3. Prevalence of genital Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Gardnerella, and human papillomavirus in Japanese men with urethritis, and risk factors for detection of urethral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Maeda, Yuji; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2011-08-01

    To analyze the risk factors for HPV infection in the urethra, we examined the prevalence of various microorganisms, for example Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) in Japanese male patients with urethritis, and investigated their sexual backgrounds. Rubbed samples obtained from the distal urethra and questionnaires regarding sexual activity and demographic information were collected from 176 participants. N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, U. parvum, G. vaginalis, and HPV were detected in 19, 26, 18, 12, 12, 8.5, 14, and 20%, respectively, of all cases in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that more than 4 sexual partners within the last year and presence of N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis and/or M. genitalium infections were independent risk factors for urethral HPV infection, with odds ratios of 3.85 (95% CI 1.49-9.94) and 2.41 (95% CI 1.03-5.61), respectively. It is likely that urethral HPV detection is associated with current sexual activity and the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and/or M. genitalium infections. PMID:21213011

  4. Mycoplasma genitalium in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Racey, C. Sarai; Seah, Christine; Zittermann, Sandra; Mitterni, Leo; Juzkiw, Jerry; Jamieson, Heather; Greer, Jane; Singh, Sudesh; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Allen, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in Toronto, Ont; detect mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance; and describe treatment outcomes. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Setting A sexual health clinic in Toronto. Participants A consecutive sample of men and women attending the sexual health clinic between September 1, 2013, and December 20, 2013. Interventions Participants underwent testing for M genitalium, along with standard sexually transmitted infection screening. All samples that had positive results for M genitalium were tested for mutations associated with resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Mycoplasma genitalium treatment was based on resistance profile and verified with a test of cure. Main outcome measures Positive results for M genitalium and antibiotic resistance. Results A total of 1193 men and women participated in the study. Overall, 4.5% of the 884 men and 3.2% of the 309 women had positive test results for M genitalium. Asymptomatic infection was common (52.0%). Macrolide resistance–mediating mutations were found in 58.0% of the M genitalium infections. No treatment failure was observed for azithromycin-treated cases. Treatment failure was suspected for 16.7% of cases treated with moxifloxacin. Conclusion Mycoplasma genitalium is present in Canada, with a prevalence comparable to chlamydia and gonorrhea, and has high macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance.

  5. Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Maunsell, F P; Woolums, A R; Francoz, D; Rosenbusch, R F; Step, D L; Wilson, D J; Janzen, E D

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen causing respiratory disease, otitis media, arthritis, mastitis, and a variety of other diseases in cattle worldwide. It is increasingly recognized by the veterinary and livestock communities as having an important impact on the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy and beef cattle. M. bovis diseases can be difficult to diagnose and control because of inconsistent disease expression and response to treatments and vaccines, and large gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these diseases. There are limited data on which to base evidence-based decisions for treatment and control, and the literature contains differing clinical biases and opinions. This document is intended for veterinarians dealing with cattle and is focused on the cattle production systems of North America. The goal of the consensus statement panel was to encourage an evidence-based approach to M. bovis problems. The scientific literature was critically reviewed, including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews obtained by database searches using the terms "Mycoplasma bovis" or "mycoplasma + cattle." Where other data were lacking, conference proceedings were reviewed as a source of expert opinion. PMID:21745245

  6. Treatment of Mycoplasma hyorrhinis contaminated tissue cultures with a mixture of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, K; Briand, P

    1977-10-01

    Results obtained using a combination of antibiotics to control mycoplasmas in tissue cultures are described. Cell strains and established cell lines from several mammalian species grown in tissue culture were found to be highly contaminated with M. hyorrhinis. Cultures were treated with a mixture of three antibiotics consisting of gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, and since that time tests for mycoplasmas in the treated cultures have consistenly yielded negative results. Apart from a transient cytostatic effect on the cells during the treatment, no apparent unwanted effects were observed. The mixture of three antibiotics appeared to be superior to treatment with antibiotics singly or combinations of two antibiotics. PMID:602783

  7. Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...

  8. Effects of live and killed vaccines against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the performance characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. Different strains of MG have been used as vaccines in multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect the birds against more virulent field strains. The lower level of protection afforded b...

  9. Highly Dynamic Genomic Loci Drive the Synthesis of Two Types of Capsular or Secreted Polysaccharides within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster are all ruminant pathogens. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Previous studies have strongly suggested a role for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides polysaccharides in pathogenicity. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted EPS was recently characterized as a β(1→6)-galactofuranose homopolymer (galactan) identical to the capsular product. Here, we extended the characterization of secreted polysaccharides to all other members of the M. mycoides cluster: M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. leachii, and M. mycoides subsp. capri (including the LC and Capri serovars). Extracted EPS was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, resulting in the identification of a homopolymer of β(1→2)-glucopyranose (glucan) in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii. Monoclonal antibodies specific for this glucan and for the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted galactan were used to detect the two polysaccharides. While M. mycoides subsp. capri strains of serovar LC produced only capsular galactan, no polysaccharide could be detected in strains of serovar Capri. All strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii produced glucan CPS and EPS, whereas glucan production and localization varied among M. capricolum subsp. capricolum strains. Genes associated with polysaccharide synthesis and forming a biosynthetic pathway were predicted in all cluster members. These genes were organized in clusters within two loci representing genetic variability hot spots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some of these genes, notably galE and glf, were acquired via horizontal gene transfer. These findings call for a reassessment of the specificity of the serological tests based on mycoplasma polysaccharides. PMID:25398856

  10. Highly dynamic genomic loci drive the synthesis of two types of capsular or secreted polysaccharides within the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gaurivaud, Patrice; Thiaucourt, François

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster are all ruminant pathogens. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Previous studies have strongly suggested a role for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides polysaccharides in pathogenicity. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted EPS was recently characterized as a β(1→6)-galactofuranose homopolymer (galactan) identical to the capsular product. Here, we extended the characterization of secreted polysaccharides to all other members of the M. mycoides cluster: M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. leachii, and M. mycoides subsp. capri (including the LC and Capri serovars). Extracted EPS was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, resulting in the identification of a homopolymer of β(1→2)-glucopyranose (glucan) in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii. Monoclonal antibodies specific for this glucan and for the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted galactan were used to detect the two polysaccharides. While M. mycoides subsp. capri strains of serovar LC produced only capsular galactan, no polysaccharide could be detected in strains of serovar Capri. All strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii produced glucan CPS and EPS, whereas glucan production and localization varied among M. capricolum subsp. capricolum strains. Genes associated with polysaccharide synthesis and forming a biosynthetic pathway were predicted in all cluster members. These genes were organized in clusters within two loci representing genetic variability hot spots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some of these genes, notably galE and glf, were acquired via horizontal gene transfer. These findings call for a reassessment of the specificity of the serological tests based on mycoplasma polysaccharides. PMID:25398856

  11. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Blastocystis hominis Infection among Patients in Sebha, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fellani, Mohammed A; Khan, Abdul H; Al-Gazoui, Rugaia M; Zaid, Mabrouk K; Al-Ferjani, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and seasonal variation, and to assess the clinical manifestations and treatment of blastocystosis in Libyan patients. Methods: Three thousand six hundred and forty five stool samples were screened for Blastocystis hominis using normal saline and iodine solution preparations. The clinical features of 108 patients were described, in whom B. hominis was the only parasite isolated. Fifty symptomatic patients were treated with 1500 mg metronidazole daily for 7 days and their stools were re-investigated for B. hominis. Results: B. hominis was found in 969 (26.58 %) of 3645 stool specimens examined. The infection of B. hominis was significantly more (p < 0.05) in summer than in winter over a three year period. In a prospective study of 108 patients, the most common symptoms with stools positive only for B. hominis were diarrhoea (84.94 %), abdominal pain (66.66 %), flatulence (17.20 %) and vomiting (16.12 %). High concentration of B. hominis cells were found more in symptomatic patients than asymptomatic ones (9.20 cells per 40 X field versus 4.06 respectively) with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). Patients with B. hominis responded to metronidazole and were fully cured after 7 days. Conclusion: The occurrence of B. hominis infections in outpatients are probably related to weather conditions, with the suggestion that the hot, dry weather of the Sebha region favors the development and transmission of this organism. B. hominis infections might have a role in some pathological conditions, resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:21654943

  12. Molecular Methods for the Detection of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M.; Glass, John I.

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques. PMID:22819362

  13. Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Encapsulation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae for Enhanced Raman Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Betancourt, Omar E.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Krause, Duncan C.; Dluhy, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans and accounts for as much as 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia. Existing mycoplasma diagnosis is primarily limited by the poor success rate at culturing the bacteria from clinical samples. There is a critical need to develop a new platform for mycoplasma detection that has high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we report the layer-by-layer (LBL) encapsulation of M. pneumoniae cells with Ag nanoparticles in a matrix of the polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS). We evaluated nanoparticle encapsulated mycoplasma cells as a platform for the differentiation of M. pneumoniae strains using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Three separate M. pneumoniae strains (M129, FH and II-3) were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence imaging showed that the Ag nanoparticles were incorporated between the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layers. SERS spectra showed that LBL encapsulation provides excellent spectral reproducibility. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Raman spectra differentiated the three M. pneumoniae strains with 97 – 100% specificity and sensitivity, and low (0.1 – 0.4) root mean square error. These results indicated that nanoparticle and polyelectrolyte encapsulation of M. pneumoniae is a potentially powerful platform for rapid and sensitive SERS-based bacterial identification. PMID:25017005

  14. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcription Unit Organization: Genome Survey and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is associated with swine respiratory diseases. Although gene organization and regulation are well known in many prokaryotic organisms, knowledge on mycoplasma is limited. This study performed a comparative analysis of three strains of M. hyopneumoniae (7448, J and 232), with a focus on genome organization and gene comparison for open read frame (ORF) cluster (OC) identification. An in silico analysis of gene organization demonstrated 117 OCs and 34 single ORFs in M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and J, while 116 OCs and 36 single ORFs were identified in M. hyopneumoniae 232. Genomic comparison revealed high synteny and conservation of gene order between the OCs defined for 7448 and J strains as well as for 7448 and 232 strains. Twenty-one OCs were chosen and experimentally confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome, validating our prediction. A subset of the ORFs within an OC could be independently transcribed due to the presence of internal promoters. Our results suggest that transcription occurs in ‘run-on’ from an upstream promoter in M. hyopneumoniae, thus forming large ORF clusters (from 2 to 29 ORFs in the same orientation) and indicating a complex transcriptional organization. PMID:22086999

  15. Detection of Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum in dairy cattle from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tamiozzo, Pablo J; Estanguet, Abel A; Maito, Julia; Tirante, Liliana; Pol, Martin; Giraudo, José A

    2014-01-01

    Different species of Mycoplasma can affect bovine cattle, causing several diseases. PCR sequencing and further analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region have shown a significant interspecies variability among Mollicutes. Sixteen suspected isolates of Mycoplasma spp. obtained from milk samples from dairy herds were amplified (16S-23S rRNA ITS region). Fourteen out of those 16 suspected Mycoplasma spp. isolates were PCR-positive. To confirm the identity of Mycoplasma bovis, these 14 isolates were tested by another species-specific PCR. Seven of the isolates rendered a positive result. The products of 16S-23S rRNA ITS PCR from one isolate that was identified as M. bovis and from two other isolates, identified as non- M. bovis were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. The three sequences (A, B and C) showed 100% similarity with M. bovis, Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum respectively. PMID:25011595

  16. Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Cyril; Sharain, Korosh; Skalski, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a young man with severe mucositis following an upper respiratory tract infection limited to the ophthalmic and oral mucosa while sparing the rest of the skin, genitalia and perianal regions. Investigations revealed that the mucositis was a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. He had progressive vision-threatening symptoms despite antibiotics and best supportive care and thus was treated with intravenous corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, temporary ocular amniotic membrane grafts and tarsorrhaphy. The patient made an almost complete recovery over 6 weeks. PMID:24626386

  17. Population identification of Sarcoptes hominis and Sarcoptes canis in China using DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Cao, ZhiGuo; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, JunXian; Yang, YuanJun; Wang, XiaoPeng; Zeng, JiHui; Wang, TianPing

    2015-03-01

    There has been no consistent conclusion on whether Sarcoptes mites parasitizing in humans and animals are the same species. To identify Sarcoptes (S.) hominis and S. canis in China, gDNA was extracted from individual mites (five from patients with scabies and five from dogs with mange) for amplification of rDNA ITS2, mtDNA 16S, and cox1 fragment sequences. Then, the sequences obtained were aligned with those from different hosts and geographical locations retrieved from GenBank and sequence analyses were conducted. Phylogenetic trees based on 317-bp mtDNA cox1 showed five distinctive branches (species) of Sarcoptes mites, four for S. hominis (S. hominis Chinese, S. nr. hominis Chinese, S. hominis Australian, and S. hominis Panamanian) and one for S. animal (S. animal). S. animal included mites from nine animal species, with S. canis China, S. canis Australia, and S. canis USA clustering as a subbranch. Further sequence divergence analysis revealed no overlap between intraspecific (≤ 2.6 %) and interspecific (2.6-10.5 %) divergences in 317-bp mtDNA cox1. However, overlap was detected between intra- and interspecific divergences in 311-bp rDNA ITS2 or 275-bp mtDNA 16S when the divergences exceeded 1.0 %, which resulted in failure in identification of Sarcoptes. The results showed that the 317-bp mtDNA cox1 could be used as a DNA barcode for molecular identification of Sarcoptes mites. In addition, geographical isolation was observed between S. hominis Chinese, S. hominis Australian, and S. hominis Panamanian, but not between all S. canis. S. canis and the other S. animal belonged to the same species. PMID:25547078

  18. Morphological lesions of the rat urinary tract induced by inoculation of mycoplasmas and other urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P A; Cano, M; Grenabo, L; Brorson, J E; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S; Johansson, S L

    1989-01-01

    The effects on the urinary tract after inoculation of Ureaplasma urealyticum into the rat bladder were evaluated and compared to that seen after Mycoplasma hominis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis inoculation. The inoculation of the urease-producing organisms P. mirabilis and U. urealyticum were associated with the formation of struvite bladder stones and predominantly hyperplastic lesions of the bladder. The P. mirabilis inoculated rats also displayed marked pyelonephritis. A similar but much less pronounced reaction also occurred in the kidneys of some of the U. urealyticum inoculated rats. P. mirabilis could frequently be recultured. In contrast, this was not possible with U. urealyticum, but the organism was detected by scanning electron microscopy 2 weeks after the inoculation. Inoculation of M. hominis was associated with a few mild lesions of the bladder, but inflammatory lesions were not present in the kidneys. The study confirms the potential of Ureaplasma to form struvite stones in rat urinary tract. It also demonstrates that it can induce inflammatory changes in both bladder and kidney of rats without concomitant stone formation. PMID:2678669

  19. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  20. Genomic Investigations Unmask Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a New Respiratory Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Stephen H.; Ling, Clare L.; Oravcova, Katarina; Pinheiro, Miguel; Wells, Louise; Bryant, Josephine M.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Bébéar, Cecile; Webster, David; Harris, Simon R.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mycoplasma amphoriforme has been associated with infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). Little is known about the natural history of infection with this organism and its ability to be transmitted in the community. Methods. The bacterial load was estimated in sequential sputum samples from 9 patients by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The genomes of all available isolates, originating from patients in the United Kingdom, France, and Tunisia, were sequenced along with the type strain. Genomic data were assembled and annotated, and a high-resolution phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results. By using high-resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, we show that patients can be chronically infected with M. amphoriforme manifesting as a relapsing-remitting bacterial load, interspersed by periods when the organism is undetectable. Importantly, we demonstrate transmission of strains within a clinical environment. Antibiotic resistance mutations accumulate in isolates taken from patients who received multiple courses of antibiotics. Conclusions. Mycoplasma amphoriforme isolates form a closely related species responsible for a chronic relapsing and remitting infection in PAD patients in the United Kingdom and from immunocompetent patients in other countries. We provide strong evidence of transmission between patients attending the same clinic, suggesting that screening and isolation may be necessary for susceptible patients. This work demonstrates the critical role that WGS can play in rapidly unraveling the biology of a novel pathogen. PMID:25344534

  1. First isolation of Sarcocystis hominis from cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Shibata, Y; Kubo, M; Sakakibara, I; Yamada, A; Itagaki, H

    1999-03-01

    Sarcocystis hominis was first isolated from slaughtered cattle raised in Japan. Cysts were 1,220-4,460 x 80-384 microns in size and their wall was 3 to 6 microns thick and appeared radially striated in the histopathological sections because of the presence of palisade-like villar protrusions on the surface. The protrusions were 3.1-4.3 x 0.7-1.1 microns in size and had many microtubules in the core. Two cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, fed with the Sarcocystis cysts began to pass sporocysts, which measured a size of 14.3-15 x 9.5-10 microns, in the feces 10 days after ingestion. PMID:10331210

  2. Incidence of Herpesvirus hominis antibodies among blood donor populations.

    PubMed

    Roome, A P; Montefiore, D; Waller, D

    1975-10-01

    The microneutralization test was used to determine the occurrence of antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis Type 1 and Type 2 in sera from patients attending the Special Clinic, Bristol Royal Infirmary, with proven herpes genitalis, and in sera taken from blood donors in Bath, Dursley, and Bristol, as well as from donors in three different prison populations. The findings in patients with herpes genitalis indicate that the test accurately reflects the antibody response expected in relation to the type of herpes virus isolated from the lesions. The incidence of Type 2 antibodies among the blood donors ranged from 5 per cent. for donors from the Bath area up to 60 per cent. among donors from Dartmoor prison. The findings suggested that Type 2 herpes infection could spread among longterm prison populations, and it is postulated that this may be due to both homosexual contact, and also by non-sexual contact, either directly or via fomites. PMID:172191

  3. Incidence of Herpesvirus hominis antibodies among blood donor populations.

    PubMed Central

    Roome, A P; Montefiore, D; Waller, D

    1975-01-01

    The microneutralization test was used to determine the occurrence of antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis Type 1 and Type 2 in sera from patients attending the Special Clinic, Bristol Royal Infirmary, with proven herpes genitalis, and in sera taken from blood donors in Bath, Dursley, and Bristol, as well as from donors in three different prison populations. The findings in patients with herpes genitalis indicate that the test accurately reflects the antibody response expected in relation to the type of herpes virus isolated from the lesions. The incidence of Type 2 antibodies among the blood donors ranged from 5 per cent. for donors from the Bath area up to 60 per cent. among donors from Dartmoor prison. The findings suggested that Type 2 herpes infection could spread among longterm prison populations, and it is postulated that this may be due to both homosexual contact, and also by non-sexual contact, either directly or via fomites. PMID:172191

  4. Retrospective survey for sialidase activity in Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates from cases of community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sialidase is a well-known virulence factor of other respiratory pathogens, but was only recently documented to occur in some species of Mycoplasma. The sialidase activity expressed can vary quantitatively among strains within a species of mycoplasma, from undetectable to amounts that correlate positively with strain virulence. Very few isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae had ever been examined for sialidase activity, so it was unknown whether sialidase may contribute to diseases involving this species. Findings No sialidase activity was detected by spectrofluorometric assay of 15 laboratory strains and 91 clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae banked over many years from patients having radiologically-confirmed, uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. Conclusions The annotated genome of strain M129 (GenBank NC_000912, ATCC 29342), also isolated from a patient with pneumonia, accurately represents the absence of sialidase genes from strains of M. pneumoniae typically associated with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. A possible involvement of sialidase in neurologic or other extra-respiratory manifestations of M. pneumoniae mycoplasmosis remains to be investigated. PMID:21676241

  5. A College Epidemic of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, David; Cochran, Burt

    1979-01-01

    The article reports on an outbreak of mycoplasma pneumoniae at the California Polytechnic State University including a historical background of the disease, clinical features, laboratory findings for treated patients, treatment, and clinical clues for diagnosis. (JMF)

  6. Mycoplasma penetrans bacteremia and primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, A.; Cedillo, L.; Neyrolles, O.; Alonso, E.; Prévost, M. C.; Rojas, J.; Watson, H. L.; Blanchard, A.; Cassell, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    Mycoplasma penetrans, a rare bacterium so far only found in HIV-infected persons, was isolated in the blood and throat of a non-HIV-infected patient with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (whose etiology and pathogenesis are unknown). PMID:10081687

  7. [The case of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura associated with Blastocystis hominis].

    PubMed

    Tutanç, Murat; Silfeler, Ibrahim; Ozgür, Tümay; Motor, Vicdan Köksaldı; Kurtoğlu, Ahmet Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a parasite that often causes gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with immune deficiency and has a controversial pathogenicity in healthy people, although some symptoms are reported outside of the gastrointestinal system in healthy persons. Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) vasculitis is an acute autoimmune disease characterised by IgA storage of small vessels that is believed to include infectious factors in its aetiology. A 30-month follow-up with a boy diagnosed with HSP being treated with steroid therapy showed that he had recurrent symptoms within two days, and B. hominis was detected in the faecal analysis. His symptoms including rash, abdominal pain, and arthritis improved after treatment with steroid and co-trimaksazol. This paper is the first to present a case of HSP associated with B. hominis. PMID:23955912

  8. Six ulcerative colitis patients with refractory symptoms co-infective with Blastocystis hominis in China.

    PubMed

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Hu, Pin-Jin; Wu, Jing; Lin, Xiang-Chun

    2011-05-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an enteric parasite which has long been considered as an innocuous commensal living in the intestinal tract. Our research was to explore the role of B. hominis in refractory ulcerative colitis. Our department admitted 122 cases of ulcerative colitis patients. In these patients, there were 73 cases of patients who were responsive to sulfasalazinec, mesalazine in a standard dosage, according to the symptoms change. There was one patient who was detected to have B. hominis infection through stool detection. There were 49 patients with relapse symptoms. In this group, there were six patients who were detected with B. hominis infection through stool detection. The six patients of refractory ulcerative colitis were treated with metronidazole for 10-14 days. They almost completely recovered 3 weeks later. Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis should always consider this parasite infection when the symptoms are refractory and cannot be released. PMID:21104272

  9. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mitanshu; Tan, Christopher Bryan; Rajan, Dhyan; Ahmed, Shadab; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:22740811

  10. Recurrent abscesses due to Finegoldia magna, Dermabacter hominis and Staphylococcus aureus in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Bemer, P; Touchais, S; Asseray, N; Corvec, S

    2009-10-01

    A case of recurrent abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is reported, involving the opportunistic human pathogen Dermabacter hominis, the virulent anaerobic pathogen Finegoldia magna and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:19332143

  11. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from multiple provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Cong; Gao, Duo; Jia, Bo-Yan; Wang, Zi; Gao, Yun-Hang; Pei, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Shu-Ming; Xin, Jiu-Qing; Ma, Hong-Xia

    2016-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has spread widely throughout the world via animal movement and has become an important pathogen of bovine respiratory disease. However, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials for Mycoplasma bovis have not been studied in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from young cattle with respiratory infection in China. Mycoplasma bovis was detected in 32/45 bovine respiratory infection outbreaks at beef farms in 8 provinces in China. The isolates were susceptible or had medium sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and doxycycline, but were frequently resistant to macrolides (13/32, 41%). An A2058G (Escherichia coli Numbering) mutation located in the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA was observed in strains that were resistant to macrolides. This single mutations at the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA may play an important role in the resistance of Mycoplasma bovis strains to macrolides. PMID:26346744

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from multiple provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    KONG, Ling-Cong; GAO, Duo; JIA, Bo-Yan; WANG, Zi; GAO, Yun-Hang; PEI, Zhi-Hua; LIU, Shu-Ming; XIN, Jiu-Qing; MA, Hong-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has spread widely throughout the world via animal movement and has become an important pathogen of bovine respiratory disease. However, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials for Mycoplasma bovis have not been studied in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from young cattle with respiratory infection in China. Mycoplasma bovis was detected in 32/45 bovine respiratory infection outbreaks at beef farms in 8 provinces in China. The isolates were susceptible or had medium sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and doxycycline, but were frequently resistant to macrolides (13/32, 41%). An A2058G (Escherichia coli Numbering) mutation located in the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA was observed in strains that were resistant to macrolides. This single mutations at the rrnA operon in domain V of 23S rRNA may play an important role in the resistance of Mycoplasma bovis strains to macrolides. PMID:26346744

  14. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297

  15. Stress Exacerbates Infectivity and Pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Chandramathi, Samudi; Suresh, Kumar; Sivanandam, Sinnadurai; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. Methods/Findings Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b). Conclusion The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations. PMID:24788756

  16. Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis in patients fulfilling irritable bowel syndrome criteria.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Abbas, Zaigham; Naz, Shagufta; Islam, Muhammad; Khan, Rustam

    2010-08-01

    Studies have suggested a possible role for Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis in the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the prevalence of B. hominis and D. fragilis in patients with IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D). Three hundred and thirty patients were enrolled, 171 (52%) with IBS-D and 159 (48%) were controls, respectively. Stool microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. hominis and D. fragilis were done. B. hominis was positive by stool microscopy in 49% (83/171) of IBS compared to 24% (27/159) in control (p < 0.001). B. hominis culture was positive in 53% (90/171) in IBS compared to 16% (25/159) in control (p < 0.001). B. hominis PCR was positive in 44% (75/171) in IBS compared to 21% (33/159) in control (p < 0.001). D. fragilis microscopy was positive in 3.5% (6/171) in IBS-D compared to 0.6% (1/159) in control (p = 0.123). D. fragilis culture was positive in 4% (7/171) in IBS compared to 1.3% (2/159) in control (p = 0.176). D. fragilis PCR was positive in 4% (6/171) in IBS-D compared to 0% (0/159) in control (p = 0.030). B. hominis is common, while D. fragilis was less prevalent in our patients with IBS-D. B. hominis and D. fragilis culture had a better yield compared to stool microscopy and PCR. PMID:20532564

  17. Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas as Neonatal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Waites, Ken B.; Katz, Brenda; Schelonka, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The genital mycoplasmas represent a complex and unique group of microorganisms that have been associated with a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and infants. The lack of conclusive knowledge regarding the pathogenic potential of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. in many conditions is due to a general unfamiliarity of physicians and microbiology laboratories with their fastidious growth requirements, leading to difficulty in their detection; their high prevalence in healthy persons; the poor design of research studies attempting to base association with disease on the mere presence of the organisms in the lower urogenital tract; the failure to consider multifactorial aspects of diseases; and considering these genital mycoplasmas only as a last resort. The situation is now changing because of a greater appreciation of the genital mycoplasmas as perinatal pathogens and improvements in laboratory detection, particularly with regard to the development of powerful molecular nucleic acid amplification tests. This review summarizes the epidemiology of genital mycoplasmas as causes of neonatal infections and premature birth; evidence linking ureaplasmas with bronchopulmonary dysplasia; recent changes in the taxonomy of the genus Ureaplasma; the neonatal host response to mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections; advances in laboratory detection, including molecular methods; and therapeutic considerations for treatment of systemic diseases. PMID:16223956

  18. Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

  19. A study on Blastocystis hominis in food-handlers: diagnosis and potential pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M

    2011-08-01

    Proper diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis in not performed routinely in medical laboratories of developing countries; consequently clinical significance of this common intestinal protozoon is liable to remain unsettled. Food-handlers are more prone to get and transmit this feco-oral infection. This work compared the sensitivity of direct diagnostic methods to detect B. hominis in stool, estimate the true prevalence among food-handlers in Sirte-Libya, to clarify the association between the parasite and gastrointestinal symptoms and the response to specific treatment. A total of 400 male food-handlers aged 18-50 year were included. Each was subjected to clinical questionnaire and 3 stool examinations by different methods. The results showed high prevalence of B. hominis in food-handlers (35.5%). Short- term in vitro culture (on Boeck and Derbholav's medium) was the most sensitive method for detection of B. hominis (35.5%), followed by permanent Trichrome-stained smear (27.5%); saline-sedimentation concentrated smear (21%) and direct iodine smear (14%). Of 108 cases having B. hominis alone, 68.5% were symptomatic. Diarrhea was the most frequent symptom (75.6%), followed by abdominal pain (66.2%) and flatulence (43.2%). Fecal parasite-load was significantly higher in symptomatic cases than asymptomatic; parasite and symptoms disappeared after metronidazole treatment. So, culture should be used on routine basis to detect B. hominis which should be considered pathogenic particularly when present alone in large numbers in symptomatic patients. PMID:21980782

  20. Interaction of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum with Primary Human and Bovine Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Amna; Mulcahy, Grace; Bourke, Billy; Clyne, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in humans is caused by the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum and the anthroponotic pathogen Cryptosporidium hominis. To what extent the recently recognized C. hominis species differs from C. parvum is unknown. In this study we compared the mechanisms of C. parvum and C. hominis invasion using a primary cell model of infection. Cultured primary bovine and human epithelial intestinal cells were infected with C. parvum or C. hominis. The effects of the carbohydrate lectin galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) and inhibitors of cytoskeletal function and signal transduction mechanisms on entry of the parasites into host cells were tested. HCT-8 cells (human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells) were used for the purpose of comparison. Pretreatment of parasites with Gal/GalNAc inhibited entry of C. parvum into HCT-8 cells and primary bovine cells but had no effect on entry of either C. parvum or C. hominis into primary human cells or on entry of C. hominis into HCT-8 cells. Both Cryptosporidium species entered primary cells by a protein kinase C (PKC)- and actin-dependent mechanism. Staurosporine, in particular, attenuated infection, likely through a combination of PKC inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Diversity in the mechanisms used by Cryptosporidium species to infect cells of different origins has important implications for understanding the relevance of in vitro studies of Cryptosporidium pathogenesis. PMID:16368962

  1. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba. diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Evelyn; Poveda, Carlos; Gupta, Rakesh; Suarez, Alejandro; Hernández, Yenney; Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, José B.

