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1

Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis to herbs.  

PubMed

To determine the susceptibilities of Mycoplasma homonis (M. hominis) to Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro, 30 clinical strains of M. hominis were isolated and identified from the clinical specimen. The susceptibilities of M. hominis to 19 herbs were determined by serial dilution methods in vitro. The results showed that M. hominis was susceptible to Radix Isatidis, Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, Cortex Phellodendri, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Fructus Kochiae and Herba Houttuyniae. These findings laid a foundation in treating M. hominis infection with Chinese herbs. PMID:15974478

Che, Ya-Min; Mao, Shu-He; Jiao, Wen-Ling; Fu, Zhi-Yi

2005-01-01

2

Characteristics of Mycoplasma hominis adhesion.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis, a human pathogen, has previously been observed to bind to sulfatide separated on thin-layer chromatograms. It has not been demonstrated, however, that the binding is not simply a nonspecific ionic interaction. The ability of a low-passage patient isolate of M. hominis to adhere to glycoconjugates other than sulfatide and the characteristics of its binding to sulfatide were studied. Mycoplasmas were found to bind strongly and specifically in a temperature- and dose-dependent manner to only sulfatide of all of the glycolipids and glycoproteins tested. The avidity and specificity of binding, as well as the ability to inhibit the interaction specifically, suggest that the receptors to which M. hominis binds, particularly in the human urogenital tract, from which it is frequently isolated, are primarily, if not solely, sulfated glycolipids. Images

Olson, L D; Gilbert, A A

1993-01-01

3

Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

DelVecchio, Vito G. (Scranton, PA); Gallia, Gary L. (Philadelphia, PA); McCleskey, Ferne K. (San Antonio, TX)

1997-01-21

4

Improved method for expression and isolation of the Mycoplasma hominis arginine deiminase from the recombinant strain of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Arginine deiminase is a promising anticancer drug active against melanoma, hepatocarcinoma and other tumors. Recombinant strains of Escherichia coli that express arginine deiminase from pathogenic bacteria Mycoplasma have been developed. However, production costs of heterologous arginine deiminase are high due to use of an expensive inducer and extraction buffer, as well as using diluted culture for enzyme induction. We report on a new advanced protocol for Mycoplasma hominis arginine deiminase expression, extraction and renaturation. The main improvements include manipulation with dense suspensions of E. coli, use of lactose instead of isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside as an inducer and a cheaper but not less efficient buffer for solubilization of arginine deiminase inclusion bodies. In addition, supplementation of the storage culture medium with glucose and substrate (arginine) significantly stabilized the recombinant arginine deiminase producer. Homogenous preparations of recombinant arginine deiminase were obtained using anion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The purified enzyme retained a specific activity of 30-34 U/mg for 12 months when stored at 4°C in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.2 containing 1 M NaCl. PMID:23928331

Fayura, Lyubov R; Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Wheatley, Denys N; Sibirny, Andriy A

2013-09-20

5

Comparative in vitro activity of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and lomefloxacin against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of three macrolides, azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin and a new fluoroquinolone, lomefloxacin, against pathogenic mycoplasma (16 to 18 strains ofMycoplasma pneumoniae, 41 to 77 strains ofMycoplasma hominis, 65 to 104 strains ofUreaplasma urealyticum) was compared. The three macrolides were highly active againstMycoplasma pneumoniae. Clarithromycin was the most active macrolide againstUreaplasma urealyticum whereas azithromycin was somewhat more

H. Renaudin; C. Bébéar

1990-01-01

6

Morphology, ultrastructure, and mode of division of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma orale, and Mycoplasma salivarium.  

PubMed

The morphology of viable Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma orale types 1 and 2, and Mycoplasma salivarium was studied in broth cultures by interference microscopy and in thin sections by electron microscopy. Only spherical cells were seen by interference microscopy. M. hominis had a capsule-like outer layer. Except for M. orale type 1, mycoplasmas in thin sections were 0.3-1 mum in diameter, with a bounding trilaminar membrane 7.5-10 nm thick. The mycoplasmas contained DNA fibrils and randomly distributed ribosomes. No polyribosomes were seen. Dividing mycoplasmas elongated slightly; the membrane invaginated, forming one bud. Sometimes M. hominis and M. salivarium produced one bud by elongation, and the bud was attached by a tube. This method of division is not considered as characteristic but rather as due to centrifugal force separating unfixed cells during preparation for electron microscopy. Cross-septa were never observed. In thin sections M. orale type 1 was elongated and without buds, an observation which suggested that preparation for electron microscopy distorted the mycoplasmas. PMID:977994

Furness, G; Whitescarver, J; Trocola, M; DeMaggio, M

1976-09-01

7

Mycoplasma hominis necrotizing pleuropneumonia in a previously healthy adolescent  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious micro-organism causing systemic infections in the neonate and genital infections in the adult. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects. Case Presentation We describe a case of severe pneumonia and pericarditis due to Mycoplasma hominis in a previously healthy adolescent who did not respond to initial therapy. Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis could be an underestimated cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent patients and should be particularly suspected in those not responding to standard therapy.

2010-01-01

8

Characterization of Mycoplasma hominis mutations involved in resistance to fluoroquinolones.  

PubMed Central

Fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Mycoplasma hominis were selected in vitro from the PG21 susceptible reference strain either by multistep selection on increasing concentrations of various fluoroquinolones or by one-step selection on agar medium with ofloxacin. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the structural genes encoding the A and b subunits of DNA gyrase were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences of eight multistep-selected resistant strains were compared to those of susceptible strain PG21. Four high-level resistant mutants that were selected on norfloxacin or ofloxacin contained a C-to-T transition in the gyrA QRDR, leading to substitution of Ser-83 by Leu in the GyrA protein. Analysis of the sequence of the gyrB QRDR of the eight multistep-selected mutants did not reveal any difference compared to that of the gyrB QRDR of the reference strain M. hominis PG21. Similar analyses of eight one-step-selected mutants did not reveal any base change in the gyrA and gyrB QRDRs. These results suggest that in M. hominis, like in other bacterial species, a gyrA mutation at Ser-83 is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.

Bebear, C M; Bove, J M; Bebear, C; Renaudin, J

1997-01-01

9

Mycoplasma hominis brain abscess following uterus curettage: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mycoplasma hominis is mostly known for causing urogenital infections. However, it has rarely been described as an agent of brain abscess. Case presentation We describe a case of M. hominis brain abscess in a 41-year-old Caucasian woman following uterus curettage. The diagnosis was obtained by 16S rDNA amplification, cloning and sequencing from the abscess pus, and confirmed by a specifically designed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Conclusions Findings from our patient's case suggest that M. hominis should be considered as a potential agent of brain abscess, especially following uterine manipulation.

2011-01-01

10

Possible involvement of Mycoplasma hominis in inhibiting the formation of biofilms by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC).  

PubMed

Here we examined the involvement of Mycoplasma hominis in the formation of biofilms by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073. Initially, we thought that M. hominis does not affect the fitness of UPEC, including the growth and production of signaling molecules, such as autoinducer-2 and indole. We found, however, that the presence of M. hominis significantly decreased the degree of biofilm formation by UPEC CFT073 (approximately a 60% reduction for 10(5) ccu/mL of M. hominis as compared with UPEC alone). We also found that it had a slight effect in inhibiting the attachment and cytotoxicity of UPEC CFT073. These findings are specific to these UPEC strains rather than to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains, found in normal intestinal flora. In addition, we performed whole-transcriptome profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. This indicated that the PhoPQ system and the anti-termination protein (encoded by ybcQ) were involved in the reduction of biofilm formation by M. hominis (corroborated by qRT-PCR). Furthermore, our results indicate that M. hominis raises the degree of transcription of toxin genes, including hha and pasT. Hence, we suggest a possible role of M. hominis in affecting the formation of biofilms by UPEC in the urinary tract. PMID:24096662

Oh, Sangnam; Go, Gwang-Woong; Choi, Nag-Jin; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Younghoon

2013-01-01

11

Infection of a traumatic pelvic hematoma with Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed

Fever developed in a previously healthy young man who had sustained extensive pelvic trauma. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated in pure culture from six of seven specimens taken from a retroperitoneal hematoma over a one-week period, and mycoplasmacidal antibodies were present in high titer in the convalescent-phase serum. The fever abated after thorough surgical drainage of the infected hematoma. PMID:10328034

Burke, D S; Madoff, S

1978-01-01

12

[The clinical characteristics of diseases caused by Mycoplasma hominis].  

PubMed

Of 1125 patients with acute respiratory diseases (complicated) and uncomplicated 49 (4.4%) showed infection caused by Mycoplasma hominis. The diagnosis was established by serological and microbiological methods. The authors describe the microbiological method of detection of the pathogen in nasopharyngeal wash offs and sputum. Illustrative clinical examples are presented. PMID:2609572

Kononenko, V V; Rudenko, A A; Kruglikov, V T

1989-11-01

13

Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.  

PubMed

To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV. PMID:24948939

Meng, Dong-Ya; Sun, Chang-Jian; Yu, Jing-Bo; Ma, Jun; Xue, Wen-Cheng

2014-01-01

14

Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.

Meng, Dong-Ya; Sun, Chang-Jian; Yu, Jing-Bo; Ma, Jun; Xue, Wen-Cheng

2014-01-01

15

Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6%) of infertile

N Badami; MH Salari

16

Closed trauma, Mycoplasma hominis osteomyelitis, and the elusive diagnosis of Good's syndrome.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hominis septic arthritis has a well-established association with hypogammaglobulinaemia, but is rarely seen in immunocompetent hosts. An association also exists with a closed trauma and a predisposition to M hominis bone infections. In this clinical case report, a patient with M hominis osteomyelitis following a closed trauma was diagnosed using 16S ribosomal studies, and led to the diagnosis of a severe underlying immunodeficiency syndrome known as Good's syndrome. PMID:23188847

Noska, Amanda; Nasr, Rawad; Williams, David Neville

2012-01-01

17

A 135-kilodalton surface antigen of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 contains multiple directly repeated sequences.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody was used to characterize a 135-kDa surface-located membrane protein (Lmp1) generally present in Mycoplasma hominis strains. The monoclonal antibody, 552, was applied to identify the corresponding gene in an expression library of M. hominis PG21 DNA. The M. hominis PG21 lmp1 gene was sequenced, and its gene product was characterized with the goal of elucidating the structure and function of Lmp1. A total of 7,196 bp in the lmp1 region was sequenced. An open reading frame of 4,032 bp, encoding a protein of 1,344 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 147,000, was identified. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence predicted a hydrophilic protein with a basic pI (10.0). The N-terminal 24 amino acids were a typical leader sequence. Downstream from the first 726 nucleotides, six similar direct repeats of 471 nucleotides were found. In repeat 7, a single-base substitution, C-->A, gave rise to the stop codon of lmp1. Thus, the C-terminal 945 amino acids were encoded by the 471-bp direct repeats. As evidenced by Southern blot analysis, the gene encoding the 135-kDa antigen is part of a multigene family. One of the genes, lmp2, was situated directly downstream from lmp1 where the direct repeats continued.

Ladefoged, S A; Birkelund, S; Hauge, S; Brock, B; Jensen, L T; Christiansen, G

1995-01-01

18

Standardized methods and quality control limits for agar and broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.  

PubMed

An international multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted to develop standard media and consensus methods for the performance and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum using broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques. A reference strain from the American Type Culture Collection was designated for each species, which was to be used for quality control purposes. Repeat testing of replicate samples of each reference strain by participating laboratories utilizing both methods and different lots of media enabled a 3- to 4-dilution MIC range to be established for drugs in several different classes, including tetracyclines, macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones. This represents the first multilaboratory collaboration to standardize susceptibility testing methods and to designate quality control parameters to ensure accurate and reliable assay results for mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas that infect humans. PMID:22915608

Waites, Ken B; Duffy, Lynn B; Bébéar, Cécile M; Matlow, Anne; Talkington, Deborah F; Kenny, George E; Totten, Patricia A; Bade, Donald J; Zheng, Xiaotian; Davidson, Maureen K; Shortridge, Virginia D; Watts, Jeffrey L; Brown, Steven D

2012-11-01

19

Life on Arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: Clues from Its Minimal Genome and Comparison with Other Human Urogenital Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs)). Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden–Meyerhoff–Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine) and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes), plus a set of genes required for providing energy. For M. hominis, this set would include 247+9 genes, resulting in a theoretical minimal genome of 256 genes.

Pereyre, Sabine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Beven, Laure; Charron, Alain; Renaudin, Helene; Barre, Aurelien; Avenaud, Philippe; Jacob, Daniel; Couloux, Arnaud; Barbe, Valerie; de Daruvar, Antoine; Blanchard, Alain; Bebear, Cecile

2009-01-01

20

Prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis in infertile women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 57 infertile women, who had been referred for in vitro fertilisation or for diagnostic laparoscopy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis. Four were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 53, 33 had laparoscopically obvious tubal disorders, such as adhesions, distal occlusions and strictures, and 20 did not.

K H Tjiam; G H Zeilmaker; A T Alberda; B Y van Heijst; J C de Roo; A A Polak-Vogelzang; T van Joost; E Stolz; M F Michel

1985-01-01

21

Development of real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hominis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, post partum fever, sepsis and infections of the central nervous system often leading to serious conditions. Association with development of female infertility has also been suggested, but different publications present different results. We developed a sensitive and fast diagnostic real-time PCR to test clinical samples from women undergoing laparoscopic

Agata Baczynska; Helle F Svenstrup; Jens Fedder; Svend Birkelund; Gunna Christiansen

2004-01-01

22

Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of this pestering pathogen.

Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, Rene; Degrandi, Daniel; Kohrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

2013-01-01

23

Cervical cytopathological findings in Korean women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections.  

PubMed

This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P<0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections. PMID:24526918

Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

2014-01-01

24

The presence of Mycoplasma hominis in isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis impacts significantly on DNA fingerprinting results.  

PubMed

The genetic characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis (Protista: Trichomonadidae), the causative agent of trichomoniasis in humans, is central to understanding the epidemiology, treatment, drug resistance, and virulence as well as the diagnosis and control of this parasite. Various molecular approaches, including DNA fingerprinting, have been employed for this purpose, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) continues to be utilized. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that some T. vaginalis populations can harbor symbiotic Mycoplasma hominis and/or other agents, which could cause artifacts in the RAPD results. In the present study, we demonstrate clearly that the presence of M. hominis from T. vaginalis isolates impacts significantly on RAPD results and on the subsequent analyses and interpretation of data sets. Moreover, symbiotic M. hominis displays an isolate-to-isolate variability in RAPD profile before elimination, suggesting a variability of M. hominis infection. PMID:18058131

Xiao, J C; Xie, L F; Zhao, L; Fang, S L; Lun, Z R

2008-03-01

25

[A case of mycoplasma hominis infection on chronic refractory lower leg ulceration caused by livedo vasculopathy].  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hominis is a common inhabitant of the human urogenital tract and most frequently causes diseases of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital M. hominis infections are uncommon, with almost all occurring in immunosuppressed persons or those predisposed due to surgery or trauma. We report a case of non surgical, non-traumatic wound infection caused by M. hominis. A 28-year-old immunocompetent woman with livedo vasculopathy had an open wound on dorsum of her right foot with signs and symptoms of infection. However, gram staining of the wound swab demonstrated no microorganisms, and initial bacterial cultures did not reveal any microbial growth. After 2 days of culture, minute translucent colonies were appeared and subsequently identified as M. hominis. She was successfully treated with levofloxacin(LVFX). For the patient's being immune-competent, this infection seems to need a substantial bacterial transfer from the inhabitant organ. The transfer is likely mediated by the fluid's drop, for anatomical locations of vagina and the infection site on leg. Namely, the hinder leg infection is suspected to be caused by continual and heavy bacterial exposure originated from the vaginal M. hominis. This clinical case suggests that infections may occur even in normal immunological status if the site is close to, and lacks anatomical barrier from, the M. hominis inhabitant organ. Especially in infection at chronic refractory lower leg ulceraion, M. hominis should be considered as a causative organism. PMID:23383571

Yamakami, Shinji; Mikami, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kazuko; Saya, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Chie; Eto, Hikaru; Takeda, Kyoko

2012-11-01

26

Mycoplasma hominis-Associated Parapharyngeal Abscess following Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in a Previously Immunocompetent Adult ?  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis most frequently causes diseases of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital infections are uncommon, with almost all occurring in immunosuppressed persons or those predisposed due to trauma or surgery. We present the case of a previously well man who developed an M. hominis-associated parapharyngeal abscess following acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Kennedy, Karina J.; Prince, Sam; Makeham, Timothy

2009-01-01

27

Extensive chronic xanthogranulomatous intra-abdominal inflammation due to Mycoplasma hominis mimicking a malignancy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: While infectious peritonitis is a common occurrence in patients with liver cirrhosis, Mycoplasma is rarely identified as a causative agent. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with an extensive abdominal conglomerate tumor mimicking malignancy. A histologic specimen showed a xanthogranulomatous inflammation. Subsequently, Mycoplasma hominis was identified as the specific causative infectious agent using

Luc Biedermann; Dominik J Schaer; Matteo Montani; Rudolf Speich; Beat Müllhaupt

2009-01-01

28

[A case of Mycoplasma hominis infection after bladder injury during cesarean section].  

PubMed

A 21-year-old female patient underwent emergency cesarean section and a postoperative hematoma occurred at the site of the uterine incision. The patient underwent laparotomy for hemostasis. An 3 cm perforation at the posterior wall of the bladder was identified. The bladder was repaired in two layers with an absorbable suture. Three days later she developed a fever of over 38 degrees C. Despite therapy with several antimicrobial agents, her fever persisted and the wound was opened. Computed tomography scan revealed an abscess at the site where the hematoma had formed. We present a case of severe wound infection that was caused by Mycoplasma hominis infection after cesarean section. Bladder perforation associated with cesarean section is uncommon. Mycoplasma hominis should be considered as a causative organism if an antimicrobial resistant infection occurs at the surgical site after a cesarean section. PMID:22191281

Yagihashi, Yusuke; Kato, Keiji; Nagahama, Kanji; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Hiromi; Ueda, Souhei; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Iito, Gouichi

2011-09-01

29

Symbiosis of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis may link metronidazole resistance in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen of 28 Trichomonas vaginalis isolates collected from patients in Guangzhou, China from 2003 to 2004 were found to be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis, as determined by PCR using specific primers. In vitro metronidazole sensitivity assay of the 28 isolates revealed four displaying low susceptibility [minimum lethal concentration (MLC)=?13–25 ?g\\/ml] and another four displaying high resistance (MLC=50–100 ?g\\/ml). The overwhelming majority

J. C. Xiao; L. F. Xie; S. L. Fang; M. Y. Gao; Y. Zhu; L. Y. Song; H. M. Zhong; Z. R. Lun

2006-01-01

30

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Results Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is recommended. In addition, it is recommended that antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are determined.

2014-01-01

31

An epidemiological survey of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in gynaecological outpatients, Rome, Italy.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infections and to investigate associations between their presence in the lower female genital tract and lifestyle characteristics. The study was performed on a population of 3115 women, comparing the demographic and behavioural characteristics of 872 women with U. urealyticum infection and 142 women with M. hominis with uninfected women, using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of infection with U. urealyticum was 28% and M. hominis was 4.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, intrauterine device, number of sexual partners and age (<35 years) were significantly associated with U. urealyticum while previous induced abortion, condom use and young age at first intercourse (<16 years) were associated with M. hominis infection. U. urealyticum infection presents the same demographic and behavioural characteristics of a sexually transmitted disease. The unprotective role of condom use suggests a non-sexual mode of transmission of M. hominis infection. PMID:23445723

Verteramo, R; Patella, A; Calzolari, E; Recine, N; Marcone, V; Osborn, J; Chiarini, F; Degener, A M

2013-12-01

32

Frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in patients with vaginal discharge.  

PubMed

Determination of antimicrobial sensitivity helps establish adequate treatment and avoids future genital tract diseases in women of fertile age. In Cuba, prevalence of mycoplasma in patients with vaginal discharge is unknown. The objective of this research was to determine frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in women with vaginal discharge through analysis of laboratory data from vaginal smears from 255 patients referred to the Municipal Hygiene and Epidemiology Center in Güines, Mayabeque Province, Cuba. Mycoplasma System Plus (Italy) was used for detection, identification, count and sensitivity testing. The finding of mycoplasmas in almost two thirds of specimens examined suggests that the sexually active female population should be screened for these bacteria and that barrier contraception methods should be promoted to decrease their spread and prevent longterm sequelae. Such updating of local patterns of antimicrobial resistance supports decision making for best treatment options in patients with these infections. Our results should help clinicians in our area choose an antibiotic, and also confirm the utility of Mycoplasma System Plus for mycoplasma research in resource-scarce settings, to benefit individual and population health. PMID:24253351

Díaz, Leonor; Cabrera, Luis E; Fernández, Tania; Ibáñez, Inailay; Torres, Yulian; Obregón, Yakelí; Rivero, Yanelys

2013-10-01

33

Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum Organisms in Genitourinary Samples by PCR-Microtiter Plate Hybridization Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for detecting the presence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum organisms, which are thought to be associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and other genitourinary infections, in clinical samples. This method consists of PCR amplification of a part of the 16S rRNA gene followed by 96-well microtiter plate hybridization assay using four species-specific

Takashi Yoshida; Shin-Ichi Maeda; Takashi Deguchi; Takamaro Miyazawa; Hiroaki Ishiko

2003-01-01

34

Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum Organisms in Genitourinary Samples by PCR-Microtiter Plate Hybridization Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for detecting the presence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum organisms, which are thought to be associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and other genitourinary infections, in clinical samples. This method consists of PCR amplification of a part of the 16S rRNA gene followed by 96-well microtiter plate hybridization assay using four species-specific

Takashi Yoshida; Shin-Ichi Maeda; Takashi Deguchi; Takamaro Miyazawa; Hiroaki Ishiko

35

Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated in Brescia, Italy, over 7 years.  

PubMed

The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis collected during 2004-2011 were determined. A total of 9956 individuals was analyzed. Identification was performed by use of the mycoplasma IST-2 kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility against doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin was also tested by use of this commercial kit. Our results show a prevalence of 1856 positive patients for genital mycoplasmas (18.6 %). Among positive cultures, 89 and 1.1 % of isolates were Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis, respectively. For 9.8 % of isolates both urogenital mycoplasmas were grown. Doxycycline was the most active tetracycline for mycoplasma infections, and this is still the drug of first choice. Among macrolides, josamycin and clarithromycin are the most active agents against ureaplasmas; josamycin is also active against mycoplasmas and is an alternative to tetracyclines and erythromycin for mixed infections, especially for pregnant women and neonates. Fluoroquinolones had low efficacy against urogenital mycoplasmas. For Ureaplasma urealyticum, cross-resistance was found between erythromycin and macrolides (except josamycin) (40-80 %) and between erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (79 %). Antibiotic resistance over the test period did not vary significantly. Because of geographical differences among antibiotic resistance, local in-vitro susceptibility testing is recommended to avoid failure of therapy. PMID:23192735

De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Caracciolo, Sonia; Bonfanti, Carlo; Manca, Nino

2013-08-01

36

Microbial and vaginal determinants influencing Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum genital colonization in a population of female patients.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery and pelvic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of co-colonization by M. hominis in patients already colonized by U. urealyticum and compare demographic parameters, vaginal pH and microbiota of women colonized by U. urealyticum or M. hominis. A total of 452 patients positive for U. urealyticum or M. hominis were analysed, 421 (93.1%) of whom were positive for U. urealyticum and 31 (6.9%) for M. hominis. Patients positive for M. hominis compared to patients positive for U. urealyticum were more frequently colonized by Gardnerella vaginalis (71% vs 18.5%; p 0.0001), less frequently by lactobacilli (16.1% vs 61.5%; p 0.0001), and more frequently had a pH value higher than 4.5 (96.8% vs 57%; p 0.0001), all conditions associated to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Logistic regression analysis showed that only G. vaginalis colonization and pH higher than 4.5 were independently related to M. hominis colonization (respectively p 0.0001 and p 0.016). Thus, in women colonized by U. urealyticum, BV is an independent risk factor for M. hominis co-colonization. PMID:24008852

Leli, Christian; Meucci, Marta; Vento, Simona; D'Alò, Francesco; Farinelli, Senia; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Francesco; Mencacci, Antonella

2013-09-01

37

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by Multiplex PCR in Semen Sample of Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyti- cum from semen samples of infertile men by Multiplex PCR and investigation of influence of bacteriospermia on semen parameters. Methods: Semen samples of 200 infertile men were evaluated by Multiplex PCR. In addition, analysis of semen parameters was performed according to the WHO guidelines.

M Golshani; G Eslami; Sh Mohhammadzadeh Ghobadloo; F Fallah; H Goudarzi; AA Soleimani Rahbar; F Fayaz

38

In Mycoplasma hominis the OppA-mediated cytoadhesion depends on its ATPase activity  

PubMed Central

Background In Mycoplasma hominis, a facultative human pathogen of the human genital tract, OppA, the substrate-binding domain of the oligopeptide permease, is a multifunctional protein involved in nutrition uptake, cytoadhesion and hydrolysis of extracellular ATP. Results To map the function-related protein regions the ATPase activity and adhesive behavior of OppA mutants were analyzed. Mutations of the Walker BA motifs resulted in an inhibition of up to 8% of the OppA ATPase activity, whereas deletion of the N-terminal CS1 or the CS2 region, structural motifs that are conserved in bacterial OppA proteins, reduced ATPase activity to 60% and deletion of CS3, the third conserved region adjacent to the Walker B motif led to a reduction to 42% ATPase activity. Interestingly, adhesion of the OppA mutants to immobilized HeLa cells demonstrated that two distal regions are mainly involved in adherence of OppA: the CS1 region, deletion of which led to 35% of the cytoadhesion, and the Walker BA with the adjacent upstream region CS3, deletion of which led to 25% of the cytoadhesion. The influence of the ATPase activity on the adherence of M. hominis to HeLa cells was confirmed by the use of ATPase inhibitors which reduced mycoplasmal cytoadhesion to 50%. Conclusions These findings suggest that the OppA-mediated cytoadherence of Mycoplasma hominis depends on both, the topology of the neighbouring CS1 and ATPase domain regions and the functionality of the ecto-ATPase activity in addition.

2011-01-01

39

The resistance analysis of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in female reproductive tract specimens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the drug resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and Mycoplasma hominis (Mh) in female reproductive track from 2007 to 2011 in Hangzhou. Antibiotics sensitivity test in Mycoplasma, which was isolated in clinics from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The detection of Mycoplasma during 2007-2011 was 20,146 (54.37 %), of which the single infection rate of Uu was 42.08 %, of Mh 1.26 %, and of Uu+Mh was 11.02 %. The drug resistance rate of Uu was increased significantly in ofloxacin in 2007 (41.80 %), 2008 (45.94 %), 2009 (46.07 %), 2010 (50.36 %), and 2011 (53.22 %) (P < 0.05). The resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was significantly increased in 2007 (67.15 %), 2008 (67.44 %), 2009 (73.00 %), 2010 (75.28 %), and 2011 (75.28 %) (P < 0.05). Exceptionally, the resistance rates of the other antibiotics were low. The drug resistance rate of Uu was significantly increased with quinolones at increasing tendency. It is necessary to monitor the local drug resistance rate of Uu regularly to provide reasonable guidelines in clinics. PMID:23749559

Ye, Guangyong; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Min; Huang, Jiamin; Jin, Guochen; Lu, Shiming

2014-01-01

40

Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting of Mycoplasma Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selec- tive amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplas- mas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including Mycoplasma genitalium (n 5 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n 5 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n 5 5), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (n

BRANKO KOKOTOVIC; NIELS F. FRIIS; JØRGEN S. JENSEN; PETER AHRENS

1999-01-01

41

Evidence of Active Efflux in Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and to Ethidium Bromide by Mycoplasma hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of fluoroquinolones was characterized for the fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain PG21 of My- coplasma hominis. Accumulation of fluoroquinolones appeared to occur by passive diffusion. Addition of arginine as the energizer significantly reduced the uptake of fluoroquinolones, suggesting the presence of an energy-dependent efflux process. Reserpine and orthovanadate, two multidrug pump inhibitors, increased significantly the ciprofloxacin (CIP) uptake. In contrast, such

S. Raherison; P. Gonzalez; H. Renaudin; A. Charron; C. Bebear

2002-01-01

42

Comparative susceptibilities of various AIDS-associated and human urogenital tract mycoplasmas and strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to 10 classes of antimicrobial agent in vitro.  

PubMed

The susceptibilities of 40 strains of various Mycoplasma species to 10 classes of antimicrobial agents were compared in vitro by a broth microdilution method. The strains tested comprised 20 strains of four AIDS-associated species--M. penetrans (1 strain), M. fermentas (5 strains), M. pirum (6 strains) and M. genitalium (8 strains)--nine strains of the urogenital tract species M. hominis and 11 strains of M. pneumoniae. The results demonstrated wide variation in the susceptibilities of the different Mycoplasma spp. to different classes of antimicrobial agent. All the mycoplasmas were susceptible or highly susceptible to the fluoroquinolones, with sparfloxacin the most active, and to the diterpine antibiotic tiamulin. M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium strains were also highly susceptible to the macrolides, particularly azithromycin and had similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns to most other antimicrobial agents. However, all strains of M. genitalium were resistant to streptomycin (MIC 250->500 mg/L) whereas all M. pneumoniae isolates, except the MAC strain, were susceptible (MICs 1.25-12.5 mg/L). M. pirum isolates varied considerably in their susceptibility to macrolides (MIC range versus azithromycin 0.0025->100 mg/L). M. fermentans strains were susceptible to the tetracyclines, lincosamides and mupirocin, but varied in susceptibility to aminoglycosides. Most M. hominis strains were susceptible to the tetracyclines and all were susceptible to clindamycin and mupirocin. M. penetrans GTU 54 was susceptible to azithromycin, the tetracyclines and lincosamides as well as to the fluoroquinolones and tiamulin. PMID:9856648

Hannan, P C

1998-12-01

43

Isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum-like strains from chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Mycoplasma infect a wide range of hosts, but individual Mycoplasma species tend to exhibit a considerable degree of host specificity. We characterized Mycoplasma strain 700, isolated from a kidney of a layer hen in Spain and Mycoplasma strains ULB-A and ULB-B, isolated from the air sac and from the bile of stunted broiler chickens in Slovenia.

Dušan Ben?ina; Janet M. Bradbury; Laszlo Stipkovits; Zsuzsana Varga; Andrej Razpet; Andrej Bidovec; Peter Dov?

2006-01-01

44

Extensive chronic xanthogranulomatous intra-abdominal inflammation due to Mycoplasma hominis mimicking a malignancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction While infectious peritonitis is a common occurrence in patients with liver cirrhosis, Mycoplasma is rarely identified as a causative agent. Case presentation We report the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with an extensive abdominal conglomerate tumor mimicking malignancy. A histologic specimen showed a xanthogranulomatous inflammation. Subsequently, Mycoplasma hominis was identified as the specific causative infectious agent using a broad-range (eubacterial) polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intra-abdominal Mycoplasma infection presenting as a conglomerate tumor. Conclusion An unusual presentation of an inflammatory process in the abdomen or an insufficient response to conventional therapy should prompt clinicians to consider atypical infectious agents in the differential diagnosis. This case illustrates the potential of newer diagnostic methods, since certain fastidious microorganisms may not be diagnosed and treated appropriately using conventional means.

2009-01-01

45

Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium in semen and first void urine specimens of asymptomatic male partners of infertile couples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was threefold: to compare semen and first void urine (FVU) specimens from asymptomatic infertile men for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital ureaplasma, and genital mycoplasma infections using in-house inhibitor-controlled polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-microtiter plate hybridization assay; to determine the prevalence of those organisms in infertile men in Tunisia; and to study the relationship between these bacteria and male infertility. Paired urine and semen specimens from 104 patients were examined by in-house PCR for the presence of DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium). Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Nominal scale variables, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance test were used for statistical analysis. There was a very high concordance (>95%) and a very good agreement (kappa > 0.9) between the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital ureaplasmas, and Mycoplasma hominis in semen and corresponding FVU specimens. Our findings also show a high concordance (81.1%) and a good agreement (kappa = 0.79) between the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in both specimens. C trachomatis, genital mycoplasmas, and genital ureaplasmas were found to be widespread among infertile male patients in Tunisia, as shown by their respective prevalences of 43.3%, 18.3%, and 14.4%. The mean values of seminal volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and leukocyte count were not significantly related either to the detection of C trachomatis DNA or to that of genital ureaplasma or mycoplasma DNA in semen specimens. Using our in-house PCR, both semen and FVU were found to be sensitive diagnostic specimens for the detection of C trachomatis, ureaplasmas, and mycoplasmas. The FVU, a less invasive and self-collected specimen, can serve as a marker for the presence of these organisms in the genital tract and can be used as a reliable way of detecting asymptomatic carriers of infection. PMID:18077823

Gdoura, R; Kchaou, W; Ammar-Keskes, L; Chakroun, N; Sellemi, A; Znazen, A; Rebai, T; Hammami, A

2008-01-01

46

In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.  

PubMed

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC(90) = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC(90) = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC(90) = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections. PMID:23128812

Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

2012-10-30

47

Effect of Ph on Human Mycoplasma Strains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optimal reaction of culture media for the cultivation of T-strain Mycoplasma of human origin was investigated. By use of a recently modified tryptic digest medium, the optimal reaction in either agar or fluid medium was found to be pH 6.0. In contrast...

M. C. Shepard C. D. Lunceford

1964-01-01

48

Alterations in topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase in quinolone-resistant mutants of Mycoplasma hominis obtained in vitro.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hominis mutants were selected stepwise for resistance to ofloxacin and sparfloxacin, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. For ofloxacin, four rounds of selection yielded six first-, six second-, five third-, and two fourth-step mutants. The first-step mutants harbored a single Asp426-->Asn substitution in ParE. GyrA changes (Ser83-->Leu or Trp) were found only from the third round of selection. With sparfloxacin, three rounds of selection generated 4 first-, 7 second-, and 10 third-step mutants. In contrast to ofloxacin resistance, GyrA mutations (Ser83-->Leu or Ser84-->Trp) were detected in the first-step mutants prior to ParC changes (Glu84-->Lys), which appeared only after the second round of selection. Further analysis of eight multistep-selected mutants of M. hominis that were previously described (2) revealed that they carried mutations in ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParC (Ser80-->Ile), or ParC (Ser80-->Ile) alone, depending on the fluoroquinolone used for selection, i.e., ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, or pefloxacin, respectively. These data indicate that in M. hominis DNA gyrase is the primary target of sparfloxacin whereas topoisomerase IV is the primary target of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. PMID:9736554

Bébéar, C M; Renaudin, H; Charron, A; Bové, J M; Bébéar, C; Renaudin, J

1998-09-01

49

EFFECT OF PH ON HUMAN MYCOPLASMA STRAINS.  