    2011-01-01

    M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis ) in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba. PMID:24031686

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

  3. Lipid Composition of Mycoplasma neurolyticum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.

    1972-01-01

    The total lipid content of Mycoplasma neurolyticum comprises about 14% of the dry weight of the organisms and is about equally distributed between the phospholipid and the neutral-glycolipid fractions. The neutral lipids were identified as triglycerides, diglycerides, and cholesterol. The glycolipid fraction contained 1-O-β-glucopyranosyl-d-2,3-diglyceride and 1-[O-β-d-glycopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-d-2,3-diglyceride. The latter lipid is structurally identical to the diglucosyl diglyceride which occurs in Staphylococcus aureus. The phospholipids of the organism consist of a fully acylated glycerophosphoryl-glycerophosphoryl glycerol, phosphatidic acid, diphosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl glycerol, and amino acyl esters of phosphatidyl glycerol. Phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerol account for greater than 90% of the phospholipids of organisms in the exponential phase of growth. The predominant fatty acids found in all of the acyl lipids were palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids. Images PMID:5079074

  4. [Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-Induced Meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    Özel, C; Dafotakis, M; Nikoubashman, O; Litmathe, J; Matz, O; Schöne, U

    2015-07-01

    In clinical practice, secondary infections of the central nervous system (CNS) represent rare yet severe complications of their respective primary infections. In this case report, we describe a 22-year-old patient with a medical history of Asthma bronchiale, who developed significant neurological deficits after a respiratory infection. The neurological symptoms progressed despite antibiotic therapy with vancomycin, ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The patient's cerebrospinal fluid and a cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) furnished evidence of acute meningoencephalitis. Microbiological assessment confirmed an acute mycoplasma pneumonia infection. Changing the patient's antibiotic regimen to minocycline and prednisolone led to significant clinical improvement. Pathomechanisms and therapeutic options to treat meningoencephalitis will be discussed in the following. PMID:26200044

  5. Mycoplasma felis-associated meningoencephalomyelitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Dustin J; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Premanandan, Christopher; Burns, Colby G; Cui, Jing; Daniels, Joshua B

    2011-02-01

    Mycoplasmas are frequently isolated from many animal species. In domestic cats, mycoplasmas may be isolated from respiratory and ocular mucosae, but other sites are also occasionally colonized by these organisms. No cases of Mycoplasma species-associated neurologic disease have been reported in cats. We describe a case of Mycoplasma felis-associated meningoencephalitis in a 10-month-old domestic shorthair cat. PMID:21177132

  6. Monitoring Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infection in breeder chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Stanley, W A; Hofacre, C L; Speksnijder, G; Kleven, S H; Aggrey, S E

    2001-01-01

    Three experimental strains of breeder chickens were accidentally exposed to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), presumably from a newly introduced group of leghorn-type pullets. The experimental strains subsequently became infected and were diagnosed positive for MG and MS by the serum plate agglutination (SPA) test and confirmed by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of tracheal swabs. Treatment with 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin via drinking water for 14 days was elected. Before and after initiation of treatment, MG and MS were monitored for changes by SPA, HI, PCR, and culture, with sampling intervals ranging from 1 wk to 7 wk. MG and MS SPA, HI, PCR, and culture were performed at each sampling period, with the exception of weeks 1.0 and 6.5. Week 1.0 included SPA and His for MG and MS. Week 6.5 included PCR and culture for MG and MS. The MG and MS SPA results were positive throughout the 29-wk trial period. MG HI titers declined until the last sampling, whereas the MS HI titers did not decline significantly. PCR for MG yielded only one positive result, which occurred before treatment. MS PCR remained positive throughout the trial period. MG was never isolated from any sample; however, one MS organism was isolated during treatment. The treatment regimen was effective for MG on the basis of PCR results. Treatment with enrofloxacin did not eliminate SPA reactions during the 29-wk trial period. MG HI titers remained in the suspicious range throughout the remainder of the trial period. Four weeks after the treatment ended, MG HIs were reduced by approximately 40%, with MS HIs remaining high throughout the 29-wk period. PCR appeared to be a sensitive and specific test on the basis of correlation with HIs. On the basis of the isolation of MS during treatment and continued subsequent PCR positive reactions, the treatment for MS with enrofloxacin was not as efficacious as for MG. PMID:11417841

  7. Effect of Dosage and Vaccination Route on Transmission of a Live Attenuated Mycoplasma gallesepticum Vaccine: A Broiler Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an economically significant pathogen of poultry species and among the table egg sector of the poultry industry, live attenuated strains of MG are commonly utilized to limit production losses associated with MG-induced disease. The vaccine, however, may be problemati...

  8. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408... Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared...

  9. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408... Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tested for the presence of Mycoplasma, as follows: Samples of the virus for this test shall be stored... the agar shall be excised from the inoculated area and examined for the presence of Mycoplasma. The presence of the Mycoplasma shall be determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test...

  11. Persistence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin without development of resistance.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Anita K; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Gicquel-Bruneau, Mireille; Kobisch, Marylène; Kempf, Isabelle

    2005-03-20

    The ability of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to persist despite fluoroquinolone treatment was investigated in chickens. Groups of specific pathogen free chickens were experimentally infected with M. gallisepticum and treated with enrofloxacin at increasing concentrations up to the therapeutic dose. When M. gallisepticum could no longer be re-isolated from chickens, birds were stressed by inoculation of infectious bronchitis virus or avian pneumovirus. Although M. gallisepticum could not be cultured from tracheal swabs collected on several consecutive sampling days after the end of the enrofloxacin treatments, the infection was not eradicated. Viral infections reactivated the mycoplasma infection. Mycoplasmas were isolated from tracheal rings cultured for several days, suggesting that M. gallisepticum persisted in the trachea despite the enrofloxacin treatment. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of enrofloxacin for most of the re-isolated mycoplasmas was the same as that of the strain with which the birds were inoculated. Furthermore, no mutation could be detected in the fluoroquinolone target genes. These results suggest that M. gallisepticum can persist in chickens without development of resistance despite several treatments with enrofloxacin. PMID:15737482

  12. Unveiling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Promoters: Sequence Definition and Genomic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Shana de Souto; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Several Mycoplasma species have had their genome completely sequenced, including four strains of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Nevertheless, little is known about the nucleotide sequences that control transcriptional initiation in these microorganisms. Therefore, with the objective of investigating the promoter sequences of M. hyopneumoniae, 23 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of distinct genes were mapped. A pattern that resembles the σ70 promoter −10 element was found upstream of the TSSs. However, no −35 element was distinguished. Instead, an AT-rich periodic signal was identified. About half of the experimentally defined promoters contained the motif 5′-TRTGn-3′, which was identical to the −16 element usually found in Gram-positive bacteria. The defined promoters were utilized to build position-specific scoring matrices in order to scan putative promoters upstream of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the M. hyopneumoniae genome. Two hundred and one signals were found associated with 169 CDSs. Most of these sequences were located within 100 nucleotides of the start codons. This study has shown that the number of promoter-like sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is more frequent than expected by chance, indicating that most of the sequences detected are probably biologically functional. PMID:22334569

  13. In Vitro Activities of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin and the Streptogramin RPR 106972 against Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Izumikawa, Koichi; Hirakata, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Ryoji; Tanaka, Hironori; Takemura, Hiromu; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Kaku, Mitsuo; Izumikawa, Kin-Ichi; Kamihira, Shimeru; Kohno, Shigeru

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro activities of quinupristin-dalfopristin and streptogramin RPR 106972 were determined with 44 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and compared to those of macrolides, minocycline, and quinolones. All isolates tested were highly susceptible to macrolides and to quinupristin-dalfopristin (MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.0625 μg/ml), followed by RPR 106972 (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), quinolones, and minocycline. PMID:9517955

  14. The importance of B-cells and ecto-5′nucleotidase in Mycoplasma fermentans infection and the relevance to rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheena M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to discover if Mycoplasma fermentans, which is known to infect B cells, could be the cause of the raised ecto-5′-nucleotidase observed in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in the patients' serum has been shown to correlate with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and DNA from the mycoplasma has been found in the synovial fluid. B lymphoblastoid cell lines were exposed to 16 strains of Mycoplasma fermentans and their ecto-5′-nucleotidase, CD73, was measured both biochemically and by mouse antibodies to human ecto 5′-nucleotidase using the fluorescence activated cell sorter. The type strain, PG 18, did not grow with the B cells. Some of the mycoplasma strains (9/15) increased the cellular ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity from twice to 17 fold, and usually showed 5′-nucleotidase activity themselves. At least one strain, M106, induced human 5′-nucleotidase on the normally 5′-nucleotidase negative Daudi and Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, and increased sevenfold the 5′-nucleotidase on the monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1. Growing the cells in aged medium increased the level of mycoplasma infection. This mycoplasma-induced enzyme showed a conformational change and an increase in activity with a glycosylation change involving mannose groups. The other group of strains, mostly of respiratory or cell culture origin, usually did not have any 5′-nucleotidase of their own and decreased the B-cell enzyme activity by about half. Electron microscopy and flow cytometry showed that the strain M106 was filamentous and could be found inside the B-cells. The 5′-nucleotidase-inducing strains of M. fermentans may be important in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17680797

  15. Phase variation among major surface antigens of Mycoplasma penetrans.

    PubMed

    Röske, K; Blanchard, A; Chambaud, I; Citti, C; Helbig, J H; Prevost, M C; Rosengarten, R; Jacobs, E

    2001-12-01

    The pathogenicity and prevalence of Mycoplasma penetrans, a Mycoplasma species recently isolated from humans, are still debated. A major P35 antigen, which is used as target epitope in serological assays, was shown to be a phase-variable lipid-associated membrane protein (LAMP). In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the LAMP patterns from five M. penetrans clinical isolates and from the type strain. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles and immunoblots with sera serially collected from an M. penetrans-infected patient indicated that these strains expressed different LAMP repertoires. Furthermore, the intraclonal variation in the expression of LAMPs (P34A, P34B, P35, and P38) was monitored by immunoblot analysis with three specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed in this study and MAb 7 to P35. The phase variation of these LAMPs occurs in an independent manner, with frequencies of variation ranging from 10(-2) to 10(-4) per cell per generation. Consistent with their amphipathic nature, the P34B and P38 antigens were found exposed at the cell surface. The DNA sequence encoding the P38 antigen was defined and found to be related to those of the P35 gene and other putative LAMP-encoding genes, suggesting that these variable antigens are encoded by a family of related genes. Finally, the serum samples from an M. penetrans-infected patient contained antibodies that reacted with a P36 antigen expressed in different M. penetrans strains but not in the isolate recovered from this patient. This result suggested that in vivo phase variation of P36 occurred, which would support a role for these LAMP variations in avoiding the host's immune vigilance. PMID:11705944

  16. Identification of cross-reactive antigens between Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma arthritidis.

    PubMed Central

    Minion, F C; Brown, M B; Cassell, G H

    1984-01-01

    Serological cross-reactivity between Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma arthritidis was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoanalysis of electrophoretic blots, and protein A immunoprecipitation reactions. The results demonstrate that one-way cross-reactivity was present in both hyperimmunized and naturally infected rats and that the predominant cross-reactive antigens were M. pulmonis surface proteins. Distinct immunoblot patterns were demonstrated for M. pulmonis and M. arthritidis, allowing differentiation of the two species. The response to M. arthritidis antigens during natural infections differed greatly from that during hyperimmunization. Evidence suggested that nonprotein antigens were major determinants eliciting the antibody response to this mycoplasma. Images PMID:6690399

  17. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Krapu, G.L.; Robb, J.R.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Chipley, W.H.; Conroy, M.J.; Kleven, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback.

  18. Elimination of mycoplasmas from the murine genital tract by hormone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Furr, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty progesterone-treated TO mice were infected intravaginally with Mycoplasma pulmonis. One month later, ten of the mice were given oestradiol which changed the reproductive cycle to the oestrous phase and within a week resulted in eradication of the organisms from six of them; vaginal persistence in the other mice may have been due, at least in part, to reinoculation of organisms from the oropharynx, a site heavily infected in all the mice. The majority of the mice not treated with oestradiol continued to shed the organisms from the vagina for at least 91 days. In another experiment, 19 oestradiol-treated BALB/c mice were infected intravaginally with M. hominis. One month later, nine of the mice were given progesterone which changed the reproductive cycle to the dioestrous phase and eradicated the organisms from seven within 2 weeks and from all of them within about a month. This was in contrast to the mice not given progesterone, the majority of which continued to shed the organisms for at least 167 days. PMID:2143480

  19. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    PubMed

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  20. Immunohistochemical and pathological study of Mycoplasma bovis-associated lung abscesses in calves.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, D S; Hallbur, P G; Cavanaugh, D L; Werdin, R E; Chase, C C; Miskimins, D W; Rosenbusch, R F

    1995-07-01

    Out of 45 cases of fatal chronic pneumonia in calves examined for Mycoplasma bovis infection from February to July 1994, 11 cases with pulmonary abscesses that were culture positive for M. bovis were encountered. The cases were studied in detail using a recently developed monoclonal antibody-based immunoperoxidase technique. Mycoplasma bovis organisms were detected in specific locations at all stages of abscessation observed. In bronchioles or terminal airways within which abscesses developed, M. bovis was located at the epithelial surface and in close association with infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages. Abscessed airways that had lost the epithelium were encapsulated and were seen as coagulative necrotic foci that stained intensely for M. bovis, especially at the periphery. Some foci stained weakly and such might have been resolving lesions. Mycoplasma bovis was also demonstrated at sites of mild mononuclear cell infiltration in the livers and kidneys of 2 calves. The mycoplasma was detected within bile ducts in the liver and in the tubular epithelium of the kidney. Abscesses not staining for M. bovis, presumably caused by other pathogens, were seen concurrently with M. bovis-associated abscesses in some lungs. Thirteen other M. bovis-positive cases showed no abscesses, possibly indicating heterogeneity among M. bovis strains. Three other cases with abscesses were negative for M. bovis by culture and immunoperoxidase staining. The monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical technique is efficient for specific detection of M. bovis in cases of enzootic pneumonia of calves with or without abscessation. Mycoplasma bovis is implicated in the pathogenesis of lung abscesses in some calves. PMID:7578447

  1. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D W; MacQueen, W M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described. PMID:7510311

  2. Mycoplasma genitalium: Is It a Sexually Transmitted Pathogen?

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E; Kay, Noa

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging pathogen that has been detected in the male and female reproductive tracts. It is an established cause of nongonococcal urethritis and evidence linking it to cervicitis, endometritis, and tubal factor infertility is accumulating. Whether a pathogen is sexually transmitted has important implications for clinical management because partner management strategies are an essential part of the treatment plan for sexually transmitted infections. However, mere detection in the genital tract and associations with reproductive tract disease are insufficient to conclude that an organism is sexually transmitted. Therefore, to assess whether M. genitalium is sexually transmitted, we evaluated the literature in terms of associations with established risk factors for other sexually transmitted infections, comparisons of sexually experienced individuals to nonsexually experienced individuals, consideration of other modes of transmission, assessment of concordant infection status among sexual partners, and examination of molecular strain typing in concordantly infected partners. PMID:21308546

  3. Multiplex PCR testing detection of higher-than-expected rates of cervical mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and trichomonas and viral agent infections in sexually active australian women.

    PubMed

    McIver, Christopher J; Rismanto, Nikolas; Smith, Catherine; Naing, Zin Wai; Rayner, Ben; Lusk, M Josephine; Konecny, Pamela; White, Peter A; Rawlinson, William D

    2009-05-01

    Knowing the prevalence of potential etiologic agents of nongonococcal and nonchlamydial cervicitis is important for improving the efficacy of empirical treatments for this commonly encountered condition. We describe four multiplex PCRs (mPCRs), designated VDL05, VDL06, VDL07, and VDL09, which facilitate the detection of a wide range of agents either known to be or putatively associated with cervicitis, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus (EV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (VDL05); Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma hominis (VDL06); Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, and group B streptococci (VDL07); and adenovirus species A to E (VDL09). The mPCRs were used to test 233 cervical swabs from 175 women attending a sexual-health clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2006 and 2007. The agents detected alone or in combination in all cervical swabs (percentage of total swabs) included CMV (6.0), EV (2.1), EBV (2.6), VZV (4.7), HSV-1 (2.6), HSV-2 (0.8), HSV-2 and VZV (0.4), U. parvum (57.0), U. urealyticum (6.1), M. genitalium (1.3), M. hominis (13.7), C. trachomatis (0.4), T. vaginalis (3.4), and group B streptococci (0.4). Adenovirus species A to E and T. pallidum were not detected. These assays are adaptable for routine diagnostic laboratories and provide an opportunity to measure the true prevalence of microorganisms potentially associated with cervicitis and other genital infections. PMID:19261782

  4. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in native cattle of central Iran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Zohourtabar, A; Pourmirzaei Tafti, H; Moghaddam Ahmadi, M

    2014-03-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are two-host protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Among different known species of Sarcocystis in cattle, only Sarcocystis hominis is important from the public health viewpoint, because of its zoonotic characteristics. This study presents the first molecular identification of S. hominis in native cattle in central Iran. A sample of diaphragm muscle from a 6-year-old native cow slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Yazd, central Iran, was collected in May 2013. DNA extraction was performed, using the salting-out method. DNA purification and precipitation were performed consecutively. The amplicon and digestion results were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. A PCR product with 926 bp in length was obtained after amplification, and 376 bp and 550 bp in length after digestion that identified S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be reported from Iran. PMID:24862059

  5. Evidence of an epidemic of Blastocystis hominis infections in preschool children in northern Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Nimri, L F

    1993-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is now gaining acceptance as an agent of human intestinal disease. A case-control study of the cause of gastroenteritis in children less than 6 years old was conducted. A total of 500 stool specimens were examined by wet mount preparation, formalin-ether concentration, Sheather's sugar flotation technique, and permanent stains when necessary. B. hominis was found in 63 (25%) of 250 stool specimens of the cases examined; 38 (15%) of these specimens contained this parasite alone. The appearance of severe symptoms was associated with increased numbers of the parasite in the diarrheic specimens (more than five parasites per field at a magnification of x 400). The most common symptoms were abdominal pain, recurrent diarrhea, cramps, anorexia, and fatigue. Contaminated water was suspected to be the major source of infection, since several cases were associated with Giardia infection. These findings support the concept of B. hominis pathogenicity in children with gastroenteritis. PMID:8253970

  6. Eradication of Blastocystis hominis prevents the development of symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rajič, Borko; Arapović, Jurica; Raguž, Kazimir; Bošković, Mladen; Babić, Senaida Marina; Maslać, Suzana

    2015-07-01

    In this case report we describe a 49 year-old man who presented with chronic urticaria, angioedema and soft stool consistency. During diagnostic examinations Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found even though the patient never had clear symptoms of this disease. Blastocystis hominis was isolated through a stool microbiologic examination, implicating that this parasite can cause the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. After two-weeks treatment with metronidazole the Blastocystis hominis was eradicated, then urticaria and angioedema disappeared. During the four years of follow-up, the patient presented without any symptoms, whereas thyroid hormones were normalized and anti-thyroid antibodies declined. For the first time in the literature we show that eradication of Blastocystis hominis can prevent the development of both symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. PMID:26230132

  7. Molecular-based identification of Sarcocystis hominis in Belgian minced beef.

    PubMed

    Vangeel, L; Houf, K; Chiers, K; Vercruysse, J; D'Herde, K; Ducatelle, R

    2007-06-01

    Sarcocystis hominis, one of the three species of Sarcocystis that cause muscular cysts in cattle, is a protozoan parasite that can infect the human intestinal tract. The objective of the present study was to develop a new molecular identification method capable of discriminating among the bovine Sarcocystis species and to apply this tool in combination with stereomicroscopy to determine the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in minced beef in Belgium, with special attention to Sarcocystis hominis. A PCR technique based on the 18S rRNA sequence and by sequencing of the amplicon was highly specific. Sequence analysis of PCR products from thick-walled cysts collected from minced beef in Belgium revealed that S. hominis was present in 97.4% of the samples. Because the consumption of raw minced beef is common in Belgium and certain other European countries, these findings may point to an underestimated risk to public health. PMID:17612088

  8. Multiple Promoter Inversions Generate Surface Antigenic Variation in Mycoplasma penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Horino, Atsuko; Sasaki, Yuko; Sasaki, Tsuguo; Kenri, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasma penetrans is a newly identified species of the genus Mycoplasma. It was first isolated from a urine sample from a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. M. penetrans changes its surface antigen profile with high frequency. The changes originate from ON↔OFF phase variations of the P35 family of surface membrane lipoproteins. The P35 family lipoproteins are major antigens recognized by the human immune system during M. penetrans infection and are encoded by the mpl genes. Phase variations of P35 family lipoproteins occur at the transcriptional level of mpl genes; however, the precise genetic mechanisms are unknown. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of surface antigen profile change in M. penetrans were investigated. The focus was on the 46-kDa protein that is present in M. penetrans strain HF-2 but not in the type strain, GTU. The 46-kDa protein was the product of a previously reported mpl gene, pepIMP13, with an amino-terminal sequence identical to that of the P35 family lipoproteins. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of the pepIMP13 gene region revealed that the promoter-containing 135-bp DNA of this gene had the structure of an invertible element that functioned as a switch for gene expression. In addition, all of the mpl genes of M. penetrans HF-2 were identified using the whole-genome sequence data that has recently become available for this bacterium. There are at least 38 mpl genes in the M. penetrans HF-2 genome. Interestingly, most of these mpl genes possess invertible promoter-like sequences, similar to those of the pepIMP13 gene promoter. A model for the generation of surface antigenic variation by multiple promoter inversions is proposed. PMID:12486060

  9. In vitro sensitivity of Blastocystis hominis to garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper used in diet.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Beg, Muhammad Asim; Naz, Shagufta; Awan, Safia; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2011-08-01

    To determine the growth pattern and in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole (MTZ), garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper. Stool specimens were collected from 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 10 controls between July-November 2010. Stool microscopy and culture for B. hominis was performed. Drug susceptibility assays was done using 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml of MTZ, garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper. Effect was assessed on B. hominis culture after 48 h. Stool DNA was extracted using stool DNA extraction kit (Qiagen) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) done using subtype-specific sequence-tagged-site primers. B. hominis genotype 3 and coinfection of 1 and 3 tended to grow well in culture compared to isolated type 1 infection. Exposed to MTZ at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, 38% (6/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in culture compared to 100% (10/10) of B. hominis from control (p = 0.001). When they were exposed to MTZ at 0.1 mg/ml, 56% (9/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in cultures compared to 100% (10/10) from control (p = 0.01). Forty-four percent (7/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in culture compared to 100% (10/10) B. hominis from control when exposed to garlic at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.003) and following exposure to garlic at 0.1 mg/ml, 38% (6/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in cultures compared to 100% (10/10) from control (p = 0.001). B. hominis isolates from IBS had a cell count of 6,625 at a MTZ concentration of 0.01 mg/ml that reduced to 1,250 as MTZ concentration was increased to 0.1 mg/ml (p = 0.08). B. hominis from IBS with a mean cell count of 3 × 10(5) at baseline decreased to 1 × 10(4) when exposed to garlic at 0.01 mg/ml (p < 0.001) and to 1 × 10(3) (p < 0.001) when garlic was 0.1 mg/ml. B. hominis from IBS cell count decreased to 1 × 10(5) when exposed to white cumin at 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.01) and to 1 × 10(5) (p < 0.001) when white cumin was 0.1 mg/ml. Exposed to black pepper at 0.1 mg/ml, cell count of B. hominis from IBS decreased to 1 × 10(5) (p = 0.01). B. hominis from IBS decreased to 1.3 × 10(5) exposed to ginger at 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.001). B. hominis isolates were mostly genotypes 3, type 1 and 3 coinfection, and non-typeable B. hominis isolates. B. hominis isolates from IBS mostly genotype 1 demonstrated an increased sensitivity to garlic at 0.01 mg/ml with a B. hominis cell count of 3,714 compared to 6,142 when exposed to 0.01 mg/ml of MTZ. However, this sensitivity did not increase as garlic concentration was increased to 0.1 mg/ml, for B. hominis cell count was 6,000 compared to 1,428 as MTZ was increased to 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:21431384

  10. Isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma equigenitalium from equine genital tracts in northern India

    PubMed Central

    Nehra, K; Rana, R; Viswas, K. N; Arun, T. R.; Singh, V. P.; Singh, A. P; Prabhu, S. N

    2015-01-01

    Although Mycoplasma equigenitalium has been implicated in equine reproductive problems, its prevalence is largely unexplored due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. To address this limitation, the authors developed and optimized species-specific primer pairs that target M. eguigenitalium rpoB (RNA polymerase B subunit) gene sequences. The specificity of the PCR assay developed in this study was determined using 12 field isolates including the type strain of M. equigenitalium and other Mycoplasma species. In the field study, a total of 122 mare and stallion samples comprising of 50 clinical and 72 random samples were subjected to species-specific PCR assay to detect M. equigenitalium in equine genital tracts. Mycoplasma equigenitalium (MEG) species-specific PCR detected 22.13% positive samples; however, only 9.01% of the samples were found to be positive using the conventional culture technique. The PCR established in this study could be used for rapid, specific and accurate diagnosis of M. equigenitalium strains. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report addressing the development and evaluation of species-specific PCR to detect M. equigenitalium. PMID:27175172

  11. Case report: first report of a prosthetic joint infection caused by Facklamia hominis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Pablo S; Haddad, Sleiman; Andrés, José; González-López, Juan José; Amat, Carles; Flores, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Facklamia spp. are gram-positive cocci first described in 1997. They are α-hemolytic, facultative anaerobes, catalase-negative cocci, resembling viridians streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar. Facklamia hominis is, by far, the most common species of the 6 so far described, and it is thought that its natural habitat is the female genital tract. Four previous human infections with Facklamia spp. have been documented. We report the first case of a chronic prosthetic joint infection caused by F. hominis and its successful treatment by a 2-stage exchange procedure to eradicate the infection. This is also the first osteoarticular infection reported. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25245196

  12. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Gretchen L; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, "walking" pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  13. Chronic "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infection.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Boretti, Felicitas S; Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Willi, Barbara; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-01-01

    "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infects felids. The pathogenesis of "Candidatus M. turicensis" chronic infection is poorly understood. The goals of the present study were to (1) induce reactivation of the infection in chronic carrier cats by attempted immunosuppression, (2) identify potential tissue sequestration using real-time TaqMan® PCR and (3) monitor the humoral immune response by DnaK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten specified pathogen-free cats that had ostensibly recovered from experimental "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection were used: five cats (group 1) received high dose methylprednisolone (attempted immunosuppression), while five cats served as untreated controls (group 2). Besides weekly blood samples, tissue samples were collected from bone marrow, kidney, liver and salivary glands at selected time points. The cats in group 1 had significantly lower lymphocyte counts and higher blood glucose levels after methylprednisolone administration than the controls. After methylprednisolone administration one blood and three tissue samples from cats in group 1 tested PCR-positive; before the administration, only one sample was positive. All other samples tested PCR-negative. All cats stayed seropositive; the antibody levels of the cats in group 1 showed a significant transient decrease after methylprednisolone administration. This is the first study to report the presence of "Candidatus M. turicensis" in tissues of chronically infected cats and the persistence of anti-feline hemoplasma antibodies in the absence of detectable bacteremia. Methylprednisolone administration did not lead to a significant reactivation of the infection. Our results enhance the knowledge of "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection pathogenesis and are clinically relevant to the prognosis of hemoplasma-infected cats. PMID:21507220

  14. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Gretchen L.; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, “walking” pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  15. Observations on the occurrence of mycoplasmas in the central nervous system of some laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, D; Furr, P M

    1981-07-01

    Mycoplasma pulmonis was isolated from the brains of 6 (23%) of 26 mice which had a naturally-occurring respiratory infection with this mycoplasma, and from the brains of 6 (8%) of 71 mice which had been inoculated intranasally or intravenously. The incidence of natural infection was greater in older mice, but there was no obvious mouse strain difference except for higher incidence in athymic nudes. There was no evidence that the organisms passed the blood-brain barrier. Some isolations, especially from nudes, may have been extraneous contaminants, as these were fewer when the mouse skulls were sterilized with ignited methanol. M. pneumoniae was not isolated from the brains of 14 hamsters which had a respiratory infection after intranasal inoculation nor were ureaplasmas isolated from the cerebrospinal fluids of 12 marmosets with a natural oropharyngeal infection. The aetiology of M. pneumoniae encephalitis in man is discussed. PMID:6793791

  16. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infections of Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, James D.; Welliver, Robert C.

    1976-01-01

    Although the hallmark of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is pneumonia, the organism is also responsible for a protean array of other symptoms. With an increased awareness of the board clinical spectrum of M. pneumoniae disease and the ready availability of the cold agglutinin and M. pneumoniae complement-fixation tests, interested clinicians will note additional clinical-mycoplasmal associations in their patients. PMID:782043

  17. Hydrogen peroxide production from glycerol metabolism is dispensable for virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the tracheas of chickens.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek, S M; Boccaccio, M; Pflaum, K; Liao, X; Geary, S J

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a by-product of glycerol metabolism in mycoplasmas and has been shown to cause cytotoxicity for cocultured eukaryotic cells. There appears to be selective pressure for mycoplasmas to retain the genes needed for glycerol metabolism. This has generated interest and speculation as to their function during infection. However, the actual effects of glycerol metabolism and H2O2 production on virulence in vivo have never been assessed in any Mycoplasma species. To this end, we determined that the wild-type (WT) R(low) strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is capable of producing H2O2 when grown in glycerol and is cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells in culture. Transposon mutants with mutations in the genes present in the glycerol transport and utilization pathway, namely, glpO, glpK, and glpF, were identified. All mutants assessed were incapable of producing H2O2 and were not cytotoxic when grown in glycerol. We also determined that vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 produce little to no H2O2 when grown in glycerol, while the naturally attenuated F strain does produce H2O2. Chickens were infected with one of two glpO mutants, a glpK mutant, R(low), or growth medium, and tracheal mucosal thickness and lesion scores were assessed. Interestingly, all glp mutants were reproducibly virulent in the respiratory tracts of the chickens. Thus, there appears to be no link between glycerol metabolism/H2O2 production/cytotoxicity and virulence for this Mycoplasma species in its natural host. However, it is possible that glycerol metabolism is required by M. gallisepticum in a niche that we have yet to study. PMID:25156740

  18. Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Glycerol Metabolism Is Dispensable for Virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the Tracheas of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek, S. M.; Boccaccio, M.; Pflaum, K.; Liao, X.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a by-product of glycerol metabolism in mycoplasmas and has been shown to cause cytotoxicity for cocultured eukaryotic cells. There appears to be selective pressure for mycoplasmas to retain the genes needed for glycerol metabolism. This has generated interest and speculation as to their function during infection. However, the actual effects of glycerol metabolism and H2O2 production on virulence in vivo have never been assessed in any Mycoplasma species. To this end, we determined that the wild-type (WT) Rlow strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is capable of producing H2O2 when grown in glycerol and is cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells in culture. Transposon mutants with mutations in the genes present in the glycerol transport and utilization pathway, namely, glpO, glpK, and glpF, were identified. All mutants assessed were incapable of producing H2O2 and were not cytotoxic when grown in glycerol. We also determined that vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 produce little to no H2O2 when grown in glycerol, while the naturally attenuated F strain does produce H2O2. Chickens were infected with one of two glpO mutants, a glpK mutant, Rlow, or growth medium, and tracheal mucosal thickness and lesion scores were assessed. Interestingly, all glp mutants were reproducibly virulent in the respiratory tracts of the chickens. Thus, there appears to be no link between glycerol metabolism/H2O2 production/cytotoxicity and virulence for this Mycoplasma species in its natural host. However, it is possible that glycerol metabolism is required by M. gallisepticum in a niche that we have yet to study. PMID:25156740

  19. Identification, characterization, and application of a recombinant antigen for the serological investigation of feline hemotropic Mycoplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Jäckel, Christian; Museux, Kristina; Hoelzle, Katharina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2010-12-01

    In felids, three hemotropic mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) have been described: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." In particular, M. haemofelis may cause severe, potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia. No routine serological assays for feline hemoplasma infections are available. Thus, the goal of our project was to identify and characterize an M. haemofelis antigen (DnaK) that subsequently could be applied as a recombinant antigen in a serological assay. The gene sequence of this protein was determined using consensus primers and blood samples from two naturally M. haemofelis-infected Swiss pet cats, an experimentally M. haemofelis-infected specific-pathogen-free cat, and a naturally M. haemofelis-infected Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). The M. haemofelis DnaK gene sequence showed the highest identity to an analogous protein of a porcine hemoplasma (72%). M. haemofelis DnaK was expressed recombinantly in an Escherichia coli DnaK knockout strain and purified using Ni affinity, size-exclusion, and anion-exchange chromatography. It then was biochemically and functionally characterized and showed characteristics typical for DnaKs (secondary structure profile, thermal denaturation, ATPase activity, and DnaK complementation). Moreover, its immunogenicity was assessed using serum samples from experimentally hemoplasma-infected cats. In Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, it was recognized by sera from cats infected with M. haemofelis, "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis," respectively, but not from uninfected cats. This is the first description of a full-length purified recombinant feline hemoplasma antigen that can readily be applied in future pathogenesis studies and may have potential for application in a diagnostic serological test. PMID:20876820

  20. Transcriptome changes in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during infection.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Melissa L; Puttamreddy, Supraja; Thacker, Eileen L; Carruthers, Michael D; Minion, F Chris

    2008-02-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes swine pneumonia and contributes significantly to the porcine respiratory disease complex. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are difficult to address, since there is a lack of genetic tools, but microarrays are available and can be used to study transcriptional changes that occur during disease as a way to identify important virulence-related genes. Mycoplasmas were collected from bronchial alveolar lavage samples and compared to broth-grown cells using microarrays. Bronchial alveolar lavage was performed on pigs 28 days postinfection, and mycoplasmas were isolated by differential centrifugation. Mycoplasma RNA-enriched preparations were then obtained from total RNA by subtracting eucaryotic ribosomal and messenger RNAs. Labeled cDNAs were generated with mycoplasma open reading frame-specific primers. Nine biological replicates were analyzed. During lung infection, our analysis indicated that 79 M. hyopneumoniae genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01), at a false-discovery rate of <2.7%. Of the down-regulated genes, 28 of 46 (61%) lacked an assigned function, in comparison to 21 of 33 (63%) of up-regulated genes. Four down-regulated genes and two up-regulated genes encoded putative lipoproteins. secA (mhp295) (P = 0.003) and two glycerol transport permease genes (potA [mhp380; P = 0.006] and ugpA [mhp381; P = 0.003]) were up-regulated in vivo. Elongation factor EF-G (fusA [mhp083]) (P = 0.002), RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC [mhp635]) (P = 0.003), adenylate kinase (adk [mhp208]) (P = 0.001), prolyl aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (proS [mhp397]) (P = 0.009), and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (cysS [mhp661]) (P < 0.001) were down-regulated in vivo. PMID:18070898

  1. High inter-species and low intra-species variation in 16S-23S rDNA spacer sequences of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas offers potential use as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A S; Naylor, C J; Pitcher, D G; Bradbury, J M

    2008-04-30

    In order to investigate its value for phylogenetic analysis, species characterisation and diagnosis, the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) of the type strain of 23 avian Mycoplasma species were amplified and the sequences determined. Also sequenced were the reference strains of Mycoplasma iowae serotypes J, K, N, Q and R and a number of field strains of Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis and M. iowae. The ISRs demonstrated a high level of size variation (178-2488bp) between species and did not include tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis performed using the information conflicted with that based on the 16S rDNA and was therefore not helpful for phylogenetic studies. However, the ISR did appear to be of value for determining species since there was high inter-species variation between all 23 avian Mycoplasma species, and in addition there was low intra-species variation, at least in the four pathogenic species. It could also be very useful as additional information in the description of a new species and as a target for species-specific PCRs. PMID:18055138

  2. Mycoplasma infection of the hand acquired from a cat.

    PubMed

    McCabe, S J; Murray, J F; Ruhnke, H L; Rachlis, A

    1987-11-01

    Mycoplasmas, the smallest known organism capable of a free existence, have been recognized as human pathogens for 25 years. However, a soft tissue cellulitis caused by a mycoplasma has never been reported in a human subject. This case report of a mycoplasma infection of the hand acquired from an infected cat describes the clinical presentation, operative findings, mycoplasmology, and treatment of this infection. PMID:3693844

  3. Experimental infection and transmissibility of Mycoplasma synoviae with delayed serologic response in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, M L; Cookson, K C; Phillips, R A; Turner, K R; Kleven, S H

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen mycoplasma-free chickens were contact exposed to five chickens that had been experimentally infected with one of three different strains (two field strains and one laboratory strain) of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive by 3 days postinoculation (PI) in the experimentally infected birds. Lateral transmission was found by 7-14 days postexposure. Positive serum plate agglutination (SPA) results were detected 3-4 wk after positive culture and/or PCR in individual birds. By 42 days PI, all the birds in the groups exposed to field strain K1858 or K3344 had become infected as determined by culture and PCR, whereas only half of the birds in the group exposed to laboratory strain WUV1853 had become infected. Because of the unanticipated lack of seroconversion to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in infected chickens, the study was extended. Each group was split into two groups of 10 birds each, one of which was vaccinated with a live B1/LaSota Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine virus to determine if a viral respiratory challenge might incite a stronger antibody response to the mycoplasma infection. All the birds were tested for seroconversion 14 and 21 days later. Of the birds vaccinated for ND, a slightly greater number were MS positive by SPA than the nonvaccinated birds. This effect was not present 21 days after vaccination, and there was no significant difference in the MS HI results from these groups, suggesting that the viral respiratory infection had little direct impact on seroconversion. The virulent field strain (K3344) elicited a stronger MS antibody response than the other strains. All results from the MS ELISA were negative in all groups through 9 wk. Positive results from PCR analysis correlated well with culture results, whereas serologic tests did not detect MS infection for several weeks. Monitoring programs solely dependent on seroconversion may be inadequate for diagnosis and control of mycoplasma infections. PMID:9645313

  4. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. PMID:21382675

  5. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  6. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S; Markham, Philip F; Browning, Glenn F

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  7. Aortic homograft endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis and complicated by agranulocytosis due to ceftriaxone

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Dominique; Horovitz, Arthur; Bertea, Mihai; Jenni, Rolf; Günthard, Huldrych F

    2010-01-01

    The present report describes a very rare case of an aortic homograft valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis. The case was complicated by an agranulocytosis after 3 weeks of antibiotic treatment induced by ceftriaxone. Alternative oral treatment with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin was successful, no surgical intervention was needed and homograft function could be preserved. PMID:22797477

  8. Dermatobia hominis in the accident and emergency department: "I've got you under my skin".

    PubMed

    MacNamara, A; Durham, S

    1997-05-01

    An unusual form of larval infestation from South America is presented which, in view of increasing tourism to South america's tropical areas, may present to any accident and emergency department. Infestation with Dermatobia hominis is reviewed in terms of clinical recognition and life cycle. Techniques of removal are described. PMID:9193989

  9. Epidemiological survey of Giardia spp. and Blastocystis hominis in an Argentinian rural community

    PubMed Central

    Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Pezzani, Betina Cecilia; Cordoba, María Alejandra; De Luca, María Marta; Apezteguia, María Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate personal data, socio-cultural and environmental characteristics, and the presence of symptoms/signs with the frequencies of Giardia spp. and Blastocystis hominis among a rural population in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Of the surveyed population (350), 3.7% were infected with only Giardia spp. or 22.9% with B. hominis, and 2.3% were infected with both protozoa. The frequency of infection according to sex; 6.1% of males were infected and 1.6% of females by Giardia spp., 26.7% and 19.5% by B. hominis, and 2.4% and 2.2% by both parasites, respectively. Giardia spp. was detected in only three adults (over 14 years), but B. hominis was more frequent in adults than in children. The prevalences of these protozoa in this community are lower than those reported by other Argentinean studies, which is probably associated with the low density of the studied population (5.95 inhab/km2). Statistical analysis revealed that a male sex, flooding of the home, the use of a latrine, and an abdominal pain were correlated with the presence of these parasites, which indicate the importance of these factors in rural communities. PMID:15381860

  10. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  11. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae co-infection.

    PubMed

    Stacey, A; Bradlow, A

    1999-01-01

    Systemic infection caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is uncommon. We report a case of empyema and bacteraemia caused by this organism concomitant with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. PMID:10090506

  12. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya’an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. PMID:26509708

  13. Contrasting effects of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. felis on the viability and chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, A; Miles, R J; Richards, L

    1993-05-15

    Trypan blue exclusion was used to estimate the viability of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in the presence of Mycoplasma felis and two strains of M. fermentans (PG18 and incognitus). The competence of PMNL to mount a respiratory burst when challenged with the mycoplasmas was also monitored by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Both un-opsonised and non-immune human serum opsonised M. felis cells had little effect on PMNL viability. In contrast, PMNL viability was reduced markedly by un-opsonised cells of M. fermentans strain incognitus and, to a lesser extent, strain PG18, and opsonisation of these mycoplasmas further enhanced killing. Death of PMNL in the presence of M. fermentans was not associated with the autonomous production of active oxygen species during the respiratory burst as M. felis induced a high CL response from PMNL, whereas that induced by M. fermentans strain incognitus was significantly lower. M. fermentans may invade mammalian cells and it is suggested that the mechanism of PMNL death could be related to the ability of M. fermentans to penetrate host cell membranes. PMID:8339908

  14. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 103 and 5 × 104 cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. PMID:26085615

  15. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Liljander, Anne; Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F; Weibel, Douglas B; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-09-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. PMID:26085615

  16. Mycoplasma haemocanis--the canine hemoplasma and its feline counterpart in the genomic era.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Naíla C; Santos, Andrea P; Guimaraes, Ana Ms; Sanmiguel, Phillip J; Messick, Joanne B

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed or splenectomized dogs. The genome of the strain Illinois, isolated from blood of a naturally infected dog, has been entirely sequenced and annotated to gain a better understanding of the biology of M. haemocanis. Its single circular chromosome has 919 992 bp and a low G + C content (35%), representing a typical mycoplasmal genome. A gene-by-gene comparison against its feline counterpart, M. haemofelis, reveals a very similar composition and architecture with most of the genes having conserved synteny extending over their entire chromosomes and differing only by a small set of unique protein coding sequences. As in M. haemofelis, M. haemocanis metabolic pathways are reduced and apparently rely heavily on the nutrients afforded by its host environment. The presence of a major percentage of its genome dedicated to paralogous genes (63.7%) suggests that this bacterium might use antigenic variation as a mechanism to evade the host's immune system as also observed in M. haemofelis genome. Phylogenomic comparisons based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide signature suggest that these two pathogens are different species of mycoplasmas, with M. haemocanis infecting dogs and M. haemofelis infecting cats. PMID:23020168

  17. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Mycoplasma hyorhinis pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 complex subunit alpha.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongjie; Wei, Yanwu; Huang, Liping; Wang, Yiping; Du, Wenjuan; Sun, Jianhui; Wu, Hongli; Feng, Li; Liu, Changming

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis is commonly found in the respiratory tract of pigs and is the etiological agent of polyserositis. The metabolic enzymes of M. hyorhinis may play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. We immunized BALB/c mice with sodium deoxycholate-extracted antigens (DOC-Ags) and screened 10 hybridomas that secreted antibodies against various M. hyorhinis proteins. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 complex subunit alpha (PDHA) was identified as the protein that reacted with five of the 10 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Sequence analysis indicated that PDHA was highly conserved among M. hyorhinis strains, but not among other mycoplasmas. We predicted the three-dimensional structure of PDHA and identified three epitopes ((277)RTEEEEK(283), (299)KDKKYITDE(307), and (350)LKEQKQHAKDY(360)). The mAb 1H12 we generated was used to detect M. hyorhinis PDHA in vitro and in piglets infected with M. hyorhinis. We observed that PDHA was mainly located in the epithelial cells of the lungs. Our results indicate that the mAbs we generated could be used to further investigate the structure and function of M. hyorhinis PDHA. In addition, they could be used in the differential diagnosis of M. hyorhinis and other mycoplasmas. PMID:26743652

  18. Synthesis of Saturated Long Chain Fatty Acids from Sodium Acetate-1-C14 by Mycoplasma1

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, J. D.; Tourtellotte, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Three strains of Mycoplasma, M. laidlawii A and B, and Mycoplasma sp. A60549, were grown in broth containing sodium acetate-1-C14. The methyl esters of the phospholipid fatty acids of harvested radioactive cells were prepared and identified by comparison of their mobilities to known radioactive fatty acid methyl esters by use of a modified reversed-phase partition-thin layer chromatographic technique. No radioactive methyl oleate or methyl linoleate was detected. Compounds migrating as radioactive methyl myristate, stearate, palmitate, and, with less certainty, laurate and octanoate were detected. The qualitative findings for all three organisms appeared similar. M. laidlawii B synthesized a radioactive substance, presumably a saturated fatty acid detected as the methyl ester derivative, which migrated in a position intermediate to methyl myristate-1-C14 and methyl palmitate-1-C14. This work indicates that M. laidlawii A and B and Mycoplasma sp. A60549 are capable, in a complex medium containing fatty acids, of synthesizing saturated but not unsaturated fatty acids entirely or in part from acetate. Images PMID:6020566

  19. Mycoplasma haemocanis – the canine hemoplasma and its feline counterpart in the genomic era

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed or splenectomized dogs. The genome of the strain Illinois, isolated from blood of a naturally infected dog, has been entirely sequenced and annotated to gain a better understanding of the biology of M. haemocanis. Its single circular chromosome has 919 992 bp and a low G + C content (35%), representing a typical mycoplasmal genome. A gene-by-gene comparison against its feline counterpart, M. haemofelis, reveals a very similar composition and architecture with most of the genes having conserved synteny extending over their entire chromosomes and differing only by a small set of unique protein coding sequences. As in M. haemofelis, M. haemocanis metabolic pathways are reduced and apparently rely heavily on the nutrients afforded by its host environment. The presence of a major percentage of its genome dedicated to paralogous genes (63.7%) suggests that this bacterium might use antigenic variation as a mechanism to evade the host’s immune system as also observed in M. haemofelis genome. Phylogenomic comparisons based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide signature suggest that these two pathogens are different species of mycoplasmas, with M. haemocanis infecting dogs and M. haemofelis infecting cats. PMID:23020168

  20. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticums vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, it was shown to occur in response to an F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers from our laboratory a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation to...

  1. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zibo; Li, Xiangzhi; Chen, Xiaojian; Luo, Fangjun; Pan, Changwang; Zheng, Xiaoping; Tan, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumoniae (CAP), which is generally treated with macrolides. In recent years, however, although macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae has been reported frequently, particularly in China, very little is known about the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adults. In this study, we survey the macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adults in Zhejiang province and characterize the mechanisms of resistance to macrolide. Six hundred fifty throat swab samples were collected from adult patients with CAP from January 2012 to August 2014. These samples were assayed by nested PCR and then cultivated for M. pneumoniae. All isolates were sequenced to determine the mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. The activities of 10 antibiotics against macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates were also investigated in vitro. Moreover, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the amplified P1 gene was used to type 50 resistant strains. One hundred percent (71/71) of M. pneumoniae strains isolated from adults with CAP were resistant to erythromycin (MIC=128 to >256 μg/ml), clarithromycin (MIC=128 to >256 μg/ml), and azithromycin (MIC=32 to >64 μg/ml). Furthermore, all macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains identified had an A2063G mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. Forty-six resistant strains (92.0%) were classified into type I strain on the basis of P1 gene PCR-RFLP analysis. According to these findings, it is suggested that macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection is very prevalence among adults in Zhejiang province. Thus, there is necessary to perform the epidemiological monitoring of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in the future. PMID:25451048

  2. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  3. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread. PMID:6487195

  4. Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

  5. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Mulira, Gershon L.; Saunders, J. Robert; Barth, Albert D.

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses. Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis. PMID:17423929

  6. Mycoplasmas and cancer: focus on nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vande Voorde, Johan; Balzarini, Jan; Liekens, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for patients suffering cancer often includes treatment with nucleoside analogues (NAs). NAs are internalized by cell-specific nucleobase/nucleoside transporters and, after enzymatic activation (often one or more phosphorylation steps), interfere with cellular nucleo(s)(t)ide metabolism and DNA/RNA synthesis. Therefore, their efficacy is highly dependent on the expression and activity of nucleo(s)(t)ide-metabolizing enzymes, and alterations thereof (e.g. by down/upregulated expression or mutations) may change the susceptibility to NA-based therapy and/or confer drug resistance. Apart from host cell factors, several other variables including microbial presence may determine the metabolome (i.e. metabolite concentrations) of human tissues. Studying the diversity of microorganisms that are associated with the human body has already provided new insights in several diseases (e.g. diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease) and the metabolic exchange between tissues and their specific microbiota was found to affect the bioavailability and toxicity of certain anticancer drugs, including NAs. Several studies report a preferential colonization of tumor tissues with some mycoplasma species (mostly Mycoplasma hyorhinis). These prokaryotes are also a common source of cell culture contamination and alter the cytostatic activity of some NAs in vitro due to the expression of nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes. Mycoplasma infection may therefore bias experimental work with NAs, and their presence in the tumor microenvironment could be of significance when optimizing nucleoside-based cancer treatment. PMID:26417262

  7. Characterization of western X-disease mycoplasma-like organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    The causal agent of western X-disease, an important disease of cherry (Prunus avium) and peach (Prunus persica) in the western United States, was shown to be a non-culturable, mycoplasma-like organism (WX-MLO). Procedures were developed to purify WX-MLOs from celery and leafhoppers infected with a greenhouse-maintained isolate of the peach yellow leaf roll (ghPYLR) strain of western X-disease. WX-MLOs, purified from ghPYLR-infected leafhoppers, elicited the production of specific antisera (WX antisera) when injected into rabbits. When used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WX antisera quantitatively detected WX-MLOs in celery, periwinkle, and leafhoppers experimentally infected with either ghPYLR or the Green Valley (GVX) strain of western X-disease. Recombinant clones were screened by colony, dot and southern hybridizations using /sup 32/P-nick translated DNA extracted from healthy and ghPYLR-infected celery and leafhoppers. Twenty-four clones were identified which hybridized with DNA from diseased but not healthy hosts. DNA hybridization assays, using radiolabeled, cloned WX-MLO DNA, readily detected WX-MLOs in celery, periwinkle, and leafhoppers infected with either GVX or ghPYLR and in cherry and peach with symptoms of GVX.

  8. An amplifiable DNA region from the Mycoplasma hyorhinis genome.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, G; McIntosh, M A

    1994-01-01

    A novel amplifiable genomic region that displays variability in the number of tandem copies of a 1,368-bp DNA sequence (designated RS-2) was discovered among individual clonal derivatives within Mycoplasma hyorhinis broth-grown cell populations. Clonal isolates representing variant subpopulations from the original broth culture were of a single size variant, and although continued culture under a variety of growth conditions did not result in further amplification of RS-2, evidence for deletion events which reduced RS-2 copy number, presumably by homologous recombination, was obtained. RS-2 homologous sequences were identified in all M. hyorhinis strains tested, but only the tissue culture-derived strains GDL-1 and GDL-2 showed variability in genomic dosage. The RS-2 nucleotide sequence established that each tandem copy is flanked by direct repeats of a 20-bp sequence and suggested a possible mechanism for its original duplication as the initial phase of a genetic amplification process. The coding strand was defined by PCR amplification of a reverse transcriptase-generated cDNA, and its sequence revealed that RS-2 encodes a 456-residue internal, highly cysteine-rich domain of a larger M. hyorhinis protein whose coding sequence initiates and terminates in unique genomic sequences several hundred base pairs from RS-2 on either side of it. Changes in RS-2 copy number maintain the reading frame, and therefore the coding capacity, for this predicted size-variant protein. Images PMID:7928953

  9. Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii or metronidazole in symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Eren, Makbule; Dogan, Nihal; Reyhanioglu, Serap; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2011-03-01

    Although many Blastocystis infections remain asymptomatic, recent data suggest it also causes frequent symptoms. Therapy should be limited to patients with persistent symptoms and a complete workup for alternative etiologies. The goal of this study was to compare the natural evolution (no treatment) to the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) or metronidazole for the duration of diarrhea and the duration of colonization in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and positive stool examination for Blastocystis hominis. This randomized single-blinded clinical trial included children presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea-vomiting, flatulence) more than 2 weeks and confirmed B. hominis by stool examination (B. hominis cysts in the stool with microscopic examination of the fresh stool). The primary end points were clinical evaluation and result of microscopic stool examination at day 15. Secondary end points were the same end points at day 30. Randomization was performed by alternating inclusion: group A, S. boulardii (250 mg twice a day, Reflor®) during 10 days; group B, metronidazole (30 mg/kg twice daily) for 10 days; group C, no treatment. At day 15 and 30 after inclusion, the patients were re-evaluated, and stool samples were examined microscopically. On day 15, children that were still symptomatic and/or were still B. hominis-infected in group C were treated with metronidazole for 10 days. There was no statistically significant difference between the three study groups for age, gender, and the presence of diarrhea and abdominal pain. On day 15, clinical cure was observed in 77.7% in group A (n, 18); in 66.6% in group B (n, 15); and 40% in group C (n:15) (p < 0.031, between groups A and C). Disappearance of the cysts from the stools on day 15 was 80% in group B, 72.2% in group A, and 26.6% in group C (p = 0.011, between group B and group C; p = 0.013, between group A and group C). At the end of the first month after inclusion, clinical cure rate was 94.4% in group A and 73.3% in group B (p = 0.11). Parasitological cure rate for B. hominis was very comparable between both groups (94.4% vs. 93.3%, p = 0.43). Metronidazole or S. boulardii has potential beneficial effects in B. hominis infection (symptoms, presence of parasites). These findings challenge the actual guidelines. PMID:20922415

  10. [Furunculoid myasis due to Dermatobia hominis. A case imported to the Mexican capital's Federal District from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ruiz, José; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Castillo-Díaz, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    Furunculoid myiasis is malignant parasitation caused by larvae of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. It is endemic to Southern Mexico and Central and South America. We report here on the case of a patient living in Mexico's Federal District who was infested with Dermatobia hominis, and who had a history of travel to Costa Rica. A review of the literature regarding this uncommon ailment in the Valley of Mexico is also presented. PMID:15022891

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Cases of Mycoplasma californicum Infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kan-ichiro; Hanyu, Hideki; Itoh, Megumi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma californicum is often accompanied by huge economic losses, and the disease spreads very quickly. An appropriate molecular epidemiological analysis is needed to prevent and control infectious disease, but molecular epidemiological analysis methods for M. californicum have not yet been reported. Here we developed a combination of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods, which are common genotyping methods for various bacteria, for M. californicum. The MLVA is based on four interspersed repeat units that were found in the M. californicum genome data. The MLVA using these repeat units showed sufficient discriminatory power for a molecular epidemiological analysis; i.e., a Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI) of 0.949, against M. californicum strains in Japan and M. californicum strain ATCC 33461. The PFGE for M. californicum also showed sufficient discriminatory power, with an HGDI of 0.985. Strain ATCC 33461 showed MLVA profiles and pulsotypes that differed greatly from those of strains from Japan. These results indicate that MLVA and PFGE are good tools for identifying M. californicum transmission events more accurately. Our combined MLVA and PFGE analysis suggests the persistence of M. californicum infection among herds in a specific area for a long period of time, as well as the movement of cows and heifers accompanying the expansion of M. californicum infection. Failure to identify asymptomatic infected cows is suspected as one of the central causes of the present M. californicum infection scenario in Japan. PMID:25281385

  12. Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemotropic mycoplasmas are epicellular erythrocytic bacteria that can cause infectious anemia in some mammalian species. Worldwide, hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens potentially causing serious and significant health problems in wildlife. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with and without Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destrucans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS) that causes significant mortality events in bats. Methods In order to establish the prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in a population of 68 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with (n = 53) and without (n = 15) white-nose syndrome (WNS), PCR was performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results The overall prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasmas in bats was 47%, with similar (p = 0.5725) prevalence between bats with WNS (49%) and without WNS (40%). 16S rDNA sequence analysis (~1,200 bp) supports the presence of a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species with 91.75% sequence homology with Mycoplasma haemomuris. No differences were found in gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals. Conclusions Gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals suggest that little brown bats could serve as a natural reservoir for this potentially novel Mycoplasma species. Currently, there is minimal information about the prevalence, host-specificity, or the route of transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. among bats. Finally, the potential role of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. as co-factors in the development of disease manifestations in bats, including WNS in Myotis lucifugus, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24655520

  13. Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:20702675

  14. Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Prá Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bébéar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ≥1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

  15. Molecular characterisation of the Mycoplasma cynos haemagglutinin HapA.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Saša; Cizelj, Ivanka; Narat, Mojca; Tozon, Nataša; Chalker, Victoria J; Lysnyansky, Inna; Spergser, Joachim; Benčina, Dušan

    2015-01-30

    Mycoplasma (M.) cynos is a proven pathogen of dogs causing respiratory infections including pneumonia. We examined 19 M. cynos strains isolated from different organs of dogs in Austria, Denmark and Israel. All strains agglutinated mammalian and chicken erythrocytes. Using erythrocytes of chickens or dogs as specific ligands we isolated an approximately 65 kDa protein from cell-free supernatants of 3 M. cynos strains, which showed an apparent capacity for haemagglutination. The N-terminal sequence of a 25 kDa fragment of this protein was identified as NNEMTPKVTVEAKSMELLLSVEK. The identical amino acid sequence is encoded by the gene MCYN_0308 in the genome of M. cynos C142. This gene belongs to a family of some 20 genes which encode putative lipoproteins with proline-rich regions (PRR) in the first third of their molecules. We termed the 65 kDa haemagglutinin HapA and sequenced hapA gene homologues of 16 M. cynos strains. Analyses of hapA gene homologues revealed similar but not identical sequences, some having insertions and/or deletions in the PRR. We produced a recombinant HapA protein (rHapA) and also mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing HapA. However, enzyme immunoassays using native M. cynos colonies and mAbs 5G2 or 3B7 showed variable expression of HapA in all M. cynos strains. This was further confirmed by Western blot analyses which showed different HapA quantities and also size-variation of HapA among strains. Analyses of cDNA of the expressed hapA genes showed that besides the hapA gene cultures of M. cynos (strains 105, 2002, 2297) can also express other forms of hap genes. In addition, in cloned cultures of strain 2297 altered HapA epitopes for mAbs 5G2 and 3B7 with distinct hapA gene mutations that resulted in altered HapA amino acid sequence were found. Most of the dogs examined had serum antibodies to rHapA. In conclusion, we characterized the M. cynos haemagglutinin HapA protein and encoding gene hapA, a factor involved in cytadherence to host cells and therefore important for M. cynos infection, and showed that expression of HapA is varied in M. cynos by two distinct mechanisms; differential gene expression and nucleic acid substitution within hapA homologues. PMID:25465173

  16. Infections of Blastocystis hominis and microsporidia in cancer patients: are they opportunistic?

    PubMed

    Chandramathi, Samudi; Suresh, Kumar; Anita, Zarina Bustam; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2012-04-01