PubMed

Shepard, Maurice C. (U.S. Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory, Camp Lejeune, N.C.), and Carl D. Lunceford. Effect of pH on human Mycoplasma strains. J. Bacteriol. 89:265-270. 1965.-The optimal reaction of culture media for the cultivation of T-strain Mycoplasma of human origin was investigated. By use of a recently modified tryptic digest medium, the optimal reaction in either agar or fluid medium was found to be pH 6.0. In contrast, human classic (large-colony) Mycoplasma could be cultivated in agar or fluid medium over a rather broad pH range, and the influence of the reaction of the medium appeared to be primarily species-dependent. M. salivarium, for example, grew best in agar from pH 5.5 through 6.5. M. pneumoniae (Easton's agent) yielded largest colony numbers in agar and highest titers in broth at pH 8.0. In the case of T-strain Mycoplasma, both maximal colony numbers in agar and highest titers in fluid media were achieved at a reaction of pH 6.0. In addition, largest colony size of T-strain Mycoplasma was also achieved in agar at pH 6.0, and averaged 50 to 100% larger than that obtained by cultivation at pH 8.0 with the same medium. Although T-strains will develop in agar media over a pH range of from 5.0 through 10.0, the extremely small colony size and poor staining properties resulting from growth in an alkaline medium make their recognition in agar cultures difficult. Aerobic cultivation of T-strains was first achieved in agar adjusted to pH 5.5 to 6.0. In fluid medium, multiplication of T-strains occurred only within the limits of pH 5.0 through 8.0, with highest titers being reached at pH 6.0. Greater attention to the reaction of complete Mycoplasma media is stressed. PMID:14255688

SHEPARD, M C; LUNCEFORD, C D

1965-02-01

50

Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, M. pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to GAR936, Dalfopristin, Dirithromycin, Evernimicin, Gatifloxacin, Linezolid, Moxifloxacin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Telithromycin Compared to Their Susceptibilities to Reference Macrolides, Tetracyclines, and Quinolones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to eight new antimicrobial agents were determined by agar dilution. M. pneumoniae was susceptible to the new glycylcycline GAR-936 at 0.12 mg\\/ml and evernimicin at 4 mg\\/ml, but it was resistant to linezolid. It was most susceptible to dirithromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, telithromycin, reference macrolides, and josamycin. M. hominis was susceptible to

GEORGE E. KENNY; FRANK D. CARTWRIGHT

2001-01-01

51

Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†  

PubMed Central

This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae.

Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Carvalho, Marcos O.; Pinto, Paulo M.; Almeida, Darcy F.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assuncao, Enedina N.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Brigido, Marcelo M.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Camargo, Sandro S.; Carepo, Marta S.; Carraro, Dirce M.; de Mattos Cascardo, Julio C.; Castro, Luiza A.; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambros, Bibiana P.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Falcao, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R.; Freitas, Nara S. A.; Frias, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Silvia N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Laurino, Jomar P.; Lima, Lucymara F. A.; Lopes, Maryellen I.; Loreto, Elgion L. S.; Madeira, Humberto M. F.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Maranhao, Andrea Q.; Martinkovics, Christyanne T.; Medeiros, Silvia R. B.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Neiva, Marcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E.; Nicolas, Marisa F.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Paixao, Roger F. C.; Pedrosa, Fabio O.; Pena, Sergio D. J.; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S.; Potrich, Deise P.; Salim, Anna C. M.; Santos, Fabricio R.; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S.; Schuck, Adriana F.; Seuanez, Hector N.; Silva, Denise W.; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sergio C.; Soares, Celia M. A.; Souza, Kelly R. L.; Souza, Rangel C.; Staats, Charley C.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Zaha, Arnaldo

2005-01-01

52

Evidence for the predominance of a single tet(M) gene sequence type in tetracycline-resistant Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis isolates from Tunisian patients.  

PubMed

Resistance to tetracyclines in genital mycoplasmas is due mainly to acquisition of the tet(M) determinant, which is frequently associated with conjugative transposon elements of the Tn916/Tn1545 family. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence of tet(M) in Tunisian isolates and to gain an insight into its origin and evolution. Twenty Ureaplasma parvum, two Ureaplasma urealyticum and 48 Mycoplasma hominis isolates, recovered from Tunisian patients with urogenital and infertility disorders, were evaluated for their resistance to tetracyclines and interrogated by PCR amplification for the presence of tet(M) and int-Tn, the gene encoding the integrase of Tn916/Tn1545-like transposons. The resistance rates to tetracyclines were 22.72 and 25.0?% among U. parvum and M. hominis isolates, respectively, with high-level resistance observed in 11 of the 12 resistant M. hominis isolates. All resistant isolates harboured both tet(M) and int-Tn sequences. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the tet(M) amplicon revealed a unique sequence shared by all tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of both species. Molecular typing indicated that the tetracycline-resistant U. parvum and M. hominis isolates were not clonal. Taken together, these data indicate that a single tet(M) gene sequence type, most probably transmitted via a Tn916/Tn1545-like transposon, contributes to most of the tetracycline resistance in U. parvum and M. hominis isolates in Tunisia. Because this tet(M) gene sequence type was harboured by different Mycoplasma spp. and by phylogenetically distinct isolates within these species, one could reasonably argue that it may have benefited from an efficient horizontal transfer context, making it highly competent to spread. PMID:22580915

Mardassi, Boutheina Ben Abdelmoumen; Aissani, Nadhem; Moalla, Imed; Dhahri, Douaa; Dridi, Abir; Mlik, Béhija

2012-09-01

53

Polymerase chain reaction versus culture for detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in the urogenital tract of adults and the respiratory tract of newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared with that of culture for detection ofUreaplasma urealyticum andMycoplasma hominis in 726 clinical specimens comprising 189 gynecological samples, 362 urological samples, and 175 samples from newborn infants. The sensitivity of PCR versus culture was 95% for both organisms, while the sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 91% forUreaplasma urealyticum and

M. Abele-Horn; C. Wolff; P. Dressel; A. Zimmermann; W. Vahlensieck; F. Pfaff; G. Ruckdeschel

1996-01-01

54

In Vitro Activity of Trovafloxacin Compared to Those of Five Antimicrobials against Mycoplasmas Including Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Isolates That Have Been Genetically Characterized  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of trovafloxacin against 125 strains of Mycoplasma species and Ureaplasma urealyticum, including fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant species, was compared to those of other fluoroquinolones, doxycycline, and erythromycin. The MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for all fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains was 0.25 mg\\/ml. Whatever the associated mutations, trovafloxacin exhib- ited greater activity than the other fluoroquinolones tested

C. M. Bebear; H. Renaudin; A. Charron; D. Gruson; M. Lefrancois

2000-01-01

55

Characterisation of protein and antigen variability among Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC) and Mycoplasma agalactiae field strains by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC) (Mmm LC) and Mycoplasma agalactiae are the most important mycoplasma species involved in the contagious agalactia syndrome. A total of 25 field strains from Spain and the two type strains were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Two polyclonal antisera (PAbs) raised against a pool of strains of each mycoplasma species were used. The results revealed

C. de la Fe; P. Assunção; R. S. Rosales; T. Antunes; J. B. Poveda

2006-01-01

56

Salpingitis in geese associated with Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220.  

PubMed

An outbreak of disease in a White Rhine laying goose flock was characterized by increased water uptake, increased mortality, production of eggs with abnormal shells, a 25% drop in egg production and 40% embryo mortality. Affected dead or sacrificed birds had sero-fibrinogranulocytic peritonitis and salpingitis, infiltration of the lamina propria in the uterus and heterophil granulocytes in the isthmus and magnum of the oviduct. Mycoplasmas, mainly identified as Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220, were isolated from the airsac, liver, ovary, magnum and peritoneum of some affected geese. Strain 1220 was originally isolated from a Hungarian gander with phallus inflammation and, according to detailed biochemical and serological examinations, it is expected to represent a new avian species within the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:19468942

Dobos-Kovács, Mihály; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Czifra, György; Stipkovits, László

2009-06-01

57

Highly specific and efficient primers for in-house multiplex PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum  

PubMed Central

Background Although sophisticated methodologies are available, the use of endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect 16S rDNA genes remains a good approach for estimating the incidence and prevalence of specific infections and for monitoring infections. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the development of a sensitive and affordable method for identifying pathogens in clinical samples is needed. Highly specific and efficient primers for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) system were designed in silico to detect the 16S rDNA genes of four bacteria that cause genital infections, and the PCR method was developed. Methods The Genosensor Probe Designer (GPD) (version 1.0a) software was initially used to design highly specific and efficient primers for in-house m-PCR. Single-locus PCR reactions were performed and standardised, and then primers for each locus in turn were added individually in subsequent amplifications until m-PCR was achieved. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained from each of the four bacterial gene fragments. Finally, the analytical specificity and limits of detection were tested. Results Because they did not amplify any product from non-STI tested species, the primers were specific. The detection limits for the Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum primer sets were 5.12?×?105, 3.9?×?103, 61.19?×?106 and 6.37?×?105 copies of a DNA template, respectively. Conclusions The methodology designed and standardised here could be applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous or individual detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. This method is at least as efficient as other previously described methods; however, this method is more affordable for low-income countries.

2014-01-01

58

Application of a Mycoplasma group-specific PCR for monitoring decontamination of Mycoplasma-infected Chlamydia sp. strains.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma contamination of biological materials remains a major problem. Most contaminations are caused by the use of Mycoplasma-contaminated cell lines. We adapted a Mycoplasma group-specific PCR to detect Mycoplasma contamination in cell lines and demonstrate its use in monitoring decontamination procedures with Mycoplasma-contaminated suspensions of Chlamydia spp. Three different methods were investigated: the use of Mycoplasma-specific antiserum in cell culture, physical separation by the combined use of enzymatic treatment and differential centrifugation, and the use of detergents. With these methods only incubation with Triton X-100 resulted in decontamination of Mycoplasma-contaminated suspensions of several laboratory strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. pecorum, and C. trachomatis. Only one C. pneumoniae strain, UZG-1, was sensitive to Triton X-100 treatment. Since 39 of 40 throat swabs from patients with symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection had positive reactions in the Mycoplasma group-specific PCR, this procedure could also have clinical significance in attempts to propagate C. pneumoniae strains from clinical specimens.

Ossewaarde, J M; de Vries, A; Bestebroer, T; Angulo, A F

1996-01-01

59

Mycoplasma gallisepticum species and strain?specific recombinant DNA probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic libraries of vaccine (F?K810) and wild type (S6) Mycoplasma gallisepticum were constructed in Escherichia coli (strain JM83) using the plasmid vector pUC8. Recombinant clones were screened by colony, dot and Southern hybridisations using P?labelled genomic DNA from M. gallisepticum strains K810 and S6. Eight clones were identified which contained DNA sequences specific to M. gallisepticum and one clone was

M. I. Khan; B. C. Kirkpatrick; R. Yamamoto

1989-01-01

60

[Molecular biological differences between strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum].  

PubMed

Differences in virulence of two Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains, S6 and A5969, are confirmed in experiments with chickens. Macromolecular discrepancies detected between these two strains are concerning the genomic size, electrophoretic spectra of DNA and proteins. Cross immunoblotting data with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies reveal major immunogens of protein nature in both the strains. Homologous proteins with different electrophoretic mobility are detected in other four M. gallisepticum strains. A possible participation of these proteins of M. gallisepticum in adhesion to the host cells is discussed. PMID:1455557

Nikonov, A V; Barlev, N A; Borkhsenius, S N

1992-01-01

61

Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting of Mycoplasma Species  

PubMed Central

Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selective amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplasmas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including Mycoplasma genitalium (n = 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (n = 9), Myco plasma flocculare (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (n = 10), and Mycoplasma dispar (n = 5). AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of mycoplasmal DNA with BglII and MfeI restriction endonucleases and subsequent ligation of corresponding site-specific adapters. The amplification of AFLP templates with a single set of nonselective primers resulted in reproducible fingerprints of approximately 60 to 80 fragments in the size range of 50 to 500 bp. The method was able to discriminate the analyzed strains at species and intraspecies levels as well. Each of the tested Mycoplasma species developed a banding pattern entirely different from those obtained from other species under analysis. Subtle intraspecies genomic differences were detected among strains of all of the Mycoplasma species analyzed. The extent of polymorphism varied markedly between the analyzed mycoplasmas, comprising pattern similarity levels from 61.7% detected among M. dispar strains to 95.9% detected among M. genitalium strains. The results of the present study provide evidence of the high discriminatory power of AFLP analysis, suggesting the possible applicability of this method to the molecular characterization of mycoplasmas.

Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Jensen, J?rgen S.; Ahrens, Peter

1999-01-01

62

Gardnerella, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the genital discharge of symptomatic fertile and asymptomatic infertile women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish the different prevalence of the microorganisms investigated in the two groups considered: fertile women with symptoms and asymptomatic women with infertility problems. The data from women (n= 952) investigated for two years for quality of genital discharge and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyiticum and Chlamydia trachomatis were retrospectively analyzed. In the population of fertile women with symptoms the microrganisms most frequently involved are Gardnerella vaginalis (26.6%), Candida species (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (9.2%). The genital discharges of asymptomatic women with infertility problems are characterized by a prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis (19.7%), Enterobacteriaceae or Enterococci (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (8.6%). The reduction of vaginal lactobacilli flora and the presence of an elevated number of polymorphonucleates in the vaginal discharge are important parameters to consider for the evaluation of the health status of the human female urogenital tract. Our results indicate that is important to culture the vaginal discharge for Streptococcus agalactiae and for prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci. Lastly, the reasons for the prevalence of some microorganisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci, Streptococcus agalactiae) in the population of infertile asymptomatic women need to be better analyzed especially after the recent studies correlating idiopathic infertility with the presence of cervical cytokines in women with an abnormal vaginal flora. PMID:20402416

Casari, Erminia; Ferrario, Antonella; Morenghi, Emanuela; Montanelli, Alessandro

2010-01-01

63

Gliding motility of Mycoplasma sp. nov. strain 163K.  

PubMed Central

The gliding movements of Mycoplasma sp. nov. strain 163K cells were characterized by photomicrographic and microcinematographic studies. The capability of gliding proved to be a very stable property of strain 163K. Cells were continuously moving, without interruption by resting periods, on glass as well as on plastic surfaces covered with liquid medium. Gliding cells always moved in the direction of their headlike structure; their course did not indicate any preference for a certain direction. Under appropriate growth conditions, cells showed linear and circular movements. Under inadequate conditions, cells glided in narrow circles or entered into zigzag trembling and tumbling movements. Organisms glided as single cells, in pairs, and in multicellular configurations. Movement patterns and gliding velocity were significantly affected by the cultivation and preparation time, the medium viscosity, and the storage and observation temperature. The number of passages on artificial media and the composition of the media used did not have a striking influence on gliding motility, but movements were effectively inhibited by homologous antiserum. The data obtained suggest that at least some of the structures associated with gliding are heat sensitive and located on the cell surface, that the gliding mechanism requires an intact energy metabolism, and, finally, that gliding motility is an extremely stable genetic property of Mycoplasma sp. nov. strain 163K. Images

Rosengarten, R; Kirchhoff, H

1987-01-01

64

Comparative Genomic Analyses of Attenuated Strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum? †  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry. While the complete genomic sequence of the virulent, low-passage M. gallisepticum strain R (Rlow) has been reported, genomic determinants responsible for differences in virulence and host range remain to be completely identified. Here, we utilize genome sequencing and microarray-based comparative genomic data to identify these genomic determinants of virulence and to elucidate genomic variability among strains of M. gallisepticum. Analysis of the high-passage, attenuated derivative of Rlow, Rhigh, indicated that relatively few total genomic changes (64 loci) occurred, yet they are potentially responsible for the observed attenuation of this strain. In addition to previously characterized mutations in cytadherence-related proteins, changes included those in coding sequences of genes involved in sugar metabolism. Analyses of the genome of the M. gallisepticum vaccine strain F revealed numerous differences relative to strain R, including a highly divergent complement of vlhA surface lipoprotein genes, and at least 16 genes absent or significantly fragmented relative to strain R. Notably, an Rlow isogenic mutant in one of these genes (MGA_1107) caused significantly fewer severe tracheal lesions in the natural host compared to virulent M. gallisepticum Rlow. Comparative genomic hybridizations indicated few genetic loci commonly affected in F and vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, which would correlate with proteins affecting strain R virulence. Together, these data provide novel insights into inter- and intrastrain M. gallisepticum genomic variability and the genetic basis of M. gallisepticum virulence.

Szczepanek, S. M.; Tulman, E. R.; Gorton, T. S.; Liao, X.; Lu, Z.; Zinski, J.; Aziz, F.; Frasca, S.; Kutish, G. F.; Geary, S. J.

2010-01-01

65

Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae and Effect of In Vitro Passage on a Mycoplasma bovis Strain Producing High Levels of H 2 O 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and oxygen uptake during the oxidation of NADH and L-a-glycerophosphate (GP) by lysed cells was determined for the type and field strains ofMycoplasma bovis andM. agalactiae. NADH oxidation by all the strains showed variable production of H2O2 ranging from 0 to 1.21 mol\\/mol O2 taken up. All strains were unable to oxidize GP, showing absence of

L. A. Khan; R. J. Miles; R. A. J. Nicholas

2005-01-01

66

Molecular analysis of field strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, small colony type isolated from goats in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular analysis of strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type (M. mycoides SC) isolated from goats was performed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting techniques. Among the 11 field strains of M. capripneumoniae from Tanzanian goats, two AFLP patterns were demonstrated, with 10

L. J. M Kusiluka; B Ojeniyi; N. F Friis; B Kokotovic; P Ahrens

2001-01-01

67

Decontamination of mycoplasma-contaminated Orientia tsutsugamushi strains by repeating passages through cell cultures with antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasmas-contamination of Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the obligated intracellular bacteria, is a very serious problem in in vitro studies using cell cultures because mycoplasmas have significant influence on the results of scientific studies. Only a recommended decontamination method is to passage the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains through mice to eliminate only mycoplasmas under influence of their immunity. However, this method sometimes does not work especially for low virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi which are difficult to propagate in mice. In this study, we tried to eliminate mycoplasmas contaminants from both high virulent and low virulent strains of the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi by repeating passage through cell cultures with antibiotics in vitro. Results We cultured a contaminated, high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi using a mouse lung fibroblasts cell line, L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lincomycin at various concentrations and repeated passages about every seven days. At the passage 5 only with 10 ?g/ml of lincomycin, we did not detect mycoplasmas by two PCR based methods whereas O. tsutsugamushi continued good growth. During following four passages without lincomycin, mycoplasmas did not recover. These results suggested that mycoplasmas were completely eliminated from the high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Furthermore, by the same procedures with 10 ?g/ml of lincomycin, we also eliminated mycoplasmas from a contaminated, low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Our additional assay showed that 50 ?g/ml of lyncomycin did not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, although MICs of many mycoplasmas contaminants were less than 6 ?g/ml as shown previously. Conclusion Our results showed an alternative method to eliminate mycoplasmas from the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains in place of in vivo passage through mice. Especially this notable method works for the decontamination not only from the high virulent strain also from the low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. For further elimination, lincomycin at the limit concentration, which does not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, can possibly eliminate most mycoplasmas from contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains.

2013-01-01

68

Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of two Mycoplasma agalactiae strains: clues to the macro- and micro-events that are shaping mycoplasma diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While the genomic era is accumulating a tremendous amount of data, the question of how genomics can describe a bacterial species remains to be fully addressed. The recent sequencing of the genome of the Mycoplasma agalactiae type strain has challenged our general view on mycoplasmas by suggesting that these simple bacteria are able to exchange significant amount of genetic

Laurent X Nouvel; Pascal Sirand-Pugnet; Marc S Marenda; Eveline Sagné; Valérie Barbe; Sophie Mangenot; Chantal Schenowitz; Daniel Jacob; Aurélien Barré; Stéphane Claverol; Alain Blanchard; Christine Citti

2010-01-01

69

Multiplex PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma fermentans, M. hominis and M. penetrans in cell cultures and blood samples of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was initially developed to detect the presence of mycoplasma genus DNA sequences in cell cultures and to differentiate between three human pathogenic mycoplasma species simultaneously. The assay in turn, proved to be a useful tool for the detection of mycoplasma infection in human DNA samples. One set of oligonucleotide primers which are specific for

P. C Choppa; A Vojdani; C Tagle; R Andrin; L Magtoto

1998-01-01

70

Fingerprinting of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from multiple-age layers vaccinated with live F strain.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates were obtained from three multiple-age commercial layer farms on which live F strain vaccine had been administered to each replacement flock for at least 2 years. All such isolates had restriction endonuclease DNA and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns characteristic of F strain. These cultures also hybridized in dot blot assays with both the MG strain-specific and species-specific DNA probes. In contrast, the original MG isolate that came from one of the farms before vaccination began clearly was not F strain. These results suggest that continuous use of live F strain vaccine in each replacement pullet flock on multiple-age commercial layer sites will result in displacement of the original field strain of MG with the vaccine strain. PMID:2177979

Kleven, S H; Khan, M I; Yamamoto, R

1990-01-01

71

Characterization of a culturable "Gastrospirillum hominis" (Helicobacter heilmannii) strain isolated from human gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Spiral organisms were isolated from an antral gastric mucosal biopsy specimen from a dyspeptic patient with gastritis. Only corkscrew-shaped organisms resembling "Gastrospirillum hominis" ("Helicobacter heilmannii") but no Helicobacter pylori-like organisms were seen in histological sections. H. pylori was not cultured from specimens from this patient. On the basis of biochemical reactions, morphology, ultrastructure, and 16S DNA sequencing, the isolated "G. hominis" was shown to be a true Helicobacter sp. very similar to Helicobacter felis and the "Gastrospirillum" but was separate from H. pylori. "G. hominis" is a pleomorphic gram-negative cork-screw-shaped, motile rod with 3 to 8 coils and a wavelength of about 1 micrometer. In contrast to H. pylori, it has up to 14 sheathed flagellar uni- or bipolar fibrils but no periplasmic fibrils. "G. hominis" grows under microaerobic conditions at 36 and 41 degrees C on 7% lysed, defibrinated horse blood agar plates within 3 to 7 days and can be subcultured under microaerobic but not under anaerobic conditions on media similar to those used for H. pylori and H. felis. The small translucent colonies were, in contrast to those of H. felis, indistinguishable from those of H. pylori. "G. hominis" is, like H. pylori and H. felis, motile, is oxidase, catalase, nitrite, nitrate, and urease positive, and produces alkaline phosphatase and arginine arylamidase. Like H. pylori and H. felis, it is sensitive to cephalothin (30-microgram disc), resistant to nalidixic acid (30-microgram disc), and sensitive to most other antibiotics. The 16S DNA sequence clusters "G. hominis" together with "Gastrospirillum," H. felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salmonii, Helicobacter nemestrinae, Helicobacter acinonychis, and H. pylori. PMID:10074528

Andersen, L P; Boye, K; Blom, J; Holck, S; Norgaard, A; Elsborg, L

1999-04-01

72

Characterization of a Culturable "Gastrospirillum hominis" (Helicobacter heilmannii) Strain Isolated from Human Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Spiral organisms were isolated from an antral gastric mucosal biopsy specimen from a dyspeptic patient with gastritis. Only corkscrew-shaped organisms resembling “Gastrospirillum hominis” (“Helicobacter heilmannii”) but no Helicobacter pylori-like organisms were seen in histological sections. H. pylori was not cultured from specimens from this patient. On the basis of biochemical reactions, morphology, ultrastructure, and 16S DNA sequencing, the isolated “G. hominis” was shown to be a true Helicobacter sp. very similar to Helicobacter felis and the “Gastrospirillum” but was separate from H. pylori. “G. hominis” is a pleomorphic gram-negative cork-screw-shaped, motile rod with 3 to 8 coils and a wavelength of about 1 ?m. In contrast to H. pylori, it has up to 14 sheathed flagellar uni- or bipolar fibrils but no periplasmic fibrils. “G. hominis” grows under microaerobic conditions at 36 and 41°C on 7% lysed, defibrinated horse blood agar plates within 3 to 7 days and can be subcultured under microaerobic but not under anaerobic conditions on media similar to those used for H. pylori and H. felis. The small translucent colonies were, in contrast to those of H. felis, indistinguishable from those of H. pylori. “G. hominis” is, like H. pylori and H. felis, motile, is oxidase, catalase, nitrite, nitrate, and urease positive, and produces alkaline phosphatase and arginine arylamidase. Like H. pylori and H. felis, it is sensitive to cephalothin (30-?g disc), resistant to nalidixic acid (30-?g disc), and sensitive to most other antibiotics. The 16S DNA sequence clusters “G. hominis” together with “Gastrospirillum,” H. felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salmonii, Helicobacter nemestrinae, Helicobacter acinonychis, and H. pylori.

Andersen, L. P.; Boye, K.; Blom, J.; Holck, S.; N?rgaard, A.; Elsborg, L.

1999-01-01

73

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma wenyonii Strain Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma wenyonii is a hemotrophic mycoplasma that causes acute and chronic infections in cattle. Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of this organism. The genome is a single circular chromosome with 650,228 bp and G+C% of 33.9. Analyses of M. wenyonii genome will provide insights into its biology.

Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; do Nascimento, Naila C.; SanMiguel, Phillip J.

2012-01-01

74

Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma wenyonii strain Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma wenyonii is a hemotrophic mycoplasma that causes acute and chronic infections in cattle. Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of this organism. The genome is a single circular chromosome with 650,228 bp and G+C% of 33.9. Analyses of M. wenyonii genome will provide insights into its biology. PMID:22965086

dos Santos, Andrea P; Guimaraes, Ana M S; do Nascimento, Naíla C; SanMiguel, Phillip J; Messick, Joanne B

2012-10-01

75

Observations on Membranes of Mycoplasma laidlawii Strain B  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic membrane of Mycoplasma laidlawii strain B is solubilized by anionic and nonionic detergents, succinylation, phospholipase A, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Cationic detergents are without effect, as are chelating agents, even in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cation. The detergent-solubilized membrane exhibits one peak in the analytical ultracentrifuge, but the sedimentation coefficient is dependent upon concentration of detergent. Simple dialysis does not remove all of the sodium dodecylsulfate except from lipid-depleted membrane particles. Membranes bind sodium dodecylsulfate but acetone powders of membranes do not. Sulfated alcohols with chain lengths of C14 and C16 are more tightly bound than dodecylsulfate. A constant amount of di- and trivalent cation is bound by the membrane upon aggregation. Only a portion of this cation is removable with chelating agents. No chelating agent is bound by these aggregates. A portion of the lipid-depleted membrane particles is solubilized by negatively charged lipids and detergents, giving rise to aggregates in the presence of divalent cation. Fractionations of detergent-solubilized membranes by preparative gel electrophoresis and ammonium sulfate were inconclusive. Density gradient centrifugation of succinylated membranes yielded at least five fractions which exhibited homogeneity by ultracentrifugation. Analytical gel electrophoresis of these fractions demonstrated heterogeneity. The composition of these five fractions suggested separation of protein from lipid.

Smith, P. F.; Koostra, W. L.; Mayberry, W. R.

1969-01-01

76

Mycoplasma pulmonis Genital Disease: Effect of Rat Strain on Pregnancy Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Mycoplasma pulmonis is a natural pathogen of the respiratory and genital tracts of rats. Dif- ferential susceptibility and severity of the respiratory form of the disease, known as murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM), exist between rat strains. We now report that specific rat strains vary in susceptibility to genital tract infection and pregnancy outcome. Methods: Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) female

Leticia Reyes; Donna A. Steiner; John Hutchison; Barbara Crenshaw; Mary B. Brown

77

In vitro influence of Mycoplasma species on the stimulation of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.  

PubMed

The influence of Mycoplasma species (sp.) on the stimulation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNG) was determined by means of the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) method. When opsonized Mycoplasma sp. were used the CL response of PMNG was greater than in the presence of nonopsonized strains. Nonopsonized and nonspecifically opsonized Mycoplasma sp. showed a different CL response pattern. The stimulation of PMNG was with M. pneumoniae significantly weaker than with the other Mycoplasma sp. Using isolated M. hominis strains always the same CL-reaction of PMNG was observed. On the other hand, with 12 isolated U. urealyticum strains different results were obtained; 9 strains isolated from the upper urogenital tract lead to a slight PMNG stimulation comparable to that of M. pneumoniae. No correlation was found between CL response and bacterial killing. The weak stimulation of PMNG by M. pneumoniae and most of the U. urealyticum isolates suggest that this behaviour could be a factor of pathogenicity. PMID:3146844

Krausse, R; Ullmann, U; Wagener, C

1988-11-01

78

Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and facilitate the design of new vaccines.

2013-01-01

79

Collaborative study report: evaluation of the ATCC experimental mycoplasma reference strains panel prepared for comparison of NAT-based and conventional mycoplasma detection methods.  

PubMed

The main goal of this collaborative study was to evaluate the experimental panel of cryopreserved mycoplasma reference strains recently prepared by the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC(®)) in order to assess the viability and dispersion of cells in the mycoplasma stocks by measuring the ratio between the number of genomic copies (GC) and the number of colony forming units (CFU) in the reference preparations. The employment of microbial reference cultures with low GC/CFU ratios is critical for unbiased and reliable comparison of mycoplasma testing methods based on different methodological approaches, i.e., Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) and compendial culture-based techniques. The experimental panel included ten different mycoplasma species known to represent potential human and animal pathogens as well as common contaminants of mammalian and avian cell substrates used in research, development, and manufacture of biological products. Fifteen laboratories with expertise in field of mycoplasma titration and quantification of mycoplasmal genomic DNA participated in the study conducted from February to October of 2012. The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of preparing highly viable and dispersed (possessing low GC/CFU ratios) frozen stocks of mycoplasma reference materials, required for reliable comparison of NAT-based and conventional mycoplasma detection methods. PMID:23910092

Dabrazhynetskaya, Alena; Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Lin, Tsai-Lien; Beck, Brian; Gupta, Rajesh K; Chizhikov, Vladimir

2013-11-01

80

Isolation of a Virus infecting a Strain of Mycoplasma laidlawii  

Microsoft Academic Search

MYCOPLASMAS are a group of microorganisms which can grow on cell-free medium and which are characterized by pleomorphism, for they are bound by a triple layered unit membrane instead of a rigid cell wall. The smallest reproductive forms are about 100 to 150 nm in size. They are the smallest known free-living organisms comparable in size with the myxoviruses, to

R. N. Gourlay

1970-01-01

81

Egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength, and mortality in three strains of commercial layers vaccinated with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Three strains of commercial leghorns vaccinated at 17 to 22 weeks of age with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) were maintained through 117 weeks of age. The three strains differed in both mortality and percent egg production per hen housed; however, the strains did not differ in egg weight (EW), eggshell strength (ESS), or percent daily egg production. Results of this study indicate EW and ESS for F strain MG-vaccinated hens follow patterns previously reported for uninfected layers. Further, mortality may account, in part, for differences in percent egg production per hen housed between strains of F strain MG-vaccinated hens. PMID:4074249

Branton, S L; Deaton, J W

1985-01-01

82

Differentiation of the vaccine F-strain from other strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by restriction endonuclease analysis.  