    Chemotherapy can cause immunosuppression, which may trigger latent intestinal parasitic infections in stools to emerge. This study investigated whether intestinal parasites can emerge as opportunistic infections in breast and colorectal cancer patients (n=46 and n=15, respectively) undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Breast cancer patients were receiving a 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen (6 chemotherapy cycles), and colorectal cancer patients were receiving either an oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFOX) regimen (12 cycles) or a 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (Mayo) regimen (6 cycles). Patients had Blastocystis hominis and microsporidia infections that were only present during the intermediate chemotherapy cycles. Thus, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy should be screened repeatedly for intestinal parasites, namely B. hominis and microsporidia, as they may reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments. PMID:22340948

  17. Cutaneous myiasis with Dermatobia hominis (human bot fly) larvae treated both conservatively and surgically.

    PubMed

    Wild, G

    2006-01-01

    A case is presented of infestation with the larvae of Dermatobia hominis (human bot fly). This case is unusual in that it provides an example of three different outcomes for separate lesions in the same patient; spontaneous resolution, conservative treatment and surgical intervention. It also illustrates that myiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any skin lesion of a patient returning from the tropics. PMID:16892758

  18. Myiasis with Dermatobia hominis in a Sicilian traveller returning from Peru.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, M R; Pistone, G; Aricò, M

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a bot fly infestation of the scalp. A 45-year-old man after returning to Sicily noted a small white "worm" erupting from the upper lesion. Physical examination revealed a superficial furuncular lesion with central pores with sero-sanguineous discharge. The foreign body identified was diagnosed as the larva of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis. PMID:17448949

  19. Antibody to Herpesvirus hominis in Patients with Carcinoma of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Najem, S. N.; Barton, I. G.; Al-Omar, L. S.; Potter, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    An ELISA test was used to measure the levels of antibody to Herpesvirus hominis in a group of women with carcinoma of the cervix. The results were compared to those in a similar group of age-matched controls. The mean titre of antibody in the patients with carcinoma of the cervix was significantly greater than in the corresponding control group using both HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens. PMID:6293526

  20. Rapid Microsphere Assay for Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool and Environmental Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Kellar, Kathryn L.; Moura, Iaci; Casaqui Carollo, Maria Cristina; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Slemenda, Susan; Johnston, Stephanie P.; da Silva, Alexandre J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are associated with massive disease outbreaks worldwide. Because these two species have different transmission cycles, identification of these parasites to the species level in clinical samples may provide laboratory data of crucial importance in epidemiologic investigations. To date, the most reliable way to differentiate C. hominis and C. parvum is based on DNA sequencing analysis of PCR amplicons. Although this approach is very effective for differentiation of Cryptosporidium species, it is labor-intensive and time-consuming compared with methods that do not require DNA sequencing analysis as an additional step and that have been successfully used for specific identification of a number of pathogens. In this study, we describe a novel Luminex-based assay that can differentiate C. hominis from C. parvum in a rapid and cost-effective manner. The assay was validated by testing a total of 143 DNA samples extracted from clinical specimens, environmental samples, or samples artificially spiked with Cryptosporidium oocysts. As few as 10 oocysts per 300 μl of stools could be detected with this assay. The assay format includes species-specific probes linked to carboxylated Luminex microspheres that hybridize to a Cryptosporidium microsatellite-2 region (ML-2) where C. hominis and C. parvum differ by one nucleotide substitution. The assay proved to be 100% specific when samples that had been characterized by direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) and DNA sequencing analysis were tested. In addition, the assay was more sensitive than DFA and provided species identification, which is an advantage for epidemiologic studies. PMID:17652477

  1. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in human patients in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El Kader, Nour M; Blanco, María-Alejandra; Ali-Tammam, Marwa; Abd El Ghaffar, Abd El Rahman B; Osman, Ahmed; El Sheikh, Nabila; Rubio, José Miguel; de Fuentes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in developing and industrialized nations. Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the main agents of cryptosporidiosis in humans. In Egypt, very little is known about genetic structure of Cryptosporidium spp. Therefore, this study was designed to examine samples from sporadic cases of cryptosporidiosis in Egyptians in order to identify the species involved in infection as well as the transmission dynamics and distribution of the parasite in the Great Cairo area. A total of 391 human faecal samples were collected, between May 2008 and March 2009, from ten public hospitals in Great Cairo. Initial screening by immunochromatographic detection kit "the Stick Crypto-Giardia; Operon" showed 23 possible positive cases. Twenty of them were confirmed by microscopic examination. PCR was performed by amplification of the oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene where 18 out of 23 samples were positive, one not detected by microscopy. Cryptosporidium genotyping was performed by RFLP analysis of PCR products of the diagnosis PCR. Only 15 samples rendered a digestion pattern. The genotyping distribution was nine cases showing C. hominis genotype, three showing C. parvum genotype and three showing mixed infection by C. hominis and C. parvum. The data showed an elevated prevalence of C. hominis (80.0%), the most anthroponotic species, suggesting a human-human transmission. Furthermore, the presence of up to 40% of samples infected with C. parvum shows that further investigations are required to determine the subgenotypes of C. parvum to clarify the mode of transmission in order to improve the control measures. PMID:21607688

  2. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tilmicosin and tylosin for mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae and a comparison of their efficacy in the control of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jordan, F T; Horrocks, B K

    1996-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations of tylosin tartrate and a new macrolid antimicrobial agent, tilmicosin, were assessed for six strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and three strains of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) in vitro by the microbroth method. For four of the strains of MG, tilmicosin showed a slightly lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) than did tylosin at both the initial reading (when pH 7.0 is first seen in the dilutions under test) and the final reading at 14 days of incubation. For one of the remaining strains, the MIC for tilmicosin was equal to or less than that for tylosin at the initial reading but greater at the final reading. For the other strain, the MIC for tilmicosin was greater than for tylosin, and for both of them the MICs were very much higher than for other strains. For the three strains of MS, there was little difference between the two drugs for one strain whereas the MIC for tilmicosin was slightly less for the other two groups. Groups of 30 chicks were infected with a virulent strain of MG and treated with either tylosin (0.5 g/liter) or tilmicosin (at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 g/liter). One infected group was untreated and another group was uninfected and untreated. Clinical signs, mainly depression and nervous signs, were seen in two to five birds in the infected treated groups. In contrast, in the infected untreated group, 16 of 30 birds showed clinical signs. Mortality was significantly less in the infected treated groups compared with the infected untreated group (P < 0.001), and following infection there were significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gains in the infected medicated groups. At necropsy the prevalence of gross lesions of the airsac walls was similar in all the infected medicated groups and was less than that for the infected unmedicated group. For the group on tylosin, MG was recovered from five chicks during life and from six dead chicks. The corresponding figures for the group receiving the lowest dose of tilmicosin were four for each; however, the organism was not recovered from the groups on the higher doses of tilmicosin either during life or from dead chicks. Serological results were negative for all groups except the infected untreated group, in which all three birds that were tested were positive. PMID:8790882

  3. [Blastocystis hominis and nonpathogenic enteric protozoa in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Davis, N A; Islamova, Zh I; Giiasov, Kh Z; Badalova, N S; Takhtokhodzhaeva, G R; Latipov, R R; Osipova, S O

    2010-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis and nonpathogenic enteric protozoa were diagnosed in 300 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis mainly of its infiltrative form and 500 with Stages II and III HIV infection; the patients received antituberculosis therapy (ATT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), respectively. Control groups included 200 Tashkent dwellers and 350 patients with various noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Triple coproscopy was made. B. hominis was significantly more frequently detected in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with HIV infection than in healthy individuals: in 53.6 +/- 2.9, 42.2 +/- 2.2, and 18.0 +/- 2.5, respectively (P < 0.01). Only did the tuberculosis or HIV-infected patients show a high intensity of B. hominis infection, which was accompanied by recurring diarrhea and nausea. The high activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase was observed in 20% of the patients with tuberculosis + blastocytosis; that of alkaline phosphatase was seen in 25%. The tuberculosis or HIV-infected patients were more frequently found to have Chylomastix mesnili, Jodamoeba butschlii, and Endolimax nana. The specific features of intestinal colonization seem to reflect changes in local immunity; the drugs included into ATT and ART have no substantial effects on the viability of protozoa. PMID:20873179

  4. Spleen cell proliferation during and after skin myiasis by human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jomara Mendes; Nascimento, Maria Fernanda Alves do; Breyner, Natália Martins; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Góes, Alfredo Miranda de; Leite, Antonio César Rios

    2009-01-01

    Spleen cells from mice were examined at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days post-infection (dpi) with Dermatobia hominis larva and at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Cell proliferation in vitro assays were carried out with RPMI-1640 medium and larval secretory product (LSP) of D. hominis at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. When each group of mice was tested against each medium, significance was only seen for 25 dpi, with increasing order: LSP-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d and RPMI. Significant results were also observed when each medium was tested against mice at each dpi or dple. Each dple group vs. each medium produced significant results only for 10 dple, with increasing order: LSP-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d and RPMI. Comparative tests were also carried out between groups to refine certain observations. The LSPs were also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The results prove that myiasis caused depletion of spleen cells, particularly under the effect of the LSP-10 and -15, but the cells tended to increase up to 60 dple. This in vitro assay may represent the real systemic immune response in the relationship LSP-D. hominis-host. PMID:19551289

  5. The first reported cases of human cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Ondriska, František; Vrabcová, Ivana; Brinďáková, Silvia; Kváč, Martin; Ditrich, Oleg; Boldiš, Vojtech; Bastlová, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis belongs to the important parasitic infections with zoonotic potential and the occurrence in European countries is rare. The first cases of cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis detected in the Slovak republic were described here. Collection of examined humans consisted of five family members. Faecal specimens were examined by formalin sedimentation, by the Sheather's sugar flotation and by immunochromatography and visualised by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and species was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the endonucleases SspI and VspI. C. hominis was found in faeces of two immunocompetent siblings (a 7-year-old boy and a 2-year-old girl). The symptoms occurred only in the boy as gastrointestinal disorders lasting 5 days, and manifested by abdominal pain, an elevated body temperature (37.2 °C), mild diarrhoea, accompanied by lassitude, depression and anorexia. Ultrasonic scan revealed enlarged spleen and mezenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic examination of the stool sample revealed numerous Cryptosporidium oocysts. The DNA typing identified C. hominis subtype IbA10G2. Cryptosporidium was also detected in the boy's sister without any complications and symptoms. Their father, mother and grandmother were parasitologically negative. The source of infection remained unknown. Human cases in present study reflect necessity of systematic attention on intestinal parasites diagnostic inclusive of cryptosporidia. PMID:22826020

  6. Morphology of the antenna of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) based on scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    de, Fernandes Fernando Freitas; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio

    2002-01-01

    Sensilla of the antennae of male and female Dermatobia hominis were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The images obtained were interpreted according to the scientific literature referring to the sensory structures of insects. Sensilla of the "long bristle" type and smaller spines of the "microtrichia" type were found in different numbers and patterns of distribution on the scape and pedicel. Coeloconic sensilla with longitudinal cuticular furrows were observed on the female flagellum, as well as two varieties of basiconic sensilla: a large one surrounded by pointed foliaceous structures and a smaller form implanted on a raised cuticular process. The larger type of basiconic sensilla was also observed on the flagellum of the male antenna, as well as a variety of coeloconic sensilla with apical dilatations. Trichoid and chaetic sensilla were encountered in greater numbers on the arista of females, with the former type predominating. Coeloconic sensilla were observed on the arista of both sexes, as well as sensilla of the "long bristle" and styloconic types exclusively in males. Adult D. hominis were observed to possess sensory structures with chemoreceptory, thermo-hygroreceptory and mechanoreceptory functions on their antennae. These results could facilitate the identification of the chemoreceptors by electrophysiological techniques. The sexual dimorphism noted for the antennae constitutes a new criterion for distinguishing between the sexes of D. hominis PMID:11931269

  7. Protein profile and morphometry of cultured human Blastocystis hominis from children with gastroenteritis and healthy ones.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M M; Maklouf, L M; El Hamshary, E M; Dawoud, H A; Eida, A M

    2008-08-01

    A total of 180 children of age group 5-12 years old in both sexes, of whom 90 were symptomatic and negative for other parasites, rotavirus or pathogenic bacteria. Another 90 children were asymptomatic, but with B. hominis in stools. Direct smear, formaline-ethyl acetate sedimentation concentration, kinyon carbol-fuchin stain, stool culture, enzyme immunoassay, culturing, morphometric study, gel electrophoresis and experimental infection of mice were done. The results showed that the central body cysts (CB), granular and multivacuolar forms isolated from symptomatic patients were larger than those from asymptomatic ones. The CB form was common compared to other forms and isolated from 104 cases. B. hominis infection was prevalent among males rather than females (60.5% versus 39.5%). The clinical data showed that diarrhea was the most common symptom (58.9%). The infection intensity had a direct relation with illness duration. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients ranged between 24-130 kDa. All isolates showed similar banding patterns. Only minor differences was in low MW (30, 50 kDa) and in high MW (118 kDa) in samples from symptomatic patients. The histopathological examination of caecum, colon and small intestine of B. hominis mice infected from symptommatic patients showed infiltration with inflammatory cells and tissue invasion by the parasite. PMID:18853619

  8. Programmed cell death in Blastocystis hominis occurs independently of caspase and mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Nasirudeen, A M A; Tan, Kevin S W

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrated previously that a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D5 elicits a programmed cell death (PCD) response in Blastocystis hominis and showed that caspase-3-like protease influences but is not essential for PCD in MAb 1D5-treated B. hominis. We also showed that mitochondrial dysregulation played a role in cell death. In the current study, we further analyzed the signaling pathways involved in PCD mediated by MAb 1D5. B. hominis cells were treated with MAb 1D5 or control MAb 5, either with or without pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk, and/or a mitochondrial transition pore blocker, cyclosporine A (CA). Flow cytometric examination of cell size, mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)), caspase activation and in situ DNA fragmentation showed that zVAD.fmk and CA, used independently or in combination, failed to inhibit MAb 1D5-mediated PCD. Interestingly, cell exposure to either inhibitor resulted in partial inhibition of DNA fragmentation while combined exposure of cells to inhibitors abolished DNA fragmentation completely. This study sheds new light on the conserved nature of PCD pathways in parasitic protozoa and is also the first report describing caspase- and mitochondria-independent cell death pathways in a protozoan parasite. PMID:15913879

  9. Validation of a mycoplasma molecular diagnostic test and distribution of mycoplasma species in bovine milk among New York State dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Gioia, G; Werner, B; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma mastitis is a contagious and costly disease of dairy cattle that significantly affects animal health and milk productivity. Mycoplasma bovis is the most prevalent and invasive agent of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle, and early detection is critical. Other mycoplasma have been isolated from milk; however, the role and prevalence of these species as mastitis pathogens are poorly understood. Routine screening of milk for mycoplasma by bacteriological culture is an important component of a farm control strategy to minimize a herd mycoplasma outbreak, but phenotypic methods have limited ability to speciate mycoplasma, affecting how farms and practitioners can understand the role and effect of species other than M. bovis in herd health. Fastidious mycoplasma culture can be lengthy and inconclusive, resulting in delayed or false negative reports. We developed and validated a multitarget PCR assay that can in the same day confirm or reject a presumptive positive mycoplasma culture found upon bacteriological testing of clinical specimens, further discriminate between Acholeplasma and Mycoplasma, and identify M. bovis. Coupled with sequence analysis isolates can be further identified as bovine mycoplasma Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma canadense, Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma californicum, Acholeplasma laidlawii, and Acholeplasma oculi. Assay validation included analysis of 845 mycoplasma representing these species and 30 additional bacterial species obtained from routine milk submissions to the Quality Milk Production Services from New York State farms and veterinary clinics between January 2012 and December 2015. Among 95 herds, we found 8 different Mycoplasma species and 3 different Acholeplasma species, with an overall prevalence of M. bovirhinis of 1%, A. oculi of 2%, M. arginini of 2%, M. californicum of 3%, M. canadense of 10%, M. bovigenitalium of 10%, A. laidlawii of 11%, M. alkalescens of 17%, and M. bovis of 78%. More than one mycoplasma was found in 14% of the herds tested, and both M. bovis and Acholeplasma were found in 6% of the farms. Incorporation of the validated molecular diagnostic assay into routine bacteriological screening as a supportive confirmation and identification tool will lead to an improved assessment of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma prevalence data, which will facilitate increased knowledge about the role of these mycoplasma in mastitis. PMID:27016831

  10. Neutrophil histamine contributes to inflammation in mycoplasma pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Dongji; Zhang, Hong; Wolters, Paul J; Killeen, Nigel P; Sullivan, Brandon M; Locksley, Richard M; Lowell, Clifford A; Caughey, George H

    2006-12-25

    Mycoplasmas cause chronic inflammation and are implicated in asthma. Mast cells defend against mycoplasma infection and worsen allergic inflammation, which is mediated partly by histamine. To address the hypothesis that mycoplasma provokes histamine release, we exposed mice to Mycoplasma pulmonis, comparing responses in wild-type and mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/KitW-sh (W-sh) mice. Low histamine levels in uninfected W-sh mice confirmed the conventional wisdom that mast cells are principal sources of airway and serum histamine. Although mycoplasma did not release histamine acutely in wild-type airways, levels rose up to 50-fold above baseline 1 week after infection in mice heavily burdened with neutrophils. Surprisingly, histamine levels also rose profoundly in infected W-sh lungs, increasing in parallel with neutrophils and declining with neutrophil depletion. Furthermore, neutrophils from infected airway were highly enriched in histamine compared with naive neutrophils. In vitro, mycoplasma directly stimulated histamine production by naive neutrophils and strongly upregulated mRNA encoding histidine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in histamine synthesis. In vivo, treatment with antihistamines pyrilamine or cimetidine decreased lung weight and severity of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis in infected W-sh mice. These findings suggest that neutrophils, provoked by mycoplasma, greatly expand their capacity to synthesize histamine, thereby contributing to lung and airway inflammation. PMID:17158962

  11. The minimal gene complement of mycoplasma genitalium

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, C.M.; Gocayne, J.D.; White, O.

    1995-10-20

    The complete nucleotide sequence (580,070 base pairs) of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism, has been determined by whole-genome random sequencing and assembly. A total of only 470 predicted coding regions were identified that include genes required for DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. Comparison of this genome to that of Haemophilus influenzae suggests that differences in genome content are reflected as profound differences in physiology and metabolic capacity between these two organisms. 43 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Laser radiation effects on Mycoplasma agalactiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Cerasela Z.; Grigoriu, Constantin; Dinescu, Maria; Pascale, Florentina; Popovici, Adrian; Gheorghescu, Lavinia; Cismileanu, Ana; Avram, Eugenia

    2002-08-01

    The biological effects of the laser radiation emitted by the Nd:YAG laser (second harmonic, wavelength 532 nm /fluence 32 mJ/cm2/pulse duration 6 ns) on the Mycoplasma agalactiae bacterium were studied. The radiation was found to intensify the multiplication of the bacteria irradiated in TRIS buffer (0.125 M), without however affecting the proteinic composition of the cell membrane. When the bacteria were irradiated in their growth medium (PPLO broth) being later cultivated on a solid medium (PPLO agar), the exclusive presence of the atypical colonies (granular and T-like ones) was noticed.

  13. Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Dybvig, K.

    1981-01-01

    Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

  14. Blastocystis hominis infection in a post-cardiotomy patient on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Chou, Nai-Kuan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Opportunistic pathogens can cause severe damage leading to irreversible complications in immune-compromised patients. Here we describe a patient who sustained Blastocystis hominis infection resulting in severe sepsis while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and the course of treatment taken to treat him. PRESENTATION OF CASE Our case, a 34-year-old Filipino man, was hospitalized for valvular disease and received valve replacements. ECMO and an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) were implemented when the patient developed progressive heart failure after cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from sepsis with persistent fever and diarrhea, and subsequent examinations indicated the patient was infected by B. hominis. After adequate administration of the antibiotic metronidazole, the patient's symptoms subsided and he was discharged. DISCUSSION Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular protozoa commonly found in the intestinal tract, and the prevalence of B. hominis is 1.5–10% in developed countries and 30–50% in developing countries. The patient needed the support of ECMO and IABP, was immunocompromised to a certain extent; B. hominis can be a harmful opportunistic pathogen for them and lead to severe irreversible complications such as death. CONCLUSION This is the first published article showing that the opportunistic pathogen, B. hominis, can cause severe infection in patients on ECMO support, a result that should be kept in mind when patients come from a place with a high prevalence of B. hominis. The prophylactic medication should be administered routinely when patients live in the region and extracorporeal life-support is used. PMID:25160800

  15. P48 Major Surface Antigen of Mycoplasma agalactiae Is Homologous to a malp Product of Mycoplasma fermentans and Belongs to a Selected Family of Bacterial Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Sergio; Pozzi, Sarah; Robino, Patrizia; Montinaro, Barbara; Conti, Amedeo; Fadda, Manlio; Pittau, Marco

    1999-01-01

    A major surface antigenic lipoprotein of Mycoplasma agalactiae, promptly recognized by the host's immune system, was characterized. The mature product, P48, showed significant similarity and shared conserved amino acid motifs with lipoproteins or predicted lipoproteins from Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bacillus subtilis, and Treponema pallidum. PMID:10531294

  16. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

    1981-11-01

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

  17. Catalase Enhances Growth and Biofilm Production of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes chronic respiratory disease in humans. Factors thought to be important for colonization include the ability of the mycoplasma to form a biofilm on epithelial surfaces and the production of hydrogen peroxide to damage host tissue. Almost all of the mycoplasmas, including M. pneumoniae, lack superoxide dismutase and catalase and a balance should exist between peroxide production and growth. We show here that the addition of catalase to cultures enhanced the formation of biofilms and altered the structure. The incorporation of catalase in agar increased the number of colony-forming units detected and hence could improve the clinical diagnosis of mycoplasmal diseases. PMID:25894997

  18. Immunobinding assay for detection of Mycoplasma bovis in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Infante Martinez, F; Jasper, D E; Stott, J L; Cullor, J S; Dellinger, J D

    1990-01-01

    An immunobinding dot-blot assay (IBA) was developed for the detection of mycoplasma in milk. The test was highly species specific when monoclonal antibody preparations were employed in the assay system. Reactions were obtained with all mycoplasma species tested when polyclonal antisera preparations were used. Preincubation for 48-72 hours was necessary with milk samples containing only a few mycoplasma. Time from sample receipt to diagnosis in most positive samples could be reduced from several days by culture to a few hours by the IBA, thus enabling control procedures to be quickly initiated. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2357663

  19. The role of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Murtha, Amy P; Edwards, James M

    2014-12-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are frequently found in the vaginal flora across socioeconomic and ethnic groups and have been demonstrated to be involved in adverse perinatal outcomes. Both Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp cause inflammation potentially leading to spontaneous preterm birth and PPROM as well as postdelivery infectious complications and neonatal infections. Herein we have provided an overview of the existing literature and supportive evidence for genital mycoplasma's role in perinatal complications. Future research will need to focus on clearly delineating the species, allowing for discrimination of their effects. PMID:25454994

  20. Morphology of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-mycoplasma) organisms and colonies.

    PubMed Central

    Razin, S; Masover, G K; Palant, M; Hayflick, L

    1977-01-01

    The morphology of Ureaplasm urealyticum in broth cultures was studied by phase-contrast microscopy. Most organisms appeared singly or in pairs. Long filaments and long chains of cocci, common in classical mycoplasma cultures, were not observed. On solid medium, U. urealyticum produced "fried-egg" colonies which developed according to the scheme suggested by Razin and Oliver (J. Gen. Microbiol., 1961) for the morphogenesis of the classical mycoplasma colonies. The formation of the peripheral zone of the colonies followed that of the central zone only when growth conditions were adequate, Hence, the appearance of peripheral zones, and consequently the larger colony size, can be taken as an indicator of improved growth conditions. Incubation in an atmosphere of 100% CO2 resulted in significantly larger colonies than in an atmosphere of N2, O2, or air. CO2 acts as a buffer, keeping the pH at the optimal range for Ureaplasma growth (pH 6.0 to 6.5) in the presence of the ammonia produced from the urea hydrolyzed by the organisms. The addition to the medium of 0.01 M urea together with 0.01 M putrescine enabled better growth than with urea alone. Small amounts of phosphate improved growth in an atmosphere of CO2, apparently fulfilling a nutritional role. Under nitrogen, higher phosphate concentrations were required for good growth, apparently serving as a buffer as well as a nutrient. Sodium chloride and sucrose which had been added to increase the tonicity of the medium inhibited growth above 0.1 M. An increase in the agar concentration above 2% resulted in decreased colony size. Likewise, prolonged drying of the agar plates caused a marked decrease in colony size, mostly affecting the peripheral zone. The addition of both urea and putrescine to the growth medium and incubation in a humidified CO2 atmosphere are recommended for improved growth and formation of fried-egg colonies of U. ureaplyticum on agar. It must be emphasized that these experiments were carried out with a laboratory-adapted strain. Images PMID:15986

  1. Inflammation-inducing Factors of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which causes mycoplasmal pneumonia in human, mainly causes pneumonia in children, although it occasionally causes disease in infants and geriatrics. Some pathogenic factors produced by M. pneumoniae, such as hydrogen peroxide and Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin have been well studied. However, these factors alone cannot explain this predilection. The low incidence rate of mycoplasmal pneumonia in infants and geriatrics implies that the strong inflammatory responses induced by M. pneumoniae coordinate with the pathogenic factors to induce pneumonia. However, M. pneumoniae lacks a cell wall and does not possess an inflammation-inducing endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In M. pneumoniae, lipoproteins were identified as an inflammation-inducing factor. Lipoproteins induce inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2. Because Mycoplasma species lack a cell wall and lipoproteins anchored in the membrane are exposed, lipoproteins and TLR2 have been thought to be important for the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae. However, recent reports suggest that M. pneumoniae also induces inflammatory responses also in a TLR2-independent manner. TLR4 and autophagy are involved in this TLR2-independent inflammation. In addition, the CARDS toxin or M. pneumoniae cytadherence induces inflammatory responses through an intracellular receptor protein complex called the inflammasome. In this review, the inflammation-inducing factors of M. pneumoniae are summarized. PMID:27065977

  2. Antibody Response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Protection of Host and Influence on Outbreaks?

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Roger; Jacobs, Enno

    2016-01-01

    In humans of all ages, the cell wall-less and genome-reduced species Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The well-documented occurrence of major peaks in the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia cases reported world-wide, the multifaceted clinical manifestations of infection and the increasing number of resistant strains provide reasons for ongoing interest in the pathogenesis of mycoplasmal disease. The results of recent studies have provided insights into the interaction of the limited virulence factors of the bacterium with its host. In addition, the availability of complete M. pneumoniae genomes from patient isolates and the development of proteomic methods for investigation of mycoplasmas have not only allowed characterization of sequence divergences between strains but have also shown the importance of proteins and protein parts for induction of the immune reaction after infection. This review focuses on selected aspects of the humoral host immune response as a factor that might influence the clinical course of infections, subsequent protection in cases of re-infections and changes of epidemiological pattern of infections. The characterization of antibodies directed to defined antigens and approaches to promote their induction in the respiratory mucosa are also preconditions for the development of a vaccine to protect risk populations from severe disease due to M. pneumoniae. PMID:26858711

  3. Rapid detection of Mycoplasma synoviae by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Kursa, Olimpia; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Anna; Minta, Zenon

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) remains a serious concern in production of poultry and affects world production of chickens and turkeys. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA has been recently used for the identification of different economically important avian pathogens. The aim of this study was to develop LAMP for simple and inexpensive detection of MS strains in poultry using specifically designed primers targeting hemagglutin A (vlh) gene. The assay was conducted in a water bath for 1 h at 63 °C. The results were visualized after addition of SYBR Green(®) fluorescent dye. LAMP was specific exclusively for MS without cross-reactivity with other Mycoplasma species. The sensitivity of LAMP was determined as 10(-1) CFU/ml and was 1,000 times higher than MS-specific polymerase chain reaction. LAMP assay was conducted on 18 MS field strains to ensure its reliability and usefulness. This is the first report on LAMP development and application for the rapid detection of MS isolated from chickens. This simple method may be applied by diagnostic laboratories without access to expensive equipment. PMID:25413672

  4. Mycoplasma Infection Alters Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Gedye, Craig; Cardwell, Tracy; Dimopoulos, Nektaria; Tan, Bee Shin; Jackson, Heather; Svobodová, Suzanne; Anaka, Matthew; Behren, Andreas; Maher, Christopher; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Caballero, Otavia; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cell lines can be useful to model cancer stem cells. Infection with Mycoplasma species is an insidious problem in mammalian cell culture. While investigating stem-like properties in early passage melanoma cell lines, we noted poorly reproducible results from an aliquot of a cell line that was later found to be infected with Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Deliberate infection of other early passage melanoma cell lines aliquots induced variable and unpredictable effects on expression of putative cancer stem cell markers, clonogenicity, proliferation and global gene expression. Cell lines established in stem cell media (SCM) were equally susceptible. Mycoplasma status is rarely reported in publications using cultured cells to study the cancer stem cell hypothesis. Our work highlights the importance of surveillance for Mycoplasma infection while using any cultured cells to interrogate tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26514153

  5. Mycoplasma bovis in respiratory disease of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Jeff L; Bateman, Ken G; Cai, Hugh Y; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as an important cause of chronic caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia, arthritis, and tenosynovitis in beef cattle. Mycoplasma bovis can act as a primary pathogen, yet many cases are coinfected with other bacteria or viruses, and evidence suggests that M. bovis colonizes and perpetuates lung lesions that were initiated by other bacteria, such as M. haemolytica. Mycoplasma bovis elicits a robust humoral immune response, but the resulting antibodies are not protective because of the variable surface proteins, and vaccines have not yet been shown to prevent disease. Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for a high proportion of the chronic disease occurring in feedlots, and the welfare of such animals is an important aspect of feedlot health management. PMID:20619190

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

    1985-06-01

    Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOGENS OF 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' BY PROTEIN BLOTTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet by blotting. Sera obtained from infected hamsters and immunized rabbits were then incubated with the nitrocellulose strips. Proteins which are capa...

  8. The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'

    PubMed Central

    Kube, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Kuhl, Heiner; Dandekar, Thomas; Heitmann, Katja; Migdoll, Alexander M; Reinhardt, Richard; Seemüller, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Background Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas) and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca. P. australiense', examined so far have circular chromosomes, as is the case for almost all walled bacteria. Results Our work has shown that 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali', the causative agent of apple proliferation disease, has a linear chromosome. Linear chromosomes were also identified in the closely related provisional species 'Ca. P. pyri' and 'Ca. P. prunorum'. The chromosome of 'Ca. P. mali' strain AT is 601,943 bp in size and has a GC content of 21.4%. The chromosome is further characterized by large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends. Analysis of the protein-coding genes revealed that glycolysis, the major energy-yielding pathway supposed for 'Ca. P. asteris', is incomplete in 'Ca. P. mali'. Due to the apparent lack of other metabolic pathways present in mycoplasmas, it is proposed that maltose and malate are utilized as carbon and energy sources. However, complete ATP-yielding pathways were not identified. 'Ca. P. mali' also differs from 'Ca. P. asteris' by a smaller genome, a lower GC content, a lower number of paralogous genes, fewer insertions of potential mobile DNA elements, and a strongly reduced number of ABC transporters for amino acids. In contrast, 'Ca. P. mali' has an extended set of genes for homologous recombination, excision repair and SOS response than 'Ca. P. asteris'. Conclusion The small linear chromosome with large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends, the extremely low GC content and the limited metabolic capabilities reflect unique features of 'Ca. P. mali', not only within phytoplasmas, but all mycoplasmas. It is expected that the genome information obtained here will contribute to a better understanding of the reduced metabolism of phytoplasmas, their fastidious nutrition requirements that prevented axenic cultivation, and the mechanisms involved in pathogenicity. PMID:18582369

  9. New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences that may help to explain why one species is pathogenic and the other is considered to be commensal. However, it was not possible to identify specific virulence determinant factors that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the analyzed species. The M. hyorhinis genome contains differences in some components involved in metabolism and evasion of the host’s immune system that may contribute to its growth aggressiveness. Several horizontal gene transfer events were identified. The phylogenomic analysis places M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis in the hyopneumoniae clade. PMID:23497205

  10. Selective inhibition of DNA amplification in nonadhering Mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Zigangirova, N.A.; Solov`eva, S.V.; Rakovskaya, I.V.

    1995-08-01

    Inhibition of amplification of various genome regions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was observed in the polymerase chain reaction, and was dependent on cultivation conditions. A protein stably associated with DNA is responsible for the inhibitory effect. It is assumed that when the protein selectively associates with separate DNA regions, it can inhibit genes encoding pathogenicity factors, thus promoting mycoplasma transformation into persistent variants. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  11. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US. PMID:25574806

  12. In vitro effect of some Egyptian herbal extracts against Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Andelgelil, Noha H; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Kamal, Amany M; Mohamed, Rabie M

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an enteric parasite that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many animals. This emerging parasite has a worldwide distribution. It is often identified as the most common eukaryotic organism reported in human fecal samples that showed a dramatic increase in recent years. Metronidazole is the main therapy for blastocystosis. However, frequent reports of treatment failure suggesting isolates resistance to metronidazole. This study determined the growth pattern and in vitro susceptibility of B. hominis to nitazoxanide (NTZ), garlic, ginger, onion and turmeric. Fecal samples positive for Blastocystis were collected from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and processed for culture. Cultured samples were subjected to examination by light microscopy. Herbs' extracts was freshly prepared. Drug susceptibility assays was done using 0.1 mg/ml of NTZ, garlic, ginger, onion and turmeric. Effects assessed on parasite culture after 24 hr. and 48 hr. Cultured fecal samples of B. hominis have identified several forms of the organism; vacuolar, granular, amoeboid and cyst forms within 24 hr. Nitazoxanide treatment significantly (P < 0.001) lowered the parasite number after 48 hr. (mean, 337.5 ± 17.67) /ml. The reduction rate after 48 hr. compared to PBS was 93.33%. Ginger treatment significantly (P < 0.002) lowered the number of the parasite after 48 hr. (mean, 335 ± 7.07)/ml. Moreover, garlic treatment also significantly (P < 0.002) lowered the number of the parasite after 48 hr. (mean, 382.5 ± 10.60)/ml. The reduction rates after 48 hr. in these treated samples compared to PBS were 92.98% and 92.44% respectively. However, onion, and turmeric treatments insignificantly lowered the number of the parasite after 48 hr. (P < 0.15 & < 0.22 respectively). PMID:26012223

  13. Severe mortality in broiler chickens associated with Mycoplasma synoviae and Pasteurella gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Droual, R; Shivaprasad, H L; Meteyer, C U; Shapiro, D P; Walker, R L

    1992-01-01

    Severe economic loss due to high mortality and condemnation rates occurred on two commercial broiler facilities. Chickens had moderate-to-severe airsacculitis, pericarditis, perihepatitis, tracheitis, and synovitis. Pasteurella gallinarum was isolated from 16 of 18 pericardia, four of 14 livers, 11 of 16 air sacs, six of seven joints and one of 28 tracheas in pure culture. In addition, Mycoplasma synoviae was isolated from trachea and air sac. Lesions were suggestive of an Escherichia coli septicemia, but E. coli was isolated from only four of 28 tracheas and one of 14 livers in pure culture. A coronavirus was isolated from trachea and lung. Whether this coronavirus represented a vaccine or field strain of infectious bronchitis was not determined. These findings suggested that the severe lesions were due to a concomitant infection with an atypical strain of P. gallinarum. PMID:1417618

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Biofilm Cells and Molecular Characterisation of Staphylococcus hominis Isolates from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; González, Gloria M.; Casillas-Vega, Néstor; Garza-González, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to characterise the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, genetic relatedness, biofilm formation and composition, icaADBC genes detection, icaD expression, and antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus hominis isolates from blood. Methods The study included 67 S. hominis blood isolates. Methicillin resistance was evaluated with the cefoxitin disk test. mecA gene and SCCmec were detected by multiplex PCR. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Biofilm formation and composition were evaluated by staining with crystal violet and by detachment assay, respectively; and the biofilm index (BI) was determined. Detection and expression of icaADBC genes were performed by multiplex PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibilities of planktonic cells (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) and biofilm cells (minimum biofilm eradication concentration, MBEC) were determined by the broth dilution method. Results Eighty-five percent (57/67) of isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA positive. Of the mecA-positive isolates, 66.7% (38/57) carried a new putative SCCmec type. Four clones were detected, with two to five isolates each. Among all isolates, 91% (61/67) were categorised as strong biofilm producers. Biofilm biomass composition was heterogeneous (polysaccharides, proteins and DNA). All isolates presented the icaD gene, and 6.66% (1/15) isolates expressed icaD. This isolate presented the five genes of ica operon. Higher BI and MBEC values than the MIC values were observed for amikacin, vancomycin, linezolid, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. Conclusions S. hominis isolates were highly resistant to methicillin and other antimicrobials. Most of the detected SCCmec types were different than those described for S. aureus. Isolates indicated low clonality. The results indicate that S. hominis is a strong biofilm producer with an extracellular matrix with similar composition of proteins, DNA and N-acetylglucosamine; and presents high frequency and low expression of icaD gene. Biofilm production is associated with increased antibiotic resistance. PMID:26659110

  15. Observations on mouthparts of Dermatobia hominis (Linneaus Jr., 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae) by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas; Linardi, Pedro Marcos

    2002-02-01

    The ultrastructure of the mouthparts of Dermatobia hominis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The morphological characteristics of the segments, articulations, sensory organs, and pilose covering are described. Mechanoreceptors of the long trichoid sensillum and smaller trichoid sensillum types were observed, as well as labellar gustatory receptors of the basiconic sensillum type, which differed between the sexes. These observations are discussed with reference to the current literature on the morphology and sense organs of dipteran mouthparts, and the prevailing view that the adult mouthparts of this species are non-functional is challenged. PMID:12053966

  16. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Moré, Gastón; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Schares, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based on unverifiable evidence, it was suggested that the same parasite infects cattle. In addition, S. sinensis was recently declared as nomen nudum because its naming violated the rules of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Thus, the fourth species using cattle as an intermediate host does not have a valid name. Here, we propose a new name, Sarcocystis rommeli for the S. sinensis-like parasite from cattle in Argentina, and differentiate it ultrastructurally from S. hominis sarcocysts from experimentally infected cattle. Sarcocystis rommeli sarcocysts were microscopic with a 5-μm-thick wall with slender villar protrusions (Vp); the Vp were up to 5 μm long, up to 0.5 μm wide, and of uneven thickness, often bent at an angle. The ground substance layer (Gs) was up to 0.8 μm thick and smooth. Vesicular structures were seen at the base of the Vp. The bradyzoites were 10-12 μm long. Sarcocystis hominis sarcocysts had Vp that were often upright, up to 7.5 μm long, and up to 1.8 μm wide; the Gs was up to 2 μm thick and without vesicles. Its sarcocyst wall was up to 5.6 μm thick, the vp were bent at an angle, up to 5.8 μm long, the Gs was up to 2 μm thick, but without vesicles seen in S. rommeli. Beef containing sarcocysts of S. rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. PMID:26111603

  17. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans induce cell apoptosis and changes in gene expression profiles of 32D cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Shou, Chengchao

    2011-01-01

    Infection of mycoplasmas has been linked to various human diseases including arthritis, pneumonia, infertility and cancer. While Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans have been detected in gastric adenocarcinomas, the mechanisms underlyine the pathogenesis are unknown. In this study, cell growth kinetics, Hoechst 33258 staining, DNA ladder assays, Western blotting analysis and cDNA microarray assays were performed to investigate the roles of M. hyorhinis and M. fermentans during infection of mammalian cells. Our data demonstrated that these mycoplasmas inhibid the growth of immortalised cell lines (32D and COS-7) ane tumor cell lines (HeLa and AGS). In addition, the infection of the 32D cell line with M. hyorhinis and M. fermentans induced compression of the nucleus, degradation of the cell genome and dysregulation of the expression of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, signaling pathway and metabolism. Apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2, Bid and p53 were down-regulated, Fas was up-regulated and Bax was dysregulated in mycoplasma-infected 32D cells. Together, our data demonstrated that infection of mycoplasmas inhibitd cele growts through modification of gene expression profiles and post-translation modification of proliferation and apoptosis related proteins. PMID:22446603

  18. The effect of Mycoplasma and mycoplasma removal agent on the hydrolase activity in fibroblasts of patients with lysosomal diseases.

    PubMed

    Souza, F T S; Sostruznik, L S; Scolari, R C; Castro, K J M; Andrade, C V; Giugliani, R; Coelho, J C

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on acid hydrolase activity and the action of the mycoplasma removal agent (MRA), in cultures of human fibroblasts from individuals with lysosomal diseases. For this purpose, we measured the activity of the b-galactosidase, arylsulphatase B (ASB), hexosaminidase A and a-glucosidase enzymes. The activity of the above mentioned enzymes in fibroblasts contaminated by mycoplasma was measured before and after the addition of the MRA. The results were then compared to the enzymatic activity in contamination-free cultures. Only the ASB enzyme showed significant alteration in activity both in the presence of mycoplasma and MRA. The remaining enzymes did not suffer significant interference by the presence of the two agents. Of the four enzymes tested, three did not suffer significant alterations by the presence of the mycoplasma nor from the MRA. However, the activity measured in the ASB enzyme increased significantly in the presence of mycoplasma and MRA and could lead to a doubtful diagnosis. Therefore, we suggest that contamination should be prevented by using aseptic techniques as well as the MRA in those fibroblast cultures that cannot be discarded. PMID:20461288

  19. Cytoskeletal elements in the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegermann, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Mayer, Frank

    2002-09-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogenic eubacterium lacking a cell wall. Three decades ago, a "rod", an intracellular cytoskeletal structure, was discovered that was assumed to define and stabilize the elongated cell shape. Later, by treatment with detergent, a "Triton shell" (i.e. a fraction of detergent-insoluble cell material) could be obtained, believed to contain additional cytoskeletal elements. Now, by application of a modified Triton X-100 treatment, we are able to demonstrate that M. pneumoniae possesses a cytoskeleton consisting of a blade-like rod and a peripheral lining located close to the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane, exhibiting features of a highly regular network. Attached "stalks" may support the cytoplasmic membrane. The rod was connected to the cell periphery by "spokes" and showed a defined ultrastructure. Its proximal end was found to be attached to a wheel-like complex. Fibrils extended from the proximal end of the rod into the cytoplasm.

  20. Lung abscess caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Omae, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with West syndrome was referred to hospital because of high fever and cough. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed consolidation with an abscess in the right upper lobe. Laboratory data indicated cytokine storm. Various antibacterial agents and additional corticosteroid were unable to control the hypercytokinemia, which was suppressed after cyclosporine A was started. The lung abscess remained, however, and right upper lobectomy was performed. Culture from the abscess showed no growth, while polymerase chain reaction assay indicated Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA. Serum passive agglutinin titer for M. pneumoniae was significantly elevated in the convalescent phase. These findings are strong evidence that the lung abscess was caused by M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:26177124

  1. Rare extrapulmonary complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Kiran; Enright, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnsons syndrome (SJS) is a rare extra-pulmonary complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. We present the case of a 26-year-old man with fever, cough, extensive oral mucosal ulceration and a widespread truncal rash. He was diagnosed with M. pneumoniae-induced SJS. He responded well to antibiotics and steroids initially, but went on to develop pseudomembranous conjunctivitis requiring bilateral amniotic membrane grafting.SJS is most commonly drug-induced, however, M. pneumoniae is the commonest infectious cause and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is also important to get specialist care involved early to minimise the long-term effects of any complications. PMID:26837942

  2. Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: An update.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, R; Ghosh, A; Chandolia, A

    2016-01-01

    Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population. M. pneumoniae infection has also been associated with chronic lung disease and bronchial asthma. With the advent of molecular methods of diagnosis and genetic, immunological and ultrastructural assays that study infectious disease pathogenesis at subcellular level, newer virulence factors of M. pneumoniae have been recognized by researchers. Structure of the attachment organelle of the organism, that mediates the crucial initial step of cytadherence to respiratory tract epithelium through complex interaction between different adhesins and accessory adhesion proteins, has been decoded. Several subsequent virulence mechanisms like intracellular localization, direct cytotoxicity and activation of the inflammatory cascade through toll-like receptors (TLRs) leading to inflammatory cytokine mediated tissue injury, have also been demonstrated to play an essential role in pathogenesis. The most significant update in the knowledge of pathogenesis has been the discovery of Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin (CARDS toxin) of M. pneumoniae and its ability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation and inflammosome activation, thus initiating airway inflammation. Advances have also been made in terms of the different pathways behind the genesis of extrapulmonary complications. This article aims to comprehensively review the recent advances in the knowledge of pathogenesis of this organism, that had remained elusive during the era of serological diagnosis. Elucidation of virulence mechanisms of M. pneumoniae will help researchers to design effective vaccine candidates and newer therapeutic targets against this agent. PMID:26776112

  3. Insights into the Gene Expression Profile of Uncultivable Hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis during Acute Infection, Obtained Using Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Kathrin M.; Carranza, Paula M.; Gehrig, Peter M.; Roschitzki, Bernd; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Hoelzle, Katharina; Riedel, Katharina; Kube, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas, bacteria without cell walls whose niche is the erythrocytes of their hosts, have never been cultivated in vitro. Therefore, knowledge of their pathogenesis is fundamental. Mycoplasma suis infects pigs, causing either acute fatal hemolytic anemia or chronic low-grade anemia, growth retardation, and immune suppression. Recently, the complete genomes of two hemotrophic mycoplasma species, M. suis and M. haemofelis, were sequenced, offering new strategies for the analysis of their pathogenesis. In this study we implemented a proteomic approach to identify M. suis proteins during acute infection by using tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-two percent of the predicted proteins encoded in M. suis strain KI_3806 were identified. These included nearly all encoded proteins of glycolysis and nucleotide metabolism. The proteins for lipid metabolism, however, were underrepresented. A high proportion of the detected proteins are involved in information storage and processing (72.6%). In addition, several proteins of different functionalities, i.e., posttranslational modification, membrane genesis, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, inorganic ion transport, and defense mechanisms, were identified. In its reduced genome, M. suis harbors 65.3% (strain Illinois) and 65.9% (strain KI_3806) of the genes encode hypothetical proteins. Of these, only 6.3% were identified at the proteome level. All proteins identified in this study are present in both M. suis strains and are encoded in more highly conserved regions of the genome sequence. In conclusion, our proteome approach is a further step toward the elucidation of the pathogenesis and life cycle of M. suis as well as the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. PMID:22267506

  4. Development and evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the detection of Mycoplasma felis.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Robert; Bölske, Göran; Holst, Bodil Ström; Aspán, Anna

    2011-09-01

    Infection by Mycoplasma felis is associated with ocular and respiratory disease in cats and respiratory disease in horses. A correct diagnosis is beneficial since the use of specific antimycoplasmal treatment can lead to resolution. The objective of the present study was to develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on dual-labeled fluorogenic probe technology, targeting the gene encoding elongation factor Tu (tuf ), for the fast and specific detection of M. felis. Specificity was achieved by basing the assay design on partial sequencing of the tuf gene in strains and clinical isolates of M. felis as well as other mycoplasma species. The detection limit of the developed assay was in the order of 10 copies of target DNA, and no cross-reaction was observed with a panel of several mycoplasma species. Compared to a previously published conventional PCR protocol, the novel assay had equal or slightly improved performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity when analyzing 100 conjunctival swab samples from cats with clinical signs of infection. PMID:21908343

  5. Mycoplasma mycoides, from "mycoides Small Colony" to "capri". A microevolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of five species or subspecies that are ruminant pathogens. One subspecies, Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Its very close relative, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), is a more ubiquitous pathogen in small ruminants causing mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia and is also found as saprophyte in the ear canal. To understand the genetics underlying these phenotypic differences, we compared the MmmSC PG1 type strain genome, which was already available, with the genome of an Mmc field strain (95010) that was sequenced in this study. We also compared the 95010 genome with the recently published genome of another Mmc strain (GM12) to evaluate Mmc strain diversity. Results The MmmSC PG1 genome is 1,212 kbp and that of Mmc 95010 is ca. 58 kbp shorter. Most of the sequences present in PG1 but not 95010 are highly repeated Insertion Sequences (three types of IS) and large duplicated DNA fragments. The 95010 genome contains five types of IS, present in fewer copies than in PG1, and two copies of an integrative conjugative element. These mobile genetic elements have played a key role in genome plasticity, leading to inversions of large DNA fragments. Comparison of the two genomes suggested a marked decay of the PG1 genome that seems to be correlated with a greater number of IS. The repertoire of gene families encoding surface proteins is smaller in PG1. Several genes involved in polysaccharide metabolism and protein degradation are also absent from, or degraded in, PG1. Conclusions The genome of MmmSC PG1 is larger than that of Mmc 95010, its very close relative, but has less coding capacity. This is the result of large genetic rearrangements due to mobile elements that have also led to marked gene decay. This is consistent with a non-adaptative genomic complexity theory, allowing duplications or pseudogenes to be maintained in the absence of adaptive selection that would lead to purifying selection and genome streamlining over longer evolutionary times. These findings also suggest that MmmSC only recently adapted to its bovine host. PMID:21324191

  6. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Layers Innoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Stain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on BW and the blood characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were assessed at 34, ...

  7. A feline hemoplasma, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', detected in dog in Japan.

    PubMed

    Obara, Hisato; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Yusaku; Ono, Hisaya K; Harasawa, Ryô

    2011-06-01

    We examined for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in 167 blood samples collected from domestic dogs between 2008 and 2009 in the Tohoku area, Japan, and found 5 (3.0%) were positive by PCR assay. This is the first demonstration of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', a feline haemotropic mycoplasma, in the dogs raised in Japan. PMID:21289469

  8. Proteomics inference of genes involved in host adaptation of Mycoplasma gallinarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different from most other host-specific mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallinarum has been isolated from various hosts, such as poultry, pig, cattle, and sheep. The wide distribution among different hosts, the low pathogenesis, and the weak host immunological responses suggest this mycoplasma has a unique ...

  9. [100 years of Mycoplasma--pathogenicity for domestic and farm animals].

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, H; Runge, M

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents a short description of the history of mycoplasmology, the systematic and characteristics of mycoplasmas and the diseases caused by mycoplasmas in cattle, sheep and goats, swine, poultry, and rats and mice. The pathogenicity of mycoplasmas for cats, dogs and horses is discussed. PMID:9818461

  10. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from pigs using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Marques, Lucas M; Buzinhani, Melissa; Buim, Marcos R; Neto, Renata L; Guimarães, Ana Márcia S; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Economic loss in pig breeding is common due to respiratory disorders, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, namely, are the most common infectious agents. The aim of this study is to recover these mollicutes and detect their genotypic variations by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing the 16 s rRNA gene. One hundred and twenty-six swabs from tonsil and nasal mucus of pigs with respiratory disorders were analysed. A total of 78 lungs were sampled, as well as two trachea and two tonsils obtained from animals with respiratory disorder. A total of 59 isolates were obtained: 1 (1.70 per cent) of M hyopneumoniae, 2 (3.40 per cent) of Mycoplasma flocculare and 56 (94.90 per cent) of M hyorhinis. The PFGE for M hyorhinis showed 10 profiles with enzyme AvaI and 9 profiles with XhoI. A low polymorphism of the 16sRNS gene was detected in M hyorhinis isolates compared with the type strain in the GenBank. M hyorhinis isolates of different herds showed a large heterogenicity with enzymes AvaI and XhoI. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed for analysing the interspecific and intraspecific variations of isolated mycoplasmas. PMID:26688737

  11. cDNA and genomic cloning and expression of the P48 monocytic differentiation/activation factor, a Mycoplasma fermentans gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R E; Agarwal, S; Kestler, D P; Cobb, J A; Goldstein, K M; Chang, N S

    1996-01-01

    P48 is a 48 kDa monocytic differentiation/activation factor previously purified from the conditioned medium of the Reh human pre-B cell leukaemia cell line. It induces growth arrest and differentiation of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukaemia cells along the monocytic pathway and the production of the cytokines interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 in human monocytes and monocytic cell lines. The cDNA for P48 was cloned from Reh cellular RNA using 3' reverse amplification of cDNA ends. Southern blot probing with P48 cDNA revealed hybridization with DNA from Reh and Molt-4 cells, but not with DNA from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subsequent studies using PCR and Southern analysis revealed P48 sequences in DNA isolated from Mycoplasma fermentans but not M. hominis, M.iowae, M.synoviae or M.lypophilum. Although initial studies using Mycoplasma culture and hybridization techniques had failed to reveal Mycoplasma infection in our Reh and Molt-4 cell lines, subsequent PCR studies using Mycoplasma genus-specific rRNA primrs revealed Mycoplasma sequences in these cell lines. Using the P48 cDNA probe, we isolated a genomic clone from M. fermentans DNA which was found to be 98.5% identical with the P48 cDNA clone, and the deduced amino acid sequence agreed with N-terminal microsequencing data for P48 protein purified from the Reh cell line conditioned medium. The 5' end of the gene has a number of consensus sequences characteristic of prokaryotic genes, and the deduced amino acid sequence has a number of features suggesting that P48 is a lipoprotein. The P48 cDNA was expressed in pMAL in Escherichia coli, and the 60 kDa expressed fusion protein was found to react with anti-P48 antibodies on Western blots. This is consistent with a pMAL fusion protein representing the sum of the 42 kDa maltose-binding protein and 18 kDa of P48 recombinant protein, suggesting that native P48 has significant post-translational modification. Consistent with this, Northern blot studies revealed a single 1 kb transcript. The recombinant fusion protein was found to possess anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells, and antibodies against recombinant P48 were found to block the biological activity of native P48 isolated from conditioned medium. These studies demonstrate that P48, a molecule with immunomodulatory and haematopoietic differentiation activities, is derived from M. fermentans or a closely related species. P48 may be important in the pathophysiology of Mycoplasma infections and may be useful in dissecting the mechanisms involved in mammalian haematopoietic cell differentiation, immune function and cytokine biosynthesis. PMID:8921000

  12. Role of the GapA and CrmA Cytadhesins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Promoting Virulence and Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Indiková, Ivana; Much, Peter; Stipkovits, László; Siebert-Gulle, Karin; Citti, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important avian pathogen that commonly induces chronic respiratory disease in chicken. To better understand the mycoplasma factors involved in host colonization, chickens were infected via aerosol with two hemadsorption-negative (HA−) mutants, mHAD3 and RCL2, that were derived from a low passage of the pathogenic strain R (Rlow) and are both deficient in the two major cytadhesins GapA and CrmA. After 9 days of infection, chickens were monitored for air sac lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas in various organs. The data showed that mHAD3, in which the crmA gene has been disrupted, did not promote efficient colonization or significant air sac lesions. In contrast, the spontaneous HA− RCL2 mutant, which contains a point mutation in the gapA structural gene, successfully colonized the respiratory tract and displayed an attenuated virulence compared to that of Rlow. It has previously been shown in vitro that the point mutation of RCL2 spontaneously reverts with a high frequency, resulting in on-and-off switching of the HA phenotype. Detailed analyses further revealed that such an event is not responsible for the observed in vivo outcome, since 98.4% of the mycoplasma populations recovered from RCL2-infected chickens still display the mutation and the associated phenotype. Unlike Rlow, however, RCL2 was unable to colonize inner organs. These findings demonstrate the major role played by the GapA and CrmA proteins in M. gallisepticum host colonization and virulence. PMID:23460514

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum pvpA Gene Which Encodes a Putative Variable Cytadhesin Protein

    PubMed Central

    Boguslavsky, S.; Menaker, D.; Lysnyansky, I.; Liu, T.; Levisohn, S.; Rosengarten, R.; García, M.; Yogev, D.

    2000-01-01

    A putative cytadhesin-related protein (PvpA) undergoing variation in its expression was identified in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The pvpA gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and sequenced. It exhibits 54 and 52% homology with the P30 and P32 cytadhesin proteins of the human pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. In addition, 50% homology was found with the MGC2 cytadhesin of M. gallisepticum and 49% homology was found with a stretch of 205 amino acids of the cytadherence accessory protein HMW3 of M. pneumoniae. The PvpA molecule possesses a proline-rich carboxy-terminal region (28%) containing two identical directly repeated sequences of 52 amino acids and a tetrapeptide motif (Pro-Arg-Pro-X) which is repeated 14 times. Genetic analysis of several clonal isolates representing different expression states of the PvpA product ruled out chromosomal rearrangement as the mechanism for PvpA phase variation. The molecular basis of PvpA variation was revealed in a short tract of repeated GAA codons, encoding five successive glutamate resides, located in the N-terminal region and subject to frequent mutation generating an in-frame UAA stop codon. Size variation of the PvpA protein was observed among M. gallisepticum strains, ranging from 48 to 55 kDa and caused by several types of deletions occurring at the PvpA C-terminal end and within the two directly repeated sequences. By immunoelectron microscopy, the PvpA protein was localized on the mycoplasma cell surface, in particular on the terminal tip structure. Collectively, these findings suggest that PvpA is a newly identified variable surface cytadhesin protein of M. gallisepticum. PMID:10858209

  14. Molecular characterization of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum pvpA gene which encodes a putative variable cytadhesin protein.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, S; Menaker, D; Lysnyansky, I; Liu, T; Levisohn, S; Rosengarten, R; García, M; Yogev, D

    2000-07-01

    A putative cytadhesin-related protein (PvpA) undergoing variation in its expression was identified in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The pvpA gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and sequenced. It exhibits 54 and 52% homology with the P30 and P32 cytadhesin proteins of the human pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. In addition, 50% homology was found with the MGC2 cytadhesin of M. gallisepticum and 49% homology was found with a stretch of 205 amino acids of the cytadherence accessory protein HMW3 of M. pneumoniae. The PvpA molecule possesses a proline-rich carboxy-terminal region (28%) containing two identical directly repeated sequences of 52 amino acids and a tetrapeptide motif (Pro-Arg-Pro-X) which is repeated 14 times. Genetic analysis of several clonal isolates representing different expression states of the PvpA product ruled out chromosomal rearrangement as the mechanism for PvpA phase variation. The molecular basis of PvpA variation was revealed in a short tract of repeated GAA codons, encoding five successive glutamate resides, located in the N-terminal region and subject to frequent mutation generating an in-frame UAA stop codon. Size variation of the PvpA protein was observed among M. gallisepticum strains, ranging from 48 to 55 kDa and caused by several types of deletions occurring at the PvpA C-terminal end and within the two directly repeated sequences. By immunoelectron microscopy, the PvpA protein was localized on the mycoplasma cell surface, in particular on the terminal tip structure. Collectively, these findings suggest that PvpA is a newly identified variable surface cytadhesin protein of M. gallisepticum. PMID:10858209

  15. P110 and P140 Cytadherence-Related Proteins Are Negative Effectors of Terminal Organelle Duplication in Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Oscar Q.; Burgos, Raul; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Background The terminal organelle is a complex structure involved in many aspects of the biology of mycoplasmas such as cell adherence, motility or cell division. Mycoplasma genitalium cells display a single terminal organelle and duplicate this structure prior to cytokinesis in a coordinated manner with the cell division process. Despite the significance of the terminal organelle in mycoplasma virulence, little is known about the mechanisms governing its duplication. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we describe the isolation of a mutant, named T192, with a transposon insertion close to the 3′ end of the mg192 gene encoding for P110 adhesin. This mutant shows a truncated P110, low levels of P140 and P110 adhesins, a large number of non-motile cells and a high frequency of new terminal organelle formation. Further analyses revealed that the high rates of new terminal organelle formation in T192 cells are a direct consequence of the reduced levels of P110 and P140 rather than to the expression of a truncated P110. Consistently, the phenotype of the T192 mutant was successfully complemented by the reintroduction of the mg192 WT allele which restored the levels of P110 and P140 to those of the WT strain. Quantification of DAPI-stained DNA also showed that the increase in the number of terminal organelles in T192 cells is not accompanied by a higher DNA content, indicating that terminal organelle duplication does not trigger DNA replication in mycoplasmas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the existence of a mechanism regulating terminal organelle duplication in M. genitalium and strongly suggest the implication of P110 and P140 adhesins in this mechanism. PMID:19829712

  16. Expression of circulating leucocytes before, during and after myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jomara M; Pereira, Mônica C T; Evangelista, Luciene G; Leite, Antônio C R

    2007-01-01

    Expression of circulating white blood cells was investigated in rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with larvae of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly. Leucocytes were counted prior to infection (control group) as well as at 6, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) and at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Total leucocyte numbers did not differ markedly among the groups. Significant differences were registered when values from control and animals harboring each larval stage of D. hominis were compared; with crescent rank: L1-, L2-, control and L3-infected groups. Leucocyte numbers were significantly higher in the control, 15, 20 or 28 dpi groups than in the 6 dpi animals. Higher counts were observed in control, L2- or L3-infected rats than L1-infected animals. Neutrophils, eosinophils and both large and small lymphocytes were also counted and analyzed. Basophils and monocytes were insufficient in number to permit statistical studies. These results stimulate the continuity of the studies about the host-parasite relationship in the dermatobiosis. PMID:18026634

  17. Simple and effective field extraction of human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, using a venom extractor.