PubMed

The electrophoretic patterns of the nucleic acids (DNA) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains digested with the restriction enzymes Bam HI, Eco RI and Hind III were useful for differentiating the vaccine F-strain from other strains of M. gallisepticum. The procedure was more sensitive than the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. The vaccine F-strain, represented by cultures designated F-K810 and F-F2F10 was clearly differentiated from other strains of M. gallisepticum. This procedure may be useful in field studies to determine if the vaccine strain will replace wild-type M. gallisepticum in commercial layers. PMID:2705291

Khan, M I; Yamamoto, R

1989-02-01

83

Observations on the possible origin of Mycoplasma fermentans incognitus strain based on antibiotic sensitivity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain), isolated during transfection studies in NIH\\/3T3 cells with DNA extracted from Kaposi's sarcoma tissue from a patient suffering from AIDS, showed high levels of resistance to numerous aminoglycoside antibiotics (MICs >250 to >500 mg\\/L) and in this respect matched the aminoglycoside resistance patterns of M. fermentans strains isolated recently from tissue culture cells. Two M. fermentans

P. C. T. Hannan

1997-01-01

84

Identification and localization of a 94 kDa membrane protein found in Mycoplasma bovoculi strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of Mycoplasma bovoculi obtained from cattle herds with bovine keratoconjunctivitis were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting techniques. All six strains showed similarity in their protein profiles although no two patterns were identical. Antigenic differences between strains were detected in immunoblots reacted with post-exposure calf serum. A common 94 kDa protein band designated p94 was detected in all

Barik A Salih; Ricardo F Rosenbusch

1998-01-01

85

Immunochemical study of protein profiles of Taleghan, Fars, and Lorestan strains of Mycoplasma agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agalactia is a contagious disease in sheep and goats. To prevent the disease, a vaccine containing three strains of Mycoplasma agalactiae namely Taleghan (T), Fars (F), and Lorestan (L) is currently used in Iran. In this study, the protein profiles of T, F, and\\u000a L strains using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with 8.5% gel and Western blotting were

R. Firouzi; M. H. Hosseini; Homa Orangi; M. Motamed; Gh. Moazeni

2011-01-01

86

Effects of time-specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on prelay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on performance characteristics of commercial laying hens.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bacteria are virtually ubiquitous in layer chicken flocks, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines were initially approved by the USDA for use in commercial layers in 1988 to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks. In the present study, 2 trials were conducted to determine the effects of 2 currently available live Mycoplasma vaccines (the ts11-and F-strains) when used together. The following 4 inoculation treatments were used: 1) sham inoculation at 10 wk of age, 2) ts11 at 10 wk, 3) ts11 at 10 wk overlaid by the F-strain at 22 wk, and 4) ts11 at 10 wk overlaid by the F-strain at 45 wk. In each trial, at various ages between 18 and 57 wk of age, hen mortality; BW; egg weight; egg production; eggshell breaking strength; incidences of egg blood spots, egg meat spots, and eggshell pimpling; and eggshell weight per unit of surface area were assessed. The effects of inoculation treatment on egg weight at 27, 37, and 38 wk were inconsistent and variable. Eggshell pimpling and egg blood spot incidences at 56 wk were highest in eggs belonging to the ts11 at 10 wk/F-strain at 45 wk group. Despite increases in pimpling and blood spot incidences very late in production because of the ts11 at 10 wk/F-strain at 45 wk treatment, performance in layers was not adversely affected by a 10-wk ts11 inoculation alone or in conjunction with subsequent overlay inoculations of the F-strain during lay. It is therefore suggested that the 10-wk inoculation of commercial layers with ts11 may reduce the negative impacts of a prelay F-strain inoculation on performance, as reported in earlier studies, while providing protection against subsequent field strain M. gallisepticum infections. Furthermore, the ts11- and F-strain M. gallisepticum treatment combinations may overcome some of the inadequacies that prelay ts11- or F-strain M. gallisepticum vaccines may have when given independently. PMID:18339985

Vance, A M; Branton, S L; Collier, S D; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

2008-04-01

87

Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum at 22 or 45 wk of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum at 10 wk of age. The treatment groups included unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens receiving 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum only (group 2), and hens receiving 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum followed by F-strain M. gallisepticum at either 22 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) wk of age. There was no significant effect on egg production or egg size distribution between any of the treatment groups, unlike previous studies looking at F-strain vaccination only. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, Haugh unit score, and blood-meat spot were similar between the different treatment groups. There was a difference in the rate of pimpling at postpeak production for the treatment group receiving F-strain M. gallisepticum at 22 wk of age, consistent with previously published results. This work suggests that hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum can be safely revaccinated with F-strain M. gallisepticum to increase protection from field strains while ameliorating the adverse effects associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum vaccination in layers post onset of lay. PMID:20181866

Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D; Peebles, E D

2010-03-01

88

A physical map of the Mycoplasma agalactiae strain PG2 genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a physical map of the Mycoplasma agalactiae strain PG2 chromosome analyzing it by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a contour-clamped homogeneous electric-field system. We mapped 33 cleavage sites generated with SmaI, XhoI, SalI, EclXI and BsiWI restriction endonucleases using double digestions, one- and two-dimensional pulsed electrophoresis, cross-hybridization and linking clones. We have also mapped the loci of

Sebastiana Tola; Graziano Idini; Angela M. Rocchigiani; Stefano Rocca; Daniela Manunta; Guido Leori

2001-01-01

89

'Ureaplasma urealyticum' gen. nov., sp. nov: Proposed Nomenclature for the Human T (T-Strain) Mycoplasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological properties and special characteristics of the human T mycoplasmas have been reviewed and summarized. The T mycoplasmas are distinguished from all other known mycoplasmas by their porduction of urease, and, therefore, by their ability to hyd...

M. C. Shepard C. D. Lunceford D. K. Ford R. H. Purcell D. Taylor-Robinson

1974-01-01

90

Type 1 and type 2 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae form different biofilms  

PubMed Central

Several mycoplasma species have been shown to form biofilms that confer resistance to antimicrobials and which may affect the host immune system, thus making treatment and eradication of the pathogens difficult. The present study shows that the biofilms formed by two strains of the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae differ quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared with strain UAB PO1, strain M129 grows well but forms biofilms that are less robust, with towers that are less smooth at the margins. A polysaccharide containing N-acetylglucosamine is secreted by M129 into the culture medium but found in tight association with the cells of UAB PO1. The polysaccharide may have a role in biofilm formation, contributing to differences in virulence, chronicity and treatment outcome between strains of M. pneumoniae. The UAB PO1 genome was found to be that of a type 2 strain of M. pneumoniae, whereas M129 is type 1. Examination of other M. pneumoniae isolates suggests that the robustness of the biofilm correlates with the strain type.

Daubenspeck, James M.; Osborne, John D.; Balish, Mitchell F.; Waites, Ken B.; Dybvig, Kevin

2013-01-01

91

Influence of F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection on response of commercial layers to heat exposure.  

PubMed

Commercial layers were inoculated with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and housed in either conventional chicken houses or the lower-stress environment of biological isolation units. At the end of 2 weeks, all treatment groups were placed in environmental chambers and subjected to 4 hr of heat stress (40 C with a dew point of 21 C). Rectal temperature, an indicator of response to high heat, was monitored. Rectal temperatures of F strain MG-inoculated hens housed in the conventional chicken house environment were significantly higher than those of uninoculated controls, whereas rectal temperatures of hens held in isolation units were comparable to those of their uninoculated controls. PMID:3401170

Simmons, J D; Branton, S L

1988-01-01

92

Validation of the suppressive subtractive hybridization method in Mycoplasma agalactiae species by the comparison of a field strain with the type strain PG2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH), a method that allows the identification of sequences that are present in one genome (tester) but not in the other (driver), is a promising technique for the comparison of Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenic strains. The optimal conditions for SSH were established by subtracting the M. agalactiae type strain PG2 DNA from the M. agalactiae strain 5632

Marc S. Marenda; Edy M. Vilei; Joachim Frey; Xavier Berthelot

2004-01-01

93

Pathological and immunological characteristics of ewes experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains isolated from cattle and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological features of experimental infection with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (Mmm SC) isolated from cattle (CBPP strain) and sheep (mastitis strain) were investigated in 16 out of 36 ewes using an intratracheal–endobronchial route of inoculation. Animals kept in-contact with infected animals, as well as those of a control group, were also studied. The immune response to two

R Gonçalves; G Ferreira-Dias; A Belo; J Correia; M. L Ferreira; J. C Durão; J. V Goulão

2002-01-01

94

Intraspecific variation in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific variation in the 16S rRNA genes of 17 Mycoplasma agalactiae and eight Mycoplasma bovis isolates was investigated to determine the degree of sequence variation in these two species and to determine whether the polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA genes could be used for the construction of an evolutionary tree and as epidemiological markers. A high degree of variation was

Malin Heldtander Königsson; Göran Bölske; Karl-Erik Johansson

2002-01-01

95

Expression of Mycoplasma bovis variable surface membrane proteins in the respiratory tract of calves after experimental infection with a clonal variant of Mycoplasma bovis type strain PG45  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathomorphological findings and the expression and distribution of variable surface protein antigens (Vsp) of Mycoplasma (M.) bovis were characterised immunohistochemically in lungs of eight calves following inoculation with a Vsp A-expressing clonal variant of M. bovis type strain PG45. Within 48h post inoculation (p.i.) an innate immune response dominated by macrophages and neutrophils develops. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1A1

I. Buchenau; F. Poumarat; D. Le Grand; H. Linkner; R. Rosengarten; M. Hewicker-Trautwein

2010-01-01

96

Clearance of different strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis from the respiratory tract of C3H/HeN mice.  

PubMed Central

Pathogen-free C3H/HeN mice were exposed by aerosol to Mycoplasma pulmonis PG34(ASH), UAB 5782C, M1, UAB T, or UAB CT, and clearance of mycoplasmas from the nasal passages, trachea, and lungs was determined during the first 72 h postinoculation (PI). There were differences among strains of mycoplasmas in physical removal of organisms and in killing by nonspecific factors in the nasal passages and trachea. The avirulent strain, PG34(ASH), was quickly removed from the nasal passages and trachea. Physical removal of the other mycoplasmal strains occurred slowly, with 60 to 89% of the radioactive label remaining in the nasal passages and trachea even after 72 h. There were significant differences in killing among mycoplasmal strains by nonspecific host mechanisms in the nasal passages, trachea, and lungs. Strain UAB T was quickly killed at all levels of the respiratory tract. Strains UAB 5782C and M1 were killed at all three sites by 2 to 4 h PI. The most virulent strain, UAB CT, was killed much more slowly than the other strains. However, there was no statistical difference in the relative numbers of mycoplasmas present in the lungs at 72 h PI among strains UAB CT, UAB 5782C, and M1. These studies showed that the different mycoplasmal strains were cleared from the respiratory tract by different mechanisms and suggest that the differences in virulence among the mycoplasma strains can be explained, in part, by the differences in elimination of the organisms from the respiratory tract by nonspecific host defense mechanisms.

Davidson, M K; Davis, J K; Lindsey, J R; Cassell, G H

1988-01-01

97

Diagnostic methods for mycoplasma genitalium infections  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Monoclonal antibodies binding Mycoplasma genitalium more strongly than Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma salivarium and Acholeplasm laidlawii are described herein. These monoclonal antibodies are utilized in immunoassays directed toward the detection of M. genitalium infections. Hybridomas producing the above-described monoclonal antibodies have been created and isolated. These monoclonal antibodies are directed toward M. genitalium antigens. Certain antibodies bind protein antigens, while others bind lipid antigens. In one case a particular antibody apparently has binding affinity for both protein and lipid antigens of M. genitalium.

1992-10-27

98

Phospholipids and Glycolipids of Sterol-requiring Mycoplasma  

PubMed Central

The phospholipids of Mycoplasma hominis type 2 strain 07 are composed almost entirely of phosphatidyl glycerol. Traces of other glycerophospholipids may exist. No glycolipids are found. The phospholipids of Mycoplasma sp. avian strain J are composed of diphosphatidyl glycerol, which predominates in older cultures, a monoacyl glycerophosphoryl glycerophosphate, which may serve as a precursor of diphosphatidyl glycerol, and phosphatidyl glycerophosphate. This organism also contains cholesteryl glucoside and an unidentified glycolipid which appears to be similar to a monoglucosyl diglyceride. No turnover or radioisotope labeling of the phospholipids occurs during metabolism. This lack of turnover during growth is indicative of a structural role for these glycerophospholipids. A concomitant decrease of monoacyl glycerophosphoryl glycerophosphate and increase of diphosphatidyl glycerol occurs during growth.

Smith, Paul F.; Koostra, Walter L.

1967-01-01

99

Investigations into the survival of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae on materials found in the poultry house environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following preliminary experiments to determine suitable methods for studying mycoplasma survival, suspensions of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (four strains), Mycoplasma synoviae (two strains) or Mycoplasma iowae (two strains) were seeded onto replicate samples of cotton, rubber, straw, shavings, timber, food, feathers and human hair. The organisms were also seeded onto human skin, ear and nasal mucosa. All samples were cultured for viability

N. H. Christensen; Christine A. Yavari; A. J. McBain; Janet M. Bradbury

1994-01-01

100

Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of genital mycoplasmas in sexually active individuals in Hungary.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis strains cultured from the genital discharges of sexually active individuals who attended our STD outpatient service. Samples were taken with universal swab (Biolab®, Budapest, Hungary) into the Urea-Myco DUO kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) and incubated in ambient air for 48 h at 37 °C. The determination of antibiotic sensitivity was performed in U9 and arginin broth using the SIR Mycoplasma kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) under the same conditions. Between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2011, 373/4,466 (8.35 %) genito-urethral samples with U. urealyticum and 41/4,466 (0.91 %) genito-urethral samples with M. hominis infection were diagnosed in sexually active individuals in the National STD Center, Semmelweis University. U. urealyticum was isolated in 12.54 % in the cervix and 4.1 % in the male urethra, while M. hominis was isolated in 1.33 % in the cervix and 0.51 % in the male urethra. The affected age group was between 21 and 60 years old. U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to tetracycline (95.9 %), doxycycline (97.32 %), and azithromycin (85.79 %), and resistant to erythromycin (81.23 %), clindamycin (75.06 %), and ofloxacin (25.2 %). Cross-resistance occurred in 38.71 % of patients to erythromycin and clindamycin. M. hominis strains were sensitive to clindamycin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline in more than 95 %, to tetracycline in 82.92 %, and no cross-resistance was detected among the antibiotics. Our study confirms that the continuously changing antibiotic resistance of ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas should be followed at least in a few centers in every country, so as to determine the best local therapy options for sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients. PMID:23686458

Pónyai, K; Mihalik, N; Ostorházi, E; Farkas, B; Párducz, L; Marschalkó, M; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F

2013-11-01

101

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma ovis Strain Michigan, a Hemoplasma of Sheep with Two Distinct 16S rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma ovis strain Michigan. Its single circular chromosome has 702,511 bp and contains 2 copies of the 16S rRNA gene, one corresponding to M. ovis and the other to “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis.” All housekeeping genes and the 5S-23S rRNA genes are present in single copies.

Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naila C.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Dyson, Melissa C.

2014-01-01

102

Differences in incorporation of nucleic acid bases and nucleosides by various Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species.  

PubMed Central

Eight species representative of the serological diversity of the Mycoplasmatales were tested for their ability to incorporate radiolabeled nucleic acid precursors into acid-insoluble material. Cultures in complex growth medium were centrifuged and resuspended in minimal essential medium (Eagle). For Acholeplasma laidlawii, labeling occurred mainly during the first 4 h of incubation, with substrate saturation at 20 micron. All organisms tested incorporated uracil, adenine, and guanine; none incorporated cytosine. Thymine was incorporated only by bovine group 7, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (strain 3546), but deoxynucleosides enhanced thymine incorporation in A. laidlawii, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. pneumoniae (strain AP-164), and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Nucleoside incorporation (adenosine, guanosine, uridine, cytidine, and thymidine) was not observed for the arginine-utilizing species, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma arginini, whereas all other organisms tested incorporated nucleosides. The incorporation pattern provides additional metabolic evidence to support the biochemical and antigenic diversity of these organisms. The recognition of differences in incorporation of nucleic acid precursors is important not only to the specific labeling of these organisms, but also to the study of metabolism and transport.

McIvor, R S; Kenny, G E

1978-01-01

103

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma californicum Strain HAZ160_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan.  

PubMed

Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. It often leads to clinical mastitis outbreaks and often results in huge economic losses. Mycoplasma californicum is an important causal species of bovine mastitis. Presented here is the 799,088-bp complete genome sequence of M. californicum strain HAZ160_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25013143

Hata, Eiji; Murakami, Kenji

2014-01-01

104

Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features.

Foecking, Mark F.; Fox, Lawrence K.

2014-01-01

105

Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features. PMID:24994797

Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Fox, Lawrence K

2014-01-01

106

Antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma fermentans strains from various sources and the development of resistance to aminoglycosides in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Mycoplasma fermentans strains reputedly from human infections or tissue culture cells were much more susceptible to azithromycin than to clarithromycin or erythromycin. Lincomycin, clindamycin and several tetracyclines also exhibited good mycoplasmastatic activity but mycoplasmacidal concentrations were substantially greater than the MICs. Ciprofloxacin was the most active of three fluoroquinolones tested and was mycoplasmacidal at concentrations close to the MIC.

P. C. T. Hannan

1995-01-01

107

Identification of the Major Glycolipid from Mycoplasma SP., Strain J as 3,4,6-Triacyl-beta-D-Glucopyranose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mycoplasma sp., strain J, contains two glycolipids, cholesteryl beta-D-glucoside and 3,4,6-triacyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. The structure of the latter was proven by standard chemical procedures. Glycolipids comprise about 20% of the total lipids of the orga...

P. F. Smith W. R. Mayberry

1968-01-01

108

A comparative study of live attenuated F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines.  

PubMed

Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG "chick F" strain. In the present study, the commercially available F strain derivatives were compared for their ability to elicit seroconversion, persist in vivo, and protect against virulent MG-induced airsacculitis. In addition, a noncommercial laboratory-derived high-passage F strain isolate was included in the study. Commercial (Hy-Line W-36) layers were placed in biological isolation units at 9 wk of age (woa). At 10 woa, birds within each biological isolation unit were treated via eye-drop application with one of the three F strain-derived vaccines at one of four levels (1x, 10(-1)x, 10(-2)x, or 10(-3)x). For the commercially available F strain derivatives, 1x equaled the manufacturer's recommended dose. The 1x dose of the noncommercial laboratory-maintained F strain derivative equaled 20 microl of a 48 hr culture. For wk 1-6 postvaccination (p.v.), sera were collected weekly from each bird, and seroconversion was assessed via serum plate agglutination (SPA). Virulent MG (strain R(low)) challenge occurred via intratracheal inoculation at 7 wk p.v. Necropsies were subsequently performed to assess challenge-associated airsacculitus. For each F strain derivative applied at 1x and 10(-1)x, 100% seroconversion, as measured by SPA, was demonstrated by 6 wk p.v., and rates at the 10(-2)x dosage were 10% and 90% for the commercial vaccines and 60% for the laboratory-derived strain in this period. Following challenge, airsacculitis was observed in 66.67% of the nontreated controls but not in any 1x- or 10(-1)x-treated bird independent of applied F strain derivative. PMID:22856200

Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Purswell, J L; Jacob, R; Peebles, E D; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

2012-06-01

109

High prevalence of Mycoplasma infections among European chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Examination of four Mycoplasma species in blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of Mycoplasma species infections in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been extensively reported in the scientific literature. However, all previous reports highlighted the presence of Mycoplasmas in American patients. In this prospective study, the presence of Mycoplasma fermentans, M. penetrans, M. pneumoniae and M. hominis in the blood of 261 European CFS patients and 36 healthy volunteers was examined

Jo Nijs; Garth L Nicolson; Pascale De Becker; Danny Coomans; Kenny De Meirleir

2002-01-01

110

In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of different strains of Mycoplasma fermentans isolated from a variety of sources.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities to antibiotics of 24 strains of Mycoplasma fermentans (isolated from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients with acute respiratory disease, and tissue culture) were determined. MICs for 90% of the strains tested (micrograms per milliliter) were obtained for chloramphenicol (1.25), ciprofloxacin (0.078), clindamycin (0.078), doxycycline (0.625), erythromycin (> 10), gentamicin (> 10), levofloxacin (0.078), lincomycin (0.156), streptomycin (> 10), and tetracycline (0.625).

Hayes, M M; Foo, H H; Kotani, H; Wear, D J; Lo, S C

1993-01-01

111

Initial Proteomics Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins from Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Strains ts-11 and F Detected by Western Blotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in laye r chickens. The live MG vaccine strains that are available for use in layer chickens include F, ts-11 and 6\\/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6\\/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bird to bird. However, ts-11 and

2006-01-01

112

Emergence of atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae strains harboring a new prophage and associated with an alpine wild ungulate mortality episode.  

PubMed

The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine

2012-07-01

113

Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas.

Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Thiaucourt, Francois; Thebault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, Francois

2012-01-01

114

Vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum to reduce production losses in layer chickens.  

PubMed

The effect of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection or vaccination of Conn. F-strain MG on 45 weeks of egg production was analyzed using production records from 132 flocks of commercial layer hens. The flocks were located in Pennsylvania, and the data were collected for two years. On the average, layers maintained free from infection with MG laid 15.7 more eggs/hen housed than the MG-infected layers; figures were adjusted for layer-strain effect. This adjusted advantage decreased to 8.7 eggs/hen housed when uninfected flocks were compared with vaccinated flocks. Adjusted average production of vaccinated flocks was 7.0 eggs/hens housed more than production of MG-infected flocks. Egg production of four layer strains was observed with respect to vaccination or natural infection with MG. The four strains responded similarly whether vaccinated or infected. Route of vaccination and age of layer at time of vaccination influenced egg production of vaccinated birds. The adjusted average production/hen housed was 4.9 eggs greater for birds vaccinated via drinking water than for birds vaccinated via spray. The adjusted average was 10.3 eggs/hen housed greater for birds vaccinated between 8 and 18 weeks of age than for birds vaccinated after 18 weeks. PMID:7259680

Carpenter, T E; Mallinson, E T; Miller, K F; Gentry, R F; Schwartz, L D

1981-01-01

115

Safety and efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum TS11 vaccine for the protection of layer pullets against challenge with virulent M. gallisepticum R-strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma gallisepticum TS-11 vaccine was studied for its safety and protective ability in 49-day-old M. gallisepticum-free and Mycoplasma synoviae-free commercial Tetra SL layer chickens. Sixty birds were distributed into four groups: 15 were unvaccinated but were challenged with M. gallisepticum R-strain, 15 were vaccinated by eye drop and then challenged with virulent M. gallisepticum R-strain 4 weeks post vaccination, 15

Judit Bíró; J. Povazsán; L. Korösi; R. Glávits; L. Hufnagel; L. Stipkovits

2005-01-01

116

Vaccination of chickens with nonpathogenic Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a means for displacement of pathogenic strains.  

PubMed

Attempts to solve the problem of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) infection of poultry by a combination of eradication and antibiotic treatment have at best met with only partial success. As a result of the continuing economic burden of the disease, there has been a renewed interest in vaccination as a tool in the control of Mg. A particularly pressing problem exists in the commercial egg industry, where the occurrence of MG infection of layer hens at the onset of egg production leads to a marked depression in productivity. Vaccination with the F strain of Mg has been demonstrated to efficacious in the alleviation of this problem, and the procedure is widely employed in the USA. Under field conditions of vaccination the F strain was found to be virtually nonpathogenic, although challenge experiments show that it retains some pathogenicity. The strain is carried in the trachea of vaccinated layers for as long as one year, but only spreads slowly. A specific serological response to Mg is produced in response to vaccination. To some extent, this response is dose dependent, but it is quantitatively less than that produced by virulent strains introduced by the same route. It has been suggested that the continued presence of a nonvirulent Mg in the upper respiratory tract, and the concomitant local immunological response, may prevent infection by field strains of Mg. In fact, judicious vaccination procedures appear to lead to the displacement of pathogenic Mg by the vaccine strain. By these means, it may be possible to eradicate Mg from flocks while maintaining production. PMID:7287410

Levisohn, S; Kleven, S H

1981-07-01

117

Cytotoxic effect of Mycoplasma fermentans on mouse thymocytes.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro response of mouse thymocytes to various mycoplasmas was evaluated. Cultures of thymus cells from BALB mice were prepared in Earle minimal essential medium with 10 per cent fetal calf serum. After an initial drop in viability, cell populations stabilized at approximately 10-5 viable cells/ml for 3 to 5 days. Concentration of 10-6 to 10-8 colony-forming units of toxic isolates of Mycoplasma fermentans per ml killed over 50 per cent of these cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Four other mycoplasmas (M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, M. arthritidis and a nontoxic strain of M. fermentans) did not induce cytotoxicity of mouse thymocytes. Toxic isolates of M. fermentans multiplied in the presence of thymus cells as they were being inactivated. However, nonviable membrane preparations of these mycoplasma were also toxic, indicating that growth of the organisms is not a prerequisite for the toxic effect. The relevance of these findings for the isolation and identification of the membrane-associated toxic factor is discussed.

Gabridge, M G; Schneider, P R

1975-01-01

118

Isolation and analysis of tetracycline-resistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains from an infected goat herd in Cyprus - short communication.  

PubMed

A major concern with the use of tetracycline against mycoplasmas is the development of resistance. Infections in small ruminants due to tetracyclineresistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains are becoming a frequent problem worldwide. In the present paper the detection and analysis of three tetracycline-resistant M. agalactiae strains, isolated from infected goats in Cyprus, are reported. The three field isolates were identified as M. agalactiae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showing 98% identity to the M. agalactiae PG2 reference strain. Furthermore, they were found sensitive to tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin. In contrast, they were resistant to tetracycline. None of the putative genes [tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S)] that commonly contribute to high-level resistance to tetracycline could be amplified from their genome. Contrarily, the field isolates were found to carry ISMag1, an insertion sequence related to the IS30 family of mobile elements. Although ISMag1 is widely believed to induce high-frequency chromosomal rearrangements resulting in phenotypic changes of microorganisms, its potential role in tetracycline resistance of mycoplasmas requires further studies. PMID:23921341

Filioussis, George; Ioannou, Ioannis; Petridou, Evanthia; Avraam, Maria; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

2013-09-01

119

Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation before beginning of lay on the leukocytic characteristics of commercial layers.  

PubMed

A clinical study was conducted on commercial layers housed in biological isolation units, within which exogenous stress factors potentially affecting bird performance were minimized. This set-up was devised in order to assess how a pre-lay inoculation of S6 strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum affects the leukocytic properties of laying chickens. Previous studies have demonstrated relative decreases in lymphocyte and relative increases in heterophil percentages in birds infected with other strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. However, current results showed that the differential percentages of lymphocytes were decreased, whereas those of heterophils were increased, in both sham-inoculated control birds and birds inoculated with S6 Mycoplasma gallisepticum between 19 and 26 wk of age. This study clearly shows that a pre-lay inoculation of S6 Mycoplasma gallisepticum alone had no apparent effect on the leukocyte profile of commercial layers housed in biological isolation units. PMID:15077815

Peebles, E D; Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Willeford, K O; Jones, M S; Gerard, P D; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R

2004-01-01

120

Comparison of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions among strains of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, and reassessment of the taxonomic position of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7.  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of six type or reference strains belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and of Mycoplasma putrefaciens suggested the presence of two subclusters. One subcluster comprised M. mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony (LC) type and M. mycoides subsp. capri, whereas the second subcluster comprised Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. The type strains from M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and M. mycoides subsp. capri had identical spacer sequences. The existence of two subclusters was supported by predicted secondary structures of the analysed region. The nucleotide variations in the loop domains of the secondary structures might be a useful genetic marker to distinguish between the two subclusters. The secondary structure differences delineated the differences between the two subclusters more clearly than the nucleotide sequence alignments, which only showed a small number of differences, and some of these were common to both clusters. The data also provided evidence in favour of a reclassification of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 as another subspecies of M. capricolum. PMID:10843078

Harasawa, R; Hotzel, H; Sachse, K

2000-05-01

121

[The atypical forms of mycoplasmas persisting in the organism of mycoplasma's infected persons].  

PubMed

The antigens, DNA and RNA of mycoplasmas are preset in the blood serum of persons infected with urogenital mycoplasmas. The planting of patients' tests of blood serum containing antigen M. hominis on the artificial growth mediums resulted in the growth of mini-colonies of mini-cells (20-50 nm). The colonies subcultured hardly but sometimes formed solid bacterial lawn though never acquired "fried-egg" classical mycoplasma form. The proofs of identity of these colonies to M. hominis are presented. The mini-cells possessed infectiousness and ability to persist on a long-run in the internal organs of experimentally infected mice. Apparently, mini-cells are formed under impact of stress factors of the host immune defense and they are one of forms of mycoplasma's persistence in human organism. PMID:22416429

Rakovskaia, I V; Barkhatova, O I; Gamova, N A; Goncharova, S A; Gorina, L G; Levina, G A; Miller, G G; Raskova, T M; Rastegaeva, I N

2011-12-01

122

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Strains Identified by a Real-Time TaqMan PCR Assay.  

PubMed

A real-time TaqMan PCR assay based on the gene encoding the protein p37 was developed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Its specificity was validated with 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains (28 field strains and one reference strain) and other mycoplasma species or with other microorganisms commonly found in pigs. The estimated detection limit of this qPCR assay was 125 microorganism equivalents/?l. The same 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains and four previously fully sequenced strains were typed by two portable typing methods, the sequencing of the p37 gene and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The first method revealed 18 distinct nucleotide sequences and insufficient discriminatory power (0.934). The MLST scheme was developed with the sequenced genomes of the M. hyorhinis strains HUB-1, GDL-1, MCLD, and SK76 and based on the genes dnaA, rpoB, gyrB, gltX, adk, and gmk. In total, 2,304 bp of sequence was analyzed for each strain. MLST was capable of subdividing the 33 strains into 29 distinct sequence types. The discriminatory power of the method was >0.95, which is the threshold value for interpreting typing results with confidence (D = 0.989). Population analysis showed that recombination in M. hyorhinis occurs and that strains are diverse but with a certain clonality (one unique clonal complex was identified). The new qPCR assay and the robust MLST scheme are available for the acquisition of new knowledge on M. hyorhinis epidemiology. A web-accessible database has been set up for the M. hyorhinis MLST scheme at http://pubmlst.org/mhyorhinis/. PMID:24622092

Tocqueville, Véronique; Ferré, Séverine; Nguyen, Ngoc Hong Phuc; Kempf, Isabelle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

2014-05-01

123

Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans.

2013-01-01

124

Attenuated Mycoplasma bovis strains provide protection against virulent infection in calves.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is a major etiological agent of pneumonia and arthritis in feedlot beef cattle. To develop a novel live vaccine against M. bovis, two attenuated M. bovis strains, P150 and P180, were tested in calves for protection against challenge with the virulent M. bovis parental strain. Twenty calves were divided into four groups of five calves each that were designated as the P150, P180, positive control (PC), and negative control (NC) groups. Each calf in the P150 and P180 groups was immunized with 10(9)CFU of P150 or P180, respectively, via the nasal cavity, and the PC and NC groups received the mock inoculation. Baseline data were collected for 46 days post-immunization. The clinical signs were scored, and rectal temperatures and daily weight gain were recorded. The blood leukocyte count, the neutrophil ratio, and the serum levels of IgG, IgA, IFN-?, and TNF-? were quantified using laboratory tests, and the nasal shedding was evaluated using microbiological methods. The P150, P180, and PC calves were challenged with a dose of 10(10)CFU of virulent M. bovis by intratracheal injection on 3 consecutive days. The calves were monitored for 25 days post-challenge to observe changes in the baseline parameters. On day 25 post-challenge the calves were euthanized for necropsy and analysis of tissue samples. The P150 and P180 immunizations caused no clinical abnormality, and did not affect daily weight gain. The post-inoculation neutrophil ratio and serum levels of IgG and IFN-? significantly increased in the P150, P180, and PC calves, whereas the serum levels of IgA and TNF-? did not. After challenge, the PC group developed the typical clinical signs and pathology associated with M. Bovis infection, whereas immunization with P150 or P180 provided efficacious protection. Based on the scores for gross pathology and lung pathology, the protection rates of the P150 and P180 immunizations were 87.7% and 70.8%, respectively. The P150 attenuated strain is a promising candidate for a live vaccine against M. bovis infection in cattle. PMID:24462404

Zhang, Rui; Han, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Qi, Jingjing; Chen, Xi; Hu, Changmin; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

2014-05-23

125

Genome Sequences of Seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Strains Isolated from the Joint Tissue of Infected Swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause debilitating arthritis in swine. Currently, there are no M. hyosynoviae genome sequences in the GenBank database, which makes it impossible to understand its pathogenesis, nutrition, or colonization characteristics, or to devise an effective strategy for its control. Here, we report the genome sequences of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae. Within each genome, several virulence factors were identified that may prove important in the pathogenesis of M. hyosynoviae-mediated arthritis and serve as potential virulence markers that may be critical in vaccine development.

Bumgardner, Eric; Bey, Russell F.; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E.

2014-01-01

126

A Mycoplasma strain F38 growth-inhibiting monoclonal antibody (WM-25) identifies an epitope on a surface-exposed polysaccharide antigen.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) WM-25 differentiates by in vitro growth inhibition Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mycoplasma strain F38), which causes contagious carpine pleuropneumonia, from other Mycoplasma spp. (F. R. Rurangirwa, T. C. McGuire, A. J. Musoke, and A. Kibor, Infect. Immun. 55:3219-3220, 1987). The antigen identified by MAb WM-25 was isolated from solubilized Mycoplasma strain F38 organisms by MAb WM-25 affinity chromatography and was stained with Schiff's reagent, but not with Coomassie blue, after separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment of purified F38 polysaccharide with periodate abolished binding with MAb WM-25, and MAb WM-25 binding was blocked with laminarin, a complex oligosaccharide with beta(1-->3) sugar linkages. Purified F38 polysaccharide blocked both growth inhibition and agglutination of live F38 organisms caused by MAb WM-25 and rabbit antiserum to F38 organisms. The results in this paper demonstrate that MAb WM-25 binds a periodate-sensitive epitope on the F38 polysaccharide which is also exposed on the surface of Mycoplasma strain F38. Because MAb WM-25 also causes in vitro growth inhibition of F38, the reactive polysaccharide epitope may induce protective immune responses.

Rurangirwa, F R; Wambugu, A; Kihara, S M; McGuire, T C

1995-01-01

127

Analysis of the 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of Mycoplasma synoviae field strains.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma synoviae has been associated with economic loss in the chicken and turkey industries. The molecular characterization of M. synoviae at strain level allows the analysis of relationships between strains that may be valuable in epidemiological investigations. In the present study, the intergenic spacer region (ISR) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes was examined to see whether useful information about strains could be derived. M. synoviae has two copies of this region, which may not be exactly the same (intercistronic heterogeneity). Sequencing of the ISRs of 21 M. synoviae isolates and the type strain revealed that 19 of them had such heterogeneity so DNA cloning was performed where necessary. All sequences were analysed and aligned; the percentage similarity of the DNA was calculated and a dendrogram was constructed. The length of the ISRs varied between 305 and 309 base pairs. Apart from having extra A/Ts in poly-A or poly-T regions and the presence of a few polymorphisms, the sequences of the M. synoviae strains were similar. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the strains were assigned to 10 groups-taking into account that within each group the DNA similarity was 100%, while the lowest similarity between groups was 95.8%. The results were compared with those obtained with the vlhA gene, resulting in very similar M. synoviae groups. Although the ISR could be a good target for strain typing, as has been shown by others for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the method may be too cumbersome for routine use with M. synoviae because of complications with intercistronic heterogeneity. However, if the ISR sequence information was to be combined with other mutation detection techniques it could increase the discriminatory power. PMID:21331951

Ramirez, Ana S; Naylor, Clive J; Yavari, Christine A; Dare, Cynthia M; Bradbury, Janet M

2011-02-01

128

Characterization of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma sp. strain F38 and development of an identification system based on PCR.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma sp. (strain F38) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, which is a goat disease of great global concern. Strain F38 belongs to the so-called "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster," and the members of this cluster have many biochemical and serological properties in common, which makes it difficult to differentiate between them by conventional methods. Their phylogenetic interrelationship are thus uncertain. The 16S rRNA gene of the rrnB operon from strain F38 was cloned and sequenced. The sequence was compared with the 16S rRNA sequences of related mycoplasmas, and phylogenetic trees were constructed by parsimony analysis. A three-way ambiguity among strain F38, Mycoplasma capricolum, and Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 was observed in the trees. This observation is in agreement with a recent proposal to reclassify strain F38 and M. capricolum. A primer set was designed for in vitro amplification by PCR of a fragment of the 16S rRNA genes from the M. mycoides cluster. The amplimers of strain F38 could be distinguished easily from the corresponding amplimers from other members of the M. mycoides cluster by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI. This observation was utilized to design an identification system for strain F38. Part of the 16S rRNA gene of the rrnA operon from strain F38 was also cloned, and several sequence differences between the two rRNA operons were discovered, revealing microheterogeneity between the two 16S rRNA genes of this organism. PMID:8169205

Bascuñana, C R; Mattsson, J G; Bölske, G; Johansson, K E

1994-05-01

129

Aerosols as a Source of Widespread Mycoplasma Contamination of Tissue Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mycoplasma isolates were cultured from 15 antibiotic-free cell cultures obtained from a single laboratory. Complement-fixation tests showed that these isolates were antigenically related to each other but were unrelated to M. hominis type 1, M. hominis ty...