    PubMed

    West, Jonathan K

    2013-03-01

    After a trip to Belize, a 25-year-old man noticed an erythematous papule on his upper right chest that enlarged over a 6-week period and formed a central aperture. The patient reported feeling movement and intermittent lancinating pains under the skin. The history and examination were consistent with cutaneous myiasis, likely secondary to the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis. The objective of reporting this case is to present a simple method of extraction of a botfly larva using a commercial venom extractor. The patient's upper chest was prepared, and an occlusive dressing was placed over the lesion for 30 minutes. The Extractor Pump (Sawyer Products, Safety Harbor, FL) was applied and activated, and the larva was rapidly extracted completely intact with no significant discomfort to the patient. The wound fully healed without complication. D hominis is a common etiology of cutaneous myiasis endemic to Belize. The larva burrows under the skin of mammals where it develops for a period of weeks before erupting and falling to the soil to pupate. The diagnosis and treatment of botfly infestation is pertinent to doctors in the United States as Central and South America are common travel destinations for North Americans. In this case, a commercially available venom extractor was demonstrated to be a safe, noninvasive, and painless method for botfly extraction in the field without use of hospital resources. PMID:23246347

  18. Inferences about the Global Population Structures of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis?

    PubMed Central

    Tanr?verdi, Sultan; Grinberg, Alex; Chalmers, Rachel M.; Hunter, Paul R.; Petrovic, Zorana; Akiyoshi, Donna E.; London, Eric; Zhang, Linghui; Tzipori, Saul; Tumwine, James K.; Widmer, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are two related species of apicomplexan protozoa responsible for the majority of human cases of cryptosporidiosis. In spite of their considerable public health impact, little is known about the population structures of these species. In this study, a battery of C. parvum and C. hominis isolates from seven countries was genotyped using a nine-locus DNA subtyping scheme. To assess the existence of geographical partitions, the multilocus genotype data were mined using a cluster analysis based on the nearest-neighbor principle. Within each country, the population genetic structures were explored by combining diversity statistical tests, linkage disequilibrium, and eBURST analysis. For both parasite species, a quasi-complete phylogenetic segregation was observed among the countries. Cluster analysis accurately identified recently introduced isolates. Rather than conforming to a strict paradigm of either a clonal or a panmictic population structure, data are consistent with a flexible reproductive strategy characterized by the cooccurrence of both propagation patterns. The relative contribution of each pattern appears to vary between the regions, perhaps dependent on the prevailing ecological determinants of transmission. PMID:18836013

  19. Genotypic Characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from Water Samples in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ronalda S.; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N.; Carvalho, Terezinha T.; Sato, Maria Inês Z.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Matté, Glavur R.; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil. PMID:22049036

  20. Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in HIV-infected persons in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayinmode, A B; Zhang, H; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Xiao, L

    2014-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon are common opportunistic pathogens in HIV+ patients in developing countries, especially those do not have access to antiretroviral therapy. To determine the distribution of genotypes/subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, faecal specimens were collected from 132 HIV+ persons attending a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. By polymerase chain reaction, eight and ten patients were identified as positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Seven of the Cryptosporidium specimens were identified as C. hominis, while the remaining one as the new species C. viatorum recently identified in the United Kingdom. DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene showed that the C. hominis belonged to three common subtype families: Ia (in three patients), Ib (in one patient) and Ie (in one patient). In contrast, DNA sequencing of the E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer products showed the occurrence of genotypes associated with both humans (Peru 8 in one patient, Nig2 in two patients and a new genotype in one patient) and animals (D in one patient and Type IV in five patients). Low CD4+ cell count was identified as a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. PMID:23870732

  1. Updating the proteome of the uncultivable hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Stefanie; Lassek, Christian; Mack, Sarah-Lena; Ritzmann, Mathias; Stadler, Julia; Becher, Dörte; Hoelzle, Katharina; Riedel, Katharina; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to the hemotrophic mycoplasmas that are associated with acute and chronic anemia in a wide range of livestock and wild animals. The inability to culture M. suis in vitro has hindered its characterization at the molecular level. Since the publication of M. suis genome sequences in 2011 only one proteome study has been published. Aim of the presented study was to significantly extend the proteome coverage of M. suis strain KI_3806 during acute infection by applying three different protein extraction methods followed by 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. A total of 404 of 795 M. suis KI_3806 proteins (50.8%) were identified. Data analysis revealed the expression of 83.7% of the predicted ORFs with assigned functions but also highlights the expression of 179 of 523 (34.2%) hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Computational analyses identified expressed membrane-associated hypothetical proteins that might be involved in adhesion or host-pathogen interaction. Furthermore, analyses of the expressed proteins indicated the existence of a hexose-6-phosphate-transporter and an ECF transporter. In conclusion, our proteome study provides a further step toward the elucidation of the unique life cycle of M. suis and the establishment of an in vitro culture. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002294 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002294). PMID:26678042

  2. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma synoviae infection in Portuguese broiler breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernando Alberto; Cardoso, Luís; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Since modernization and expansion of the poultry industry, infections with Mycoplasma spp. bacteria have been reported as a cause of considerable economic losses. The prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in 974,000 Portuguese broiler breeders, belonging to 36 flocks, was investigated from December 2008 to March 2012. This study was conducted using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of serum antibodies, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the tracheal tissue. Twenty-four flocks were simultaneously found positive by ELISA and PCR [66.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.5-76.9%]. The M. synoviae prevalence among chickens averaged 40.3% (483/1,200), with values ranging from 0.0 to 83.3% per flock. The prevalence of farms where M. synoviae positive birds have been found was determined in different poultry categories such as density, biosecurity, strains, offspring quality, premises'age, and others husbandry factors. Prevalence values were significantly higher among birds housed in new facilities (less than 3 years old) and were also significantly higher in the production period. The high prevalence of M. synoviae infection detected in the present study suggests the need to adopt appropriate control measures. PMID:26129659

  3. The complete genomic sequence of Mycoplasma penetrans, an intracellular bacterial pathogen in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yuko; Ishikawa, Jun; Yamashita, Atsushi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Furuya, Keiko; Yoshino, Chie; Horino, Atsuko; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Sasaki, Tsuguo; Hattori, Masahira

    2002-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of an intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma penetrans HF-2 strain, was determined. The HF-2 genome consists of a 1 358 633 bp single circular chromosome containing 1038 predicted coding sequences (CDSs), one set of rRNA genes and 30 tRNA genes. Among the 1038 CDSs, 264 predicted proteins are common to the Mycoplasmataceae sequenced thus far and 463 are M.penetrans specific. The genome contains the two-component system but lacks the essential cellular gene, uridine kinase. The relatively large genome of M.penetrans HF-2 among mycoplasma species may be accounted for by both its rich core proteome and the presence of a number of paralog families corresponding to 25.4% of all CDSs. The largest paralog family is the p35 family, which encodes surface lipoproteins including the major antigen, P35. A total of 44 genes for p35 and p35 homologs were identified and 30 of them form one large cluster in the chromosome. The genetic tree of p35 paralogs suggests the occurrence of dynamic chromosomal rearrangement in paralog formation during evolution. Thus, M.penetrans HF-2 may have acquired diverse repertoires of antigenic variation-related genes to allow its persistent infection in humans. PMID:12466555

  4. Treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium. Observations from a Swedish STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Anagrius, Carin; Loré, Britta; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium infection with doxycycline or azithromycin 1 g compared to five days of azithromycin (total dose 1.5 g). Methods A retrospective case study was performed among patients attending the STD-clinic in Falun, Sweden 1998–2005. All patients with a positive PCR test for M. genitalium were routinely offered a test of cure (toc). Response to doxycycline for 9 days, azithromycin 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg o.d. for 4 days) was determined. In patients with treatment failure after azithromycin, macrolide resistance was monitored before and after treatment. Furthermore, the rate of macrolide resistance was monitored for positive specimens available from 2006–2011. Results The eradication rate after doxycycline was 43% (48% for women and 38% for men), for azithromycin 1 g 91% (96% for women and 88% for men) and for extended azithromycin 99% (100% for women and 93% for men). Macrolide resistance developed in 7/7 examined (100%) of those testing positive after azithromycin 1 g, but in none of those treated with extended azithromycin. Macrolide resistance before treatment increased from 0% in 2006 and 2007 to 18% in 2011. Conclusions These findings confirm the results from other studies showing that doxycycline is inefficient in eradicating M. genitalium. Although azithromycin 1 g was not significantly less efficient than extended dosage, it was associated with selection of macrolide resistant M. genitalium strains and should not be used as first line therapy for M. genitalium. Monitoring of M. genitalium macrolide resistance should be encouraged. PMID:23593483

  5. Diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection: sobering thoughts.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of Mycoplasma genitalium in 1980-1981 eventually led to it becoming recognized as an important cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men and also some genital tract diseases in women. Subsequent to the original isolation, further attempts failed over the next decade and reliable detection only became possible with the use of nucleic acid amplification techniques. Although tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, were the first choice for treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis prior to the finding of M. genitalium, they were unsatisfactory for the treatment of M. genitalium-associated disease; the organisms were often not eliminated leading, for example, to chronic urethritis. However, the introduction of azithromycin, used as single-dose therapy for chlamydial infections, resulted in clearance of the mycoplasmal organisms from the genital tract and clinical recovery without the development of chronic disease. Nevertheless, such success was short-lived as M. genitalium, through mutation, began to develop resistance to azithromycin and M. genitalium mutants also began to circulate in some populations. In an attempt to counteract this, clinicians should give extended therapy, and in the future, microbiologists, using real-time PCRs, might be able to determine the existence of resistant strains in the local population and so advise on the most appropriate antibiotic. Other than azithromycin, there are a few options, moxifloxacin being one, although the recently reported resistance to this antibiotic is disturbing. In the short to medium term, combination therapy and/or the advent of a new antibiotic might abate the spread of resistance, but in the long term, there is potential for increasing prevalence of untreatable M. genitalium disease. In the future, attempts to develop a vaccine and, of equal importance, one to Chlamydia trachomatis, would not be out of place. PMID:24834454

  6. Inactivation of mycoplasmas by long-chain alcohols.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, R D; Gilbertson, J R; Albers, A C; White, J D

    1981-01-01

    In this report, we describe the inhibitory activity of long-chain alcohols on the growth of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Peak inhibition was recorded with saturated primary alcohols (64 microM) varying in chain length from 16 to 19 carbon atoms. The unsaturated alcohols (oleyl, linoleyl, and linolenyl) and the secondary alcohol (pentadecan-2-ol), when employed in the same test conditions, were considerably less effective growth inhibitors than the primary saturated alcohols. Stearic and palmitic acids were also ineffective as growth inhibitors of M. pneumoniae and M. gallisepticum at a 128 microM concentration. Because these antimycoplasma agents are fatty alcohols and cholesterol is known to be required for the growth of some mycoplasmas, additional cholesterol was added in an attempt to reverse the inhibition observed with these agents. Cholesterol at a 128 microM concentration did not significantly relieve the growth inhibition observed with stearyl alcohol at a 48 microM concentration. Mammalian cell cultures were found to be significantly more resistant to the effects of these inhibitory alcohols than were the mycoplasmas. Electron micrographs showed that inclusion of stearyl alcohol in the culture medium produced changes in the cellular morphology of the treated mycoplasmas. Images PMID:6794448

  7. The scope of mycoplasma contamination within the biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Shayn E; Mariano, Jill A; Lundin, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    Mycoplasma is well recognized as one of the most prevalent and serious microbial contaminants encountered within the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals from the research phase to clinical development and production. The potential for mycoplasma contamination within cell culture systems was first identified by Robinson et al. in 1956. Presently, contamination rates in established cell cultures have been reported between 15 and 35% with considerably higher occurrence cited in certain selected populations. In the last few years, there has been an expansion of diagnostic approaches for mycoplasma detection with the development and validation of rapid microbiological methods. The objective of this study was to determine current levels of mycoplasma infection of cell cultures, cell substrates and biologicals within a client based population. Retrospective comparison of 40,000 sample results was done to determine total contaminations rates amongst four (4) individual analytical assays. The establishment of reference data, such as existing contamination rates, becomes important in the critical appraisal of rapid microbiological methods for the detection of mycoplasma. PMID:20362237

  8. Prevalence and Genotype Characterization of Blastocystis hominis Among the Baghmalek People in Southwestern Iran in 2013 - 2014

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnood, Saleh; Rafiei, Abdollah; Saki, Jasem; Alizadeh, Kobra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blastocystis hominis is a common globally distributed parasite. The prevalence of this parasite has been shown to vary among different countries. Molecular studies have also shown that there is a high level of genetic diversity among Blastocystis spp. isolated from humans and animals. Extensive information on parasitic genotypes will aid in devising more effective strategies for the identification and potential control of these pathogenic parasites. Objectives: This study aimed to gain information on the prevalence and abundance of Blastocystis subtypes in Iran. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 3 months, 1,410 stool samples were collected and examined by microscopy. Samples found to be positive for B. hominis were concentrated and phylogenetic analysis was subsequently performed. A questionnaire was completed by all study participants. Results: Blastocystis hominis was found to have a prevalence of 3.33% in the study population. There was no significant association of Blastocystis infection with age (P = 0.3) or gender (P = 0.57). The Blastocystis subtypes (ST) identified in this study were ST3, ST4, ST5, and ST7 with the most prevalent being ST4 (40.9%). Conclusions: The prevalence of B. hominis in the study area was lower than that reported for most developed countries, and unlike in other countries in the Middle East, ST4 was the most prevalent subtype. PMID:26587213

  9. Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

  10. International Mycoplasma pneumoniae typing study: interpretation of M. pneumoniae multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalker, V J; Pereyre, S; Dumke, R; Winchell, J; Khosla, P; Sun, H; Yan, C; Vink, C; Bébéar, C

    2015-09-01

    Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is increasingly in use. However, no specific internationally agreed guidance is available. Thirty M. pneumoniae DNA samples including serial dilutions of a type strain were sent to six international laboratories to perform MLVA and results were compared. Good correlation was observed, indicating that this methodology can be robustly performed in multiple sites. However, differences due to interpretation of fragment size, repeat sequence identification and repeat numbering led to inconsistency in the final profiles assigned by laboratories. We propose guidelines for interpreting M. pneumoniae MLVA typing and assigning the number of repeats. PMID:26236493

  11. Mosaic genome of endobacteria in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: Transkingdom gene transfer in an ancient mycoplasma-fungus association

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Cortés, Gloria; Ghignone, Stefano; Bonfante, Paola; Schüßler, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    For more than 450 million years, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have formed intimate, mutualistic symbioses with the vast majority of land plants and are major drivers in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. The obligate plant-symbiotic AMF host additional symbionts, so-called Mollicutes-related endobacteria (MRE). To uncover putative functional roles of these widespread but yet enigmatic MRE, we sequenced the genome of DhMRE living in the AMF Dentiscutata heterogama. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses showed that MRE form a previously unidentified lineage sister to the hominis group of Mycoplasma species. DhMRE possesses a strongly reduced metabolic capacity with 55% of the proteins having unknown function, which reflects unique adaptations to an intracellular lifestyle. We found evidence for transkingdom gene transfer between MRE and their AMF host. At least 27 annotated DhMRE proteins show similarities to nuclear-encoded proteins of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis, which itself lacks MRE. Nuclear-encoded homologs could moreover be identified for another AMF, Gigaspora margarita, and surprisingly, also the non-AMF Mortierella verticillata. Our data indicate a possible origin of the MRE-fungus association in ancestors of the Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina. The DhMRE genome encodes an arsenal of putative regulatory proteins with eukaryotic-like domains, some of them encoded in putative genomic islands. MRE are highly interesting candidates to study the evolution and interactions between an ancient, obligate endosymbiotic prokaryote with its obligate plant-symbiotic fungal host. Our data moreover may be used for further targeted searches for ancient effector-like proteins that may be key components in the regulation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. PMID:25964335

  12. Mosaic genome of endobacteria in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: Transkingdom gene transfer in an ancient mycoplasma-fungus association.

    PubMed

    Torres-Cortés, Gloria; Ghignone, Stefano; Bonfante, Paola; Schüßler, Arthur

    2015-06-23

    For more than 450 million years, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have formed intimate, mutualistic symbioses with the vast majority of land plants and are major drivers in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. The obligate plant-symbiotic AMF host additional symbionts, so-called Mollicutes-related endobacteria (MRE). To uncover putative functional roles of these widespread but yet enigmatic MRE, we sequenced the genome of DhMRE living in the AMF Dentiscutata heterogama. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses showed that MRE form a previously unidentified lineage sister to the hominis group of Mycoplasma species. DhMRE possesses a strongly reduced metabolic capacity with 55% of the proteins having unknown function, which reflects unique adaptations to an intracellular lifestyle. We found evidence for transkingdom gene transfer between MRE and their AMF host. At least 27 annotated DhMRE proteins show similarities to nuclear-encoded proteins of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis, which itself lacks MRE. Nuclear-encoded homologs could moreover be identified for another AMF, Gigaspora margarita, and surprisingly, also the non-AMF Mortierella verticillata. Our data indicate a possible origin of the MRE-fungus association in ancestors of the Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina. The DhMRE genome encodes an arsenal of putative regulatory proteins with eukaryotic-like domains, some of them encoded in putative genomic islands. MRE are highly interesting candidates to study the evolution and interactions between an ancient, obligate endosymbiotic prokaryote with its obligate plant-symbiotic fungal host. Our data moreover may be used for further targeted searches for ancient effector-like proteins that may be key components in the regulation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. PMID:25964335

  13. Proteomic analysis of tylosin-resistant Mycoplasma gallisepticum reveals enzymatic activities associated with resistance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Wu, Congming; Cui, Yaowen; Kang, Mengjiao; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant pathogenic bacterium that infects poultry, causing chronic respiratory disease and sinusitis in chickens and turkeys, respectively. M. gallisepticum infection poses a substantial economic threat to the poultry industry, and this threat is made worse by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. The mechanisms of resistance are often difficult to determine; for example, little is known about antibiotic resistance of M. gallisepticum at the proteome level. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analyses of an antibiotic (tylosin)-resistant M. gallisepticum mutant and a susceptible parent strain using a combination of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. Most of these proteins were related to catalytic activity, including catalysis that promotes the formylation of initiator tRNA and energy production. Elongation factors Tu and G were over-expressed in the resistant strains, and this could promote the binding of tRNA to ribosomes and catalyze ribosomal translocation, the coordinated movement of tRNA, and conformational changes in the ribosome. Taken together, our results indicate that M. gallisepticum develops resistance to tylosin by regulating associated enzymatic activities. PMID:26584633

  14. Proteomic analysis of tylosin-resistant Mycoplasma gallisepticum reveals enzymatic activities associated with resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xi; Wu, Congming; Cui, Yaowen; Kang, Mengjiao; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant pathogenic bacterium that infects poultry, causing chronic respiratory disease and sinusitis in chickens and turkeys, respectively. M. gallisepticum infection poses a substantial economic threat to the poultry industry, and this threat is made worse by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. The mechanisms of resistance are often difficult to determine; for example, little is known about antibiotic resistance of M. gallisepticum at the proteome level. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analyses of an antibiotic (tylosin)-resistant M. gallisepticum mutant and a susceptible parent strain using a combination of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. Most of these proteins were related to catalytic activity, including catalysis that promotes the formylation of initiator tRNA and energy production. Elongation factors Tu and G were over-expressed in the resistant strains, and this could promote the binding of tRNA to ribosomes and catalyze ribosomal translocation, the coordinated movement of tRNA, and conformational changes in the ribosome. Taken together, our results indicate that M. gallisepticum develops resistance to tylosin by regulating associated enzymatic activities. PMID:26584633

  15. Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination interferes with the metabolism of PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Huizhen; Johnson, Caroline H; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Xiangjun; Wu, Zeming; Liu, Tian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Yu, Aiming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a common problem in cell culture and can alter cellular functions. Since cell metabolism is either directly or indirectly involved in every aspect of cell function, it is important to detect changes to the cellular metabolome after mycoplasma infection. In this study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on the cellular metabolism of human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mycoplasma contamination induced significant metabolic changes in PANC-1 cells. Twenty-three metabolites were identified and found to be involved in arginine and purine metabolism and energy supply. This study demonstrates that mycoplasma contamination significantly alters cellular metabolite levels, confirming the compelling need for routine checking of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination, particularly when used for metabolomics studies. Graphical abstract Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination changes the metabolome of PANC-1 cells. PMID:27074779

  16. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jeon; Kim, Cheol-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture when used as a single-dose in 6 week old, male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea), an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture extracts, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 0.5 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the groups, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, and histopathology results were noted. Hematologically, some changes in the male rats in two experimental groups were observed, but those changes had no clinical or toxicological meaning because they were not dose dependent. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed cell infiltration in the male rats in one of the experimental groups; however, that result was due to spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning. Therefore, this study showed that Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single-dose tests of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, the above findings suggest that treatment with Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed. PMID:26120488

  17. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Mostegl, Meike M.; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. PMID:21856079

  18. Duration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Infection in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Underdahl, N.R.; Kennedy, G.A.; Ramos, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen gnotobiotic pigs raised in flexible plastic isolators (four pigs per isolator) were inoculated with a culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. One pig was killed and underwent necropsy at weekly intervals for the following 16 weeks. Macroscopic lesions were observed in the lungs of 13 of 16 pigs and microscopic lesions were found in 14 of 16 pigs. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was cultured from the trachea or lungs from 10 of the 16 pigs. Scanning electron microscope studies showed areas of damage to the cilia, collections, of leucocytes and mucus, and mycoplasma in the trachea as well as the bronchi. These conditions were found in all the pigs seen at necropsy from nine to 16 weeks postinoculation and there was no evidence of noticeable regression or recovery during this 16 week period. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:7438008

  19. Comprehensive Methylome Characterization of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae at Single-Base Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Llorns-Rico, Vernica; Delgado, Javier; Fang, Gang; Spittle, Kristi; Clark, Tyson A.; Schadt, Eric; Turner, Stephen W.; Korlach, Jonas; Serrano, Luis

    2013-01-01

    In the bacterial world, methylation is most commonly associated with restriction-modification systems that provide a defense mechanism against invading foreign genomes. In addition, it is known that methylation plays functionally important roles, including timing of DNA replication, chromosome partitioning, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression. However, full DNA methylome analyses are scarce due to a lack of a simple methodology for rapid and sensitive detection of common epigenetic marks (ie N6-methyladenine (6 mA) and N4-methylcytosine (4 mC)), in these organisms. Here, we use Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing to determine the methylomes of two related human pathogen species, Mycoplasma genitalium G-37 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129, with single-base resolution. Our analysis identified two new methylation motifs not previously described in bacteria: a widespread 6 mA methylation motif common to both bacteria (5?-CTAT-3?), as well as a more complex Type I m6A sequence motif in M. pneumoniae (5?-GAN7TAY-3?/3?-CTN7ATR-5?). We identify the methyltransferase responsible for the common motif and suggest the one involved in M. pneumoniae only. Analysis of the distribution of methylation sites across the genome of M. pneumoniae suggests a potential role for methylation in regulating the cell cycle, as well as in regulation of gene expression. To our knowledge, this is one of the first direct methylome profiling studies with single-base resolution from a bacterial organism. PMID:23300489

  20. Mycoplasma and host interaction: In vitro gene expression modulation in Mycoplasma synoviae and infected chicken chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cizelj, Ivanka; Dušanić, Daliborka; Benčina, Dušan; Narat, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    The complex interplay between Mycoplasma synoviae and chicken chondrocytes (CCH), which come into direct contact during infectious synovitis, has been examined at the level of gene expression. Our previous studies demonstrated a significant influence of M. synoviae on the level of CCH gene expression. Here, we show for the first time that in vitro co-cultivation of M. synoviae and CCH also induces upregulation of gene expression in this mycoplasma. We observed significantly increased expression of genes important for M. synoviae pathogenicity, including cysteine protease cysP, neuraminidase nanH, haemagglutinin vlhA, and the putative nuclease MS53_0284. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression was dependent on the infection environment. In CCH, significant changes in the expression of genes encoding catabolic enzymes of the cartilage extracellular matrix (cathepsins B, K and L, aggrecanase ADAM10, and matrix metalloproteinase MMP2) were demonstrated. Infection of CCH with M. synoviae also elevated the expression of the gene encoding peptidyl arginine deiminase, type III (PADI3), which is responsible for the post-translational citrullination of proteins. PMID:26919139

  1. Search for uro-genital tract infections in patients with symptoms of prostatitis. Studies on aerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, trichomonads and viruses.

    PubMed

    Mårdh, P A; Colleen, S

    1975-01-01

    Seventy-nine patients with symptoms of nonacute prostatitis and 20 healthy volunteers were examined for uro-genital tract infection with bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, trichomonads and viruses. No differences in the results of the bacterial cultures were found between the patients and the controls. In only a few cases were established urinary tract pathogens found, but in no instance were these findings reproducible in later specimens. The cultures of the expressed prostatic fluids and the samples of semen gave no information of the occurrence of bacteria over and above that obtainable from examination of the urethral specimens. Significant bacteriuria was not found in any of the patients. Though Neisseria gonorrhoeae could not be isolated from any of the subjects, immunofluorescent studies revealed such organisms in seminal fluid in 8% of the patients. Nine of the patients had 1 to 3 years been considered successfully treated for gonorrhoea. Five of these nine patients were still found to harbour gonococci, as judged from the immunofluorescent studies. Corynebacterium vaginale was recovered in an equally low frequency (5%) from the patients and the volunteers. There was no significant difference in the incidence of T-mycoplasmas between the patients (46%) and the controls (35%), while Mycoplasma hominis was only found in the patients (10%). Trichomonas vaginalis could not be detected in wet smears of expressed prostatic fluid in any of the subjects, but could be cultured from one such specimen. Metacycline treatment (performed according the double blind cross-over technique) was studied for effects on the bacterial flora. In about 10% of the patients, an earlier not observed relative dominance of gram-negative rods was found on the cultures made after the therapy. Candida albicans was only isolated from the patients. It was found more often after (24%) than before the (15%) treatment. Complement-fixing antibodies to N. gonorrhoeae, cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia were found in 10, 19, and 33% of the patients, respectively. The corresponding figures for the healthy males were 0, 20 and 5%. PMID:175434

  2. Epidemiological survey of Blastocystis hominis in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Li, Chao-Pin; Wang, Jian; Cui, Yu-Bao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To provide scientific evidence for prevention and controlling of blastocystosis, the infection of Blastocystis homonis and to study its clinical significance in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China. METHODS: Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools taken from 100 infants, 100 pupils, 100 middle school students and 403 patients with diarrhea was smeared and detected with method of iodine staining and hematoxylin staining. After preliminary direct microscopy, the shape and size of Blastocystis homonis were observed with high power lens. The cellular immune function of the patients with blastocystosis was detected with biotin-streptavidin (BSA). RESULTS: The positive rates of Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools taken from the infants, pupils, middle school students and the patients with diarrhea, were 1.0% (1/100), 1.0% (1/100), 0% (0/100) and 5.96% (24/403) respectively. Furthermore, the positive rates of Blastocystis homonis in the stool samples taken from the patients with mild diarrhea, intermediate diarrhea, severe diarrhea and obstinate diarrhea were 6.03% (14/232), 2.25% (2/89), 0% (0/17) and 12.31% (8/65) respectively. The positive rates of Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools of male and female patients with diarrhea were 7.52% (17/226) and 3.95% (7/177) respectively, and those of patients in urban and rural areas were 4.56% (11/241) and 8.02% (13/162) respectively. There was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). The positive rates of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in serum of Blastocystis homonis-positive and-negative individuals were 0.64 ± 0.06, 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.60 ± 0.05, 0.40 ± 0.05 and 0.30 ± 0.05 respectively, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ of the two groups were 1.53 ± 0.34 and 1.27 ± 0.22. There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis as an enteric pathogen in human seems not to be associated with gender and living environment, and that Blastocystis hominis is more common in stool samples of the patients with diarrhea, especially with chronic diarrhea or obstinate diarrhea. When patients with diarrhea infected by Blastocystis hominis, their cellular immune function decreases, which make it more difficult to be cured. PMID:12378644

  3. Gliding Motility of Mycoplasma mobile on Uniform Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Taishi; Hamaguchi, Tasuku

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The binding and gliding of Mycoplasma mobile on a plastic plate covered by 53 uniform oligosaccharides were analyzed. Mycoplasmas bound to and glided on only 21 of the fixed sialylated oligosaccharides (SOs), showing that sialic acid is essential as the binding target. The affinities were mostly consistent with our previous results on the inhibitory effects of free SOs and suggested that M. mobile recognizes SOs from the nonreducing end with four continuous sites as follows. (i and ii) A sialic acid at the nonreducing end is tightly recognized by tandemly connected two sites. (iii) The third site is recognized by a loose groove that may be affected by branches. (iv) The fourth site is recognized by a large groove that may be enhanced by branches, especially those with a negative charge. The cells glided on uniform SOs in manners apparently similar to those of the gliding on mixed SOs. The gliding speed was related inversely to the mycoplasma's affinity for SO, suggesting that the detaching step may be one of the speed determinants. The cells glided faster and with smaller fluctuations on the uniform SOs than on the mixtures, suggesting that the drag caused by the variation in SOs influences gliding behaviors. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma is a group of bacteria generally parasitic to animals and plants. Some Mycoplasma species form a protrusion at a pole, bind to solid surfaces, and glide in the direction of the protrusion. These procedures are essential for parasitism. Usually, mycoplasmas glide on mixed sialylated oligosaccharides (SOs) derived from glycoprotein and glycolipid. Since gliding motility on uniform oligosaccharides has never been observed, this study gives critical information about recognition and interaction between receptors and SOs. PMID:26148712

  4. Genotypic analyses of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from songbirds by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified-fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, John J; Ley, David H; Altizer, Sonia

    2006-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) conjunctivitis emerged in 1994 as a disease of free-ranging house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in North America and has also been isolated from other songbirds with conjunctivitis. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) of house finch and other songbird isolates has suggested that a single 'strain' initiated this outbreak. To explore the possibility of genomic variability among house finch isolates of MG and to evaluate the utility of a second technique for MG genotyping, we selected samples from our archive of reference strains and wild songbird isolates to analyze using both RAPD and amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP); this is a newer technique that has been successfully used to explore the genomic variability of several Mycoplasma species. Both RAPD and AFLP results confirmed previous observations that during the initial stages of the MG epidemic in songbirds, isolates from different geographic locations and songbird species had genotypes that appeared to be highly similar, further supporting a single point source of origin. One 2001 isolate from New York was clearly different from the other songbird samples and clustered together with the vaccine and reference strains, indicating that substantial molecular evolution or a separate introduction has occurred. PMID:16870869

  5. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection with Neurologic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yimenicio?lu, Sevgi; Yakut, Ayten; Ekici, Arzu; Bora Carman, Kursat; Cagr? Dinleyici, Ener

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extrapulmonary complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection include encephalitis, optic neuritis, acute psychosis, stroke, cranial nerve palsies, aseptic meningitis and also it may be implicated in immune mediated neurological diseases such as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and transverse myelitis. Case Presentation: We present five cases with acute neurological diseases after M. pneumoniae infection. The clinical presentations were characterized by encephalitis in 2 patients, Gullain-Barre syndrome in 2 patients, transverse myelitis in 1 patient. M. pneumoniae infection was detected in serum by serological method. Only two patients had respiratory symptoms preceding M. pneumoniae infection. Brain MRI revealed hyperintensities on corpus striatum and mesencephalon in one patient with encephalitis, the other had front parietal coalescent periventricular white matter lesions on T2 images. The patient with transverse myelitis had cervical, dorsal and lumbar scattered hyperintense lesions on T2 images. Two patients were treated with high dose steroid, the other two patients received treatment with intravenous immune globuline. Conclusion: M. pneumoniae may reveal different neurologic complications with different radiologic findings. PMID:25793076

  6. Mechanisms of volume regulation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a cell wall-less bacterium, must confront the problem of colloid osmotic swelling. Cell volume was determined by optical density and intracellular water measurements. Transmembrane pH and electrical gradients were determined by the distribution of the weak acid benzoate and lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium respectively. Cells incubated in sodium chloride without glucose exhibited a progressive fall in ATP over several hours. When ATP fell below 40 uM the cells swelled, leaked protein and became permeable to inulin. Subsequent addition of glucose induced shrinkage and restored the original permeability properties. Energized cells exhibited an electrochemical gradient of protons of up to 130 mV, inside negative and alkaline. The proton-ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), which collapsed the chemical and electrical components of the proton gradient, induced rapid swelling despite high ATP levels thus implicating the proton gradient in volume regulation. Either the pH gradient or the membrane potential could maintain volume. Energy-dependent sodium efflux in exchange for protons was demonstrated in sodium-loaded cells using radioactive sodium and 9-aminoacridine fluorescence to follow sodium and proton translocation respectively.

  7. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Jessian L.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Doxycycline, the first-line antibiotic for urethritis, is largely ineffective in the treatment of M. genitalium and furthermore, resistance to macrolide has also emerged. The most effective drug is Moxifloxacin although there are emerging reports of resistance to it in various parts of the world. This paper not only highlights the current research and knowledge, but also reviews the diversity of health implications on the health of men and women infected with M. genitalium. Alternate antibiotics and the impact of M. genitalium on infertility are areas that require more studies as we continue to research into this microorganism. PMID:27034904

  8. Tissue sequestration of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Grest, Paula; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-12-27

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' ('Candidatus M. turicensis') is a hemoplasma species that infects felids. It differs from other feline hemoplasma species due to its particular infection kinetics and phylogenetic similarity to rodent hemoplasma species. The lower and shorter bacteremia produced by 'Candidatus M. turicensis' suggests a possible tissue sequestration of the organism. The aim of this study was to explore this possibility. Five specified-pathogen free cats were subcutaneously inoculated with 'Candidatus M. turicensis' and sacrificed 86 days after inoculation. Thirty-one selected organs were collected upon necropsy, and samples were analyzed by real-time Taqman(®) PCR. The humoral immune response was monitored by DnaK ELISA. All five cats had detectable 'Candidatus M. turicensis' loads in the majority (52-100%) of the tested tissues. High 'Candidatus M. turicensis' tissue loads (average 3.46×10(4) copies/10 mg) were detected in the samples. The presence of the organisms in the tissues could not be explained by the blood burdens because the blood of four out of five cats tested PCR-negative at the time of necropsy. This is the first study to describe the distribution of 'Candidatus M. turicensis' in various organs; it also demonstrates that, in contrast to other feline hemoplasma species, significant sequestration of 'Candidatus M. turicensis' occurs in many tissues. These results represent an important step toward the understanding of the pathogenesis of 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. PMID:23998428

  9. Metabolic consequences of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Gabridge, M G

    1987-06-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human respiratory pathogen with the ability to infect a wide variety of cell types. Most studies on the nature of metabolic consequences of infection have used cell culture and explant models. Lung fibroblast monolayer cell cultures and rodent tracheal explant cultures have both served as host cells for M. pneumoniae and display metabolic and morphological alterations post infection. Tracheal explants exhibit a decrease in ciliary motion and desquamation, along with a generalized shutdown of major metabolic pathways. Oxygen uptake, dehydrogenase activity, and ATP content all decrease significantly, though 24 to 96 h may be required for detection. Metabolism is affected more rapidly in homogeneous fibroblast monolayers. In those cells, a significant decrease in de novo purine synthesis occurs within 4 h, whereas other pathways, such as salvage DNA synthesis and RNA synthesis had an increased activity. The molecular signals that mediate these changes remain to be delineated, although the inventory of metabolic changes provides a critical step in this process. PMID:3117731

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Müller, Norbert; Riedel, Michael; Blendinger, Christa; Oberle, Karin; Jacobs, Enno; Abele-Horn, Marianne

    2004-12-15

    An association between infection and Tourette's syndrome (TS) has been described repeatedly. A role for streptococcal infection (PANDAS) has been established for several years, but the involvement of other infectious agents such as Borrelia Burgdorferi or Mycoplasma pneumoniae has only been described in single case reports. We examined antibody titers against M. pneumoniae and various types of antibodies by immunoblot in patients and in a sex- and age-matched comparison group. Participants comprised 29 TS patients and 29 controls. Antibody titers against M. pneumoniae were determined by microparticle agglutination (MAG) assay and confirmed by immunoblot. Elevated titers were found in significantly more TS patients than controls (17 vs. 1). Additionally, the number of IgA positive patients was significantly higher in the TS group than in the control group (9 vs. 1). A higher proportion of increased serum titers and especially of IgA antibodies suggests a role for M. pneumoniae in a subgroup of patients with TS and supports the finding of case reports implicating an acute or chronic infection with M. pneumoniae as one etiological agent for tics. An autoimmune reaction, however, has to be taken into account. In predisposed persons, infection with various agents including M. pneumoniae should be considered as at least an aggravating factor in TS. PMID:15590039

  11. The PK/PD Interactions of Doxycycline against Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Gu, Xiaoyan; Ye, Xiaomei; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Bingxu; Zhang, Longfei; Shen, Xiangguang; Jiang, Hongxia; Ding, Huanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important pathogens that cause chronic respiratory disease in chicken. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of doxycycline against M. gallisepticum strain S6. In static time–killing studies with constant antibiotic concentrations [0–64 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)], M. gallisepticum colonies were quantified and kill rates were calculated to estimate the drug effect. The half-life of doxycycline in chicken was 6.51 ± 0.63 h. An in vitro dynamic model (the drug concentrations are fluctuant) was also established and two half-lives of 6.51 and 12 h were simulated. The samples were collected for drug concentration determination and viable counting of M. gallisepticum. In static time–killing studies, doxycycline produced a maximum antimycoplasmal effect of 5.62log10 (CFU/mL) reduction and the maximum kill rate was 0.11 h−1. In the in vitro dynamic model, doxycycline had a mycoplasmacidal activity in the two regimens, and the maximum antimycoplasmal effects were 4.1 and 4.75log10 (CFU/mL) reduction, respectively. Furthermore, the cumulative percentage of time over a 48-h period that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC (%T > MIC) was the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic index that best correlated with antimicrobial efficacy (R2 = 0.986, compared with 0.897 for the peak level divided by the MIC and 0.953 for the area under the concentration–time curve over 48 h divided by the MIC). The estimated %T > MIC values for 0log10 (CFU/mL) reduction, 2log10 (CFU/mL) reduction and 3log10 (CFU/mL) reduction were 32.48, 45.68, and 54.36%, respectively, during 48 h treatment period of doxycycline. In conclusion, doxycycline shows excellent effectiveness and time-dependent characteristics against M. gallisepticum strain S6 in vitro. Additionally, these results will guide optimal dosing strategies of doxycycline in M. gallisepticum infection. PMID:27199972

  12. Erosive polyarthritis associated with Mycoplasma gateae in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zeugswetter, Florian; Hittmair, Katharina M; de Arespacochaga, Abigail G; Shibly, Sarina; Spergser, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Erosive polyarthritis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old neutered male Egyptian Mau-cross cat with concurrent glucocorticoid-responsive dermatitis. Clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, serological tests and radiographic appearance could not differentiate between immune-mediated and infective arthritis. Mycoplasma gateae was isolated by strictly anaerobic culture of the synovial fluid. Treatment with Enrofloxacin led to a rapid improvement of the cat's condition. Two months later the cat was euthanased because of severe glomerulonephritis and direct Coombs' test positive anaemia, possibly caused by mycoplasma infection. M gateae could not be isolated at post-mortem examination. PMID:17175189

  13. Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

  14. Integrative quantitation enables a comprehensive proteome comparison of two Mycoplasma pneumoniae genetic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Espadas, Guadalupe; Mancuso, Francesco M; Maier, Tobias; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative proteomics is an essential tool in proteome research since it enables measuring changes in protein abundance in response to biological perturbations. During the last few years, different quantitative strategies have been developed in proteomics to compare different experimental conditions, including label-free and isobaric chemical labeling approaches. Here we show that different quantitation techniques have an important influence on detected sample variability, and we use the combination of six different quantitation strategies to perform a proteome comparison of three different Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains (ldh knockdown, Δprkc, and wild-type). The integration of the different datasets indicates that the ldh knockdown strongly affects the abundance of ribosomal proteins and enzymes involved in the regulation of the cellular redox state, whereas the prkc deletion affects key cellular physiological processes such as protein and DNA synthesis, and cytoadherence. PMID:23579234

  15. An experimental vaccine for calf pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma bovis: clinical, cultural, serological and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Robin A J; Ayling, Roger D; Stipkovits, Laszlo P

    2002-10-01

    A single dose of vaccine for Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia, inactivated with saponin, was inoculated subcutaneously into 3-4 week-old calves. The calves were challenged 3 weeks later with a virulent strain of M. bovis on two occasions within 24h using the aerosol route. The calves were monitored for clinical signs and serological responses then post mortemed 3 weeks after challenge. The vaccine was shown to be highly immunogenic in calves and did not cause adverse effects. Vaccinated calves showed few clinical signs while all unvaccinated calves developed signs of pneumonia. There was a significant decrease in body weight gain in unvaccinated calves compared to vaccinates and a significant increase in lung lesions and rectal temperatures in unvaccinated calves. The vaccine also reduced the spread of M. bovis to internal organs. In conclusion the M. bovis vaccine produced a significant level of protection against a large virulent challenge. PMID:12297403

  16. Cytauxzoon felis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' coinfection in a Brazilian domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Maia, Leticia Mendes Pupio; Cerqueira, Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo; de Barros Macieira, Daniel; de Souza, Aline Moreira; Moreira, Namir Santos; da Silva, Adrianna Vieira; Messick, Joanne Belle; Ferreira, Renata Fernandes; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the first detection of Cytauxzoon felis, using molecular techniques, in a naturally infected domestic cat from Brazil, South America. Coinfection with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' was also found. The molecular identification of the piroplasmid species was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. A 284 pb fragment of the gene encoding the 18S ribosomal RNA region was amplified and showed 99% identity with other C. felis strains from North America. In addition, PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis, which amplifies a 595 bp fragment of the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA of some bacterial species, identified the co-infecting species as 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'. PMID:23856727

  17. Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Widerström, Micael; Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-04-01

    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens. PMID:24655474

  18. Large Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens. PMID:24655474

  19. Antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2 in malnourished Nigerian children.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A O; Salimonu, L S; Osunkoya, B O

    1981-01-01

    Antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis (HVH) types 1 and 2 were determined by a micro-neutralisation method in 37 children with kwashiorkor, 16 with marasmus, and in 64 well-nourished control children. All the children were aged between 1 and 4 years. The prevalence of antibodies was similar in the two sexes and at different ages. HVH-1 antibodies were present in 51% of children with kwashiorkor, in 44% with marasmus, and in 26% of well-nourished children, reflecting the very poor socioeconomic conditions of malnourished children. HVH-2 antibodies too were present in about 19% of children with kwashiorkor, and in 2% of well-nourished controls; they were absent in marasmic children. It is suggested that HVH-2 infection in malnourished children is facilitated by the communal use of fomites--such as bedclothes and underwear. PMID:6258486

  20. Activated host neutrophils in the larval midgut lumen of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Antônio C R; Evangelista, L G

    2002-04-01

    Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mammalian hosts as well as invading bacteria in the midgut lumen of larvae of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis. Other resident or recruited cells associated with dermal myiasis were fed on by larvae and digested more rapidly than neutrophils. The latter were observed moving towards bacteria and particles of food, extending the filopodia and engulfing material to be digested within phagosomes. The larval midgut lumen, thus, appears to be a suitable environment to produce neutrophil activation at least for short periods, as seen in mammalian hosts. Although interactions between phagocytes and bacteria in the midgut lumen may be important in bot fly larval development, further studies are required to confirm this. PMID:12165244

  1. [PCR-based genotype classification of Blastocystis hominis isolates from college students of Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ting-Zheng; Liu, Teng; Shi, Huan-Huan; He, Shan-Shan; Yan, Hui; Liu, Deng-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Fifty-three Blastocystis hominis isolates were separated from the fecal specimens of carriers in college students from Guangxi and cultivated in vitro, and the genetic DNA was extracted. All the isolates were genotyped by PCR using seven pairs of known sequence-tagged site (STS) primers. The results showed there were five subtypes in the 53 isolates. Subtype 3 was the most popular one (32.1%, 17/53), followed by subtype 7 (9.4%, 5/53). Subtypes 1 (7.6%, 4/53), 4 (7.6%, 4/53), and 6 (1.9%, 1/53) were detected, while subtypes 2 and 5 were not detected. The genotypes of the other 22 isolates were unknown which were negative to all the STS primers. PMID:25223057

  2. Blastocystis Isolates from a Pig and a Horse Are Closely Related to Blastocystis hominis

    PubMed Central

    Thathaisong, Umaporn; Worapong, Jeerapun; Mungthin, Mathirut; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Viputtigul, Kwanjai; Sudatis, Apichart; Noonai, Adisak; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2003-01-01

    Blastocystis has a widespread distribution in a variety of animals, which is a potential source of infection for humans. However, the contribution of zoonotic transmission remains unclear due to the absence of molecular proof of these organisms being identical to those found in humans. We report herein the similar subgroup of Blastocystis isolates from humans, pigs, and a horse using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of partial small-subunit ribosomal DNA (ssu rDNA). Additionally, sequence and phylogenic analysis of partial ssu rDNA of Blastocystis from a human, a pig, and a horse sharing a common subgroup shows that Blastocystis isolates from a pig and a horse were monophyletic and closely related to B. hominis, with 92 to 94% identity. These results suggest the possibility of zoonotic potential of Blastocystis. PMID:12624017

  3. Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, I; Martín, C; Beristain, X; Mazón, A; Saugar, J M; Blanco, A; García Cenoz, M; Valle-Cristia, M; Ezpeleta, C; Castilla, J

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future. PMID:25017000

  4. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP. PMID:23810743

  5. Mycoplasma synoviae surface protein MSPB as a recombinant antigen in an indirect ELISA.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadi, A H; Markham, P F; Markham, J F; Whithear, K G; Browning, G F

    1999-08-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae is a poultry pathogen causing respiratory disease and synovitis. A number of serological assays have been developed for diagnosis of M. synoviae infection; however, they lack sensitivity and/or are prone to false-positive reactions. Using a combination of PCR and expression cloning, four overlapping regions (regions 1-4) of the surface antigen MSPB of M. synoviae WVU-1853 were expressed in a bacterial expression system. Immunostaining of the resultant polypeptides with chicken sera raised against different M. synoviae strains, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum S6, suggested that region 4 contained a highly antigenic and species-specific domain (amino acids 212-317) [corrected] of MSPB. A fusion protein of region 4 was expressed in the pMAL expression system and purified from cold-osmotic-shock fluids of Escherichia coli cells for use in an indirect ELISA. The potential of the purified antigen for detection of M. synoviae antibodies was assessed with sera obtained from chickens experimentally infected with different strains of M. synoviae or M. gallisepticum, or from uninoculated chickens. All the sera from M. synoviae-inoculated chickens provided higher absorbance values than those from M. gallisepticum-inoculated or uninoculated chickens. Chickens inoculated with M. synoviae 86079/7NS had detectable increases of serum anti-MSPB immunoglobulins at day 7 after inoculation. These studies have identified the most antigenic region of one of the major species-specific surface proteins of M. synoviae, and shown the potential of this protein as a serodiagnostic reagent. PMID:10463175

  6. Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in a herd of North American bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Hays, Mike; Dyer, Neil; Oberst, Richard D; Debey, Brad M

    2010-09-01

    A disease outbreak of high morbidity and high mortality in bison (Bison bison) was investigated. Clinical signs included lameness, swollen joints, respiratory distress, and lethargy. Fifty-three of 194 animals died. Cows between 5 and 10 years of age were the most affected group, in which 40 of 88 animals died. Necropsies were performed on several animals. There were abscesses in the lung and liver, as well as fibrinosuppurative pleuritis, polyarthritis, and disseminated microabscesses in various organs. No significant bacteria were isolated by routine aerobic cultures of lung and liver from 2 representative cases. However, Mycoplasma cultures were positive. Polymerase chain reaction tests on the isolated bacteria were positive for Mycoplasma bovis. Histologically, the abscesses were characterized by areas of necrosis with variable mineralization rimmed by granulomatous inflammation and fibrous tissue. No new animals had been introduced into the herd, but a cattle herd was present adjacent to the affected bison herd. Two restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques were used to compare the bison isolate and another bison isolate from an outbreak in North Dakota with a field isolate of M. bovis from cattle and with a laboratory control strain of M. bovis; the isolates and control strain were found to be similar. The isolates and the control were sequenced and compared with sequences in GenBank. Bison isolates were more than 99% homologous to M. bovis sequences in GenBank. It was concluded that M. bovis in bison can cause disseminated infection with a high morbidity and mortality and that bison isolates are similar to bovine M. bovis isolates. PMID:20807947

  7. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E David; Jacob, Roymon; Branton, Scott L; Evans, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Spencer A; Gerard, Patrick D

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of pre-lay vaccinations of ts11MG, MG-Bacterin (MGBac), or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG challenge overlay after peak production on the blood characteristics of commercial layers. In each trial, 160 mycoplasma-free Hy-Line W-36 layers were housed in negative-pressure biological isolation units (4 units per treatment, 10 birds per unit) from 9 through 52 wk of age (woa). The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 woa: 1) Control (no vaccinations); 2) MGBac; 3) ts11MG; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG+MGBac). At 45 woa, half of the birds were challenged with a laboratory stock of high-passage FMG. Parameters measured in both trials were whole-blood hematocrit and serum concentrations of cholesterol (SCHOL), triglycerides, calcium, and total protein (STP). An age×treatment interaction (P=0.04) was observed for STP between 23 and 43 woa. The STP concentration in the ts11MG and ts11MG+MGBac groups was higher at 33 woa, but was lower at 43 woa, in comparison to the Control group. Also, at 38 woa, the STP of the ts11MG+MGBac group was higher than that of the MGBac group. Although use of the ts11MG vaccine alone or in combination with MGBac may influence circulating STP concentrations when administered before lay, it remains effective in protecting layers against the adverse effect of a post-peak challenge of FMG on egg production, as was observed in a previous companion study. PMID:26217033

  8. Major membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae selectively modified by covalently bound lipid

    SciTech Connect

    Wise K.S.; Kim, M.F.

    1987-12-01

    Surface protein antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were identified by direct antibody-surface binding or by radioimmunoprecipitation of surface /sup 125/I-labeled proteins with a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Radioimmunoprecipitation of TX-114-phase proteins from cells labeled with (/sup 35/S) methionine, /sup 14/C-amino acids, or (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid showed that proteins p65, p50, and p44 were abundant and (with one other hydrophobic protein, p60) were selectively labeled with lipid. Alkaline hydroxylamine treatment of labeled proteins indicated linkage of lipids by amide or stable O-linked ester bonds. Proteins p65, p50, and p44 were highly immunogenic in the natural host as measured by immunoblots of TX-114-phase proteins with antisera from swine inoculated with whole organisms. These proteins were antigenically and structurally unrelated, since hyperimmune mouse antibodies to individual gel-purified proteins were monospecific and gave distinct proteolytic epitope maps. Intraspecies size variants of one surface antigen of M. hyopneumoniae were revealed by a MAb to p70 (defined in strain J, ATCC 25934), which recognized a large p73 component on strain VPP11 (ATCC 25617). In addition, MAb to internal, aqueous-phase protein p82 of strain J failed to bind an analogous antigen in strain VPP11.

  9. Rapid, sensitive PCR-based detection of mycoplasmas in simulated samples of animal sera.

    PubMed Central

    Dussurget, O; Roulland-Dussoix, D

    1994-01-01

    A fast and simple method to detect mycoplasmal contamination in simulated samples of animal sera by using a PCR was developed. The following five mycoplasma species that are major cell culture contaminants belonging to the class Mollicutes were investigated: Mycoplasma arginini, Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Mycoplasma fermentans. After a concentration step involving seeded sera, genus-specific primers were used to amplify a 717-bp DNA fragment within the 16S rRNA gene of mycoplasmas. In a second step, the universal PCR was followed by amplification of variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene by using species-specific primers, which allowed identification of contaminant mycoplasmas. With this method, 10 fg of purified DNA and 1 to 10 color-changing units of mycoplasmas could be detected. Since the sensitivity of the assay was increased 10-fold when the amplification products were hybridized with an internal mycoplasma-specific 32P-labelled oligonucleotide probe, a detection limit of 1 to 10 genome copies per PCR sample was obtained. This highly sensitive, specific, and simple assay may be a useful alternative to methods currently used to detect mycoplasmas in animal sera. Images PMID:8161186

  10. Mycoplasma-induced minimally conscious state.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Thomas; Fischer, Urs; Müller, Lionel; Ott, Sebastian; Bassetti, Claudio L; Wiest, Roland; Sendi, Parham; Schefold, Joerg C

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) frequently causes community-acquired respiratory tract infection and often presents as atypical pneumonia. Following airborne infection and a long incubation period, affected patients mostly suffer from mild or even asymptomatic and self-limiting disease. In particular in school-aged children, M. pneumoniae is associated with a wide range of extrapulmonary manifestations including central nervous system (CNS) disease. In contrast to children, severe CNS manifestations are rarely observed in adults. We report a case of a 37 year-old previously healthy immunocompetent adult with fulminant M. pneumoniae-induced progressive encephalomyelitis who was initially able to walk to the emergency department. A few hours later, she required controlled mechanical ventilation for ascending transverse spinal cord syndrome, including complete lower extremity paraplegia. Severe M. pneumoniae-induced encephalomyelitis was postulated, and antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy was applied on the intensive care unit. Despite early and targeted therapy using four different immunosuppressive strategies, clinical success was limited. In our patient, locked-in syndrome developed followed by persistent minimally conscious state. The neurological status was unchanged until day 230 of follow-up. Our case underlines that severe M. pneumoniae- related encephalomyelitis must not only be considered in children, but also in adults. Moreover, it can be fulminant and fatal in adults. Our case enhances the debate for an optimal antimicrobial agent with activity beyond the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, it may underline the difficulty in clinical decision making regarding early antimicrobial treatment in M. pneumoniae disease, which is commonly self-limited. PMID:27026840

  11. Protective immunity against infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Chelsea A E; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L; Stokes, Christopher R; Helps, Christopher R; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Tasker, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Hemoplasmas are potentially zoonotic mycoplasmal pathogens, which are not consistently cleared by antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic feline hemoplasma species. The aim of this study was to determine how cats previously infected with M. haemofelis that had recovered reacted when rechallenged with M. haemofelis and to characterize the immune response following de novo M. haemofelis infection and rechallenge. Five specific-pathogen-free (SPF)-derived naive cats (group A) and five cats that had recovered from M. haemofelis infection (group B) were inoculated subcutaneously with M. haemofelis. Blood M. haemofelis loads were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), antibody response to heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), blood lymphocyte cell subtypes by flow cytometry, and cytokine mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Group A cats all became infected with high bacterial loads and seroconverted, while group B cats were protected from reinfection, thus providing the unique opportunity to study the immunological parameters associated with this protective immune response against M. haemofelis. First, a strong humoral response to DnaK was only observed in group A, demonstrating that an antibody response to DnaK is not important for protective immunity. Second, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels appeared to increase rapidly postinoculation in group B, indicating a possible role in protective immunity. Third, an increase in IL-12p35 and -p40 mRNA and decrease in the Th2/Th1 ratio observed in group A suggest that a Th1-type response is important in primary infection. This is the first study to demonstrate protective immunity against M. haemofelis reinfection, and it provides important information for potential future hemoplasma vaccine design. PMID:25410206

  12. Protective Immunity against Infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Chelsea A. E.; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L.; Stokes, Christopher R.; Helps, Christopher R.; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hemoplasmas are potentially zoonotic mycoplasmal pathogens, which are not consistently cleared by antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic feline hemoplasma species. The aim of this study was to determine how cats previously infected with M. haemofelis that had recovered reacted when rechallenged with M. haemofelis and to characterize the immune response following de novo M. haemofelis infection and rechallenge. Five specific-pathogen-free (SPF)-derived naive cats (group A) and five cats that had recovered from M. haemofelis infection (group B) were inoculated subcutaneously with M. haemofelis. Blood M. haemofelis loads were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), antibody response to heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), blood lymphocyte cell subtypes by flow cytometry, and cytokine mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Group A cats all became infected with high bacterial loads and seroconverted, while group B cats were protected from reinfection, thus providing the unique opportunity to study the immunological parameters associated with this protective immune response against M. haemofelis. First, a strong humoral response to DnaK was only observed in group A, demonstrating that an antibody response to DnaK is not important for protective immunity. Second, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels appeared to increase rapidly postinoculation in group B, indicating a possible role in protective immunity. Third, an increase in IL-12p35 and -p40 mRNA and decrease in the Th2/Th1 ratio observed in group A suggest that a Th1-type response is important in primary infection. This is the first study to demonstrate protective immunity against M. haemofelis reinfection, and it provides important information for potential future hemoplasma vaccine design. PMID:25410206

  13. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial pneumonia....

  14. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  15. Atypical pneumonia associated with a Mycoplasma isolate in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Bongrand, Yannick; Blais, Marie-Claude; Alexander, Kate

    2012-10-01

    An atypical case of Mycoplasma pneumonia with an unusual radiographic and computed tomographic pattern was diagnosed in a Siamese kitten. The cat showed no response to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy including enrofloxacin. The administration of doxycycline led to a dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement. PMID:23543932

  16. Atypical pneumonia associated with a Mycoplasma isolate in a kitten

    PubMed Central

    Bongrand, Yannick; Blais, Marie-Claude; Alexander, Kate

    2012-01-01

    An atypical case of Mycoplasma pneumonia with an unusual radiographic and computed tomographic pattern was diagnosed in a Siamese kitten. The cat showed no response to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy including enrofloxacin. The administration of doxycycline led to a dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement. PMID:23543932

  17. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae, United States1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stella; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Qin, Xuan; Tang, Yi-Wei; Stiles, Jeffrey; Hong, Tao; Todd, Kathleen; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Xiao, Li; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Waites, Ken B.