R. C. O'Connell R. G. Wittler J. E. Faber

1964-01-01

130

Characterization of a chromosomal region of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strain PG50 encoding a glycerol transport locus (gtsABC).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma species bovine group 7, represented by the type strain PG50, is one of six members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and has been implicated in sporadic and outbreak cases of polyarthritis and mastitis in Australian dairy cattle. This study describes cloning and sequencing a 7.9 kb region of the PG50 chromosome and identification of genes involved in glycerol transport (gtsA, gtsB and gtsC) that are followed by a putative lipoprotein gene lppB and a genomic locus containing two ORFs encoding putative membrane proteins. Long range PCR using primers spanning gtsABC and downstream flanking genes, and Southern hybridization analyses using a suite of probes derived from M. mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) strain Afadé for gtsA, gtsB and gtsC, lppB and the two downstream genes confirmed that these genes were conserved among Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 isolates and mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides subcluster [M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type (LC) and M. mycoides subsp. capri] but were absent in mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma capricolum subcluster (M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae). M. capricolum subsp. capricolum type strain California kid did not hybridize with the probe for gtsA and gave only weak or no hybridization signals with probes derived from the loci downstream of gtsABC, suggesting that this region has diverged in mycoplasmas belonging to subspecies of M. capricolum. It is shown that PG50, after the addition of a physiological concentration of glycerol to the growth medium, generates H(2)O(2) at levels comparable with strain Afadé, implying that the glycerol transport system is functional in Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. This suggests that in PG50, as in M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, glycerol uptake is followed by phosphorylation to glycerol 3-phosphate and then conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, catalysed by L-alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase, resulting in the production of H(2)O(2). The ability of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 to generate significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide may be important in pathogenesis. PMID:12576593

Djordjevic, Steven P; Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim

2003-01-01

131

The Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 232, the Agent of Swine Mycoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important member of the porcine respiratory disease complex. The genome is composed of 892,758 bp and has an average GC content of 28.6 mol%. There are 692 predicted protein coding sequences, the average protein size is 388 amino acids, and the mean coding density is 91%. Functions have been assigned

F. Chris Minion; Elliot J. Lefkowitz; Melissa L. Madsen; Barbara J. Cleary; Steven M. Swartzell; Gregory G. Mahairas

2004-01-01

132

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Twelve Weeks of Age on Performance and Egg Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisep- ticum (FMG) inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent performance and egg characteristics of com- mercial Single Combed White Leghorn hens were evalu- ated. In two trials, BW, feed consumption, egg production (EP), egg weight, egg size class, relative eggshell water vapor conductance, and relative percentages of eggshell, yolk and albumen weights were

M. R. Burnham; S. L. Branton; E. D. Peebles; B. D. Lott; P. D. Gerard

133

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the yolk characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary Poultry Fat (PF) on the blood characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk of age and dietary treatments (Basal Control Diets (BC) and basal control

E. D. Peebles; M. R. Burnham; S. L. Branton; S. K. Womack

2009-01-01

134

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Twelve Weeks of Age on Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Egg Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental inoculation with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) between 8 and 18 wk of age is known to affect reproductive performance in commercial layers. Therefore, two trials were conducted to determine if changes in digestive and reproductive organ characteristics also occur in commercial laying hens infected with FMG at 12 wk of age. In Trial 1, liver weight, liver

M. R. Burnham; E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; M. S. Jones; P. D. Gerard; W. R. Maslin

135

Mutations in GTP Binding Protein Obg of Mycoplasma synoviae Vaccine Strain MS-H: Implications in Temperature-Sensitivity Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma synoviae strain MS-H, developed by chemical mutagenesis of the Australian field strain 86079/7NS, is a live temperature-sensitive (ts+) vaccine used for control of M. synoviae infection in poultry worldwide. Genetic basis of temperature sensitivity and attenuation of MS-H has not been revealed thus far. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of MS-H, its parent strain 86079/7NS and two non-temperature sensitive (ts–) reisolates of MS-H revealed a mutation in a highly conserved domain of GTP binding protein Obg of MS-H, with reversion in ts– MS-H reisolates. Nucleotide change from G to A at position 369 of the obg gene resulted in an alteration of glycine to arginine at position 123 in Obg fold. Further analysis of the complete obg gene sequence in several MS-H reisolates revealed that a Gly123Arg substitution was associated with alteration in temperature sensitivity phenotype of MS-H. A second mutation, C to T at position 629, in obg gene was found in some of the MS-H reisolates and appeared to suppress the effects of the Gly123Arg substitution. In silico analysis of point mutations revealed that Gly123Arg has highly destabilizing effect on the MS-H Obg structure that can potentially abolish its biological functions in vivo especially at non-permissive temperature. Findings of this study implicate Obg alteration (Gly123Arg) as one of the possible causes of MS-H attenuation/temperature sensitivity and warrant further investigations into exploring the role of Obg-like proteins, an evolutionarily conserved protein from human to bacteria, in the biology of mycoplasmas.

Shahid, Muhammad A.; Markham, Philip F.; Markham, John F.; Marenda, Marc S.; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

2013-01-01

136

Differences in Accumulation of Radiolabeled Amino Acids and Polyamines by Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species in the order Mycoplasmatales, Mycoplasma capricolum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma arginini, and Acholeplasma laidlawii, were compared for their ability to accumulate radiolabeled amino acids and polyamines. The use of a novel high-molecular-weight (HMW) medium, from which molecules of less than 12,000 molecular weight had been removed by extensive dialysis, allowed us to discern significant differences among the species in

K. E. SJOSTROM; GEORGE E. KENNY

1990-01-01

137

Utilization of neuraminic acid receptors by mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Erythrocytes and H-HeLa cells were treated with neuraminidase and then compared with untreated cells for their ability to adsorb to mycoplasma colonies or be agglutinated by suspensions of the mycoplasmas. Of the 17 mycoplasma serotypes examined, only 4 were found to use neuraminic acid receptors; these were Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and mycoplasma WR1. Not all strains of a serotype behaved alike. Thus, removal of receptors on erythrocytes for one strain of M. gallisepticum required at least 100 times the concentration of neuraminidase needed to remove them for another strain. The mechanism of attachment of erythrocytes to mycoplasma colonies does not appear to be the same as that for attachment to mycoplasmas in suspension. PMID:5788718

Manchee, R J; Taylor-Robinson, D

1969-06-01

138

The effects of ts-11 strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination in commercial layers on egg production and selected egg quality parameters.  

PubMed

Live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines have been USDA approved and licensed for use in commercial layer chickens since 1988; however, egg production and egg quality data exist only for the F strain of MG. Information pertinent to the effects of ts-11 MG on egg and eggshell quality parameters, as well as egg size distribution, is lacking. In this study, pullets were inoculated at 10 wk of age with ts-11 strain MG and placed in biological isolation units at 10 birds/unit. Hen-day egg production, eggshell strength, Haugh unit score, pimpling incidence, and blood/meat spot incidence were monitored and recorded in each trial through a 45-wk production cycle. Further, eggs from all treatments were collected daily, Monday-Thursday, and individually weighed. Results of this study indicate that no significant difference was observed between the treatments for the parameters measured or for egg size distribution. Therefore, these data should lessen producers' concerns pertaining to the impact of ts-11 strain MG on egg production, egg and eggshell quality parameters, and egg size distribution. PMID:11007009

Branton, S L; Lott, B D; May, J D; Maslin, W R; Pharr, G T; Bearson, S D; Collier, S D; Boykin, D L

2000-01-01

139

Blastocystis hominis revisited.  

PubMed Central

Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular organism found commonly in the intestinal tract of humans and many other animals. Very little is known of the basic biology of the organism, and controversy surrounds its taxonomy and pathogenicity. There morphological forms (vacuolar, granular, and ameboid) have been recognized, but recent studies have revealed several additional forms (cyst, avacuolar, and multivacuolar). The biochemistry of the organism has not been studied to any extent, and organelles and structures of unknown function and composition are present in the cells. Several life cycles have been proposed but not experimentally validated. The form used for transmission has not been defined. Infections with the organism are worldwide and appear in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals. Symptoms generally attributed to B. hominis infection are nonspecific, and the need for treatment is debated. If treatment appears warranted, metronidazole is suggested as the drug of choice, although failures of this drug in eradicating the organism have been reported. Infection is diagnosed by light microscopic examination of stained smears or wet mounts of fecal material. Most laboratories identify B. hominis by observing the vacuolar form, although morphological studies indicate that other forms, such as the cyst form and multivacuolar form, also should be sought for diagnosis.

Stenzel, D J; Boreham, P F

1996-01-01

140

ICEA of Mycoplasma agalactiae: a new family of self-transmissible integrative elements that confers conjugative properties to the recipient strain.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major force of microbial evolution but was long thought to be marginal in mycoplasmas. In silico detection of exchanged regions and of loci encoding putative Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICE) in several mycoplasma genomes challenged this view, raising the prospect of these simple bacteria being able to conjugate. Using the model pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae, we demonstrated for the first time that one of these elements, ICEA, is indeed self-transmissible. As a hallmark of conjugative processes, ICEA transfers were DNase resistant and required viable cells. ICEA acquisition conferred ICE-negative strains with the new ability to conjugate, allowing the spread of ICEA. Analysis of transfer-deficient mutants indicated that this process requires an ICEA-encoded lipoprotein of unknown function, CDS14. Formation of a circular extrachromosomal intermediate and the subsequent chromosomal integration of ICEA involved CDS22, an ICEA-encoded product distantly related to the ISLre2 transposase family. Remarkably, ICEA has no specific or no preferential integration site, often resulting in gene disruptions. Occurrence of functional mycoplasma ICE offers these bacteria with a means for HGT, a phenomenon with far-reaching implications given their minute-size genome and the number of species that are pathogenic for a broad host-range. PMID:23888872

Dordet Frisoni, Emilie; Marenda, Marc Serge; Sagné, Eveline; Nouvel, Laurent Xavier; Guérillot, Romain; Glaser, Philippe; Blanchard, Alain; Tardy, Florence; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Baranowski, Eric; Citti, Christine

2013-09-01

141

Effects of Broiler Rearing Environment on Transmission of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum from Commercial Layer Hens to Broiler Chickens: Role of AcidBase Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin in F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculated layers and FMG contact- infected broilers. At the termination of the study, FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O and the lowest partial pressure of CO as compared with the other treatment groups. Blood pH values

H. A. Olanrewaju; J. L. Purswell; S. D. Collier; S. L. Branton

2009-01-01

142

The prevalence of antibody of antibody to contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (Mycoplasma strain F38) in some wild herbivores and camels in Kenya.  

PubMed

Sera of 11 species of wild herbivores were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma strain F38 which causes contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Kenya. Antibodies were found in buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (32%), impala (Aepyceros melampus) (10%) and camels (Camelus dromedarius) (49%) but not in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), kongoni (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei), oryx (Oryx beisa), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii), waterbuck (Kobus defassa) and wildebeest (Connochaetus taurinus). PMID:691121

Paling, R W; Macowan, K J; Karstad, L

1978-07-01

143

Correlates of Immune Protection in Chickens Vaccinated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strain GT5 following Challenge with Pathogenic M. gallisepticum Strain Rlow  

PubMed Central

Colonization of the avian respiratory tract with Mycoplasma gallisepticum results in a profound inflammatory response in the trachea, air sacs, conjunctiva, and lungs. A live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccine strain, GT5, was previously shown to be protective in chickens upon challenge; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine and others confer protection remain largely unknown. The current study evaluated several potential correlates of GT5 vaccine-mediated immune protection following challenge with the pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain Rlow. GT5-vaccinated chickens developed mild tracheal lesions, consisting of few and scattered, discrete, lymphofollicular aggregates in the lamina propria. In addition, low numbers of aggregated B, CD4+, and CD8+ cells were observed to infiltrate the trachea, in stark contrast to the large numbers infiltrating the tracheas of sham-vaccinated chickens challenged with Rlow. Lymphofollicular aggregates were rarely observed prior to day 12 postchallenge in sham-vaccinated chickens. Instead, they contained an increasingly more cellular inflammatory response characterized by expansion of the lamina propria by lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrates. This was due in part to expansion of interfollicular zones by large numbers of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ cells and a sizeable population of immunoglobulin A (IgA)- and IgG-secreting plasma cells. GT5-vaccinated chickens also had higher serum IgG concentrations, and significantly higher numbers of M. gallisepticum-specific IgG- and IgA-secreting plasma/B cells within the trachea, than did sham-vaccinated chickens. These responses were observed as early as day 4 postchallenge, indicating the importance of antibody-mediated clearance of mycoplasma in GT5-vaccinated chickens.

Javed, Mohammed A.; Frasca, Salvatore; Rood, Debra; Cecchini, Katharine; Gladd, Martha; Geary, Steven J.; Silbart, Lawrence K.

2005-01-01

144

Identification of novel immunogenic proteins in Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae strain M1601.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to obtain immunogenic proteins and potential proteins of interest that were isolated from Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of whole cell preparation were conducted, and membrane proteome maps were prepared by immunoblotting. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE identified three immunogenic proteins with molecular masses in the range 29-97.2 kDa, two of which were in the membrane protein fraction. After two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 20 highly immunogenic proteins were identified in the whole cell protein preparation while 9 immunogenic proteins were identified in the membrane protein fraction. This indicated that membrane proteins were the principle immunogenic proteins in Mccp. These proteins may have potential for the development of improved diagnostic tests and possible vaccines. PMID:22673397

Zhao, Ping; He, Ying; Chu, Yue-feng; Gao, Peng-cheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Nian-zhang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Zhang, Ke-shan; Lu, Zhong-xin

2012-09-01

145

The genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 232, the agent of swine mycoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We present the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important member of the porcine respiratory disease complex. The genome is composed of 892,758 bp and has an average G+C content of 28.6 mol%. There are 692 predicted protein coding sequences, the average protein size is 388 amino acids, and the mean coding density is 91%. Functions have been assigned to 304 (44%) of the predicted protein coding sequences, while 261 (38%) of the proteins are conserved hypothetical proteins and 127 (18%) are unique hypothetical proteins. There is a single 16S-23S rRNA operon, and there are 30 tRNA coding sequences. The cilium adhesin gene has six paralogs in the genome, only one of which contains the cilium binding site. The companion gene, P102, also has six paralogs. Gene families constitute 26.3% of the total coding sequences, and the largest family is the 34-member ABC transporter family. Protein secretion occurs through a truncated pathway consisting of SecA, SecY, SecD, PrsA, DnaK, Tig, and LepA. Some highly conserved eubacterial proteins, such as GroEL and GroES, are notably absent. The DnaK-DnaJ-GrpR complex is intact, providing the only control over protein folding. There are several proteases that might serve as virulence factors, and there are 53 coding sequences with prokaryotic lipoprotein lipid attachment sites. Unlike other mycoplasmas, M. hyopneumoniae contains few genes with tandem repeat sequences that could be involved in phase switching or antigenic variation. Thus, it is not clear how M. hyopneumoniae evades the immune response and establishes a chronic infection. PMID:15489423

Minion, F Chris; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Madsen, Melissa L; Cleary, Barbara J; Swartzell, Steven M; Mahairas, Gregory G

2004-11-01

146

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, a Hemotropic Mycoplasma?  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis strain Langford 1, representing the first hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) species to be completely sequenced and annotated. Originally isolated from a cat with hemolytic anemia, this strain induces severe hemolytic anemia when inoculated into specific-pathogen-free-derived cats. The genome sequence has provided insights into the biology of this uncultivatable hemoplasma and has identified potential molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity.

Barker, Emily N.; Helps, Chris R.; Peters, Iain R.; Darby, Alistair C.; Radford, Alan D.; Tasker, Severine

2011-01-01

147

Draft Genome Sequence of the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Dermabacter hominis 1368  

PubMed Central

Dermabacter hominis is a common colonizer of the healthy human skin and is rarely detected as an opportunistic human pathogen. The genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant D. hominis strain 1368, isolated from blood cultures of a pyelonephritis patient, provides insights into the repertoire of antibiotic resistance genes.

Albersmeier, Andreas; Bomholt, Christina; Glaub, Alina; Ruckert, Christian; Soriano, Francisco; Fernandez-Natal, Isabel

2014-01-01

148

Proteomic survey of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 7448 and identification of novel post-translationally modified and antigenic proteins.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an important pathogen for pigs, being the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. Recently, the genome sequences of three strains, J, 7448 and 232 have been reported. Here, we describe the results of a proteomic analysis, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble protein extracts, immunoblot and mass spectrometry, which was carried out aiming the identification of gene products and antigenic proteins from the M. hyopneumoniae pathogenic strain 7448. A preliminary M. hyopneumoniae proteome map in two pH ranges (3-10 and 4-7) was produced. A total of 31 different coding DNA sequences (CDSs), including three hypothetical ones, were experimentally verified with the identification of the corresponding protein products by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional classification, the identified proteins were assigned to the groups of metabolism (13), cellular processes (5) and information and storage processing (4). Nine of the identified proteins were not classifiable by COG, including some related to cytoadherence and possibly involved in pathogenicity. Moreover, at least five highly antigenic proteins of M. hyopneumoniae were identified by immunoblots, including four novel ones (a heat shock protein 70, an elongation factor Tu, a pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-beta subunit and the P76 membrane protein). The now available proteome map is expected to serve as a reference for comparative analyses between M. hyopneumoniae pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, and for methabolic studies based on cells cultured under modified conditions. PMID:17182197

Pinto, Paulo Marcos; Chemale, Gustavo; de Castro, Luiza Amaral; Costa, Ana Paula Metz; Kich, Jalusa Deon; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

2007-03-31

149

The production of pneumonia with or without pleurisy in gnotobiotic piglets with pure cultures of strain TR32 of Mycoplasma hyorhinis  

PubMed Central

Nine gnotobiotic piglets, when 8-9 days old, were exposed to an aerosol of strain TR32 of Mycoplasma hyorhinis and killed at intervals from 14 to 37 days after infection. The aerosol of M. hyorhinis caused bronchopneumonia in 1 pig, pleurisy alone in 2 pigs, pleuropneumonia in 2 pigs and no lung changes in 4 pigs. M. hyorhinis was re-isolated from the lungs of all infected pigs, irrespective of the presence or absence of lesions, though it was only isolated from the serosa and joints when lesions were present. Four control pigs exposed to aerosols of mycoplasma medium had no lesions. ImagesPlate 1Plate 1Plate 2Plate 2

Poland, J.; Edington, N.; Gois, M.; Betts, A. O.

1971-01-01

150

Molecular basis for cytadsorption of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Hemadsorbing (HA+) virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae and spontaneously derived nonhemadsorbing (HA-) avirulent mutants were compared by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques in an attempt to understand the molecular basis for cytadsorption. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of intact mycoplasmas indicated that both virulent and avirulent mycoplasmas displayed similar surface protein patterns. A specific external protein, P1 (molecular weight, 165,000), previously implicated as a major ligand mediating attachment, was readily detected in HA+ and HA- mycoplasma strains. However, immunoferritin electron microscopy, with monospecific antibody against P1, revealed that differences in P1 topography existed among these strains. Only virulent mycoplasmas exhibited high concentrations of P1 at the terminal organelle. Avirulent mycoplasmas which possessed P1 showed no P1 clustering at the terminus. Both virulent M. pneumoniae and avirulent P1-containing mutants possessed numerous less dense P1 regions along the mycoplasma surface. Not surprisingly, an HA- mutant lacking P1 exhibited only background immunoferritin labeling. Negative staining of intact mycoplasmas revealed a well-defined, naplike terminus (associated with P1 clusters) confined at the tip of virulent M. pneumoniae. Previous characterization of HA+ virulent and HA- avirulent strains of M. pneumoniae by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests that identified groups of mycoplasma proteins, lacking in specific HA- mycoplasmas, regulate the physical arrangement of P1 and the ultrastructure of the terminus, thus influencing adherence to the respiratory epithelium and virulence. PMID:6809731

Baseman, J B; Cole, R M; Krause, D C; Leith, D K

1982-09-01

151

Effects of time-specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum vaccination on blood characteristics of commercial laying hens.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time-specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treatments were utilized: 1) sham vaccination at 10 wk of age, 2) vaccination of ts-11MG at 10 wk, 3) ts-11MG at 10 wk overlaid by FMG inoculation at 22 wk, and 4) ts-11MG at 10 wk overlaid by FMG at 45 wk. Parameters measured in both trials were whole blood hematocrit, plasma protein, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum calcium. No significant age x treatment interactions and no significant age or treatment main effects were observed for any of the blood parameters investigated, except for serum calcium. At wk 22, serum calcium concentrations were increased by vaccination with ts-11MG at 10 wk, and levels were further increased when the ts-11MG vaccination at 10 wk was overlaid by an FMG inoculation at 22 wk. These results suggest that ts-11MG vaccination at 10 wk of age alone or combined with F-strain inoculum overlays at either 22 or 45 wk may be used without any consequential effects on hematocrit or the lipid and protein levels in the blood of commercial layers. Because elevations in serum calcium were not associated with changes in hen performance, as reported in a previous companion article, it is further suggested that prelay ts-11MG vaccination before FMG inoculation overlays during lay may provide adequate protection against field strain M. gallisepticum infections while being innocuous to layer performance. PMID:19359676

Peebles, E D; Vance, A M; Branton, S L; Collier, S D; Gerard, P D

2009-05-01

152

Comparison of the new Mycofast Revolution assay with a molecular assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas from clinical specimens  

PubMed Central

Background Genital mycoplasmas are opportunistic bacteria that are associated with undesirable gynaecologic and reproductive events. Mycoplasmas are fastidious bacteria with increasing resistance to routine antimicrobials and often fail to grow on conventional culture methods. The commercial Mycofast Revolution assay permits the phenotypic detection and identification of genital mycoplasmas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against five antimicrobial agents with MICs corresponding to the CLSI guidelines can also be performed. This study aimed to compare the new commercially available Mycofast Revolution assay with a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Self-collected swabs were obtained from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in Pretoria, South Africa from October 2012 to November 2012. These swabs were used to seed UMMt and modified Amies transport media. The seeded UMMt transported medium was used to inoculate the Mycofast Revolution assay for the identification, enumeration and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of genital mycoplasmas. Following DNA extraction from the modified Amies transport medium, specimens were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas. Results The Mycofast Revolution kit had a sensitivity and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI: 62.15% to 88.51%) and 80% (95% CI: 28.81% to 96.70%), respectively, against the PCR assay. The positive and negative predictive values were 97.1% (95% CI: 85.03% to 99.52%) and 28.6% (95% CI: 8.57% to 58.08%). Genital mycoplasmas were detected in 71.4% (35/49) of samples with the Mycofast Revolution assay with 49% (24/49) being Ureaplasma spp. and 22.4% (11/49) mixed strains. The multiplex PCR assay had a positivity rate of 89.8% (44/49) for genital mycoplasmas; mixed strains were present in 51% (25/49) of samples, Ureaplasma spp. in 16.3% (8/49) and M. hominis in 22.4% (11/49) of samples. Conclusions There was a fair agreement (??=?0.319) between the Mycofast Revolution assay and the mPCR assay. With the high prevalence rates of genital mycoplasmas, fast and efficient diagnostic methods are imperative to treat infections and minimise complications. The Mycofast Revolution assay is simple to use, has a short turn-around time and interpretation of results are straightforward. This assay circumvents common problems experienced with conventional culture and molecular methods in diagnostic laboratories where skilled personnel are limited and can be used as an alternative diagnostic assay.

2013-01-01

153

Insertion element IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony identifies a European clonal line distinct from African and Australian strains.  

PubMed

Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type, the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), were analysed with respect to the polymorphism of distribution of a newly discovered insertion element, IS1296, on the chromosome. Analysis of 64 strains isolated from Europe, Africa and Australia, including four vaccine strains and the type strain PG1, revealed ten different IS patterns, forming two main clusters. The European strains originated from outbreaks of CBPP in different countries, and from various other sources such as semen and preputial washings from cattle, lungs from goats and buffalo, and milk from sheep. They showed identical IS1296 patterns, except one strain which had an additional IS1296 element, but the pattern belonged to the same cluster. This shows that the strains from Europe form a clonal lineage. The strains originating from different geographical parts of the African continent and from Australia showed four closely related IS1296 patterns which belong to a separate cluster. This indicates that strains from Africa and Australia form a clonal lineage different from that of the European strains, suggesting that the sporadic cases of CBPP that have re-emerged in Europe almost 15 years after the last declared endemic case in 1967 arose from an established reservoir within Europe rather than being the result of repeated importation from Africa and Australia. While most strains from Africa and Australia had the same IS1296 pattern, all vaccine strains could be distinguished by an individual pattern. The type strain PG1 also had a particular IS1296 pattern which belongs to the cluster of the strains from Africa and Australia. The molecular definition of clonality of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains with IS1296 represents a rapid and reproducible method for subtyping and differentiation of vaccine strains. It permits at the present time the definition of two main clonal lines, one including the strains from the European continent and a second with strains from Africa and Australia. PMID:8574413

Cheng, X; Nicolet, J; Poumarat, F; Regalla, J; Thiaucourt, F; Frey, J

1995-12-01

154

Mycoplasma species isolated from six avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas were isolated from chickens, chicken embryos, turkeys, ducks, geese, pigeons and Japanese quail and their embryos. Altogether 792 birds and embryos were examined and 411 of them (52%) were infected with mycoplasmas. Isolates were identified by indirect im?munofluorescence using monospecific rabbit antisera against 16 reco?nised species of avian Mycoplasma (AM) and two species of Achole?plasma. In all 633 strains

D. Ben?ina; D. Dorrer; Tatjana Tadina

1987-01-01

155

The virulence of vaccine strains of Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides recovered from inoculated cattle.  

PubMed

The T1 and KH3J attenuated strains of M mycoides, well-known in Africa for immunisation against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, were recovered from the lymph nodes of cattle at intervals up to three months after vaccination. Virulence titrations in mice indicated that the organisms recovered from cattle were of no greater virulence than the strains used for inoculation. There was, therefore, no suggestion that the use of attenuated vaccines in the field might be associated with reversion to virulence after inoculation. PMID:1118661

Dyson, D A; Smith, G R

1975-01-01

156

Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge at onset of lay on digestive and reproductive tract characteristics in commercial layers.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a reproductive/respiratory pathogen in poultry, has been implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 20 wk of age. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, digestive tract weight and length, or histopathologic lesion scores, although significant differences were noted in the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. This study shows that S6MG inoculation does not detrimentally affect layer hen performance when in the absence of environmental stressors customary to a caged layer facility. PMID:12713163

Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R

2003-01-01

157

Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge before beginning of lay on various egg characteristics in commercial layers.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a reproductive/respiratory disease in poultry implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 10 wk of age. Egg production and selected egg and egg quality parameters were quantitated over the entire lay cycle for inoculated and control birds. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, associated egg quality parameters, or histopathologic lesion scores. This study shows that in the absence of environmental stressors a prelay S6 MG inoculation does not produce detrimental effects on layer hen performance. PMID:12243522

Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Burnham, M R; Maslin, W R

2002-01-01

158

Specific detection and typing of Mycoplasma synoviae strains in poultry with PCR and DNA sequence analysis targeting the hemagglutinin encoding gene vlhA.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma synoviae is a major pathogen of chickens and turkeys, causing economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, we validated and applied polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis on the N-terminal end of the hemagglutinin encoding gene vlhA as an alternative for the detection and initial typing of field strains of M. synoviae in commercial poultry. PCR primers were tested against isolates of M. synoviae from various sources along with other avian mycoplasma and other bacterial species. The vlhA gene-targeted PCR assay was highly specific in the identification of M. synoviae, with a detection limit of 4.7 x 10(2) color changing units/ml. DNA sequence analysis of amplified products was also conducted to validate the potential for typing M. synoviae strains using the N-terminal region of the vlhA gene. To evaluate the test, we applied the PCR assay to tracheal swabs collected from chickens challenged with M. synoviae strain K1968 and compared the results to the serologic detection. The PCR assay was also evaluated directly on tracheal samples collected from commercial layers. Overall, this vlhA gene-targeted PCR is a useful tool for detection and initial typing of M. synoviae and can be applied in the preliminary identification of M. synoviae isolates directly from clinical samples. PMID:15529983

Hong, Yang; García, Maricarmen; Leiting, Victoria; Bencina, Dulan; Dufour-Zavala, Louise; Zavala, Guillermo; Kleven, Stanley H

2004-09-01

159

Recognition of Dermabacter hominis, formerly CDC fermentative coryneform group 3 and group 5, as a potential human pathogen.  

PubMed Central

Thirty strains of fermentative coryneform-like bacteria designated CDC fermentative coryneform group 3 and coryneform group 5 were compared biochemically by cellular fatty acid analysis and by DNA relatedness with the type strain of Dermabacter hominis, ATCC 49369. DNA from 22 strains of both CDC groups showed 69 to 96% relatedness (hydroxyapatite method) to labeled DNA from ATCC 49369 and to DNA from CDC group 3 strain G4964, and the strains are considered to belong to D. hominis. The remaining eight strains were genetically but not phenotypically differentiable from D. hominis. They were genetically heterogeneous, but hybridization results indicated that they probably belong to the genus Dermabacter. Thirteen of the 22 D. hominis strains and all 8 of the other Dermabacter strains had been isolated from blood, which indicates the pathogenic potential of this species and genus.

Gruner, E; Steigerwalt, A G; Hollis, D G; Weyant, R S; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W; Daneshvar, M; Brenner, D J

1994-01-01

160

Some effects of growth medium composition on the antigenicity of a T-strain mycoplasma.  

PubMed Central

T-strain 960 was passaged through 24 serial 10-fold dilutions in media without added urea and with porcine serum albumin fraction V as the only protein enrichment. The organism, either grown in this manner or passaged an additional three times in medium containing horse serum and 0.1 per cent urea, was inoculated into rabbits. Resultant antisera were tested for activity against T-960 growing in these different media by: (i) growth curve analysis in the presence of antiserum, (ii) metabolic inhibition in the presence or absence of complement (fresh guinea pig serum), (iii) complement-dependent killing curves, (iv) double diffusion in gel (Ouchterlong), and (v) a new visual method for the detection of antigen-antibody reactions on glass slides coated with a thin film of indium metal. Our results indicate that the reactivity of the antisera, as assayed by the above methods, is significantly affected by the composition of the growth medium used for preparation of the antigen. In addition, it was possible to determine that the guinea pig serum-dependent killing of T960 was not affected by the presence of ammonium ion. Images

Masover, G K; Mischak, R P; Hayflick, L

1975-01-01

161

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation on Serum Very Low Density Lipoprotein Diameter and Fractionation of Cholesterol Among Lipoproteins in Commercial Egg-Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental inoculation with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) at 12 wk of age has been shown to affect the performance, liver, reproductive organs, and yolk lipid characteristics of commercial lay- ers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the serum lipoprotein characteristics of commercial egg- laying hens at 16 wk of age and throughout lay after inoculation with FMG

M. R. Burnham; E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; R. L. Walzem; P. D. Gerard

162

PRODUCTION, MODELING, AND EDUCATION Effects of S6Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Ten, Twenty-Two, or Forty-Five Weeks of Age on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of the age of application of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) inoculation on the blood characteris- tics of commercial layers housed and maintained under controlled conditions was determined. The ages of inocu- lation compared were those before lay at 10 wk of age, during onset of lay at 22 wk of

E. D. Peebles; E. Y. Basenko; S. L. Branton; S. K. Whitmarsh; P. D. Gerard

163

Effects of S6Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Ten, Twenty-Two, or Forty-Five Weeks of Age on the Egg Yolk Composition of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial laying hens maintained under controlled conditions were experimentally inoculated with the S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) at 45 wk of age. This resulted in depressed liver lipid concentration, and inoculations at 20 and 45 wk affected the size of various portions of the reproductive tract. In 2 consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of age of

E. D. Peebles; E. Y. Basenko; S. L. Branton; S. K. Whitmarsh; D. V. Maurice; P. D. Gerard

164

PRODUCTION, MODELING, AND EDUCATION Effects of 6\\/85Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Alone at Ten Weeks of Age or in Conjunction with FStrain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays at Twenty-Two or Forty-Five Weeks of Age on the Performance of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 6\\/85-strain Mycoplasma galli- septicum (6\\/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with a F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) overlay and its timing on the performance of commercial egg-laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inocula- tions at 10 wk of age. A second treated group of birds was inoculated with 6\\/85MG at 10 wk of age, a third

K. A. Viscione; S. L. Branton; A. M. Vance; P. D. Gerard; S. K. Whitmarsh; E. D. Peebles

165

Mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: comparison of commercial F-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house.  

PubMed

Two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine (trial 1) or 2 inocula of layer complex-derived MG strains (LCD-MG; trial 2). In each of the 2 trials, 4 commercial turkeys were housed in each of 2 adjoining pens immediately adjacent to air inlets. The turkeys (8/trial) were inoculated in the right eye with either a 1× dose of FMG (trial 1) or with 0.02 mL of 1 of 2 actively growing LCD-MG inocula (4 turkeys/inoculum; trial 2). In each of the 2 trials, one pen housing 4 inoculated turkeys was maintained without the addition of other poultry, whereas 16 MG-free broilers and 4 MG-free layers were added to the other pen of 4 inoculated turkeys. Within each of the trials and at increasing intervals, either 4 layers (3 pens) or 4 turkeys (3 pens) were placed down-airstream from the inoculated pens. The distance of the first pen from the inoculated turkeys was separated by the width of one pen that was empty. Succeeding down-airstream pens were situated such that the empty distance (absence of any poultry) between pens that contained poultry doubled from one pen to the next such that the final pen that contained poultry had 4 empty pens between it and the next up-airstream pen that also contained poultry. At 106 d postinoculation, all poultry were bled, swabbed for MG from the choanal cleft, and then euthanized and necropsied. No commingled poultry in trial 1 (FMG), whether inoculated (turkeys) or commingled (layers and broilers), died during the course of the trial, and 5 of the 8 FMG-vaccinated turkeys exhibited serological but not cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. In trial 2 (LCD-MG), 2 commingled broilers died and no inoculated turkeys exhibited either serological or cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. In both trials, no poultry housed down-airstream from the inoculated poultry showed evidence of clinical signs of mycocplasmosis and none showed either serological or cultural evidence of mycoplasmosis. PMID:23155015

Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Collier, S D; Olanrewaju, H A; Kim, E J; Pharr, G T; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L

2012-12-01

166

Effect of some psychotropic drugs and a barbiturate on mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of selected membrane stabilisers on Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M.hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was investigated in vitro. The phenothiazine chlorpromazine (CPZ) and the barbiturate thiopental (Leopental®) as well as the stereo-isomeric thioxanthene derivatives; cis(Z)-clopenthixol (Zu-clopenthixol®)\\/ trans (E)-clopenthixol and cis (Z)-chlorprothixen (Truxal®)\\/trans(E)-chlorprothixen, all have antimycoplasmal effect in the range 3.9–312 mg\\/l, measured as growth inhibition. It was also demonstrated that

Klaus Lind; Jette E Kristiansen

2000-01-01

167

Clinical significance of Blastocystis hominis.  

PubMed Central

A total of 19,252 stool specimens from 12,136 patients were examined by direct microscopy and the ethyl acetate-Formalin concentration method during the last 2 years. All liquid specimens and those in which parasite identification was difficult or equivocal were also examined in trichrome-stained preparations. A total of 3,070 intestinal parasites were seen in 2,889 patients. Blastocystis hominis was found in fecal material from 647 patients (17.5%). A total of 132 cases (25.6%) were observed to be in association with other enteric pathogens. B. hominis in large numbers was present as the only parasite or with other commensals in 515 specimens from patients (79.6%). Of these patients, 239 (46.4%) had symptoms, the most common being abdominal pain (87.9%), constipation (32.2%), diarrhea (23.4%), alternating diarrhea and constipation (14.5%), vomiting (12.5%), and fatigue (10.5%). Forty-three (18%) of the patients were treated with metronidazole (0.5 to 1.0 g/day) because of recurrent symptoms and the presence of large numbers of B. hominis cells in repeated stool specimens. After 7 to 10 days of treatment, all patients became asymptomatic with negative stools on follow-up examinations for B. hominis.

Qadri, S M; al-Okaili, G A; al-Dayel, F

1989-01-01

168

Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement  

PubMed Central

Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm.

Bolland, Jeffrey R.; Simmons, Warren L.; Daubenspeck, James M.

2012-01-01

169

Mycoplasma adleri sp. nov., an isolate from a goat.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma sp. strain G145T (T = type strain) was isolated from a goat's abscessed ankle. Strain G145T required cholesterol or serum for growth and possessed characteristics similar to those of other members of the genus Mycoplasma. This strain was serologically distinct from previously described Mycoplasma species and from a group of currently unnamed strains thought to belong to the genus Mycoplasma. Strain G145T hydrolyzed arginine, but did not hydrolyze urea or ferment glucose. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA was 29.6 mol%. We propose that strain G145 (= ATCC 27948) is the type strain of a new species, for which we propose the name Mycoplasma adleri. PMID:7857804

Del Giudice, R A; Rose, D L; Tully, J G

1995-01-01

170

Mycoplasmal lipid-associated membrane proteins and Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen recognition by serum antibodies from patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmal lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) and Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM superantigen) are potent stimulators of the immune system. The objective of this work was to detect antibodies\\u000a to MAM and LAMPs of Mycoplasma hominis and M. fermentans in the sera of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to identify mycoplasmal\\u000a products that can be involved

Hermínio M. da Rocha Sobrinho; Renata Jarach; Nilzio A. da Silva; Marina T. Shio; Sonia Jancar; Jorge Timenetsky; Milton A. P. Oliveira; Miriam L. Dorta; Fátima Ribeiro-Dias

2011-01-01

171

Haemotropic mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Practical relevance The feline haemotropic mycoplasmas (‘haemoplasmas') are a group of bacteria that can induce haemolytic anaemia in cats. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the species; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ are less pathogenic. The natural route of transmission of feline haemoplasma infection has not been confirmed, but fleas are implicated. When disease results, common clinical signs are pallor, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, depression, dehydration and pyrexia. Treatment with tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones is usually effective at resolving clinical disease, but clearance of infection may not result. Global importance The feline haemoplasmas are found worldwide, although prevalence varies geographically. Patient group Older male non-pedigree cats are believed to be at increased risk of haemoplasma infection, although younger cats are possibly more likely to show clinical disease associated with M haemofelis. Clinical challenges The significance of feline haemoplasma infection is difficult to determine due to the existence of asymptomatic carrier cats and the variable pathogenicity of the haemoplasma species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results should be interpreted in the light of the patient's clinical signs and haematological findings, infecting haemoplasma species and level of haemoplasma DNA present in the blood. Trial antibiotic treatment for haemoplasmosis may be warranted in suspected cases while awaiting PCR results. Evidence base Aspects of feline haemoplasmosis, particularly risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and treatment, have been the focus of much recent research. This article draws on the current evidence base with a view to helping clinicians diagnose and manage cases more effectively.

Tasker, Severine

2010-01-01

172

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M.?californicum and M.?bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

2014-01-01

173

Effects of prelay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation and time-specific F-Strain M. gallisepticum inoculation overlays on internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial laying hens.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma infections are pandemic in multiage layer chicken flocks, with Mycoplasma gallisepticum being the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines are presently being used to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks. However, vaccination of layers with F-strain M. gallisepticum may adversely affect egg production. In the present study, 2 trials were conducted to compare the effects of 2 currently available live Mycoplasma vaccines (the ts11- and F-strains), used in conjunction, on internal egg and eggshell characteristics. The following 4 inoculation treatments were used: 1) sham at 10 wk of age (control), 2) ts11 at 10 wk, 3) ts11 at 10 wk overlaid by F at 22 wk, and 4) ts11 at 10 wk overlaid by F at 45 wk. In each trial at various ages between 23 and 57 wk of age, percentage of yolk weight, percentage of yolk moisture, percentage of yolk lipid, percentage of albumen weight, Haugh unit scores, and percentage of shell weight of eggs were assessed. At wk 32, percentage of yolk lipid was increased in eggs belonging to the ts11 at 10 wk and ts11 at 10 wk overlaid by F at 22 wk treatment groups in comparison with controls. There was also a significant decrease in percentage of albumen weight in eggs in the treatment with ts11 at 10 wk overlaid by F at 22 wk, as well as a decrease in Haugh unit scores in the ts11 at 10 wk treatment in comparison with controls during post-peak lay. Percentage of yolk moisture, percentage of egg yolk weight, and percentage of eggshell weight in layers were not significantly affected by a 10-wk ts11 inoculation alone or in conjunction with subsequent overlay inoculations of F during lay. It is suggested that a 10-wk inoculation of commercial layers with ts11-strain M. gallisepticum may reduce the negative impacts of a prelay F-strain M. gallisepticum inoculation on performance while providing protection against subsequent field strain M. gallisepticum infections. PMID:18577616

Vance, A M; Branton, S L; Collier, S D; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

2008-07-01

174

Urogenital mycoplasmas and human papilloma virus in hemodialysed women.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20-48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required. PMID:24363622

Ekiel, Alicja; Pietrzak, Bronis?awa; Wiechu?a, Barbara; Aptekorz, Ma?gorzata; Mazanowska, Natalia; Rady, Dominika; Kami?ski, Pawe?; Martirosian, Gayane

2013-01-01

175

Urogenital Mycoplasmas and Human Papilloma Virus in Hemodialysed Women  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20–48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required.

Ekiel, Alicja; Pietrzak, Bronislawa; Aptekorz, Malgorzata; Mazanowska, Natalia; Kaminski, Pawel; Martirosian, Gayane

2013-01-01

176

Haemotrophic mycoplasmas: Recent advances in Mycoplasma suis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are uncultivable, small epicellular, cell wall less, tetracycline-sensitive bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Today, haemotrophic mycoplasmas are found in a large number of animals, with Mycoplasma suis being the porcine pathogen. Haemoplasmas can cause infections which are clinically marked, either by an overt life-threatening haemolytic anaemia or a mild chronic anaemia, by illthrift,

L. E. Hoelzle

2008-01-01

177

Mycoplasma agassizii Strain Variation and Distinct Host Antibody Responses Explain Differences between Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Western Blot Assays ?  

PubMed Central

The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A405 values were significantly correlated (r2 goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations.

Wendland, Lori D.; Klein, Paul A.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Brown, Mary B.

2010-01-01

178

Mycoplasma agassizii strain variation and distinct host antibody responses explain differences between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot assays.  

PubMed

The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A??? values were significantly correlated (r² goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations. PMID:20810678

Wendland, Lori D; Klein, Paul A; Jacobson, Elliott R; Brown, Mary B

2010-11-01

179

Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the per- formance characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed. Experimental layer diets, which included a basal control diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.025% phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol,

E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; M. R. Burnham; S. K. Whitmarsh; P. D. Gerard

2008-01-01

180

ENVIRONMENT, WELL-BEING, AND BEHAVIOR Effects of S6Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Ten, Twenty-Two, or Forty-Five Weeks of Age on the Performance Characteristics of Commercial Egg Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental inoculation of commercial laying hens, maintained under controlled conditions, with the S6-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) at 10 wk of age has previously been shown to affect the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproduc- tive tract without affecting subsequent performance. Two trials were conducted to compare the effects of S6MG inoculation at 10 wk of age

E. Y. Basenko; E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; S. K. Whitmarsh; P. D. Gerard

181

Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In3trials,theeffectsofdietarysupplemen- tation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-D3) on the digestive and reproductive organ charac- teristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were assessed at 58 wk of age. Experimental layer diets that included a basal control diet or a

E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; M. R. Burnham; S. K. Whitmarsh; P. D. Gerard

182

In vitro evaluation of various antimicrobials against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by the micro?broth method, and comparison with a commercially?prepared test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of danofioxacin, a new quinolone antimicrobial agent, was tested in vitro by the micro?broth method with nine field strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and eight of M. synoviae (Ms) and comparison was made with oxytetracycline and tylosin tartrate. The virulent S6 strain of Mg was also included for reference. All Mycoplasma strains, including a strain of Mg that

Janet M. Bradbury; Christine A. Yavari; C. J. Giles

1994-01-01

183

Virus-like infectious agent (VLIA) is a novel pathogenic mycoplasma: Mycoplasma incognitus.  

PubMed

The newly recognized pathogenic virus-like infectious agent (VLIA), originally reported in patients with AIDS but also known to be pathogenic in previously healthy non-AIDS patients and in non-human primates, was cultured in cell-free conditions using a modified SP-4 medium and classified as a member of the order Mycoplasmatales, class Mollicutes. The infectious microorganism is tentatively referred to as Mycoplasma incognitus. M. incognitus has the unique biochemical properties of utilizing glucose both aerobically and anaerobically, as well as having the ability to metabolize arginine. Among all known human mycoplasmas, these specific biochemical characteristics were found previously only in a rarely isolated species, M. fermentans. In comparison with M. fermentans, M. incognitus appears to be even more fastidious in cultivation requirements and fails to grow in all tested mycoplasma media other than modified SP-4 medium. In addition, M. incognitus grows much more slowly, has a smaller spherical particle size and occasional filamentous morphology, and forms only irregular and very small colonies with diffuse edges on agar plates. Antigenic analysis using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and DNA analysis of sequence homology and restriction enzyme mappings in M. incognitus, M. orale, M. hyorhinis, M. hominis, M. pneumoniae, M. fermentans, M. arginini, M. genitalium, M. salivarium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Acholeplasma laidlawii revealed that M. incognitus is distinct from other mycoplasmas, but is most closely related to M. fermentans. PMID:2817215

Lo, S C; Shih, J W; Newton, P B; Wong, D M; Hayes, M M; Benish, J R; Wear, D J; Wang, R Y

1989-11-01

184

Pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis, a clinical reevaluation.  

PubMed

Blastocystis (B.) hominis was considered to be a member of normal intestinal flora in the past, but in recent years it has been accepted as a very controversial pathogenic protozoan. In this study, 52 individuals whose stool examination revealed B. hominis were evaluated for clinical symptoms. Metronidazole was administered for 2 weeks to the patients infected with B. hominis. After 2 weeks of treatment they were called for a follow-up stool examination. No other bacteriological and parasitological agents were found during stool examination of these patients. The frequency rate of intestinal symptoms was 88.4% in the B. hominis cases. Abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom (76.9%). Diarrhea and distention followed at a rate of 50.0% and 32.6%. Intestinal symptoms may be seen frequently together with the presence of B. hominis and this protozoan may be regarded as an intestinal pathogen, especially when other agents are eliminated. PMID:17918055

Kaya, Selçuk; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Arido?an, Buket Cicio?lu; Arikan, Salih; Demirci, Mustafa

2007-01-01

185

Blastocystis hominis associated acute urticaria.  

PubMed

Acute urticaria has many causative factors, which may include infections, medications (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, contraceptives and others), insect bites, physical stimuli, allergens or underlying systemic disorders. Blastocystis spp, although ubiquitous in developing countries, is rarely implicated in causing disease in the developed world. The authors present a case of acute urticaria caused by Blastocystis hominis (protozoon parasite) in an elderly farmer in rural United States. This case vignette emphasizes the importance of checking stool for ova and parasites to look for Blastocystis species in patients with urticaria under appropriate clinical settings when other common causative factors of the same have been ruled out. PMID:23360793

Verma, Rajanshu; Delfanian, Kamiab

2013-07-01

186

Microbiological and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus hominis Isolates from Blood  

PubMed Central

Background Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec) type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. Methodology S. hominis blood isolates (n?=?21) were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21) were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21) as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21) of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0–95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82%) harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. Conclusions The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor new SCCmec structural elements and might be reservoirs of ccrC1 in addition to ccrAB1 and mec complex A.

Mendoza-Olazaran, Soraya; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Llaca-Diaz, Jorge; Flores-Trevino, Samantha; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Gloria Ma; Villarreal-Trevino, Licet; Garza-Gonzalez, Elvira

2013-01-01

187

Monoclonal antibodies to surface-exposes proteins of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (small-colony strain), which causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of bovine pleuropneumonia caused by small-colony strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides occur in Africa, and vaccination is used for control. Since protein subunits are needed to improve multivalent vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were made to facilitate protein identification and isolation. Eleven immunoglobulin M MAbs derived from mouse spleen donors immunized with disrupted whole organisms bound periodate-sensitive epitopes on externally exposed polysaccharide. Seven of these MAbs caused in vitro growth inhibition of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; however, reaction with carbohydrate epitopes prevented their use in identifying proteins. Ten additional MAbs from mouse spleen donors immunized with Triton X-114-phase integral membrane proteins reacted with periodate-insensitive, proteinase K-sensitive epitopes. These MAbs were classified into three groups based on immunoblots of Triton X-114-phase proteins. One group reacted with 96-, 16-, and 15-kDa proteins. Another group reacted with 26-, 21-, and 16-kDa proteins, while a third group reacted only with 26- and 21-kDa proteins. One MAb from each group reacted with trypsinsensitive epitopes on live organisms, yet none caused in vitro growth inhibition. Representative MAbs reacted with all small-colony strains in immunoblots and did not react with large colony strains. However, these MAbs were not specific for small-colony strains, as proteins from two other M. mycoides cluster organisms were identified. Nevertheless, MAbs to surface-exposed epitopes on integral membrane proteins will be useful for isolation of these proteins for immunization, since one or more might induce growth-inhibiting antibodies or other protective responses.

Kiarie, M N; Rurangirwa, F R; Perryman, L E; Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

1996-01-01

188

Genes Found Essential in Other Mycoplasmas Are Dispensable in Mycoplasma bovis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas are regarded to be useful models for studying the minimum genetic complement required for independent survival of an organism. Mycoplasma bovis is a globally distributed pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis media and reproductive tract disease, and genome sequences of three strains, the type strain PG45 and two strains isolated in China, have been published. In this study, several Tn4001 based transposon constructs were generated and used to create a M. bovis PG45 insertional mutant library. Direct genome sequencing of 319 independent insertions detected disruptions in 129 genes in M. bovis, 48 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC and 99 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Sixteen genes found to be essential in previous studies on other mycoplasma species were found to be dispensable. Five of these genes have previously been predicted to be part of the core set of 153 essential genes in mycoplasmas. Thus this study has extended the list of non-essential genes of mycoplasmas from that previously generated by studies in other species.

Sharma, Shukriti; Markham, Philip F.; Browning, Glenn F.

2014-01-01

189

Genes found essential in other mycoplasmas are dispensable in Mycoplasma bovis.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are regarded to be useful models for studying the minimum genetic complement required for independent survival of an organism. Mycoplasma bovis is a globally distributed pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis media and reproductive tract disease, and genome sequences of three strains, the type strain PG45 and two strains isolated in China, have been published. In this study, several Tn4001 based transposon constructs were generated and used to create a M. bovis PG45 insertional mutant library. Direct genome sequencing of 319 independent insertions detected disruptions in 129 genes in M. bovis, 48 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC and 99 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Sixteen genes found to be essential in previous studies on other mycoplasma species were found to be dispensable. Five of these genes have previously been predicted to be part of the core set of 153 essential genes in mycoplasmas. Thus this study has extended the list of non-essential genes of mycoplasmas from that previously generated by studies in other species. PMID:24897538

Sharma, Shukriti; Markham, Philip F; Browning, Glenn F

2014-01-01

190

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Surface-Localized Adhesion Protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 Strain  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX). Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX). Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL), and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1.

Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yumei; Liu, Yang; Xin, Jiuqing

2013-01-01

191

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on egg yolk composition in commercial egg laying hens.  

PubMed

In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the contents of egg yolks from commercial Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of 8 (trial 1) or 16 (trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass biological isolation units. Birds in half of the total units served as sham-inoculated controls, and those in the other half were inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age. Eggs were collected and yolks were harvested at various times during the prepeak, peak, and postpeak periods of both trials for constituent analysis. Yolk constituents analyzed in these trials included moisture, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and fatty acids. In both trials, total yolk lipid at 22 wk of age was significantly decreased in birds inoculated with FMG. In trial 1, yolk cholesterol at 28 wk was significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds. Yolk linoleic acid in trial 1 and yolk stearic and arachidonic acids in trial 2 were significantly increased in FMG-inoculated birds compared to FMG-free birds. In trial 2, yolk myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid percentages were significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds compared to FMG-free birds. These data suggest that alterations in egg production in commercial layers in response to an FMG infection at 12 wk of age are associated with changes in yolk composition. PMID:12710476

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Maurice, D V; Gerard, P D

2003-04-01

192

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on serum very low density lipoprotein diameter and fractionation of cholesterol among lipoproteins in commercial egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

Experimental inoculation with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) at 12 wk of age has been shown to affect the performance, liver, reproductive organs, and yolk lipid characteristics of commercial layers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the serum lipoprotein characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens at 16 wk of age and throughout lay after inoculation with FMG at 12 wk of age. Mean diameters of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were determined for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of serum total VLDL of each hen. Percentages of total serum cholesterol recovered in VLDL and low and high density lipoprotein particle classes were also determined. Inoculation of birds with FMG at 12 wk did not change the physical properties or relative concentrations of their circulating lipoproteins. However, the age of the bird had significant differential effects on all the parameters examined. These data demonstrate that FMG-inoculation at 12 wk of age does not affect the lipoproteins of laying hens, but because these birds were housed in biological isolation units, these results do not preclude the possibility that these yolk precursors may be affected in FMG-infected birds that are housed in facilities in which there are increased levels of environmental stress. These data further suggest that alterations in liver, reproductive organs, and yolk lipid characteristics in response to FMG, as noted in previous reports on commercial layers, are not mediated through changes in circulating VLDL diameters. PMID:14601743

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Walzem, R L; Gerard, P D

2003-10-01

193

Influences of supplemental dietary poultry fat and F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection on the early performance of commercial egg laying hens.  

PubMed

F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) may alter reproductive performance in layers through its effects on lipid metabolism. Therefore, the influences of 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) and FMG infection on the early performance of commercial egg-laying hens were determined. Birds were either sham- or FMG-inoculated at 12 wk, and experimental diets were initiated at 20 wk of age. Body weight at 12, 20, and 24 wk, total daily egg mass, feed consumption and feed conversion at 20 and 24 wk, weekly egg weight between 19 and 26 wk, weekly egg production (EP) between 18 and 26 wk, and weekly mortality between 12 and 26 wk of age were determined. Inoculation with FMG reduced EP at 18 and 19 wk of age. Between 20 and 26 wk, FMG reduced EP in birds fed control diets, conversely, PF eliminated differences in EP between sham- and FMG-inoculated birds. Furthermore, at wk 20 and 24, birds consumed less feed when fed PF-supplemented diets than when fed control diets if they were sham-inoculated, but the difference in feed consumption between diets was ameliorated if birds were previously inoculated with FMG. These data demonstrate that the effects of a 12-wk inoculation of FMG on EP and feed consumption through 26 wk of age in commercial egg-laying chickens can be modified by 1.5% supplemental dietary P F. More specifically, PF may alleviate reductions in early EP due to FMG. PMID:12710479

Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Burnham, M R; Gerard, P D

2003-04-01

194

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on the blood characteristics of commercial egg laying hens.  

PubMed

In two trials, the effects of an F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation at 12 wk of age on the blood characteristics of commercial Single Combed White Leghorn laying hens were investigated throughout lay. Variables measured in both trials were whole blood hematocrit, plasma protein (PP), and serum cholesterol, triglycerides (ST), and calcium. In both trials, hematocrit at 20 wk of age was significantly increased in birds inoculated with FMG. In trial 1, ST and PP were significantly increased at 22 wk of age by FMG, while ST and PP were significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds at wk 54 and 52, respectively. When combined with the establishment of an FMG infection, the initial weeks of egg production become particularly stressful to the bird. Increases in these independent blood parameters between 8 and 10 wk postchallenge are suggestive of compensatory responses in these birds to an FMG challenge. Postpeak decreases in both ST (54 wk) and PP (52 wk) in FMG-infected birds may be the result of a more chronic effect of FMG on lipid and protein synthesis in the liver. These data are the first to suggest that alterations in egg production in response to FMG-infection in commercial layers, as noted in a previous report, may be associated with changes in hematocrit. However, because ST and PP were not affected by FMG in both trials, the responses of these blood parameters to FMG-infection may be inconsistent among flocks. PMID:12967252

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Gerard, P D

2003-09-01

195

[Mycoplasma sp. in the respiratory tract of hospitalized children].  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common bacteria causing respiratory diseases in other countries, specially in older children, adolescents and young adults and less frequently in the age group studied here, nevertheless the determination of its presence in this group was considered important. Two hundred and fifty throat swabs were taken from children, under five years of age, hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and to 50 children, same age, with no ARI (controls). The samples were placed in transport media and were incubated at 37 degrees C during 7 to 15 days. They were reinoculated in PPLO agar and typical colonies were looked for, 5 to 8 days later. The organisms were identified by biochemical tests. Eight Mycoplasma sp (3.2%) were obtained, five of them were M. pneumoniae (2.0%) and three M. hominis (1.2%). Only in 2 cases adenoviruses with M. hominis were found in the absence of other pathogens. It was shown that M. pneumoniae also infects children under five years old, so its present should be suspected, specially when the patient's health does not improve with the installed treatment. Some important suggestions for the isolation of mycoplasma are given. PMID:8209106

García-Ramos, E; Gutiérrez, A G; Ortega-Palma, O; Pizarro-Suárez, E

1993-01-01

196

Gastrospirillum hominis in asymptomatic, healthy individuals.  

PubMed

Gastrospirillum hominis is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach. It has been implicated as a possible cause of chronic gastritis. We report two cases of G. hominis colonization observed in a series of 175 healthy, asymptomatic volunteers investigated for Helicobacter pylori. None of the volunteers had symptoms or a history of gastrointestinal disease. Both carriers of G. hominis had histological signs of chronic, active antral gastritis. Multiple tests for H. pylori were negative. The prevalence of this spiral bacterium in healthy, asymptomatic individuals may be as low as in symptomatic persons. PMID:8223085

Mazzucchelli, L; Wilder-Smith, C H; Ruchti, C; Meyer-Wyss, B; Merki, H S

1993-11-01

197

Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma (M.) bovis was identified and reported in Austria as agent of infection and disease in cattle only once, namely in 2005 associated with a case of mastitis in a smallholding, but in 2007 it unexpectedly emerged as the cause of a devastating disease outbreak in a dairy herd of 100 individuals and spill over infection to pigs, both kept on the same mountain pasture. In 2008, M. bovis remained endemic at a low level in this region followed by the re-emergence of the agent in 2009 and a dramatic spread of the disease to further Alpine areas and their foothills in 2010 and 2011. From these outbreaks, a total of 94 M. bovis isolates including 7 porcine isolates were selected for genotyping. Two molecular tools, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were chosen to identify strain types involved in these outbreaks and to trace routes of infection and dynamics of dissemination. With both typing methods, the majority of Alpine isolates (96.8%) recovered over time from different areas and hosts was clustered into one group exhibiting a unique and indistinguishable profile which significantly differed from those of geographically unrelated strains including the type strain PG45 and 3 Alpine isolates which suddenly appeared and disappeared in 2009. Stability of the unique profile strongly indicated that a single M. bovis strain initiated the outbreak in 2007, crossed the host species barrier by infecting pigs, re-emerged in 2009 and became widespread in the Austrian Alps in 2010 and 2011. The remarkable dissemination and persistence of a single and unique M. bovis strain may reflect peculiarities of dairy management practices in the Alps based on Alpine transhumance and cooperative use of mountain pastures. As the source of the outbreak strain remains unknown, the findings of this study underscore the importance of continuous surveillance by monitoring further spread and persistence of M. bovis infections for effective control to minimize losses in Alpine dairy farming. PMID:23490560

Spergser, Joachim; Macher, Kathrin; Kargl, Munkhtsetseg; Lysnyansky, Inna; Rosengarten, Renate

2013-06-28

198

Characterization of a Newly Identified Mycoplasma (Mycoplasma orale Type 3) from the Human Oropharynx  

PubMed Central

Six mycoplasma strains, isolated under anaerobic conditions from the human oropharynx, were studied by biologic and serologic means. The strains produced nippled colonies with weak hemolytic activity for guinea pig erythrocytes on agar medium. In addition, the strains metabolized arginine with a concomitant alkaline shift in the pH of the medium but did not produce a pH shift when grown in the presence of glucose or urea. The strains failed to reduce 2–3–5 triphenyl tetrazolium and were inhibited by 0.001% methylene blue. In addition, they required fresh yeast extract for growth. When compared by several serologic methods, the strains were found to be related to each other but distinct from 23 serotypes of human, animal, and avian origin. However, one-way serologic relationships between one of the new strains and Mycoplasma orale type 1 and M. salivarium were observed when they were tested by complement fixation. Furthermore, partial relationship of one of the new strains to all of the arginine-utilizing mycoplasma species of human origin was demonstrated with the agar gel diffusion technique. Thus, the new strains appear to constitute a new mycoplasma species, for which the name M. orale type 3 is tentatively proposed. M. orale type 3 accounted for 1.4% of 437 mycoplasma isolates from the oropharynx of adults. The new species probably is a rare member of the normal mycoplasmal flora of man. Images

Fox, H.; Purcell, R. H.; Chanock, R. M.

1969-01-01

199

Prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections.  

PubMed

We examined 209 asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections for the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum in their first-voided urine (FVU) by nucleic acid amplification tests. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU was performed by automated urine particle analyzers. Two (1.0%) men were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and 92 (44.0%) were positive for C. trachomatis. In men negative for these pathogens, prevalences of M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum were 0.9%, 29.6%, 27.8%, and 20.1%, respectively, and 58.3% were positive for at least one species of the genital mycoplasmas. Leukocyte counts in FVU from 92 men positive for C. trachomatis were significantly greater than those from 115 men negative for C. trachomatis (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in leukocyte counts between 66 men positive for at least one species of M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum and 48 men negative for all the species (p = 0.1657). The present population of asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections showed a low prevalence of M. genitalium infections but would be at high risk of being infected by the other genital mycoplasmas. However, it was still unclear whether these genital mycoplasmas would contribute to the development of inflammation of the male urethra. When these partners are negative for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, the recommendation to presumptively treat them to disrupt transmission networks of the genital mycoplasmas would seem premature. PMID:24486047

Ito, Shin; Kikuchi, Mina; Seike, Kensaku; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

2014-02-01

200

Human Mycoplasma Infections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present evidence for the infectiousness of the mycoplasma as causative agents of human disease has been reviewed. Two decades of intensive investigation of primary atypical pneumonia have established the mycoplasma as true pathogens for human beings. ...

M. C. Shepard

1966-01-01

201

Specific Evolution of F1-Like ATPases in Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

F1F0 ATPases have been identified in most bacteria, including mycoplasmas which have very small genomes associated with a host-dependent lifestyle. In addition to the typical operon of eight genes encoding genuine F1F0 ATPase (Type 1), we identified related clusters of seven genes in many mycoplasma species. Four of the encoded proteins have predicted structures similar to the ?, ?, ? and ? subunits of F1 ATPases and could form an F1-like ATPase. The other three proteins display no similarity to any other known proteins. Two of these proteins are probably located in the membrane, as they have three and twelve predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenomic studies identified two types of F1-like ATPase clusters, Type 2 and Type 3, characterized by a rapid evolution of sequences with the conservation of structural features. Clusters encoding Type 2 and Type 3 ATPases were assumed to originate from the Hominis group of mycoplasmas. We suggest that Type 3 ATPase clusters may spread to other phylogenetic groups by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasmas in the same host, based on phylogeny and genomic context. Functional analyses in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides showed that the Type 3 cluster genes were organized into an operon. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that the seven encoded proteins were produced during growth in axenic media. Mutagenesis and complementation studies demonstrated an association of the Type 3 cluster with a major ATPase activity of membrane fractions. Thus, despite their tendency toward genome reduction, mycoplasmas have evolved and exchanged specific F1-like ATPases with no known equivalent in other bacteria. We propose a model, in which the F1-like structure is associated with a hypothetical X0 sector located in the membrane of mycoplasma cells.

Dautant, Alain; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Labroussaa, Fabien; Skollermo, Anna; Persson, Anja; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

2012-01-01

202

Gastrospirillum hominis in acute gastric erosion.  

PubMed

Gastrospirillum hominis is a spirochete that has been described in association with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcers. We report the case of a patient having acute gastric erosion in whom biopsy showed abundant organisms. The erosion resolved while the patient was receiving sucralfate and omeprazole therapy. We discuss the histopathology and mode of transmission of G hominis, along with the role of antibiotic therapy. PMID:7973903

al-Himyary, A J; Zabaneh, R I; Zabaneh, S S; Barnett, S

1994-11-01

203

Serological cross-reactions between Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered mycoplasma species Mycoplasma genitalium was isolated from urethral specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis (Tully et al., Lancet i:1288-1291, 1981). In a previous report (K. Lind, Lancet ii:1158-1159, 1982), prominent serological cross-reactions were demonstrated between this mycoplasma and M. pneumoniae. In the present study, the two mycoplasma species were compared more extensively. In classical mycoplasma medium without thallium acetate, M. genitalium grew more slowly than M. pneumoniae did but finally formed similar amounts of acetic acid and lactic acid from glucose. Although their colonies on solid medium were indistinguishable, transmission electron microscopy showed that the flask-formed cells of M. genitalium (especially their necks) were shorter than those of M. pneumoniae. The two species were distinct since DNA hybridization showed only 1.8% homology in base sequences, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significantly different profiles of the two strains. However, considerable similarities were found in their antigenic reactions in various serological tests. The presence of common or closely related antigens was demonstrated in the two species with rabbit immune sera in complement fixation test with chloroform-methanol-extracted antigens by an indirect immunofluorescence test on microcolonies, and by metabolism inhibition and growth inhibition tests. Cross-reactions were also demonstrated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The role of M. genitalium as a human pathogen in the genital tract has not been assessed. If serological tests are to be used in this assessment, caution must be exercised due to the extensive cross-reactions demonstrated. Some of the species-specific antigens which we have demonstrated would be appropriate for use in such tests and would help to circumvent problems caused by cross-reactions. Images

Lind, K; Lindhardt, B O; Schutten, H J; Blom, J; Christiansen, C

1984-01-01

204

Epidemiology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis.  

PubMed Central

A prospective study was performed on a large outpatient population to evaluate the epidemiology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis. Patients with stool specimens positive for B. hominis and negative for other bacterial and parasitic pathogens were sent a questionnaire and were requested to submit a follow-up specimen for ova-and-parasite examination. B. hominis was identified in 530 of 16,545 specimens (3.2%). There was a spectrum of clinical-pathological presentations in the 143 patients evaluated. An asymptomatic carrier state was seen in 19 patients. Fifteen patients had an illness consistent with acute self-limited B. hominis gastroenteritis, and 21 patients had chronic gastroenteritis associated with B. hominis. In the epidemiological evaluation of 130 patients, the most common symptoms were watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gas. We did not find a statistically significant association between the number of organisms present and the disease state. In summary, our results are consistent with a role for B. hominis in acute and chronic gastroenteritis; however, further detailed studies are necessary to determine whether that role is one of association or causation.

Doyle, P W; Helgason, M M; Mathias, R G; Proctor, E M

1990-01-01

205

Species identification of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae based on the uvr C genes by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA repair genesuvrC fromMycoplasma bovisandMycoplasma agalactiaetype strains were cloned and their nucleotide sequences were established. These sequences were used to design polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pairs forM. bovisandM. agalactiae.Each primer pair amplified a 1·6 kb fragment of theuvrC gene in the respective species. The specificity of the primer pairs for the two species was demonstrated through the lack

S Subramaniam; D Bergonier; F Poumarat; S Capaul; Y Schlatter; J Nicolet; J Frey

1998-01-01

206

Demonstration of neuraminidase activity in Mycoplasma neurolyticum and of neuraminidase proteins in three canine Mycoplasma species.  