    2015-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) is highly prevalent in Asia and is now being reported from Europe. Few data on MRMP are available in the United States. Using genotypic and phenotypic methods, we detected high-level MRMP in 13.2% of 91 M. pneumoniae­–positive specimens from 6 US locations. PMID:26196107

  18. Transient presence of lupus anticoagulant associated with mycoplasma pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wang Chun, Kwok; See Wan, Yan; Poon Chuen, Wong

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of asymptomatic transient presence of lupus anticoagulant with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time in a 30-year-old lady with pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. After treatment of pneumonia, lupus anticoagulant was not detected and the activated partial thromboplastin time normalized. PMID:26744491

  19. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination. 113.28 Section 113.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  20. Detection of Mycoplasma gallinarum by real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallinarum colonizes poultry as well as mammals, but is considered to have a commensal relationship with its hosts. Though unable to cause poultry disease by itself, reports have been published suggesting a synergism during mixed infections between M. gallinarum and respiratory viruses or...

  1. Mycoplasma bovis: An emerging pathogen of ranched bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging, primary pathogen of ranched bison (Bison bison) in North America. It causes severe disease among animals in feedlots as well as breeding-age cows and bulls on pasture. Mortality in adult bison is as high as 25 percent, resulting in significant economic l...

  2. Electron microscopy of Mycoplasma pneumoniae microcolonies grown on solid surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C K; Pfister, R M; Somerson, N L

    1977-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae sprain CL-8 was studied by using various surfaces for adherence and growth. Cells grown on Epon 812, Formvar, carbon, and glass were of similar morphology. Thin Epon pieces were good material for culturing the organisms and examining thin-sectioned microcolonies by transmission electron microscopy. Images PMID:931378

  3. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination. 113.28 Section 113.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... at 100x. (e) Interpretation of test results. (1) If growth appears on at least one of the plates...

  4. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination. 113.28 Section 113.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... at 100x. (e) Interpretation of test results. (1) If growth appears on at least one of the plates...

  5. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination. 113.28 Section 113.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... at 100x. (e) Interpretation of test results. (1) If growth appears on at least one of the plates...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  9. Stability of rehydrated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine homogeneity over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper vaccine application is required to maximize the results of the vaccination, with maintenance of a homogenous solution is critical to obtain uniform results. This study was designed to analyze the need for continued mixing of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine solution in order to maintain a ...

  10. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  11. Furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Fernandes, Julio I; Correia, Thais R; de Souza, Clarissa P; Melo, Raquel M P S; Scott, Fabio B

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur, bot-fly larvae were removed from the lesion by digital compression. Afterwards, the wounds were treated with 10% iodine solution and also with wound-healing cream containing sulfanilamide, urea and beeswax. Maggots were identified as third-stage larvae of D hominis. Clinical case reports of human bot-fly myiasis in cats are relevant due to its scarce occurrence in feline veterinary practice in some countries. PMID:20226706

  12. Infection with Hemotropic Mycoplasma Species in Patients with or without Extensive Arthropod or Animal Contact

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Sarah M.; Trull, Chelsea L.; Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Mozayeni, B. Robert; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2013-01-01

    PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact than in a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small-vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, a Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with “Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum” and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized, hemotropic Mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and in the evaluation of individual patients. PMID:23863574

  13. What are mycoplasmas - The relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Stackebrand, E.; Ludwig, W.

    1985-01-01

    In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

  14. What are mycoplasmas: the relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Ludwig, W.

    1984-01-01

    In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

  15. [Serological analysis of coagulase-negative staphylococci: study of characteristic agglutinogens in type strains of the nine species individualized by Schleifer and Kloos (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pillet, J; Orta, B

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of characteristic agglutinogens has been searched for in the type strains of the following species: Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and S. simulans. Serotyping of these nine strains and study of their antisera have been carried out with formalin-treated and autoclaved bacteria. It has been shown that the characteristic agglutinogens of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were respectively identical to the agglutinogens previously described in the coagulase-negative type strain 52.186 and in the S. aureus type strain 18. Characteristic agglutinogens have been found in each of the other seven type strains. Agglutinogens found in S. xylosus and S. saprophyticus are thermolabile, the corresponding absorbed sera reacting only with the formalin-treated homologous strain. Concerning S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hominis and S. simulans, their absorbed sera reacting both with formalin-treated and autoclaved homologous strains, the observed reactions can be accounted either by one thermostable agglutinogen or by two characteristic agglutinogens, one thermostable, the other thermolabile. In S. warneri, only one thermostable agglutinogen has been characterized, the specificity of the reaction observed between the absorbed S. warneri antiserum and the homologous formalin-treated strain having to be confirmed. The use for serotyping of absorbed sera prepared against the type strains of the species S. xylosus, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, S. hominis and S. simulans should permit to improve the individualization of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:610502

  16. Detection of UV-Induced Thymine Dimers in Individual Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis Oocysts by Immunofluorescence Microscopy▿

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adhami, B. H.; Nichols, R. A. B.; Kusel, J. R.; O'Grady, J.; Smith, H. V.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of UV light on Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in vitro, we exposed intact oocysts to 4-, 10-, 20-, and 40-mJ·cm−2 doses of UV irradiation. Thymine dimers were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody against cyclobutyl thymine dimers (anti-TDmAb). Dimer-specific fluorescence within sporozoite nuclei was confirmed by colocalization with the nuclear fluorogen 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Oocyst walls were visualized using either commercial fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-Cryptosporidium oocyst antibodies (FITC-CmAb) or Texas Red-labeled anti-Cryptosporidium oocyst antibodies (TR-CmAb). The use of FITC-CmAb interfered with TD detection at doses below 40 mJ·cm−2. With the combination of anti-TDmAb, TR-CmAb, and DAPI, dimer-specific fluorescence was detected in sporozoite nuclei within oocysts exposed to 10 to 40 mJ·cm−2 of UV light. Similar results were obtained with C. hominis. C. parvum oocysts exposed to 10 to 40 mJ·cm−2 of UV light failed to infect neonatal mice, confirming that results of our anti-TD immunofluorescence assay paralleled the outcomes of our neonatal mouse infectivity assay. These results suggest that our immunofluorescence assay is suitable for detecting DNA damage in C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts induced following exposure to UV light. PMID:17012589

  17. Detection of Cryptosporidium species and sources of contamination with Cryptosporidium hominis during a waterborne outbreak in north west Wales.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Rachel M; Robinson, Guy; Elwin, Kristin; Hadfield, Stephen J; Thomas, Euron; Watkins, John; Casemore, David; Kay, David

    2010-06-01

    As part of investigations into the cause of a waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection linked to a mains water supply, surface waters and wastewater treatment plants were tested for Cryptosporidium spp. Oocyst counts in base flow surface water samples ranged from nil to 29 per 10 l. Oocyst counts in effluent from a community wastewater treatment plant were up to 63 fold higher and breakout from one septic tank five logs higher. There were no peak (storm) flow events during the investigation. C. hominis, four named genotypes (cervine, muskrat II, rat, W19) and six new small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identified. Four of the new sequences were closely related to Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I, one was closely related to the fox genotype and one to Cryptosporidium canis. C. hominis was found extensively in the catchment, but only at sites contaminated by wastewater, and in the treated water supply to the affected area. All were gp60 subtype IbA10G2, the outbreak subtype. Multiple routes of contamination of the reservoir were identified, resulting in persistent detection of low numbers of oocysts in the final water. This work demonstrates the utility of genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates in environmental samples during outbreak investigations. PMID:20154394

  18. Unusual Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes and Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in both developed and developing countries, particularly patients with CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/μL; 285 HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were enrolled in this study, and both stool and blood specimens were collected from participants. The stool specimens were analyzed and typed for E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. CD4 count was analyzed using flow cytometry. E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium were detected in 18 (6.3%) and 4 (1.4%) patients, respectively. The E. bieneusi detected mostly belonged to a new genotype group that, thus far, has only been found in a few humans: genotype Nig4 in 2 patients and two new genotypes related to Nig4 in 12 patients. The Cryptosporidium detected included C. hominis (two patients), C. parvum (one patient), and C. felis (one patient), with the two C. hominis infections belonging to an unusual subtype family. Additional studies are required to determine whether some E. bieneusi genotypes and C. hominis subtypes are more prevalent in HIV patients on HAART. PMID:23629938

  19. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    PubMed

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). PMID:26763962

  20. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Tinne; Welby, Sarah; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Quinet, Christian; Rouffaer, Lieze; Lens, Luc; Martel, An; Butaye, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogenic avian Mycoplasma species and causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. In addition, the prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae is of increasing concern in several EU member states. We investigated the prevalence of M. gallisepticum in commercial poultry (5220 layers, 1224 broilers and 1020 meat turkeys), 56 racing pigeons and 890 wild birds (Order Anseriformes, Galliformes, Pelecaniformes, Accipitriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Falconiformes and Passeriformes). Broilers and wild birds were also evaluated for Mycoplasma synoviae. Dependent on the bird lifespan and the nature of the sample, different diagnostic tests were used including the rapid plate agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction. A low prevalence of M. gallisepticum was found in both layers (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.7-1.2%) and broilers (2.7%; 95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) possibly due to reduced vertical transmission by breeder farms, which are under official surveillance. None of the samples from turkeys or racing pigeons tested positive. In wild birds, we found five birds were positive (1.7%; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9%): one wood pigeon, two grey herons, one mallard and one Eurasian magpie. For M. synoviae a high prevalence was found in broilers (12.9%: 95% CI: 11.1-14.9%). Four samples collected by hunters gave a positive result for M. synoviae (4%: 95% CI: 1.6-9.8%): one carrion crow and three wood pigeons. In addition, 12 house sparrows were found to be positive (3%; 95% CI: 1.7-5.2%). Wild birds probably play a limited role as a reservoir but we cannot exclude a possible impact on transmission of Mycoplasmas. PMID:26814376

  1. Distribution and diversity of mycoplasma plasmids: lessons from cryptic genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolution of mycoplasmas from a common ancestor with Firmicutes has been characterized not only by genome down-sizing but also by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasma species sharing a common host. The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. In particular, only a few plasmids have been described within the Mycoplasma genus. Results We have shown that several species of ruminant mycoplasmas carry plasmids that are members of a large family of elements and replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. All plasmids were isolated from species that either belonged or were closely related to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster; none was from the Mycoplasma bovis-Mycoplasma agalactiae group. Twenty one plasmids were completely sequenced, named and compared with each other and with the five mycoplasma plasmids previously reported. All plasmids share similar size and genetic organization, and present a mosaic structure. A peculiar case is that of the plasmid pMyBK1 from M. yeatsii; it is larger in size and is predicted to be mobilizable. Its origin of replication and replication protein were identified. In addition, pMyBK1 derivatives were shown to replicate in various species of the M. mycoides cluster, and therefore hold considerable promise for developing gene vectors. The phylogenetic analysis of these plasmids confirms the uniqueness of pMyBK1 and indicates that the other mycoplasma plasmids cluster together, apart from the related replicons found in phytoplasmas and in species of the clade Firmicutes. Conclusions Our results unraveled a totally new picture of mycoplasma plasmids. Although they probably play a limited role in the gene exchanges that participate in mycoplasma evolution, they are abundant in some species. Evidence for the occurrence of frequent genetic recombination strongly suggests they are transmitted between species sharing a common host or niche. PMID:23145790

  2. The History of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Saraya, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    In the United States in the 1930s, although the pathogen was not known, atypical pneumonia was clinically distinguished from pneumococcal pneumonia by its resistance to sulfonamides. Reimann (1938) reported seven patients with an unusual form of tracheo bronchopneumonia and severe constitutional symptoms. He believed the clinical picture of this disease differed from that of the disease caused by influenza viruses or known bacteria and instead suspected “primary atypical pneumonia.” For many years, the responsible infectious agent was tentatively classified as a filterable virus that could pass through a Seitz filter to remove bacteria and was reported to be a psittacosis-like or new virus. After that, Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) identified an agent that was the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia using cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) did not perform an inoculation study in human volunteers. During the 1940s, there were three groups engaged in discovering the etiology of the primary atypical pneumonia. (1) Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases Diseases directed by John Dingle, (2) Dr. Monroe Eaton’s group, the Virus Research Laboratory of the California State Public Health Department, (3) The Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research directed by Horsfall. During 1940s, the members of the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases concluded that the bacteria-free filtrates obtained from the patients, presumably containing a virus, could induce primary atypical pneumonia in human volunteers via Pinehurst trials. During 1950s, serological approaches for identification of the Eaton agent developed such as Fluorescent-Stainable Antibody, and at the beginning of the1960s, the Eaton agent successfully grew in media, and finally accepted as a cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Thus, technical difficulties with visualizing the agent and failure to recognize the full significance of the Pinehurst transmission experiments resulted in a lapse of 20 years before acceptance of the Eaton agent as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This review describes the history of M. pneumoniae pneumonia with a special focus on the recognition between the 1930 and 1960s of the Eaton agent as the infectious cause. PMID:27047477

  3. P19 contributes to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides adhesion to EBL cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Nick, Nwankpa; Zou, Xiaohui; Bai, Fan; Wu, Jindi; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The virulent Mmm Ben-1 strain was isolated from the lung of a CBPP-infected cow in China in the 1950s. To attenuate the virulence of the Ben-1 strain and preserve its protective ability, the isolate was re-isolated after inoculation into the testicles of rabbits and into the rabbit thorax. As a result, after the subsequent isolates were continuously passaged 468 times in rabbits, its pathogenicity to cattle decreased. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to attenuation of the Mmm Ben-1 remain unknown. We compared the entire genomes of the Ben-1 strain and the 468th generation strain passaged in rabbits (Ben-468) and discovered that a putative protein gene named p19 was absent from the Ben-468 strain. The p19 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to obtain recombinant P19 (rP19). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the P19 protein is detected in the cell-membrane fraction, the cell-soluble cytosolic fraction and whole-cell lysate of the Mmm Ben-1 strain. The rP19 can interact with international standard serum against CBPP. Immunostaining visualised via confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that P19 is able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells, and this finding was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. We also found that anti-rP19 serum could inhibit the adhesion of the Mmm Ben-1 total proteins to EBL cells. PMID:26806796

  4. The interaction in vitro of Mycoplasma pulmonis with mouse peritoneal macrophages and L-cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, T C; Hirsch, J G

    1971-02-01

    Methods have been devised for establishing infection in vitro of mouse macrophages and fibroblasts with Mycoplasma pulmonis. The mycoplasmas attached to the cells and under appropriate cultural conditions grew into a lawn of microorganisms covering most of the cell surface. The mycoplasmas grew abundantly on fibroblasts cultured in minimal essential medium containing 20% fetal calf serum; supplementation of this medium with heart infusion broth was necessary to obtain similar growth on macrophages. The infection of these cells appeared to be essentially an extracellular process; only rarely were partially degraded mycoplasmas seen with phagocytic vacuoles. The addition to heavily infected macrophage cultures of low concentrations of anti-mycoplasma antibody stimulated rapid, massive phagocytosis of the surface microorganisms. In sharp contrast, the same antiserum had no discernable effect on the mycoplasma-fibroblast relationship. The antibody effect in the macrophage system was apparently a direct opsonic one rather than an indirect result of microbial killing, since the mycoplasmas in macrophage or fibroblast cultures incorporated labelled thymidine into DNA after the addition of antiserum to the medium. The phagocytic event and the subsequent fate of the mycoplasmas were studied in detail after the addition of antibody to the macrophage cultures. Phase-contrast cinemicrophotography revealed membrane ruffles surrounding the surface mycoplasmas and disappearance from view of the organisms; 10-30 min later translucent grapelike clusters were seen in large phagocytic vacuoles. On electronmicroscopic study the surface mycoplasmas were surrounded by pincers-like projections of the macrophage. Numerous mycoplasmas were seen in phagocytic vacuoles; in the early minutes after the addition of antibody the intracellular mycoplasmas appeared normal, but within 2 hr they appeared partially degraded with a central electron-lucent area and electron-opaque deposits at the microbial cell margin. 24 hr after the addition of antiserum, digestion of the mycoplasmas was nearly complete; the cells appeared normal except for large residual bodies composed of amorphous moderately dense material and increased lipid deposits. Degradation of mycoplasmas within macrophages was also studied using infected cultures in which the mycoplasmas, but not the macrophages, had incorporated tritiated thymidine into DNA. The appearance of large amounts of acid-soluble radiolabel after phagocytosis stimulated by antibody confirmed the degradation of the intracellular mycoplasmas. PMID:4943930

  5. Construction of the mycoplasma evolutionary tree from 5S rRNA sequence data.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M J; Simmons, J; Walker, R T; Weisburg, W G; Woese, C R; Tanner, R S; Robinson, I M; Stahl, D A; Olsen, G; Leach, R H

    1985-01-01

    The 5S rRNA sequences of eubacteria and mycoplasmas have been analyzed and a phylogenetic tree constructed. We determined the sequences of 5S rRNA from Clostridium innocuum, Acholeplasma laidlawii, Acholeplasma modicum, Anaeroplasma bactoclasticum, Anaeroplasma abactoclasticum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Analysis of these and published sequences shows that mycoplasmas form a coherent phylogenetic group that, with C. innocuum, arose as a branch of the low G+C Gram-positive tree, near the lactobacilli and streptococci. The initial event in mycoplasma phylogeny was formation of the Acholeplasma branch; hence, loss of cell wall probably occurred at the time of genome reduction to approximately to 1000 MDa. A subsequent branch produced the Spiroplasma. This branch appears to have been the origin of sterol-requiring mycoplasmas. During development of the Spiroplasma branch there were several independent genome reductions, each to approximately 500 MDa, resulting in Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species. Mycoplasmas, particularly species with the smallest genomes, have high mutation rates, suggesting that they are in a state of rapid evolution. PMID:2579388

  6. Myositis associated with a newly described microsporidian, Trachipleistophora hominis, in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Field, A S; Marriott, D J; Milliken, S T; Brew, B J; Canning, E U; Kench, J G; Darveniza, P; Harkness, J L

    1996-01-01

    Microsporidia are zoonotic protozoa which were rare human pathogens prior to 1985, when Enterocytozoon bieneusi was described in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with chronic diarrhea. Another species, Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis, is associated with diarrhea and chronic sinusitis, and approximately 25 cases have been reported in the literature. However, other microsporidial infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients remain extremely rare. We report the first case of a Pleistophora sp.-like microsporidian infection presenting as a progressive severe myosotis associated with fever and weight loss. The organism was demonstrated by light microscopy and electron microscopy in corneal scrapings, skeletal muscle, and nasal discharge. Electron microscopy showed an electron-dense surface coat with "sunflare"-like projections surrounding all stages of development of meronts (two to four nuclei, dividing by binary fission), sporonts, and sporoblasts. Division of sporonts, in which sporonts separate from the thick outer coat, creating a sporophorous vesicle, is by binary fission, differentiating this organism from Pleistophora sp. The spore measures 4.0 by 2.5 microns and has a rugose exospore. A new genus and species, Trachipleistophora hominis, has been established for this parasite. The patient was treated with albendazole, sulfadiazine, and pyrimethamine, and the clinical symptoms resolved. PMID:8897186

  7. Study of Blastocystis hominis isolates in urticaria: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zuel-Fakkar, N M; Abdel Hameed, D M; Hassanin, O M

    2011-12-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite, with a prevalence in developing countries of up to 50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of this parasite with urticaria by determining the genotypic isotypes in the Egyptian population. In total, 54 patients with urticaria and 50 controls were enrolled in the study. Stool samples were examined and assessed by PCR. The parasite was detected in a significantly higher number (P < 0.001) of the patient group than the control group. There was no significant difference between the patients with acute and those with chronic urticaria (P = 0.2). The amoeboid form was found in 60.6% of Blastocystis-positive patients with urticaria, but in none of the healthy controls. Subtype 3 was the only isolate found in both the patient and control groups. We recommend treatment for Blastocystis-positive patients with urticaria in developing countries. The prevalence is much lower (around 10%) in developed countries, where treatment should only be considered in the absence of other possible causes of urticaria. PMID:21790724

  8. Inflammatory reaction to the human bot-fly, Dermatobia hominis, in infested and reinfested mice.

    PubMed

    Lello, E; de Rosis, A M B

    2003-03-01

    Two groups of mice were infested with first stage larvae of the human bot-fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr) (Diptera: Oestridae). In the first group, skin biopsies were carried out 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 18 days after infestation. The second group was also infested but had all the larvae removed 5 days after infestation. The mice in the latter group were reinfested 4 weeks later and skin biopsies were carried out 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 18 days after reinfestation. In the first group, an inflammatory reaction began slowly, the neutrophils being the main inflammatory cells, eosinophils being scarce. The reaction progressed with time, developing a necrotic halo around the larvae containing inflammatory cells surrounded by fibroblasts. The inflammation invaded the adjacent tissue. In the second group, the inflammatory reaction was intense on the day immediately after reinfestation, the pattern being changed by the presence of a large number of eosinophils. Activated fibroblasts surrounding the necrotic area around the larvae appeared 3 days after reinfestation in the second group and 7 days after infestation in the first group. The results demonstrated that the previous contact with the antigens elicited the early arrival of eosinophils, probably through the chemotactic factors liberated by mast cells in the anaphylactic reaction. PMID:12680926

  9. Novel strategy for typing Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with ClinProTools.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Huifang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-08-01

    The typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae mainly relies on the detection of nucleic acid, which is limited by the use of a single gene target, complex operation procedures, and a lengthy assay time. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to ClinProTools was used to discover MALDI-TOF MS biomarker peaks and to generate a classification model based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 M. pneumoniae isolates. Twenty-five M. pneumoniae strains were used to construct an analysis model, and 43 Mycoplasma strains were used for validation. For the GA typing model, the cross-validation values, which reflect the ability of the model to handle variability among the test spectra and the recognition capability value, which reflects the model's ability to correctly identify its component spectra, were all 100%. This model contained 7 biomarker peaks (m/z 3,318.8, 3,215.0, 5,091.8, 5,766.8, 6,337.1, 6,431.1, and 6,979.9) used to correctly identify 31 type 1 and 7 type 2 M. pneumoniae isolates from 43 Mycoplasma strains with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The strain distribution map and principle component analysis based on the GA classification model also clearly showed that the type 1 and type 2 M. pneumoniae isolates can be divided into two categories based on their peptide mass fingerprints. With the obvious advantages of being rapid, highly accurate, and highly sensitive and having a low cost and high throughput, MALDI-TOF MS ClinProTools is a powerful and reliable tool for M. pneumoniae typing. PMID:24920781

  10. Mycoplasmas in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus): identification and association with abortion.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Taylor, Trevor K; Duignan, Pádraig J; Swingler, Jane; Marenda, Marc; Arnould, John P Y; Kirkwood, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria from the genus Mycoplasma are common inhabitants of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genital tracts of mammals. The understanding of the pathological significance of mycoplasmas in seals is poor, as few studies have utilized the specific culture techniques required to isolate these bacteria. The current study surveyed for the Mycoplasma species present in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) and investigated the association between infection and pathology. Mycoplasmas were found in the nasal cavities of 55/80 (69%) of apparently healthy individuals. Isolates from 18 individuals were investigated through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and 3 species were identified: M. zalophi, M. phocae, and Mycoplasma sp. (GenBank no. EU714238.1), all of which had previously been isolated from Northern Hemisphere pinnipeds. In addition, mycoplasmas were isolated from the lungs of 4 out of 16 juveniles and 1 out of 5 adults sampled at necropsy. Isolates obtained were M. zalophi, Mycoplasma sp. EU714238.1, and M. phocicerebrale, but infection was not associated with lung pathology in these age classes. Inflammatory disease processes of the heart and/or lungs were present in 12 out of 32 (38%) aborted fetuses on microscopic examination. Predominant findings were interstitial pneumonia, pericarditis, and myocarditis. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale was isolated from the thymus of an aborted fetus, and 3 out of 11 (27%) fetuses with inflammatory heart or lung lesions were PCR-positive for Mycoplasma. In conclusion, several species of Mycoplasma are part of the normal flora of the nasal cavity of Australian fur seals, and some mycoplasmas may be associated with abortion in this species of seal. PMID:22362792

  11. Detection of feline Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma and chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Bianka S; Richter, Petra; Weber, Karin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Zenker, Isabella; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of inflammatory lower airway disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma (FA) and chronic bronchitis (CB). The study population consisted of 17 cats with FA/CB, and 14 sick cats without clinical and historical signs of respiratory disease, which were euthanased for various other reasons. Nasal swabs, nasal lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from patients from both groups. Mycoplasma species culture with modified Hayflick agar and Mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on all samples followed by sequencing of all Mycoplasma species-positive samples for differentiation of subspecies. PCR testing detected significantly more Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples than Mycoplasma culture (P = 0.021). When cats with oropharyngeal contamination were excluded from comparison, the numbers of Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples in the group with FA/CB (6/17) and the control group (4/9) were not significantly different (P = 0.6924). While all nasal samples of the cats with FA/CB were negative for Mycoplasma organisms, five samples in the control group (P = 0.041) were positive on PCR. Sequencing revealed Mycoplasma felis in all PCR-positive samples. Mycoplasma species can be detected in the lower airways of cats with FA/CB, as well as in the BALF of sick cats without respiratory signs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possibility that Mycoplasma species represent commensals of the lower respiratory tract of cats. PMID:24574148

  12. Prospects for the gliding mechanism of Mycoplasma mobile.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Makoto; Hamaguchi, Tasuku

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma mobile forms gliding machinery at a cell pole and glides continuously in the direction of the cell pole at up to 4.5μm per second on solid surfaces such as animal cells. This motility system is not related to those of any other bacteria or eukaryotes. M. mobile uses ATP energy to repeatedly catch, pull, and release sialylated oligosaccharides on host cells with its approximately 50-nm long legs. The gliding machinery is a large structure composed of huge surface proteins and internal jellyfish-like structure. This system may have developed from an accidental combination between an adhesin and a rotary ATPase, both of which are essential for the adhesive parasitic life of Mycoplasmas. PMID:26500189

  13. Further western spread of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of house finches.

    PubMed

    Ley, David H; Sheaffer, Deborah S; Dhondt, Andr A

    2006-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, an important pathogen of poultry, especially chickens and turkeys, emerged in 1994 as the cause of conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in their eastern range of North America. The resulting epidemic of M. gallisepticum conjunctivitis severely decreased house finch abundance and the continuing endemic disease in the eastern range has been associated with repeating seasonal peaks of conjunctivitis and limitation of host populations. Mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis was first confirmed in the western native range of house finches in 2002 in a Missoula, Montana, population. Herein, we report further western expansion of M. gallisepticum conjunctivitis in the native range of house finches based on positive polymerase chain reaction results with samples from birds captured in 2004 and 2005 near Portland, Oregon. PMID:16870870

  14. Mycoplasma testudineum in free-ranging desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2012-01-01

    We performed clinico-pathological evaluations of 11 wild Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) from a translocation project in the central Mojave Desert, California, USA. Group 1 consisted of nine tortoises that were selected primarily due to serologic status, indicating exposure to Mycoplasma testudineum (seven) or both M. agassizii and M. testudineum (two), and secondarily due to clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Group 2 consisted of two tortoises that were antibody-negative for Mycoplasma and had no clinical signs of URTD, but did have other signs of illness. Of the Group 1 tortoises, M. testudineum, but not M. agassizii, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA fingerprinted from two tortoises. Using light microscopy, mild to severe pathologic changes were observed in one or more histologic sections of either one or both nasal cavities of each tortoise in Group 1. Our findings support a causal relationship between M. testudineum and URTD in desert tortoises.

  15. Restless legs syndrome: association with streptococcal or mycoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Muneaki; Tsuchiya, Katsunori; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Singer, Harvey S

    2004-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections have been reported to cause neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as chorea, tics, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, presumably through autoimmune damage to basal ganglia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have also been reported to cause damage to the basal ganglia. Restless legs syndrome is a movement disorder with focal restlessness, an irresistible desire to move, and exacerbation by long periods of sitting or lying. We present three children with transient restless legs syndrome-like symptoms possibly associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. One of three patients had persistently elevated enzyme-linked immunosorbent optical density values against human caudate and putamen. PMID:15301831

  16. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been shown... publications: (a) Bigland, C. H. and A. J. DaMassa, “A Bio-Assay for Mycoplasma Gallisepticum.” In:...

  17. 9 CFR 147.6 - Procedure for determining the status of flocks reacting to tests for Mycoplasma gallisepticum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure for determining the status of flocks reacting to tests for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Mycoplasma meleagridis. 147.6 Section 147.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK...

  18. A change in the genetic code in Mycoplasma capricolum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum was previously found to use UGA instead of UGG as its codon for tryptophan and to contain 75 percent A + T in its DNA. The codon change could have been due to mutational pressure to replace C + G by A + T, resulting in the replacement of UGA stop codons by UAA, change of the anticodon in tryptophan tRNA from CCA to UCA, and replacement of UGG tryptophan codons by UGA. None of these changes should have been deleterious.

  19. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test for Mycoplasma. 610.30 Section 610.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... either (1) between 2 and 8 °C for no longer than 24 hours, or (2) at −20 °C or lower if stored for...

  20. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test for Mycoplasma. 610.30 Section 610.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... either (1) between 2 and 8 °C for no longer than 24 hours, or (2) at −20 °C or lower if stored for...