PubMed

Neuraminidases are virulence factors in many pathogenic microorganisms. They are present also in some Mycoplasma species that cause disease in birds, dogs and alligators. Thirty-seven Mycoplasma species have been examined previously for neuraminidase (sialidase) activity, whereas many of the species causing disease in man, ruminants, pigs, rodents and other animals have not. In this study neuraminidase enzymatic activity (NEAC) was examined in 45 previously untested Mycoplasma species, including those causing diseases in man, farm animals and laboratory animals. The only species in which NEAC was found was Mycoplasma neurolyticum, specifically, its type strain (Type A(T)) which is capable of inducing neurologic signs in inoculated young mice and rats. The NEAC of washed cells was relatively weak, but it differed even more than 10-fold among cells of cultures derived from individual colonies of M. neurolyticum. A weak NEAC was also detected in the supernatant of the M. neurolyticum broth culture. Canine Mycoplasma spp. with high sialidase activity reported previously, Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma cynos and Mycoplasma molare had 100-fold more NEAC than M. neurolyticum, but apparent differences in NEAC levels existed among strains of M. canis and of M. cynos. Zymograms using neuraminidase-specific chromogenic substrate were used to show proteins having NEAC. In M. canis (a field isolate Larissa and the type strain PG14(T)), M. cynos (isolate 896) and M. molare (type strain H542(T)) proteins with NEAC had molecular masses of ?130kDa, 105kDa and 110kDa, respectively. Identification of these neuraminidases could provide the basis for their molecular characterization. PMID:21937171

Ber?i?, Rebeka Lucijana; Cizelj, Ivanka; Ben?ina, Mateja; Narat, Mojca; Bradbury, Janet M; Dov?, Peter; Ben?ina, Dušan

2012-03-23

207

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the performance of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the performance of commercial layers between 20 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk and dietary treatments (basal control diets and basal control diets with 1.5% supplemental PF) were initiated at 20 wk of age. Mortality at wk 47 and 53 was greatest in birds inoculated with FMG at 22 wk. Feed consumption from 20 to 23 and from 52 to 55 wk of age was greater in birds that were inoculated with FMG (12 or 22 wk). However, feed consumption decreased in birds that were inoculated at 12 wk (sham or FMG) when 1.5% supplemental PF was added to the diet. Percentage of total egg production (EP) between 22 and 58 wk of age was highest in hens that were inoculated with FMG at 22 wk. Furthermore, weekly EP increased at wk 27 and 58 and decreased at wk 47 after birds had been inoculated with FMG (12 or 22 wk), and increased at 22 wk and decreased at 54 wk when inoculations (sham or FMG) were given at 22 wk. Egg weight was increased at wk 29, 31, 39, 40, 42, 44, 53, and 58 in birds that were inoculated with FMG (12 or 22 wk); however, there were no coherent treatment effects on eggshell quality. An FMG inoculation at 22 wk may promote total EP through 58 wk, whereas the inoculation of commercial layers with FMG (12 or 22 wk) may increase subsequent feed consumption during the early and late stages of EP and increase egg weight throughout lay. However, the supplementation of hen diets with 1.5% PF beginning at 20 wk of age may reduce subsequent feed consumption throughout lay in birds having experienced a prelay (12 wk) inoculation. PMID:19531705

Park, S W; Burnham, M R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D; Womack, S K; Peebles, E D

2009-07-01

208

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg laying hens.  

PubMed

Experimental inoculation with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) between 8 and 18 wk of age is known to affect reproductive performance in commercial layers. Therefore, two trials were conducted to determine if changes in digestive and reproductive organ characteristics also occur in commercial laying hens infected with FMG at 12 wk of age. In Trial 1, liver weight, liver lipid and moisture contents, ovary weight, ovarian follicular hierarchy, and the weights, lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In Trial 2, fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) incidence and the weights, lengths, and histologies of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were determined in addition to the parameters examined in Trial 1. In both trials, the average number of mature (diameter > or = 12 mm) ovarian follicles was lower in FMG-inoculated hens in comparison to controls. Also, magnum/oviduct (cm/cm) length was reduced in treated birds. In Trial 2, isthmus/BW and isthmus/oviduct (g/ g) weight were decreased at 46 wk of age, and vagina/ BW and vagina/oviduct (g/g) weight were decreased at both 20 and 36 wk of age due to FMG treatment. In Trial 2, FMG treatment resulted in a 50% increase in the number of FLHS birds. Furthermore, treatment caused a decrease at 20 wk of age and an increase at 44 wk of age in liver moisture content. However, the intestinal characteristics examined were not affected by FMG inoculation. Altered liver, ovarian, and reproductive organ characteristics were associated with FMG infection in commercial layers. More specifically, FMG inoculation at 12 wk resulted in a higher incidence of FLHS, ovarian follicular regression, and decreased isthmal and vaginal proportions of the reproductive tract. These data clearly demonstrate that alterations in performance and egg characteristics of layers inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age are related to mutual functional disturbances in the liver, ovary, and oviduct without concomitant intestinal changes. PMID:12512582

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Gerard, P D; Maslin, W R

2002-12-01

209

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on performance and egg characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent performance and egg characteristics of commercial Single Combed White Leghorn hens were evaluated. In two trials, BW, feed consumption, egg production (EP), egg weight, egg size class, relative eggshell water vapor conductance, and relative percentages of eggshell, yolk and albumen weights were determined through approximately 60 wk of age. In each trial, pullets at 12 wk of age were randomly assigned to negative pressure biological isolation units. Birds in one-half of the total units were inoculated with FMG, and the other half were sham-inoculated with sterile media. In both trials, onset of lay was delayed approximately 1 wk in layers inoculated with FMG. Control birds that had not been previously inoculated with FMG laid their first egg at 18 wk of age, while birds that had been previously inoculated with FMG laid their first egg at 19 wk of age. In Trial 1, FMG-inoculated hens laid significantly fewer total eggs, which became apparent at each week after Week 42. In Trial 2, a numerical decrease in total EP occurred, and the percentage of undersized eggs laid by FMG-inoculated birds was significantly lower at 19 wk of age but was higher at 20 and 21 wk when compared to controls. Mortality was not significantly different between the treatments in either trial. These data demonstrate that when birds are housed in isolation facilities and inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age, onset of lay is delayed. These data also suggest that FMG may lead to delays in undersize EP and decreases in total EP. However, because significant FMG effects on these parameters were observed in only one trial, additional studies may be necessary to verify these effects. PMID:12412912

Burnham, M R; Branton, S L; Peebles, E D; Lott, B D; Gerard, P D

2002-10-01

210

Vital Staining of Mycoplasma and L-Forms with Chlorazol Black E  

PubMed Central

Vital staining of Mycoplasma colonies was attempted because other dye visualization techniques kill the organisms and preclude reisolation for further studies. The lipophilic amphoteric dye Chlorazol Black E (CBE) was the most successful of 14 vital dyes tested on Mycoplasma hominis, M. pharyngis, M. fermentans, M. arthritidis, M. salivarium, M. pneumoniae, and L-forms of Staphylococcus aureus when used in 1:1,000 (w/v) saline dilution as the sterile suspension medium for inoculation of Hayflick's medium under both aerobic and microaerophilic (Fortner method) conditions. Colonies of all species stain homogeneously in the periphery and center portion, the latter being more refractive under positive phase contrast. All stained colonies were successfully subcultured. The most striking and promising result of the use of CBE as a tool for physiological study of Mycoplasma was a very significant increase in diameter of all colonies except those of M. pneumoniae grown with CBE: 1.5 × for M. hominis and 5 × for L-form S. aureus. This size increase in M. hominis is proportional to the concentration down to a 1:50,000 dilution only under microaerophilic conditions. Whether this increase in colony size is due to an increased number of cells, to larger cells, or to the adsorption of CBE on the lipid membrane is unknown at present. Images

Berliner, Martha D.; Kundsin, Ruth B.; Allred, Elizabeth N.

1969-01-01

211

Detection of new mutations conferring resistance to linezolid in glycopeptide-intermediate susceptibility Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis circulating in an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Glycopeptides and linezolid are the most widely used antibiotics to treat infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. We report the presence of various isolates of methicillin-resistant S. hominis subsp. hominis with resistance to linezolid and reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. We studied ten blood culture isolates of S. hominis subsp. hominis from nine patients admitted to our hospital. Etest was used to study susceptibility to antibiotics commonly prescribed against staphylococci. Domain V region of the 23S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced to detect possible mutations that confer resistance to linezolid. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for the clonality study of isolates. All isolates were resistant to oxacillin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, and linezolid, and susceptible to tigecycline and daptomycin. Nine of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, and showed heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides. C2190T, G2603T, and G2474T mutations were detected in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. PFGE showed the presence of two different clones. This report alerts to the possible appearance of clinical strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococci with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, resistance to linezolid, and multiple resistance to other second-line antibiotics. PMID:19876662

Sorlozano, A; Gutierrez, J; Martinez, T; Yuste, M E; Perez-Lopez, J A; Vindel, A; Guillen, J; Boquete, T

2010-01-01

212

Effects of time-specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum vaccination on digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays at 2 different age periods during lay on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens. In each trial, the following 4 treatments were utilized: sham vaccination at 10 wk of age, ts-11MG vaccination at 10 wk of age, ts-11MG at 10 wk of age overlaid by FMG inoculation at 22 wk of age, and ts-11MG at 10 wk of age overlaid by FMG at 45 wk of age. Necropsies were performed at the end of both trials (58 wk of age), using 2 birds from each of 4 replicate units per treatment, to observe treatment effects on the following parameters: liver weight, liver lipid and moisture concentrations, incidence of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome, ovary weight, number of mature ovarian follicles, and the total and segmental weights, lengths, and histologies of the oviduct and small intestine. Treatments affected only vaginal length as a percentage of total oviduct length. Vaginas were relatively longer in hens that had only been vaccinated with ts-11MG at 10 wk in comparison to all the other treatment groups, including controls. Except for relative vaginal length, the digestive and reproductive organs of layers were not influenced by the ts-11MG and FMG treatment regimens imposed in this study. These results confirm that when coupled with FMG inoculations during lay, prelay ts-11MG vaccinations may be a practical substitute for prelay FMG inoculations for providing continual protection against field-strain M. gallisepticum infections in layers. PMID:19359686

Vance, A M; Branton, S L; Collier, S D; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

2009-05-01

213

Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.  

PubMed

We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

2011-04-01

214

The development of lameness and bone deformity in the broiler following experimental infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum or Mycoplasma synoviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of eight 7?day?old Mycoplasma?free broiler chicks were inoculated with one of two strains of M. gallisepticum (MG\\/S6, MG\\/B31\\/85) or one of two strains of M. synoviae (MS\\/B31\\/88 and MS\\/B94\\/91) into the left hock joint. Controls were similarly inoculated with sterile mycoplasma broth. The birds were assessed at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age (1, 2, 3 and

C. J. Morrow; J. M. Bradbury; M. J. Gentle; B. H. Thorp

1997-01-01

215

Biochemical and ultrastructural study of Blastocystis hominis.  

PubMed Central

This study was prompted by the paradox of strong presence of mitochondria in an anaerobic protozoan, recently reclassified from the yeasts. Stemming from publication in 1911 to 1912, Blastocystis hominis has been generally accepted as a harmless intestinal yeast of humans, with short standardized textbook (parasitology) descriptions, even to the present day. Reports since 1967 have changed the classification of B. hominis from yeast to protozoan (Sarcodina), and this has been followed by interest in B. hominis-caused disease, resulting in documentation of disease in humans and other primates. In this study of B. hominis, the basic ultrastructure of the mitochondria was shown by thin-section electron microscopy to be identical to that of an archetypical mitochondrion. There were hundreds of them in large B. hominis cells (100 to 200 microns in diameter). Mitochondria were confined to a peripheral ring of cytoplasm bounded by the outer cell membrane (there is no cell wall) and the membrane of the large, spherical, organelle-free central body that constitutes 75% of the cell's volume. Mitochondria tended to surround the cell's usual two to four nuclei. Rhodamine 123 stained the mitochondria selectively, visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The cell was devoid of cytochromes. Addition of 0.1% cytochrome c to the growth medium increased utilization of glucose by 34% and that of lactate by 17%. Furthermore, it markedly increased the number of mitochondrion-filled cells. At higher concentrations, cytochrome c inhibited the growth of the cells. Despite the presence of large numbers of mitochondria, activities of the mitochondrial enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase were absent. Thus, the function of the mitochondria in B. hominis remains unknown. Considerable activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were found. Aldolase activity was prominent. Pyruvate decarboxylase was present. Diaphorase and lactate dehydrogenase were detectable but in suspect quantities. Other missing enzymes were gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase (a lysosomal marker), and creatine kinase isoenzymes. Images

Zierdt, C H; Donnolley, C T; Muller, J; Constantopoulos, G

1988-01-01

216

Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.  

PubMed

The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

2013-06-01

217

Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma bovis is associated with pneumonia in calves characterized by the development of chronic caseonecrotic lesions with the agent persisting within the lesion. The purposes of this study were to characterize the morphology of lung lesions, examine the presence of M. bovis variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and study the local immune responses in calves after infection with M. bovis strain 1067. Methods Lung tissue samples from eight calves euthanased three weeks after experimental infection with M. bovis were examined by bacteriology and pathology. Lung lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for wide spectrum cytokeratin and for M. bovis Vsp antigens and pMB67 antigen. IHC identification and quantitative evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA)-containing plasma cells was performed. Additionally, expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) was studied by IHC. Results Suppurative pneumonic lesions were found in all calves. In two calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia, necrotic foci were surrounded by epithelial cells resembling bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium. In all calves, M. bovis Vsp antigens were constantly present in the cytoplasm of macrophages and were also present extracellularly at the periphery of necrotic foci. There was a considerable increase in numbers of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves. In M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells, but only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Conclusions The results from this study show that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins.

2012-01-01

218

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the yolk characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers at 24, 34, 44, 50, and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 and 22 wk of age and dietary treatments (basal control and basal control with 1.5% supplemental PF) were initiated at 20 wk of age. Yolk lipid concentration was reduced on wk 24 in birds that had been inoculated at 12 or 22 wk of age with FMG. The use of 1.5% supplemental PF increased percentage of yolk weight and yolk:albumen ratio across age and inoculation treatment. At 58 wk of age, concentrations of yolk palmitic acid increased and those of oleic and linolenic acid decreased when sham inoculations were given at 22 rather than at 12 wk of age. However, FMG inoculations given at 22 rather than at 12 wk increased palmitoleic acid and decreased stearic acid yolk concentrations. At 12 wk of age, FMG inoculations decreased yolk palmitoleic, oleic, and linolenic acid concentrations while causing increased yolk stearic and arachidonic acid levels when compared with sham inoculations. Furthermore, 1.5% supplemental PF decreased concentrations of palmitic and oleic acid and increased those of linoleic acid in the yolk at 58 wk of age. Despite the interaction of 1.5% supplemental PF with the prelay inoculation of FMG on early (18 to 26 wk) layer performance noted in a previous report, the effects of a prelay FMG inoculation and 1.5% supplemental PF on the egg yolk characteristics examined in the current study were independent of each other. This suggests that 1.5% supplemental PF is not effective in modulating the effects of an FMG inoculation at 12 wk of age on hen egg yolk characteristics between 24 and 58 wk of age and that the combined effects of PF supplementation and FMG inoculation on performance do not influence egg yolk characteristics. PMID:19687273

Park, S W; Burnham, M R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D; Womack, S K; Peebles, E D

2009-09-01

219

Continuous distribution of Mycoplasma genome sizes.  

PubMed

Genome sizes of eleven strains of eight species of Mollicutes Mycoplasmataceae were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Mycoplasma genomic sizes were determined from the sum of the sizes of fragments obtained after digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases. The sizes of the fragments were determined by comparison of their electrophoretic mobilities with those of lambda DNA concatemers. Specific restriction endonucleases were chosen so that after digestion three to ten fragments were obtained. The values for genome size derived by this method showed a continuous distribution that ranged from approximately 650 kb for Mycoplasma hyorhinis BTS-7 to 1600 kb for Acholeplasma laidlawii FHM. PMID:1841633

Barlev, N A; Borchsenius, S N

1991-01-01

220

A New Integrative Conjugative Element Occurs in Mycoplasma agalactiae as Chromosomal and Free Circular Forms  

PubMed Central

An integrative conjugative element, ICEA, was characterized in Mycoplasma agalactiae strain 5632, in which it occurs as multiple chromosomal copies and as a free circular form. The distribution of ICEA sequences in M. agalactiae strains and their occurrence in Mycoplasma bovis suggest the spreading of the element within or between species.

Marenda, Marc; Barbe, Valerie; Gourgues, Geraldine; Mangenot, Sophie; Sagne, Evelyne; Citti, Christine

2006-01-01

221

A New Integrative Conjugative Element Occurs in Mycoplasma agalactiae as Chromosomal and Free Circular Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative conjugative element, ICEA, was characterized in Mycoplasma agalactiae strain 5632, in which it occurs as multiple chromosomal copies and as a free circular form. The distribution of ICEA sequences in M. agalactiae strains and their occurrence in Mycoplasma bovis suggest the spreading of the element within or between species. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile, modu- lar sequences

Marc Marenda; Valerie Barbe; Geraldine Gourgues; Sophie Mangenot; Evelyne Sagne; Christine Citti

2006-01-01

222

In Vitro Cell Invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

The ability of the widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to invade cultured human epithelial cells (HeLa-229) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was investigated by using the gentamicin invasion assay and a double immunofluorescence microscopic technique for accurate localization of cell-associated mycoplasmas. The presence of intracellular mycoplasmas in both cell lines was clearly demonstrated, with organisms entering the eukaryotic cells within 20 min. Internalized mycoplasmas have the ability to leave the cell, but also to survive within the intracellular space over a 48-h period. Frequencies of invasion were shown to differ between the two cell lines, but were also considerably dependent on the mycoplasma input population. Of the prototype strain R, a low-passage population in artificial medium, Rlow, was capable of active cell invasion, while a high-passage population, Rhigh, showed adherence to but nearly no uptake into HeLa-229 and CEF. By passaging Rlow and Rhigh multiple times through HeLa-229 cells, the invasion frequency was significantly increased. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that M. gallisepticum has the capability of entering nonphagocytic host cells that may provide this pathogen with the opportunity for resisting host defenses and selective antibiotic therapy, establishing chronic infections, and passing through the respiratory mucosal barrier to cause systemic infections.

Winner, Florian; Rosengarten, Renate; Citti, Christine

2000-01-01

223

Hemolytic and Hemoxidative Activities in Mycoplasma penetrans  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma penetrans is a newly isolated Mollicute from the urine of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus that demonstrates the capacity to adhere to and invade human cells. A previous report, based on assays with mouse red blood cells (RBCs), indicated that M. penetrans lacked hemolytic activity. In our studies, we incubated different isolates of M. penetrans with various RBC species and observed hemolytic zones surrounding individual mycoplasma colonies. All M. penetrans strains displayed hemolysis after 2 to 3 days of incubation. Hemolytic activity diffused from single colonies, eventually causing complete lysis. Hemolysis was most pronounced with sheep RBCs, followed by horse, chicken, and human cells. Furthermore, hemolytic activity was demonstrable in both intact mycoplasma cell preparations and spent culture supernatant. However, unlike intact mycoplasmas, the hemolytic activity in the supernatant was dependent on the reducing agent, cysteine. In addition to hemolysis, a brown precipitate was closely associated with mycoplasma colonies, suggesting oxidation of hemoglobin. Absorption spectra indicated that hemoglobin was oxidized to methemoglobin, and the addition of catalase demonstrated H2O2-mediated hemoxidation. Other experiments suggested that hemoxidation enhanced total hemolysis, providing the first evidence of both hemolytic and hemoxidative activities in M. penetrans.

Kannan, T. R.; Baseman, Joel B.

2000-01-01

224

Conserved Terminal Organelle Morphology and Function in Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma iowae  

PubMed Central

Within the genus Mycoplasma are species whose cells have terminal organelles, polarized structures associated with cytadherence and gliding motility. Mycoplasma penetrans, found mostly in HIV-infected patients, and Mycoplasma iowae, an economically significant poultry pathogen, are members of the Mycoplasma muris phylogenetic cluster. Both species have terminal organelles that interact with host cells, yet the structures in these species, or any in the M. muris cluster, remain uncharacterized. Time-lapse microcinematography of two strains of M. penetrans, GTU-54-6A1 and HF-2, and two serovars of M. iowae, K and N, show that the terminal organelles of both species play a role in gliding motility, with differences in speed within and between the two species. The strains and serovars also differed in their hemadsorption abilities that positively correlated with differences in motility speeds. No morphological differences were observed between M. penetrans and M. iowae by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM and light microscopy of M. penetrans and M. iowae showed the presence of membranous filaments connecting pairs of dividing cells. Breaking of this filament during cell division was observed for M. penetrans by microcinematography, and this suggests a role for motility during division. The Triton X-100-insoluble fractions of M. penetrans and M. iowae consisted of similar structures that were unique compared to those identified in other mycoplasma species. Like other polarized mycoplasmas, M. penetrans and M. iowae have terminal organelles with cytadherence and gliding functions. The difference in function and morphology of the terminal organelles suggests that mycoplasmas have evolved terminal organelles independently of one another.

Jurkovic, Dominika A.; Newman, Jaime T.

2012-01-01

225

Enzootic Pneumonia in Pigs: Propagation of a Causative Mycoplasma in Cell Cultures and in Artificial Medium  

PubMed Central

Three strains of a new species of mycoplasma were recovered from pneumonic pig lungs, known free of Mycoplasma hyorhinis, by prolonged incubation in pig testicle cell cultures. The three strains produced a characteristic cytopathic effect in the cell cultures. A highly enriched meat-infusion-broth medium was evolved and permitted regular propagation of these organisms. Pneumonia could consistently be produced by intratracheal inoculation of pigs with the mycoplasma propagated in the enriched broth medium or in cell cultures. The mycoplasma were recovered from the lungs of experimentally infected pigs by inoculation into the broth medium. Comparative studies of the pneumonia producing mycoplasma and of M. hyorhinis were carried out in cell cultures, broth media, and in pigs infected experimentally by different routes. The morphological characteristics of the mycoplasma, grown in the different media, are described and illustrated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.

L'Ecuyer, C.

1969-01-01

226

Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naila C.; Kritchevsky, Janice E.

2012-01-01

227

Characteristics of a New Sterol-nonrequiring Mycoplasma  

PubMed Central

Two Mycoplasma strains recovered from tissue culture environments were found to grow in complex media devoid of serum or serum fractions containing cholesterol and in a cholesterol-free synthetic medium. Neither strain was capable of synthesizing pigmented carotenoids, although these compounds are present in, and characteristic of, other sterol-nonrequiring mycoplasmas. Serological tests and an analysis of their cell protein patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis indicated that the isolates were similar to each other but distinct from other sterol-nonrequiring serotypes, Mycoplasma laidlawii and M. granularum, as well as from sterol-requiring species. The existence of Mycoplasma other than M. laidlawii and M. granularum without sterol requirements suggested the need for some taxonomic changes in this group of organisms. Images

Tully, Joseph G.; Razin, Shmuel

1969-01-01

228

Macrolide susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from piglets.  

PubMed Central

Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hyorhinis were investigated for their in vitro susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobial agents by broth and agar dilution methods. Two of the 20 field strains showed low susceptibility to 14- and 16-membered macrolide antimicrobial agents tested. The two field strains were considered inducibly resistant to macrolides.

Kobayashi, H; Morozumi, T; Munthali, G; Mitani, K; Ito, N; Yamamoto, K

1996-01-01

229

Genetic and serological analysis of the immunogenic 67-kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7.  

PubMed

The gene encoding a lipoprotein of 67 kDa, named P67, was cloned from Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strain PG50 and expressed in Escherichia coli K12. Analysis of the amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence of the P67 gene revealed a typical prokaryotic signal peptidase II membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site and a transmembrane structure domain in the leader sequence at the amino-terminal end of the protein. Protein P67 showed 91% identical amino acid residues to the lipoprotein P72 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) and 53% identical amino acid residues to a peptide of an unassigned gene on the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. Antibodies made against recombinant P67 reacted with a 67-kDa protein in all Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strains tested and also, to some extent, with P72 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. The gene encoding P67 was present in all strains of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 analysed, but not in other Mycoplasma sp. of the "mycoides cluster" and not in the phylogenetically related Mycoplasma putrefaciens. PCR and restriction fragment analysis revealed that the gene of P67 is conserved in all strains of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. A specific PCR reaction based on the P67 gene sequence enabled rapid identification of strains belonging to Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. PMID:9766210

Frey, J; Cheng, X; Monnerat, M P; Abdo, E M; Krawinkler, M; Bölske, G; Nicolet, J

1998-01-01

230

Characterization of P40, a Cytadhesin of Mycoplasma agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunodominant protein, P40, of Mycoplasma agalactiae was analyzed genetically and functionally. The gene encoding P40 was cloned from type strain PG2, sequenced, submitted to point mutagenesis in order to convert mycoplasma-specific TGATrp codon to the universal TGGTrp codon, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence-derived amino acid sequence comparisons revealed a similarity of P40 to the adhesin P50

Benedicte Fleury; Dominique Bergonier; Xavier Berthelot; Ernst Peterhans; Joachim Frey; Edy M. Vilei

2002-01-01

231

Quantitative assessment of Mycoplasma hemadsorption activity by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

A number of adherent mycoplasmas have developed highly complex polar structures that are involved in diverse aspects of the biology of these microorganisms and play a key role as virulence factors by promoting adhesion to host cells in the first stages of infection. Attachment activity of mycoplasma cells has been traditionally investigated by determining their hemadsorption ability to red blood cells and it is a distinctive trait widely examined when characterizing the different mycoplasma species. Despite the fact that protocols to qualitatively determine the hemadsorption or hemagglutination of mycoplasmas are straightforward, current methods when investigating hemadsorption at the quantitative level are expensive and poorly reproducible. By using flow cytometry, we have developed a procedure to quantify rapidly and accurately the hemadsorption activity of mycoplasmas in the presence of SYBR Green I, a vital fluorochrome that stains nucleic acids, allowing to resolve erythrocyte and mycoplasma cells by their different size and fluorescence. This method is very reproducible and permits the kinetic analysis of the obtained data and a precise hemadsorption quantification based on standard binding parameters such as the dissociation constant K d. The procedure we developed could be easily implemented in a standardized assay to test the hemadsorption activity of the growing number of clinical isolates and mutant strains of different mycoplasma species, providing valuable data about the virulence of these microorganisms. PMID:24498118

García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Costa, Manuela; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

2014-01-01

232

Cardiobacterium hominis-induced acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess  

PubMed Central

Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy.

Manderwad, Guru Prasad; Kodiganti, Manjulatha; Ali, Mohammad Javed

2014-01-01

233

Gastrospirillum hominis and human chronic gastritis.  

PubMed

Gastrospirillum hominis, a new spiral bacterium, was found in the gastric mucosa of two patients with antral chronic gastritis. These 2 cases originated from a series of 2781 consecutive gastric biopsies observed over a period of five years, with a prevalence of 0.072%. Dogs and cats may be responsible for transmission to humans but in our experience no contact with pets was documented. Detection of these organisms might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of human gastritis. PMID:8590399

Monno, R; Ierardi, E; Valenza, M A; Campanale, A; Francavilla, A; Fumarola, L

1995-10-01

234

Effects of supplemental dietary phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed. Experimental layer diets, which included a basal control diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.025% phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, were fed from 20 through 58 wk of age. Weekly and total egg production were determined from 22 through 58 wk, and egg weight and various internal egg and eggshell quality characteristics were examined at 34, 50, and 58 wk of age. F-strain M. gallisepticum inoculation decreased egg production at the beginning of lay (wk 22 and 23) but increased post-peak lay at wk 45. However, there were no treatment effects of any kind on total egg production, egg weight, or any of the internal egg and eggshell characteristics examined during lay. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect layer performance or interact with the effects of F-strain M. gallisepticum inoculation; however, F-strain M. gallisepticum inoculation resulted in a shift in egg production from wk 22 to 45 without having an overall effect on total egg production. PMID:18281591

Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Burnham, M R; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D

2008-03-01

235

Characteristics of Blastocystis hominis infection in a Turkish university hospital.  

PubMed

In order to determine characteristics of Blastocystis (B.) hominis infection; 770 individuals' stool specimens were examined both by simple and concentration techniques and stained with iodine solution and trichrome in the Parasitology Laboratory of Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Turkey. Among the examined 770 specimens, B. hominis was detected in 94 (12.2%). B. hominis was the most common intestinal parasite among the study group. It was mostly detected with Dientamoeba fragilis. Among the groups the incidence of B. hominis in allergic patients was higher than controls. Among the immunosuppressed patients, B. hominis was detected significantly higher in patients who had solid tumours. Of the 48 individuals who had only B. hominis in their stool the most common symptom was abdominal pain. Concentration technique with trichrome stain was more sensitive than simple smear with lugol solution for the detection of B. hominis. Studies with more patients must be planed to understand the B. hominis infection in solid tumour patients and coexistence of B. hominis and D. fragilis. PMID:18224616

Ozçakir, Olcay; Güreser, Semra; Ergüven, Sibel; Yilmaz, Yakut Akyön; Topalo?lu, Rezzan; Hasçelik, Gül?en

2007-01-01

236

Mycoplasmas of Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive molecular genetic and biochemical research on animal mycoplasmas carried out during the last 10 years has significantly\\u000a improved the knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships, the characterization of many of their major antigens and the mechanism\\u000a of their variability. Furthermore, several basic biological mechanisms have been unravelled and led to a better understanding\\u000a of the pathogenicity of several mycoplasmas. These

Joachim Frey

237

Antigenicity of Mycoplasma Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNLIKE bacteria, mycoplasmas do not have a rigid cell wall1,2, but they are bounded by a triple layered limiting mombrane 70-80 Å thick3. Immunological reactions with these organisms have been studied by a number of techniques, of which growth inhibition and haemagglutination inhibition are believed to represent reactions with the surface of the organism4,5. Whole mycoplasma cells of different species

M. H. Williams

1967-01-01

238

Reagents for Identifying 'Mycoplasma pneumoniae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related to reagents which specifically recognize the human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae and no other Mycoplasma species or organism belonging to the class Mollicutes. More particularly, the present invention is related to an immunoassay...

L. D. Olson

1989-01-01

239

Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., a Fast-Growing Mycoplasma Species  

PubMed Central

Members of the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster” represent important livestock pathogens worldwide. We report the genome sequence of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., the closest relative to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster” and the fastest-growing Mycoplasma species described to date.

Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Giglio, Michelle; Nadendla, Suvarna; Drabek, Elliott; Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2013-01-01

240

Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment na?ve HIV-1 infected adults  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings.

Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

2011-01-01

241

Mycoplasmal adherence with particular reference to the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

Various eucaryotic cells adhere to colonies of some mycoplasmas (adsorption). The chemical nature of the receptors on the cells is not the same for all mycoplasma species, nor are the binding sites on different mycoplasmas the same. Some receptors comprise sialic acid, but in the case of Mycoplasma pulmonis, for example, attachment to cells is not mediated in this way. Nevertheless, adherence seems to be an important factor in the pathogenicity of this mycoplasma. Strain JB caused pneumonia in mice when inoculated intranasally, and colonies of this strain on agar absorbed erythrocytes (hemadsorption) strongly. After multiple passes in mycoplasma liquid medium, the strain lost its hemadsorbing capacity and also its mouse virulence, suggesting that the ability to attach to cells is virulence factor. Examination by electron microscopy of the virulent mycoplasma and its induced avirulent form after ruthenium-red staining showed that the stain was less thick on the surface of the avirulent form. In addition, the protein pattern of the avirulent mycoplasma, demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was deficient in three bands. These observations suggest that a glycosylated protein may form the binding site on M. pulmonis organisms that mediates their attachment to cells. PMID:7026496

Taylor-Robinson, D; Furr, P M; Davies, H A; Manchee, R J; Mouches, C; Bove, J M

1981-07-01

242

Gastrospirillum hominis-associated chronic active gastritis.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old Caucasian male presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Endoscopy revealed erythematous antral mucosa with four discrete gastric ulcers. Biopsies showed multiple spiral organisms, 4-6 microns in length, lying in the mucous layer on the surface. The organisms were strongly Giemsa positive and weakly CLOtest positive. They did not stain with Warthin-Starry silver or Gram-Weigert stains. Electron microscopy revealed fragments of Gastrospirillum hominis, with its characteristic spiral shape and length of 4 microns in the plane of section. We believe that this is one of the first reported pediatric cases in North America. PMID:8597829

Akin, O Y; Tsou, V M; Werner, A L

1995-01-01

243

[Mycoplasmas and AIDS].  

PubMed

AIDS is a complex illness due to HIV type 1 and 2 infection. It is characterized by an important immunodeficiency mainly caused by depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The reasons for this depletion have not been sufficiently clarified yet. In 1986, Shy Ching Lo astonished the scientific community with reported evidence concerning the direct role played by mycoplasma in the etiopathology of AIDS. Since then, different theories have pointed to mycoplasma as cofactors, commensals or opportunistic agents. Although in vivo and in vitro experiments are controversial they suggest a possible mechanism that would explain the synergism between both agents: the mycoplasma belonging to normal intestinal flora could move to urethra, oropharynx or blood due to high risk sexual practice. There it would proliferate favoured by early immunological disorders related to HIV. It has been speculated that several microorganisms including mycoplasma, acting as superantigens, could induce a chronic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes activation resulting in apoptosis of the infected lymphocytes. The release of cytokines induced by mycoplasma could influence the progression of the disease. PMID:9411491

Coronato, S

1997-01-01

244

Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. as a new species designation for Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach, and reclassification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC as a serovar of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.  

PubMed

The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of six pathogenic mycoplasmas causing disease in ruminants, which share many genotypic and phenotypic traits. The M. mycoides cluster comprises five recognized taxa: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Large Colony (MmmLC), M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). The group of strains known as Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach (MBG7) has remained unassigned, due to conflicting data obtained by different classification methods. In the present paper, all available data, including recent phylogenetic analyses, have been reviewed, resulting in a proposal for an emended taxonomy of this cluster: (i) the MBG7 strains, although related phylogenetically to M. capricolum, hold sufficient characteristic traits to be assigned as a separate species, i.e. Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. (type strain, PG50(T) = N29(T) = NCTC 10133(T) = DSM 21131(T)); (ii) MmmLC and Mmc, which can only be distinguished by serological methods and are related more distantly to MmmSC, should be combined into a single subspecies, i.e. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, leaving M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (MmmSC) as the exclusive designation for the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A taxonomic description of M. leachii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides and M. mycoides subsp. capri are presented. As a result of these emendments, the M. mycoides cluster will hereafter be composed of five taxa comprising three subclusters, which correspond to the M. mycoides subspecies, the M. capricolum subspecies and the novel species M. leachii. PMID:19502315

Manso-Silván, L; Vilei, E M; Sachse, K; Djordjevic, S P; Thiaucourt, F; Frey, J

2009-06-01

245

Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats.

Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

2002-01-01

246

Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae are encoded on a genomic pathogenicity island-like locus and are considered as one of the well-characterized model systems of mycoplasma surface antigenic variation. The present study assesses the role of these phase-variable Vpmas in the molecular pathogenesis of M. agalactiae by testing the wild-type strain PG2 in comparison with the xer1-disrupted Vpma 'phase-locked' mutants in sheep infection models. The data clearly illustrate that although Xer1 recombinase is not a virulence factor of M. agalactiae and Vpma phase variation is not necessary for establishing an infection, it might critically influence the survival and persistence of the pathogen under natural field conditions, mainly due to a better capacity for dissemination and evoking systemic responses. This is the first study where mycoplasma 'phase-locked' mutants are tested in vivo to elucidate the role of phase variation during infection. PMID:22809092

Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Baumgartner, Martina; Gamper, Erika; Innerebner, Carmen; Zimmermann, Martina; Schilcher, Franz; Tichy, Alexander; Winter, Petra; Jechlinger, Wolfgang; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

2012-12-01

247

Effects of supplemental dietary phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on BW and the blood characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed at 34, 50, and 58 wk of age. Experimental layer diets, which included either a basal control diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.025% PHY and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, were fed from 20 through 58 wk of age. The supplemented diet decreased blood hematocrit values across bird age, inoculation type (sham vs. F-strain M. gallisepticum), and age of inoculation (prelay vs. onset of lay). Phytase- and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-supplemented diets reduced bird BW in sham-inoculated control birds across bird age and age of inoculation. This effect was not observed in F-strain M. gallisepticum-inoculated birds. Furthermore, across diet (control vs. supplemented) and inoculation type, total plasma protein concentration at 34 wk of age was higher in birds that were inoculated at the onset of lay compared with those inoculated prelay. Diet, inoculation type, and inoculation age had no effect on mortality, reproductive organ histopathological lesion scores, or serum cholesterol and Ca concentrations. In conclusion, throughout lay, the supplementation of commercial layer diets with PHY may lower hematocrit, and inoculation with F-strain M. gallisepticum prelay or at the onset of lay may ameliorate the depressing effects of dietary PHY and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation on hen BW. PMID:17369552

Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Burnham, M R; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D

2007-04-01

248

Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolation in layers.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolations in live chickens have been made from swabs obtained primarily from the trachea or nasal exudates. As tracheal swabs are often contaminated with feed and because tracheal swabbing may be stressful to the bird, this study was conducted to determine if swabs from the choanal cleft (palatine fissure) would yield MG isolation rates comparable to MG isolation rates of swabs taken from the trachea. Commercial Leghorns from 17 to 22 weeks of age were inoculated via eyedrop with the F strain of MG. Swabs were made from the trachea or the choanal cleft region (palatine fissure) when the chickens were 58 to 63 weeks of age; MG was isolated from 15 of 101 tracheal swab samples and from 51 of 108 choanal cleft swab samples. This study indicates that swabs taken from the choanal cleft region yield higher isolation rates and are more easily obtained than tracheal swabs. PMID:6387691

Branton, S L; Gerlach, H; Kleven, S H

1984-10-01

249

Hypoalbuminemia as a predictor of diarrhea caused by blastocystis hominis.  

PubMed

Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal protozoan found worldwide, particularly in developing countries, that may cause gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea. We conducted a hospital-based study to identify clinical factors predictive of diarrhea caused by B. hominis. We studied patients with positive stool samples for B. hominis by formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand between 2003 and 2010. Patients were divided into diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups. Diarrhea patients were categorized if the diarrhea was associated with B. hominis only. In total, 81 patients with isolated B. hominis infection were studied. Of those, 17 patients (21%) had diarrhea associated with B. hominis infection. Eight variables were included in the final model predicting diarrhea caused by B. hominis on multiple logistic regression analysis. Only serum albumin level was significantly associated with diarrhea cases in this study with an adjusted OR of 0.162 and a 95% CI of 0.027- 0.957. Hypoalbuminemia is associated with diarrhea associated with blastocystosis. PMID:24050068

Laodim, Pongsakorn; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Prasongdee, Thidarat K; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Maleewong, Wanchai

2013-05-01

250

Interaction of porcine mycoplasmas with fresh animal serum  

PubMed Central

When fresh animal serum was dropped onto seeded mycoplasma agar plates, inhibition of growth frequently occurred. This effect was dependent on the mycoplasma serotype and on the animal species from which the fresh serum came. This activity of fresh animal serum was heat-labile and would not diffuse through the agar medium. Growth of all the porcine mycoplasma serotypes was inhibited by fresh sheep serum. M. hyorhinis, M. hyopneumoniae, B 3 and the P 45 strains were insensitive to fresh horse serum. The addition of fresh horse serum to specific M. hyorhinis rabbit antiserum-impregnated disks appeared to have a synergistic effect and the combination of M. hyorhinis antiserum-impregnated disk and fresh horse serum always inhibited the growth of M. hyorhinis strains. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 1Fig. 2

Roberts, D. H.

1971-01-01

251

Enhancement of HIV-1 cytocidal effects in CD4+ lymphocytes by the AIDS-associated mycoplasma.  

PubMed

Coinfection with Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) enhances the ability of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) to induce cytopathic effects on human T lymphocytes in vitro. Syncytium formation of HIV-infected T cells was essentially eliminated in the presence of M. fermentans (incognitus strain), despite prominent cell death. However, replication and production of HIV-1 particles continued during the coinfection. Furthermore, the supernatant from cultures coinfected with HIV-1 and the mycoplasma contained a factor that inhibited the standard reverse transcriptase enzyme assay. The modification of the biological properties of HIV-1 by coinfection with mycoplasma may be involved in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:1705362

Lo, S C; Tsai, S; Benish, J R; Shih, J W; Wear, D J; Wong, D M

1991-03-01

252

Genomic, protein homogeneity and antigenic variability of Mycoplasma agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven strains of Mycoplasma agalactiae differing in pathogenicity, animal species origin and geographic localisation, showed similar chromosome restriction profiles with four endonucleases. However the international reference strain PG2 showed a unique profile.The protein and antigenic variabilities of 31 strains of M. agalactiae were investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting performed with naturally infected animal sera

Michel Solsona; Maurice Lambert; François Poumarat

1996-01-01

253

Effects of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at 10, 22, or 45 weeks of age on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

Experimental inoculation of commercial laying hens with the S6-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) at 20 wk of age, while being maintained under ideal conditions, has previously been shown to affect the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. Two trials were conducted in the current study to compare the effects of S6MG inoculation prior to lay at 10 wk of age, during onset of lay at 22 wk of age, and during lay at 45 wk of age on the digestive and reproductive organs of commercial layers similarly housed and maintained under ideal conditions. In each trial, liver weight, liver moisture and lipid concentration, incidence of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome, ovary weight, ovarian mature follicle numbers, weights and lengths of the oviduct and oviductal regions, and weights and lengths of the small intestine and small intestinal regions were examined at 60 wk of hen age. At 60 wk, liver lipid concentration was depressed, and isthmus weight, as a percentage of total oviduct weight, was increased in birds that had been inoculated with S6MG at 45 wk. Alterations in liver lipid content and weight of the isthmal portion of the oviduct may occur in response to S6MG inoculation during the later stages of production in layers housed under ideal conditions. PMID:16673758

Peebles, E D; Basenko, E Y; Branton, S L; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D

2006-05-01

254

Effects of supplemental dietary phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-D3) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were assessed at 58 wk of age. Experimental layer diets that included a basal control diet or a control diet supplemented with 0.025% PHY and 25-D3 were fed from 20 through 58 wk of age. As a percentage of total oviduct weight, magnum weight was lower in birds that were inoculated (sham or FMG) at lay onset compared with those that were inoculated prelay, and in FMG-inoculated birds, relative duodenum length was greater in those inoculated at 12 compared with 22 wk. Also, as percentages of organ weight or length, infundibulum length and isthmus weight were increased, whereas duodenum length was decreased by dietary supplementation with PHY and 25-D3. The overall timing (12 vs. 22 wk) of inoculation can affect the reproductive organ characteristics of layers, whereas, more specifically, the timing of an FMG inoculation may affect their digestive organ structure. Furthermore, independent of inoculation timing and type, the reproductive organ and digestive systems of laying hens may be influenced by dietary supplementation with PHY and 25-D3. PMID:17626828

Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Burnham, M R; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D

2007-08-01

255

Effects of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at ten, twenty-two, or forty-five weeks of age on the performance characteristics of commercial egg laying hens.  

PubMed

Experimental inoculation of commercial laying hens, maintained under controlled conditions, with the S6-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) at 10 wk of age has previously been shown to affect the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract without affecting subsequent performance. Two trials were conducted to compare the effects of S6MG inoculation at 10 wk of age (prior to lay), 22 wk of age (onset of lay), and 45 wk of age (during lay) on performance characteristics in commercial layers housed and maintained under controlled conditions, as in previous studies. In each trial, BW, mortality, egg production, egg weight, eggshell weight per unit of surface area, percentage eggshell weight, percentage albumen weight, percentage yolk weight, and yolk weight per albumen weight ratio were examined at various ages throughout an entire laying cycle. Across wk 47 and 58 (age periods after the last 45 wk inoculation), eggshell weight per unit of surface area and percentage eggshell weight were significantly reduced in birds that had received an S6MG inoculation at 45 wk of age when compared with birds that had not received an S6MG inoculation or had been inoculated with S6MG at either 10 or 22 wk of age. Alterations in eggshell quality in response to S6MG may become evident only in older birds that are experiencing declines in production when housed under controlled conditions. PMID:16463961

Basenko, E Y; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D

2005-11-01

256

Prehistory and Paleoenvironment of Hominy Creek Valley: 1976 Field Season.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Archeological and paleoenvironmental investigations of three sites along Hominy Creek in the Skiatook Reservoir, Osage County, Oklahoma, provide information on the lifeways and adaptive strategies of the prehistoric inhabitants of the valley. Evidence ind...

D. O. Henry

1976-01-01

257

Experimental conjunctival-route infection with Mycoplasma agalactiae in lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious agalactia caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae is a major cause of mastitis in ewes and goats. To explore the first stages of infection, an experimental infection in lambs has been developed, using the strain P89 of M. agalactiae. Lambs were inoculated by the conjunctival route with various doses of viable bacteria. Following necropsy at regular intervals, enumeration of viable bacteria

R. Sanchis; G. Abadie; M. Lambert; E. Cabasse; J. M. Guibert; M. Calamel; P. Dufour; C. Vitu; M. Vignoni; M. Pépin

1998-01-01

258

In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine how widespread antibiotic resistance has become to standard treatments, the in vitro susceptibilities of 28 Mycoplasma agalactiae Spanish field isolates to 16 antimicrobial agents were determined using a broth microdilution method. The most effective antimicrobials based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 values were fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and macrolides. Two strains were tetracycline resistant. Streptomycin, erythromycin and nalidixic

N. T. Antunes; M. M. Tavío; P. Assunção; R. S. Rosales; C. Poveda; C. de la Fé; M. C. Gil; J. B. Poveda

2008-01-01

259

Comparative genomics and phylogenomics of hemotrophic mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are a group of animal pathogens of the Mollicutes class. Recently, the genomes of 8 hemoplasmas have been completely sequenced. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of their genomic features and relationship to other Mycoplasma species. The genome structure and dynamics of hemoplasmas were analyzed by evaluating gene synteny, adaptive evolution of paralogous gene families (PGF) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The Mollicutes class was then phylogenetically analyzed by constructing a distance matrix of the 16S rRNA genes and a phylogenetic tree with 32 conserved, concatenated proteins. Our results suggest that the hemoplasmas have dynamic genomes. The genome size variation (from 547 to 1,545 genes) indicates substantial gene gain/loss throughout evolution. Poorly conserved gene syntenies among hemoplasmas, positional shuffling of paralogous genes between strains, HGT, and codons under positive selection in PGFs were also observed. When compared to other Mollicutes species, the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic reduction, and the 16S rRNA gene distance matrix of the available mollicutes suggests that these organisms presently constitute the most divergent clade within its class. Our phylogenetic tree of concatenated proteins showed some differences when compared to the 16S rRNA gene tree, but non-mycoplasma organisms, such as Ureaplasma spp. and Mesoplasma spp., continue to branch within Mycoplasma clades. In conclusion, while the hemoplasmas experienced further metabolic shrinkage through gene loss, PGFs with positively selected codons are likely beneficial to these species. Phylogeny of the mollicutes based on 16S rRNA genes or concatenated proteins do not obey the current taxonomy. The metabolism and genetic diversity of the mollicutes, the presence of HGT, and lack of standard for genus circumscription are likely to hinder attempts to classify these organisms based on phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24642917

Guimaraes, Ana M S; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Timenetsky, Jorge; Messick, Joanne B

2014-01-01

260

Typing of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis by single-strand conformation polymorphism of four genomic regions.  

PubMed Central

To better investigate Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis epidemiology, we have developed a molecular typing method. Because of the limited genetic variability of the P. carinii hominis genome, a multitarget approach was used. Four variable regions of the genome were amplified by PCR, polymorphism in each region was assessed by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique, and the results for the four regions of each patient were combined. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens collected from 11 patients were examined. Four patients were probably infected by a single strain, since their specimens yielded simple SSCP patterns (two bands corresponding to one allele). The combinations of these patterns were unique, suggesting that the strains which infected these patients were different. For the other seven patients, complex patterns were found (three or four bands corresponding to two alleles). The presence of more than one allele of a region in a patient is likely to be due to coinfection. Polymorphism was also assessed by sequencing, which revealed variations at nucleotide positions previously reported to vary. About half of the observed alleles had already been reported by laboratories in different countries. Multitarget typing of P. carinii hominis by PCR-SSCP should allow investigation of strain diversity and thus be useful for future epidemiological studies.

Hauser, P M; Francioli, P; Bille, J; Telenti, A; Blanc, D S

1997-01-01

261

Mycoplasma infections and different human carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM To explore relationships between human carcinomas and mycoplasma infection. METHODS Monoclonal antibody PD4, which specifically recognizes a distinct protein from mycoplasma hyorhinis, was used to detect mycoplasma infection in different paraffin embedded carcinoma tissues with immunohistochemistry. PCR was applied to amplify the mycoplasma DNA from the positive samples for confirming immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Fifty of 90 cases (56%) of gastric

Su Huang; Ji You Li; Jan Wu; Lin Meng; Cheng Chao Shou

262

Mycoplasmas and their role as rodent pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Mycoplasmas are the smallest known free-living form of life, and differ from bacteria in a number of characteristics. They are widely distributed in the animal kingdom and may give rise to both acute and latent infections as well as being present as normal flora. The three principal rodent pathogens so far described are Mycoplasma pulmonis, Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma

R. J. Fallon

1967-01-01

263

Antimycoplasmal Activity of Hydroxytyrosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol. Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hominis, three strains of Mycoplasma fermentans, and one strain of Mycoplasma pneu- moniae were used. For M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. fermentans, the MICs were 0.5, 0.03 (for 90% of the strains tested), and 0.25 g\\/ml, respectively. Typical components of

Pio Maria Furneri; Anna Piperno; Antonella Sajia; Giuseppe Bisignano

2004-01-01

264

Molecular characterization of the Mycoplasma bovis p68 gene, encoding a basic membrane protein with homology to P48 of Mycoplasma agalactiae.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmal lipoproteins are considered to be potential virulence determinants, which may carry out numerous important functions in pathogenesis including adhesion and immunomodulation. The prototype mycoplasmal immunomodulin is the macrophage-activating lipoprotein (MALP) of Mycoplasma fermentans. In this study, a homolog of the malp gene, designated p68, was identified and characterized in Mycoplasma bovis strain PG45 clonal variant #6. P68 belongs to the family of basic membrane proteins, which have been identified in diverse prokaryotes, including mycoplasmas. P68 revealed significant similarity and shared conserved selective lipoprotein-associated motifs with the highly immunogenic MALP-related lipoproteins P48 of M. bovis and P48 of Mycoplasma agalactiae. Determination of the genomic distribution of both M. bovis malp-homologs showed that p48 was present in all M. bovis strains tested, whereas the p68 gene was missing in some. Sequence comparison of the p68 genomic region in strains with and without this gene revealed that the region is very dynamic, with multiple genetic changes. Reverse-transcription PCR and primer extension analysis indicated that both p68 and p48 are transcribed in M. bovis under in vitro growth conditions. Mycoplasma bovis is the first mycoplasma species in which two malp-related genes have been identified. PMID:18194339

Lysnyansky, Inna; Yogev, David; Levisohn, Sharon

2008-02-01

265

[Study of Mycoplasma from the genital apparatus of cattle].  

PubMed

The study on vaginal mucous secretion in cows with metritis and vaginitis, on fetuses and placentae of cows that had miscarried as well as on preputial secretion of bulls revealed the presence of Mycoplasma organisms associated with V. fetus and other bacterial species. By their reaction to cholesterol, digitonin, sodium polyanetol sulfonate as well as their serum and temperature requirements, the formation of films and spots, their phosphatase activity and biochemical and serologic behaviour the mycoplasmas isolated from the genital tract of cows were specified as A. laidlawii and A. axanthum. From both cows and bulls T-forms of mycoplasmas were isolated. The strains determined as A. laidlawi showed deviations from the species characteristics by the fermentation of glucose, hydrolysis of esculine, and reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride. PMID:960549

Savov, N; Buchvarova, Ia

1976-01-01

266

Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time.  

PubMed

Spray application is a commonly used, time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray-vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and the vaccine suspension droplet trajectory. In this study, a total of 48 Hy-Line W-36 males were placed individually in isolation units following eye-drop application of gradient levels (1 x, 10(-1) x, 10(-2) x, 10(-3) x, 10(-4) x, 10(-5) x, 10(-6) x, and unvaccinated control) of the MG vaccine. The determined titer associated with a 1 x dose was 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units/dose. Serologic response was assessed weekly following vaccination via serum plate agglutination (SPA) for weeks one through seven postvaccination (p.v.). In addition, immunologic response was assessed at 5, 6, and 7 wk p.v. via MG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As indicated by SPA analyses, a 1 x dose of vaccine resulted in 100% seroconversion, and dose levels of 10(-1) x and 10(-2) x resulted in 75% and 37.5% seroconversion, respectively, at 6 wk p.v. The MG ELISA results at 6 wk p.v. demonstrated immunologic responses in 100%, 57.1%, and 28.6% of the 1 x, 10(-1) x, and 10(-2) x dosed birds, respectively. The lower dosage levels of 10(-3) x, 10(-4) x, 10(-5) x, and 10(-6) x did not elicit a response from any bird at 6 wk p.v. Utilizing the SPA data, a logistic regression model was used to determine the relationship between dosage level and seroconversion rate (R2 = 0.999 with a standard error of prediction of 1.6%). The model predicted a required effective dosage of 0.26 x for 90% seroconversion at 6 wk p.v. under test conditions. PMID:22017053

Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

2011-09-01

267

Complexity of the Mycoplasma fermentans M64 Genome and Metabolic Essentiality and Diversity among Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Recently, the genomes of two Mycoplasma fermentans strains, namely M64 and JER, have been completely sequenced. Gross comparison indicated that the genome of M64 is significantly bigger than the other strain and the difference is mainly contributed by the repetitive sequences including seven families of simple and complex transposable elements ranging from 973 to 23,778 bps. Analysis of these repeats resulted in the identification of a new distinct family of Integrative Conjugal Elements of M. fermentans, designated as ICEF-III. Using the concept of “reaction connectivity”, the metabolic capabilities in M. fermentans manifested by the complete and partial connected biomodules were revealed. A comparison of the reported M. pulmonis, M. arthritidis, M. genitalium, B. subtilis, and E. coli essential genes and the genes predicted from the M64 genome indicated that more than 73% of the Mycoplasmas essential genes are preserved in M. fermentans. Further examination of the highly and partly connected reactions by a novel combinatorial phylogenetic tree, metabolic network, and essential gene analysis indicated that some of the pathways (e.g. purine and pyrimidine metabolisms) with partial connected reactions may be important for the conversions of intermediate metabolites. Taken together, in light of systems and network analyses, the diversity among the Mycoplasma species was manifested on the variations of their limited metabolic abilities during evolution.

Chan, Huang-I; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Shu, Hung-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Hu, Wensi S.; Ng, Wailap Victor

2012-01-01

268

In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae.  

PubMed

In order to determine how widespread antibiotic resistance has become to standard treatments, the in vitro susceptibilities of 28 Mycoplasma agalactiae Spanish field isolates to 16 antimicrobial agents were determined using a broth microdilution method. The most effective antimicrobials based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) values were fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and macrolides. Two strains were tetracycline resistant. Streptomycin, erythromycin and nalidixic acid resistance was observed in all strains. PMID:17604191

Antunes, N T; Tavío, M M; Assunção, P; Rosales, R S; Poveda, C; de la Fé, C; Gil, M C; Poveda, J B

2008-09-01

269

Blastocystis Hominis as a Cause of Diarrhea in Travelers to Nepal: Prospective Contro11ed Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis has been extensively debated in the medical literature, controlled studies of the association between B. hominis and diarrhea are lacking. We conducted a case-control study among expatriates and tourists ...

D. R. Shlim C. W. Hoge R. Rajah J. G. Rabold F. Echeverria

1995-01-01

270

Phosphocholine-Containing Glycoglycerolipids (GGPL-I and GGPL-III) Are Species-Specific Major Immunodeterminants of Mycoplasma fermentans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma fermentanshas unique glycoglycerophospholipids (GGPLs: GGPL-I and GGPL-III). Previously, the structure of these lipids was determined as phosphocholine-6?-?-glucopyranosyl-(1?-3)-1, 2-diacyl-glycerol (GGPL-I) and 1?-phosphcholine-2?-aminodihydroxypropane-3?-phospho-6?-?-glucopyranosyl (1?-3)-1, 2-diacyl-glycerol (GGPL-III). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) immunostaining showed that the GGPLs were main lipid-antigens of theM. fermentansspecies. Anti-M. fermentansserum stained mainly the GGPLs, but the other anti-mycoplasma sera (anti-M. arginini,anti-M. hyorhinis,anti-M. pneumonia,anti-M. primatum,and anti-Acholeplasma laidlawii,anti-M. hominis,anti-M. orale,andM. salivarium)

Kazuhiro Matsuda; Jin-Liang Li; Ryo Harasawa; Naoki Yamamoto

1997-01-01

271

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Twelve Weeks of Age on Egg Yolk Composition in Commercial Egg Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two trials, the effects of F-strain Myco- plasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the contents of egg yolks from commercial Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of 8 (trial 1) or 16 (trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass biological isolation units. Birds in half of the total units served as

M. R. Burnham; E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; D. V. Maurice; P. D. Gerard

272

Effects of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Twelve Weeks of Age on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Egg Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two trials, the effects of an F-strainMyco- plasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation at 12 wk of age on the blood characteristics of commercial Single Combed White Leghorn laying hens were investigated throughout lay. Variables measured in both trials were whole blood hematocrit, plasma protein (PP), and serum cholesterol, triglycerides (ST), and calcium. In both trials, hematocrit at 20 wk of

M. R. Burnham; E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; M. S. Jones; P. D. Gerard

273

Aerosol-induced Mycoplasma synoviae arthritis: the synergistic effect of infectious bronchitis virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection (10 median embryo infective dose per chick) on the induction of Mycoplasma synoviae arthritis was investigated. Mycoplasma-free brown layer pullets, approximately 5 weeks old, were exposed to an aerosol dose of ?10 colony-forming units (CFU) of M. synoviae alone or 3 days after inoculation of a field strain of IBV (D1466) by

W. J. M. Landman; A. Feberwee

2004-01-01

274

Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium mixture in synovial fluid isolate.  

PubMed Central

A mycoplasma cultured from synovial fluid specimens from a patient with pneumonia and subsequent polyarthritis was identified initially as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In retrospective studies, the culture was shown also to contain Mycoplasma genitalium. In this paper, the laboratory techniques employed in the identification and separation of the two species are presented, and evidence to implicate postinfectious autoimmunity is provided. An increasing number of reports of M. genitalium in human tissue sites and difficulties in isolation and identification of the organism in the clinical laboratory suggest the need for more extensive application of rapid and specific detection systems for both M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae in the clinical laboratory.

Tully, J G; Rose, D L; Baseman, J B; Dallo, S F; Lazzell, A L; Davis, C P

1995-01-01

275

The Phospholipid Profile of Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disaturated PC. Although their small genome, in some Mycoplasma species, other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis were detected, resulting in the synthesis of a variety of glycolipis, phosphoglycolipids and ether lipids. We suggest that analyses and comparisons of mycoplasma polar lipids may serve as a novel and useful tool for classification. Nonetheless, to evaluate the importance of polar lipids in mycoplasma, further systematic and extensive studies on more Mycoplasma species are needed. While studies are needed to elucidate the role of lipids in the mechanisms governing the interaction of mycoplasmas with host eukaryotic cells, the finding that a terminal phosphocholine containing glycolipids of M. fermentans serves both as a major immune determinants and as a trigger of the inflammatory responses, and the findings that the fusogenicity of M. fermentans with host cells is markedly stimulated by lyso-ether lipids, are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of M. fermentans pathogenicity.

Kornspan, Jonathan D.; Rottem, Shlomo

2012-01-01

276

Identification of biofilm formation by Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens and of infectious sinusitis in turkeys, chickens, game birds, pigeons, and passerine birds of all ages. This study investigated the biofilm-producing ability of M. gallisepticum strains in an attempt to explain its intriguing persistence in commercial flocks. Eleven strains of M. gallisepticum were investigated for their biofilm formation, which varied considerably. Strains Nobilis MG 6/85, S(6) (P(5) and P(20)), D(9604), and SU(15) were strong biofilm producers. Strains R(low) (P(10) and P(100)), NCL, CG(5), YL(4), and F were weak biofilm producers. Strains Vaxsafe MG ts-11 and F(36) did not produce biofilm as verified using a crystal violet staining assay. In addition, highly differentiated biofilm structures of strain Nobilis MG 6/85 with characteristic stacks and channels were observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), antibiotics (tetracycline, gentamicin), or detergent (Triton X-100) were further used to determine their effects on biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was significantly inhibited by 5% sucrose and 5 mmol/L EDTA. Compared with the planktonic mycoplasma, these biofilm-grown cultures were more resistant to tetracycline, gentamicin, and Triton X-100 treatments. Furthermore, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the transcription of several genes that may be associated with biofilm formation. The results indicated that the transcriptions of some genes in the biofilm-grown cells were markedly decreased, including vlhA3.03, csmC, hatA, gapA, neuraminidase, and mgc2. Our results will benefit further research on the persistence of M. gallisepticum infections. PMID:22840542

Chen, Hongjun; Yu, Shengqing; Hu, Meirong; Han, Xiangan; Chen, Danqing; Qiu, Xusheng; Ding, Chan

2012-12-28

277

Sterol requirement of Mycoplasma capricolum.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas require an external source of sterol for growth. For Mycoplasma capricolum this requirement is met not only by cholesterol but also by the methylcholestane derivatives lanosterol, cycloartenol, 4,4-dimethylcholesterol, and 4beta-methylcholestanol. Cholesteryl methyl ether and 3alpha-methylcholestanol serve equally well as sterol supplements. None of the growth-supporting sterol derivatives tested was metabolically modified. The unusual acceptance of diverse cholestane derivatives by a mycoplasma species contrasts with the structural attributes thought to be necessary for sterol function in eukaryotic membranes.

Odriozola, J M; Waitzkin, E; Smith, T L; Bloch, K

1978-01-01

278

Cytotoxicity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Membranes  

PubMed Central

Organ cultures of adult hamster trachea were used to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of cell fractions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Cytoplasm was essentially devoid of activity, whereas viable cells and membrane preparations, at a level of 25 ?g of protein per ml, induced necrosis. Damage, as revealed by light and electron microscopy, included ciliostasis, vacuolization, loss of ciliated respiratory epithelial cells, disorganization, and a loss of polarity. Dose response data indicated that the speed and degree of cytotoxicity was directly related to the concentration of membranes. Doses of 30 to 60 ?g of protein per ml could reduce relative ciliary activity to 20% of the control level within 4 days. Membranes prepared after freeze-thaw lysis of cells were almost twice as active as those isolated after a combination of osmotic and sonic shock. Membranes of M. fermentans were inactive, though both the FH and M129 strains of M. pneumoniae were toxic. These data indicate that the toxic factor responsible for M. pneumoniae may be located in the cell membrane. Images

Gabridge, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia K.; Cameron, Alexander M.

1974-01-01

279

Alterations in the metabolism of hamster tracheas in organ culture after infection by virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Exposure of hamster tracheal rings in organ culture to virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms leads to alterations in macromolecular biosynthesis and metabolic activity of the respiratory epithelial cells. Avirulent organisms derived from the same parent strain do not produce these effects. During the course of infection by virulent mycoplasmas, tracheal rings show an initial increase in [14C]galactose uptake followed by a significant decline as infection progresses which is also accompanied by abnormal processing of galactose as evidenced by amounts of 14CO2 released. Parallel decreases in the rate of [3H]orotic acid and [3H]amino acid uptake are observed. Within 24 h after infection of tracheal rings by virulent mycoplasmas, inhibition of host cell ribonucleic acid and protien synthesis is evident. Ribonucleic acid synthesis in infected cells, analyzed by gel electrophoresis, is reduced by 80% at 48 h and is negligible by 96 h. The course of mycoplasma infection can be interrupted or reversed by erythromycin after the initial mycoplasma-host cell interaction since addition of erythromycin 24 h or earlier after infection prevents the onset of abnormal orotic acid uptake. However, 48 h after infection, rescue of host cells by erythromycin cannot occur and cytopathology becomes evident. These data suggest that mediation of host cell injury requires continued protein synthesis by attached mycoplasmas, and the primary effect of mycoplasma infection on tracheal organ culture may be at a transcriptional or translational level. PMID:1120610

Hu, P C; Collier, A M; Baseman, J B

1975-04-01

280

High Prevalence of Genital Mycoplasmas among Sexually Active Young Adults with Urethritis or Cervicitis Symptoms in La Crosse, Wisconsin  

PubMed Central

Sexually active young adults in the small college town of La Crosse, Wisconsin, were evaluated for conventional sexually transmitted pathogens and tested for infections with mycoplasmas. The prevalence in 65 symptomatic men or women and 137 healthy volunteers (67 men and 70 women) was compared. Urine specimens from both cohorts were tested by ligase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In addition, the urethral or cervical swabs from the symptomatic subjects were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium and cultured for Mycoplasma hominis and the ureaplasmas. The results confirmed a relatively low prevalence of gonorrhea among symptomatic men (12%) and chlamydia among symptomatic men (15%) and normal women (3%). In contrast, infections with mycoplasmas, especially the ureaplasmas (57%), were common and the organisms were the only potential sexually transmitted pathogen detected in 40 (62%) symptomatic subjects. Because of the high prevalence, we also evaluated urethral swabs from an additional 25 normal female volunteers and recovered ureaplasmas from 4 (16%) subjects. Additionally, the participants rarely used protection during sexual intercourse and some symptomatic subjects apparently acquired their infections despite using condoms regularly. The findings demonstrate a strong association between abnormal urogenital findings and detection of myoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, and suggest the infections will remain common.

Schlicht, Michael J.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Sartin, Jeffrey S.; Karpinsky, Patricia; Callister, Steven M.; Agger, William A.

2004-01-01

281

Multilocus Sequence Typing and Further Genetic Characterization of the Enigmatic Pathogen, Staphylococcus hominis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus hominis is a commensal resident of human skin and an opportunistic pathogen. The species is subdivided into two subspecies, S. hominis subsp. hominis and S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus, which are difficult to distinguish. To investigate the evolution and epidemiology of S. hominis, a total of 108 isolates collected from 10 countries over 40 years were characterized by classical phenotypic methods and genetic methods. One nonsynonymous mutation in gyrB, scored with a novel SNP typing assay, had a perfect association with the novobiocin-resistant phenotype. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed from six housekeeping gene fragments, and revealed relatively high levels of genetic diversity and a significant impact of recombination on S. hominis population structure. Among the 40 sequence types (STs) identified by MLST, three STs (ST2, ST16 and ST23) were S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus, and they distinguished between isolates from different outbreaks, whereas 37 other STs were S. hominis subsp. hominis, one of which was widely disseminated (ST1). A modified PCR assay was developed to detect the presence of ccrAB4 from the SCCmec genetic element. S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus isolates were oxacillin-resistant and carriers of specific components of SCCmec (mecA class A, ccrAB3, ccrAB4, ccrC), whereas S. hominis subsp. hominis included both oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant isolates and a more diverse array of SCCmec components. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus may be a polyphyletic and, hence, artificial taxon. In summary, these results revealed the genetic diversity of S. hominis, the identities of outbreak-causing clones, and the evolutionary relationships between subspecies and clones. The pathogenic lifestyle attributed to S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus may have originated on more than one occasion.

Zhang, Liangfen; Thomas, Jonathan C.; Miragaia, Maria; Bouchami, Ons; Chaves, Fernando; d'Azevedo, Pedro A.; Aanensen, David M.; de Lencastre, Herminia; Gray, Barry M.; Robinson, D. Ashley

2013-01-01

282

Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., a Fast-Growing Mycoplasma Species.  

PubMed

Members of the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster" represent important livestock pathogens worldwide. We report the genome sequence of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., the closest relative to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster" and the fastest-growing Mycoplasma species described to date. PMID:23469346

Fischer, Anne; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Giglio, Michelle; Nadendla, Suvarna; Drabek, Elliott; Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2013-01-01

283

Evidence that UGA is read as a tryptophan codon rather than as a stop codon by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed Central

Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum, like Mycoplasma capricolum, contains both tRNA(UCA) and tRNA(CCA) genes, while Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium each appear to have only a tRNA(UCA) gene. Therefore, these mycoplasma species contain a tRNA with the anticodon UCA that can translate both UGA and UGG codons.

Inamine, J M; Ho, K C; Loechel, S; Hu, P C

1990-01-01

284

Nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes in mycoplasma-infected tumor cell cultures compromise the cytostatic activity of the anticancer drug gemcitabine.  

PubMed

The intracellular metabolism and cytostatic activity of the anticancer drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine; dFdC) was severely compromised in Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected tumor cell cultures. Pronounced deamination of dFdC to its less cytostatic metabolite 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxyuridine was observed, both in cell extracts and spent culture medium (i.e. tumor cell-free but mycoplasma-containing) of mycoplasma-infected tumor cells. This indicates that the decreased antiproliferative activity of dFdC in such cells is attributed to a mycoplasma cytidine deaminase causing rapid drug catabolism. Indeed, the cytostatic activity of gemcitabine could be restored by the co-administration of tetrahydrouridine (a potent cytidine deaminase inhibitor). Additionally, mycoplasma-derived pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNP) activity indirectly potentiated deamination of dFdC: the natural pyrimidine nucleosides uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine and thymidine inhibited mycoplasma-associated dFdC deamination but were efficiently catabolized (removed) by mycoplasma PyNP. The markedly lower anabolism and related cytostatic activity of dFdC in mycoplasma-infected tumor cells was therefore also (partially) restored by a specific TP/PyNP inhibitor (TPI), or by exogenous thymidine. Consequently, no effect on the cytostatic activity of dFdC was observed in tumor cell cultures infected with a PyNP-deficient Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain. Because it has been reported that some commensal mycoplasma species (including M. hyorhinis) preferentially colonize tumor tissue in cancer patients, our findings suggest that the presence of mycoplasmas in the tumor microenvironment could be a limiting factor for the anticancer efficiency of dFdC-based chemotherapy. Accordingly, a significantly decreased antitumor effect of dFdC was observed in mice bearing M. hyorhinis-infected murine mammary FM3A tumors compared with uninfected tumors. PMID:24668817

Vande Voorde, Johan; Sabuncuo?lu, Suna; Noppen, Sam; Hofer, Anders; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Fieuws, Steffen; Balzarini, Jan; Liekens, Sandra

2014-05-01

285

Toxic Membrane Fractions from Mycoplasma fermentans1  

PubMed Central

A recent isolate of Mycoplasma fermentans (strain K10, from human leukemic bone marrow) induced a lethal toxicity syndrome in mice. High doses of both viable and inactivated cells were toxic when injected intraperitoneally. Whole lysates and membranes from osmotically shocked cells killed mice, but cytoplasm did not. When membranes were dissolved in detergents and reaggregated by dialysis in the presence of Mg2+, the lipid-protein complex thus formed was toxic. Lipids extracted from membranes with chloroform-methanol did not kill mice. Protein-rich fractions (obtained by reaggregation plus acetone washes or ammonium sulfate precipitation of dissolved membranes) were also not toxic. No qualitative differences in proteins from three toxic isolates and three nontoxic laboratory strains of M. fermentans were detectable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxic factor contained in reaggregated membranes was heat-stable but sensitive to Pronase, trypsin, and lipase. Images

Gabridge, Michael G.; Murphy, William H.

1971-01-01

286

Studies of Mycoplasma and Mycoplasmavirus DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mycoplasmas are a diverse group of prokaryotes characterized by small cell size, relatively small genomes, and complete lack of cell wall. Within the past decade, four types of mycoplasmaviruses have been isolated which can infect certain mycoplasma s...

J. A. Nowak

1978-01-01

287

[Relationship between morphology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis trophozoites].  

PubMed

Six hundred and eighty-six fresh fecal specimens were collected from outpatients (663 well-formed feces and 23 watery feces) during March 2011 to March 2012. All specimens were examined microscopically by direct smear and iodine stained method. B. hominis obtained from the human positive fecal specimens were cultured in LES medium, and inoculated into the abdominal cavity of 10 female mice of 6-8-week old. The abdominal fluid was examined with same methods. 103 of 686 patients were positive (80 well-formed feces and 23 watery feces). Micro-scopically, the granular form and vacuolated form of B. hominis trophozoites could be easily identified by direct smear and iodine staining in well-formed fecal specimens, showing ovoid in shape and about (13.2 +/- 0.2) microm in size. The tro-phozoites cultured in LES medium showed similar feature. But in the watery fecal specimens and mice ascites specimen, they were amorphous containing more granules. And their average size was (28.0 +/- 0.3) microm which was larger than the former. Moreover, the amebal form of B. hominis trophozoites was also detected in the 23 watery fecal specimen and mice ascites specimen. The trophozoites of B. hominis were varying in shape and size depending on their living environment. PMID:24809197

Shen, Ji-Qing; Tian, Chun-Lin; Lu, Zuo-Chao; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Deng-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jing; Li, Xue-Ming

2013-04-01

288

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

The effects of 2 levels of supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D(3)) on the performance of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk and dietary treatments [basal control diet (BCD), BCD with 0.75% supplemental PF, BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF, and BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF, 0.013% PHY, and 0.025% D(3)] were initiated at 20 wk of age. Hen BW, egg weight, and egg production (EP) were determined every 4 wk between 24 and 58 wk of age. Feed consumption (FC) and feed conversion were determined in 4-wk intervals beginning on wk 25 and ending on wk 58, and total mortality and mean EP were determined over the entire 24 to 58-wk period. The addition of 0.75 and 1.50% PF increased BW at wk 48 and 58, respectively, and supplemental PF at the 1.50% level increased the BW of hens that had been inoculated (sham or FMG) on wk 22 and reduced the FC of hens inoculated on wk 12. Feed conversion was decreased in the 25 to 28- and 57 to 58-wk age periods and increased in the 45 to 48-wk age periods by an FMG inoculation. In birds inoculated at 22 wk of age, FMG increased egg weight. Although EP was reduced at wk 24 and was increased at wk 58 by FMG, total EP was not affected. In conclusion, an inoculation of FMG at either 12 or 22 wk of age can result in a relative shift in EP from the early to late stage of lay without affecting total EP, and although the BW and FC responses of hens to added dietary PF were influenced by their age and the age of inoculation, use of the supplemental combination of PHY and D(3) had no additional effect on performance when provided in conjunction with 1.50% PF. PMID:20371842

Park, S W; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D; Womack, S K; Peebles, E D

2010-05-01

289

Effects of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at ten, twenty-two, or forty-five weeks of age on the egg yolk composition of commercial egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

Commercial laying hens maintained under controlled conditions were experimentally inoculated with the S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) at 45 wk of age. This resulted in depressed liver lipid concentration, and inoculations at 20 and 45 wk affected the size of various portions of the reproductive tract. In 2 consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of age of application of S6MG inoculation on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers similarly housed and maintained under controlled conditions was determined. The ages of inoculation compared were prior to lay at 10 wk of age, during onset of lay at 22 wk of age, and during postpeak lay at 45 wk of age. In each trial, yolk moisture and total lipid content were determined at 24, 32, 43, 47, and 58 wk of age. Yolk cholesterol concentration and yolk fatty acid profiles at wk 47 and 58 were also examined. Data from wk 24, 32, and 43 (effects of S6MG inoculations at 10 and 22 wk) and data from wk 47 and 58 (effects of S6MG inoculations at 10, 22, and 45 wk) were analyzed separately. The data of both trials were pooled then analyzed together. Across wk 47 and 58, percentage yolk lipid was significantly lower in eggs laid by birds inoculated at 10 wk compared with those inoculated at 45 wk. Sham-inoculated control and 22-wk inoculated groups had intermediate percentage yolk lipids. Compared with sham-control and 10-wk S6MG inoculation groups across wk 47 and 58, yolk myristic, oleic, and linolenic acid concentrations were reduced, whereas yolk stearic and arachidonic acid levels were increased by either 22- or 45-wk S6MG inoculations. In comparison with all other treatment groups at wk 47, yolk linoleic acid concentration was reduced by S6MG inoculation at 45 wk. Variable postpeak alterations in yolk total lipid and fatty acid content occur in response to the timing of S6MG inoculation in layers housed under controlled conditions. PMID:16903485

Peebles, E D; Basenko, E Y; Branton, S L; Whitmarsh, S K; Maurice, D V; Gerard, P D

2006-08-01

290

Effects of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at ten, twenty-two, or forty-five weeks of age on the blood characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

In 2 consecutive trials of the current study, the effect of the age of application of S6-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) inoculation on the blood characteristics of commercial layers housed and maintained under controlled conditions was determined. The ages of inoculation compared were those before lay at 10 wk of age, during onset of lay at 22 wk of age, and during postpeak lay at 45 wk of age. In each trial, hematocrit, plasma protein, and serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and Ca were determined at 20, 24, 32, 43, 47, and 58 wk of age. The data from both trials were pooled then analyzed together, whereas, data from wk 20 (effect of 10-wk S6MG inoculation); data from wk 24, 32, and 43 (effects of 10- and 22-wk S6MG inoculations); and data from wk 47 and 58 (effects of 10-, 22-, and 45-wk S6MG inoculations) were analyzed separately. At wk 20, hematocrit was higher in birds inoculated with S6MG at 10 wk compared with sham-inoculated birds, and across wk 24, 32, and 43, serum Ca was higher in birds inoculated with S6MG at 10 or 22 wk compared with those that were sham-inoculated. Serum Ca level across wk 47 and 58 was higher in birds inoculated with S6MG at 10 wk compared with sham-inoculated controls and birds inoculated with S6MG at 22 wk, with 45-wk S6MG-inoculated birds being intermediate. The response of serum cholesterol level at 47 wk to S6MG inoculation at either 10, 22, or 45 wk compared with controls was nearly opposite to that of the response observed at 58 wk. However, serum triglycerides were depressed only at wk 47 due to the 45-wk S6MG inoculation compared with all other treatments. Variable post-peak alterations in serum Ca and lipids occur in response to the timing of S6MG inoculation in layers housed under controlled conditions. PMID:17032838

Peebles, E D; Basenko, E Y; Branton, S L; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D

2006-11-01

291

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

The effects of supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF), phytase (PHY), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (onset of lay) wk and 4 dietary treatments [basal control diet (BCD); BCD with 0.75% supplemental PF; BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF; BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF, 0.013% PHY, and 0.025% D3] were initiated at 20 wk of age. Percentages of albumen, yolk, and eggshell weights; yolk:albumen ratio; yolk moisture and lipid concentrations; and eggshell weight per unit of surface area were determined at 24, 34, 44, 50, and 58 wk of age. Inoculation with FMG reduced yolk lipid concentration at wk 24 and increased yolk moisture concentration at wk 58. In birds inoculated on wk 22, percentage of yolk weight was lower in those inoculated with FMG compared with those that were sham-inoculated. Yolk:albumen ratio was lower in birds that were FMG-inoculated at 22 wk of age compared with those that were sham-inoculated at the same age or that were FMG-inoculated at 12 wk of age. Percentage of yolk weight was greater in birds inoculated at wk 22 and fed the BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF treatment compared with those inoculated at wk 22 and fed the BCD or BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF, 0.013% PHY, and 0.025% D3 treatments and compared with birds inoculated at wk 12 and fed the BCD with 0.75% supplemental PF treatment. In conclusion, inoculation with FMG before or at the onset of lay caused a decrease in yolk lipid content early in lay but an increase in yolk moisture late in lay, and FMG reduced percentage of yolk weight in birds inoculated on wk 22. Furthermore, when used in combination with added 1.50% PF in birds inoculated on wk 22, supplementary PHY and D3 prevented an increase in percentage of yolk weight that occurred in response to diets supplemented only with 1.50% PF. PMID:20852097

Peebles, E D; Park, S W; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D; Womack, S K

2010-10-01

292

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5% supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers at 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk of age, and dietary treatments (basal control diets and basal control diets with PF) were initiated at 20 wk of age. Supplemental PF increased BW and decreased isthmal length relative to total oviduct length in hens. Various oviduct segments were also affected by the type and age of inoculation, and these effects were further influenced by the use of PF. In comparison to their time-specific sham-inoculated controls, infundibulum weight relative to BW was increased when birds were inoculated with FMG at 22 wk, whereas isthmus weight relative to total oviduct weight was increased by FMG inoculation at 12 wk of age. However, PF affected infundibulum length relative to total oviduct length only in sham-inoculated birds, and PF increased magnum weight relative to total oviduct weight only in birds inoculated at 22 wk of age (sham or FMG). Furthermore, PF decreased isthmus weight relative to total oviduct weight only in birds that were sham-inoculated (12 or 22 wk). In conclusion, the inoculation of FMG at 12 or 22 wk may increase the relative contributions of the isthmus and infundibulum, respectively, to the total mass of the oviduct. In addition, PF may decrease the relative length of the isthmus and increase the relative weight of the magnum in the oviducts of birds that have been inoculated at 22 wk of age (sham or FMG). Previous studies have shown 1.5% supplemental dietary PF to influence feed consumption throughout lay and performance early in lay in hens that were inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age. However, the current results suggest that these influences are associated with gross changes in the oviduct but not the digestive tract of layers. PMID:20075276

Park, S W; Burnham, M R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D; Womack, S K; Peebles, E D

2010-02-01

293

Dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 wk (before lay) or 22 wk (onset of lay), dietary treatments [basal control diet (BCD); BCD with 0.75% supplemental PF (LPFD); BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF (HPFD); HPFD additionally supplemented with 0.013% PHY and 0.025% 25(OH)D] were initiated at 20 wk of age, and organ characteristics were determined at 58 wk of age. In proportion to small intestine weight, jejuna were heavier in birds inoculated at 22 wk rather than at 12 wk of age. In hens inoculated at 22 wk of age, percentage of infundibulum weight was increased by FMG. The proportional length of infundibula in birds fed HPFD with PHY and 25(OH)D was longer than in those fed LPFD. In birds inoculated with FMG at 22 wk of age, BW was greater in those fed HPFD with or without added PHY and 25(OH)D in comparison with those fed LPFD, whereas LPFD increased percentage of oviduct and magnum weights when compared with the HPFD and BCD groups, respectively. Percentage of duodenum weight in birds that were fed HPFD with PHY and 25(OH)D was greater compared with those fed LPFD in the wk 22 sham and wk 12 FMG inoculation groups, but was also greater than in those fed BCD in the wk 12 FMG inoculation group. Conversely, percentage of duodenum weight was greater in birds fed LPFD compared with those fed HPFD after a wk 22 FMG inoculation. However, despite the effects of the supplemental combination of 1.50% PF, PHY, and 25(OH)D on the oviduct and small intestine structures, it did not result in a subsequent influence on layer performance, as indicated in a previous companion report. PMID:21406365

Peebles, E D; Park, S W; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D; Womack, S K

2011-04-01

294

Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM. PMID:18922196

de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

2009-02-01

295

Mapping phosphoproteins in Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known regarding the extent or targets of phosphorylation in mycoplasmas, yet in many other bacterial species phosphorylation is known to play an important role in signaling and regulation of cellular processes. To determine the prevalence of phosphorylation in mycoplasmas, we examined the CHAPS-soluble protein fractions of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), using a combination of Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein stain and 33P labeling. Protein spots that were positive for phosphorylation were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results We identified a total of 24 distinct phosphoproteins, about 3% and 5% of the total protein complement in M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium, respectively, indicating that phosphorylation occurs with prevalence similar to many other bacterial species. Identified phosphoproteins include pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha and beta subunits, enolase, heat shock proteins DnaK and GroEL, elongation factor Tu, cytadherence accessory protein HMW3, P65, and several hypothetical proteins. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, translation/transcription and cytadherence. Interestingly, fourteen of the 24 phosphoproteins we identified (58%) were previously reported as putatively associated with a cytoskeleton-like structure that is present in the mycoplasmas, indicating a potential regulatory role for phosphorylation in this structure. Conclusion This study has shown that phosphorylation in mycoplasmas is comparable to that of other bacterial species. Our evidence supports a link between phosphorylation and cytadherence and/or a cytoskeleton-like structure, since over half of the proteins identified as phosphorylated have been previously associated with these functions. This opens the door to further research into the purposes and mechanisms of phosphorylation for mycoplasmas.

Su, Hsun-Cheng; Hutchison, Clyde A; Giddings, Morgan C

2007-01-01

296

Identification and characterization of IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and presence in related mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

IS1296, a new insertion sequence belonging to the IS3 family of insertion elements has been identified in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) biotype small colony (SC), the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). IS1296 is 1485-bp long and has 30-bp inverted repeats. It contains two open reading frames, ORFA and ORFB, which show significant similarities to the ORFs which encode the transposase function of IS elements of the IS3 family, in particular IS150 of Escherichia coli. IS1296 is present in 19 copies in Mmm SC-type strain PG1 and in 18 copies in a recently isolated field strain L2. It seems to transpose at low frequency in Mmm SC. IS1296 is also present in 5 copies in Mmm biotype large colony (LC)-type strain Y-goat, and in two copies in Mycoplasma sp. 'bovine group 7' reference strain PG50. It is, however, not present in other species of the 'mycoides cluster' or other closely related Mycoplasma sp. of ruminants. PMID:7628725

Frey, J; Cheng, X; Kuhnert, P; Nicolet, J

1995-07-01

297

Study of internal transcribed spacer and mitochondrial large-subunit genes of Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolated by repeated bronchoalveolar lavage from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients during one or several episodes of pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to type, analyze, and compare Pneumocystis carinii hominis strains obtained from different samples during a given or recurrent episodes of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) for epidemiologic purposes. We studied 36 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or induced sputum (IS) samples from 16 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with one or several episodes of PCP. PCR amplification and direct sequencing were performed on the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of P. carinii hominis rRNA genes by using DNA extracted from BAL or IS samples, and the sequences were compared to the mitochondrial large-subunit (mt LSU) gene sequence determined in a previous study in our laboratory. The studies of the mt LSU and ITS sequences showed that some patients (n = 10) were infected with the same strains of P. carinii hominis during a given episode of PCP. In one patient infected with strains with identical sequences in several episodes, the recurrence could have been due to reactivation of organisms not eliminated by treatment during the first episode or to de novo infection by an identical strain. In five patients infected with strains with different sequences in each episode, recurrence was due to de novo infection. Sequence analysis of these two P. carinii hominis gene regions showed that de novo infection can occur in AIDS patients with recurrent PCP.

Latouche, S; Poirot, J L; Bernard, C; Roux, P

1997-01-01

298

Field evaluation of tylosin premix in layers previously vaccinated with a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection results in numerous clinical signs including a reduction in egg production in laying chickens. Attempts to prevent mycoplasmosis have included vaccination with both killed and attenuated live M. gallisepticum strains. Live vaccines provide reduction in clinical signs and have been shown to replace indigenous strains when used in a consistent program for several placements. Antibiotic therapy is another option for controlling losses associated with mycoplasmosis. Therapeutic antibiotics with activity against mycoplasma approved for use in poultry include tetracyclines and tylosin. These drugs also are approved for feed efficiency when administered in the feed at levels below the therapeutic index for mycoplasma. The data presented here suggest that birds vaccinated with the live 6/85 strain of M. gallisepticum and then fed tylosin, at the approved level for feed efficiency, exhibit a serologic vaccine response similar to that of unmedicated birds but show improved feed efficiency. PMID:11922337

Evans, Robert D; Trites, James D; Cochrane, Robert L

2002-01-01

299

Mycoplasma infection of geese. 1. Incidence of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas in geese.  

PubMed

This paper presents data about the isolation of members of the order Mycoplasmatales from material of goose origin. Acholeplasma laidlawii strains were isolated from 2 to 8 day old goslings with heavy fibrinous airsacculitis, peritonitis and perihepatitis. Losses reached 30% of the flock by the end of the 8th week of age. Acholeplasma axanthum strains were detected in goose-embryos that died on the 13th day of incubation. A significant loss (up to 60%) of embryos was observed in the flock and some layers died showing fibrinous peritonitis, salpingitis and abdominal airsacculitis. Mycoplasma gallinarum also was isolated from goose-embryo fibroblast tissue cultures. All strains except A. laidlawii caused cytoplasmic vacuolization and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in goose-embryo fibroblast tissue cultures. The alteration observed in chicken-embryo fibroblast cell cultures were similar; in addition, the A. laidlawii caused a marked pycnosis of the cells. PMID:18777290

Stipkovits, L; El-Ebeedy, A A; Kisary, J; Varga, L

1975-01-01

300

Functional analysis of the superfamily 1 DNA helicases encoded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium.  

PubMed

The DNA recombination and repair machinery of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is composed of a limited set of approximately 11 proteins. Two of these proteins were predicted to be encoded by neighboring open reading frames (ORFs) MPN340 and MPN341. Both ORFs were found to have sequence similarity with genes that encode proteins belonging to the DNA helicase superfamily 1 (SF1). Interestingly, while a homolog of the MPN341 ORF is present in the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium (ORF MG244), MPN340 is an M. pneumoniae-specific ORF that is not found in other mycoplasmas. Moreover, the length of MPN340 (1590 base pairs [bp]) is considerably shorter than that of MPN341 (2148 bp). Examination of the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence indicated that it may lack a so-called 2B subdomain, which is found in most SF1 DNA helicases. Also, the MPN340-encoded amino acid sequence was found to differ between subtype 1 strain M129 and subtype 2 strain FH at three amino acid positions. Both protein variants, which were termed PcrA(s) M129 and PcrA(s) FH, respectively, as well as the MPN341- and MG244-encoded proteins (PcrA Mpn and PcrA Mge , respectively), were purified, and tested for their ability to interact with DNA. While PcrA Mpn and PcrA Mge were found to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA, both PcrA(s) M129 and PcrA(s) FH did not demonstrate significant DNA binding. However, all four proteins were found to have divalent cation- and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity. The proteins displayed highest activity on partially double-stranded DNA substrates carrying 3' single-stranded extensions. PMID:23894687

Estevão, Silvia; van der Heul, Helga U; Sluijter, Marcel; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hartwig, Nico G; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Vink, Cornelis

2013-01-01

301

Gastrospirillum hominis and Helicobacter pylori infection in Thai individuals: comparison of histopathological changes of gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

The presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stomach is closely associated with histological signs of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer. Another spiral organism named Gastrospirillum hominis (G. hominis) has led to further interest in the bacterial pathogenesis of gastritis. Due to the low prevalence of G. hominis, it is difficult to evaluate its biological behavior. Recently 16 cases of G. hominis-associated gastritis were found in 257 Thai individuals, which made it possible to study the biological characteristics of G. hominis and its relationship with gastric mucosal inflammation. The results showed that H. pylori and G. hominis could be easily observed in the lower third of the mucous layer and in the mucosa of the gastric pits by means of toluidine blue staining. Both bacteria immunostained positive. Helicobacter pylori were usually in the shape of curved bacillary while G. hominis often appeared in spiral configuration. In 257 cases of Thai subjects, 169 cases were found to be H. pylori positive, the detection rate was 65.7%, and 16 cases were G. hominis positive, with a 6.2% detection rate. In G. hominis infection, 43.6% of cases had normal gastric mucosa. Superficial, erosive and atrophic gastritis cases were 13.2, 10.9 and 12.5%, respectively. Mucosal inflammation was usually severe in H. pylori, but neutrophil polymorph infiltration was often mild and focal in G. hominis infection. Although no G. hominis infection with carcinoma was shown in our cases, the occurrence of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia was higher in both bacterial infections compared with H. pylori- and G. hominis-negative cases. It is suggested that G. hominis may be partly responsible for the mucosal inflammation and some malignant-associated lesions. PMID:9701012

Yali, Z; Yamada, N; Wen, M; Matsuhisa, T; Miki, M

1998-07-01

302

Detection and Differentiation of Avian Mycoplasmas by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based on a Silver Nanorod Array  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterial pathogen of poultry that is estimated to cause annual losses exceeding $780 million. The National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines recommend regular surveillance and intervention strategies to contain M. gallisepticum infections and ensure mycoplasma-free avian stocks, but several factors make detection of M. gallisepticum and diagnosis of M. gallisepticum infection a major challenge. Current techniques are laborious, require special expertise, and are typically plagued by false results. In this study, we describe a novel detection strategy which uses silver nanorod array–surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (NA-SERS) for direct detection of avian mycoplasmas. As a proof of concept for use in avian diagnostics, we used NA-SERS to detect and differentiate multiple strains of avian mycoplasma species, including Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallinaceum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and M. gallisepticum, including vaccine strains 6/85, F, and ts-11. Chemometric multivariate analysis of spectral data was used to classify these species rapidly and accurately, with >93% sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, NA-SERS had a lower limit of detection that was 100-fold greater than that of standard PCR and comparable to that of real-time quantitative PCR. Detection of M. gallisepticum in choanal cleft swabs from experimentally infected birds yielded good sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that NA-SERS is applicable for clinical detection.

Hennigan, Suzanne L.; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Dluhy, Richard A.; Zhao, Yiping; Tripp, Ralph A.

2012-01-01

303

Phylogeny and molecular typing of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis by multilocus sequencing.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis are important pathogens producing similar pathologies in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. They share many phenotypic and genotypic traits and comparison of their 16S rDNA sequences lacks sufficient resolution for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to analyse the phylogenetic relationships between M. agalactiae and M. bovis and to assess its use for unequivocal strain characterisation and molecular typing. An MLST based on fusA, gyrB, lepA and rpoB was applied to a sample of strains from both species, some of which could not be classified by serology or PCR. A robust phylogenetic tree was inferred, where the two species were clearly resolved. The use of this tool for the molecular typing of M. agalactiae strains was further evaluated on 19 presumably unrelated isolates, resulting in the discrimination of 14 sequence types (ST). The discriminatory power was increased (17 ST) by including an alternative target located in a more variable region. The diversity of M. agalactiae in Turkey (9 strains) and Israel (15 strains) was also assessed. Five closely related ST were evidenced in Turkey and 6 in Israel, with one ST common to both countries. Each country showed a predominant type that persisted over years. The MLST scheme developed here constitutes a universal tool for unequivocal strain characterisation and global, long-term screening of dissemination of M. agalactiae and M. bovis, whereas addition of more variable, non-housekeeping gene targets allows precise epidemiological investigations. PMID:22841405

Manso-Silván, Lucía; Dupuy, Virginie; Lysnyansky, Inna; Ozdemir, Umit; Thiaucourt, François

2012-12-28

304

Characteristics of an unusual mycoplasma isolated from a case of caprine mastitis and arthritis with possible systemic manifestations.  

PubMed

A mycoplasma designated strain GM790A was isolated from milk and internal organs of 2 lactating goats showing mastitis and arthritis. The isolate was not related serologically to any of the currently known ovine-caprine mycoplasmas, except an isolate designated Mycoplasma sp. G, first recorded from the external ear canal of clinically normal goats in Australia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme DNA studies of strain GM790A and Mycoplasma sp. G revealed similar but not identical patterns. The inoculation of strain GM790A into the teat canal of 2 lactating goats resulted in an abrupt diminution of lactation leading to mastitis and agalactia in about 3 days. A maximum of 1 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of the mycoplasma were shed per ml of mammary secretion. Milk production partially resumed at a low level 3 weeks postinoculation, the longest period tested, but the milk still contained 1 x 10(2) CFU of the agent. The results of this study indicate that strain GM790A possesses pathogenic potential for the goat and most probably represents a new species of the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:2039789

DaMassa, A J; Nascimento, E R; Khan, M I; Yamamoto, R; Brooks, D L

1991-01-01

305

A PCR for the detection of mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster: Application to the diagnosis of contagious agalactia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious agalactia is a mycoplasmal infection caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC, M. mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens. Identification of the causative organisms is usually performed by isolation and classical biochemical and serological tests, though this is a lengthy and cumbersome process for mycoplasmas. Specific PCR assays have been developed for the

S. Woubit; L. Manso-Silván; S. Lorenzon; P. Gaurivaud; F. Poumarat; M. P. Pellet; V. P. Singh; F. Thiaucourt

2007-01-01

306

Activities of oxidative enzymes in mycoplasmas.  

PubMed Central

The activities of several oxidoreductases were measured in three fermentative and two nonfermentative Mycoplasma species that were grown under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Acholeplasma laidlawii MG, Mycoplasma hyorhinis GDL, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae FH had very high apparent activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared with the activities of mammalian fibroblasts or human platelet-enriched preparations, while Mycoplasma salivarium VV and Mycoplasma arthritidis 07 had very low apparent activities of these two enzymes. Strictly anaerobic growth diminished both enzymatic activities. The activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex was minimal in all five mycoplasmas that were grown under aerobic conditions, anaerobic conditions, or both. All the mycoplasmas that were examined exhibited lactate dehydrogenase and NADH-dichlorophenol indophenol oxidoreductase activities. The properties of mycoplasmal pyruvate dehydrogenase complex suggest that it differs from the mammalian enzyme.

Constantopoulos, G; McGarrity, G J

1987-01-01

307

Pathogenicity and cytadherence of Mycoplasma imitans in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures.  

PubMed Central

Two strains of the avian organism Mycoplasma imitans were examined for pathogenicity and cytadherence in chicken and duck embryo tracheal organ cultures, and a virulent strain of the related pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum was included for comparison. All consistently cause ciliostasis in tracheal explants from both hosts, and examination of infected tissues by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that M. imitans proliferated on the epithelial surface and adhered to the respiratory epithelium by means of its terminal tip structure in the same manner as M. gallisepticum. These observations endorse the striking phenotypic similarities between M. imitans and M. gallisepticum and suggest that M. imitans may have pathogenic potential in vivo.

Abdul-Wahab, O M; Ross, G; Bradbury, J M

1996-01-01

308

An approach to characterizing uncultivated prokaryotes: the Grey Lung agent and proposal of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma ravipulmonis'.  

PubMed

An approach to characterizing uncultivated bacteria which combines a PFGE procedure for obtaining purified full-length chromosomes with PCR amplification is described. Isolated chromosomes from uncultivated organisms provide a specifically identifiable source material for hybridization, amplification and cloning. The availability of purified chromosomes for DNA amplification should aid in examining the diversity of microbial populations and should also reduce the possibility of forming hybrid DNA artifact molecules. The approach is illustrated by isolating the chromosome of the uncultivated agent of rodent Grey Lung disease and using the purified chromosomes to amplify and directly sequence the evolutionarily conserved 16S rRNA gene. The Grey Lung agent (GLA) contains a 650 kb chromosome and is shown to be a Mycoplasma sp. located phylogenetically in the hominis group of mycoplasmas. If a simple genomic lesion(s) is responsible for the unculturability of GLA, it is conceivable that complementation with DNA from a close relative could permit growth on artificial media. PMID:9731277

Neimark, H; Mitchelmore, D; Leach, R H

1998-04-01

309

A comparison of a commercial PCR?based test to culture methods for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in concurrently infected chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of commercial PCR?based test kits for the detection of either Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) or M. synoviae (MS) was compared to detection by culture. The MG and MS kit detected six and five homologous strains respectively in broth cultures and there were no reactions with thirteen het?erologous species including M. imitans, a species phylogenetically closely related to MG. Tracheal

H. Salisch; M. Ryll

1998-01-01

310

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis endophthalmitis following cataract surgery.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis, treated at our hospital. An 80-year-old male presented 2 days after uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, with a 24-hour history of progressive visual loss and redness in the operated (right) eye. On examination, best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. Anterior segment examination revealed conjunctival injection, chemosis, corneal edema, and hypopyon. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitreous opacification, but no retinal detachment. Acute postoperative endophthalmitis was diagnosed. We performed vitrectomy with vancomycin in the irrigating solution, intraocular lens removal, and silicone oil tamponade. Culture of the vitreous grew Staphylococcus hominis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed the isolate was sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and teicoplanin but resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, cefazolin, and vancomycin. At 3 months, the visual acuity of the silicone oil-treated eye was 20/400. PMID:23818754

Won, Jun Yeon; Kim, Moosang

2013-01-01

311

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis endophthalmitis following cataract surgery  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis, treated at our hospital. An 80-year-old male presented 2 days after uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, with a 24-hour history of progressive visual loss and redness in the operated (right) eye. On examination, best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. Anterior segment examination revealed conjunctival injection, chemosis, corneal edema, and hypopyon. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitreous opacification, but no retinal detachment. Acute postoperative endophthalmitis was diagnosed. We performed vitrectomy with vancomycin in the irrigating solution, intraocular lens removal, and silicone oil tamponade. Culture of the vitreous grew Staphylococcus hominis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed the isolate was sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and teicoplanin but resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, cefazolin, and vancomycin. At 3 months, the visual acuity of the silicone oil-treated eye was 20/400.

Won, Jun Yeon; Kim, Moosang

2013-01-01

312

Detection of serum antibodies against phosphocholine-containing aminoglycoglycerolipid specific to Mycoplasma fermentans in HIV1 infected individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The lipids extracted from five strains of M. fermentans and eight other species of mycoplasmas were investigated. By using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and immunostaining on HPTLC-plates with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against lipids of M. fermentans, a glycophospholipid GGPL-III was proved to be a specific lipid and important antigen

Jin-Liang Li; Kazuhiro Matsuda; Minoru Takagi; Naoki Yamamoto

1997-01-01

313

Sebaceous cysts with unpleasant twists: cutaneous myiasis with Dermatobia hominis.  

PubMed

Dermatobia hominis (human Bot fly) causes furuncular myiasis (larval infection) in Central and South America. This report describes a case in a member of the UK Armed Forces who had recently taken part in an overseas training exercise in Belize. The importance of clinical history (including travel history) is highlighted. We also describe the outcomes of conservative treatment and surgical intervention for separate lesions in the same patient. PMID:24079201

Osborne, M; O'Shearn, M K

2013-01-01

314

Recurrent abscesses due to Finegoldia magna, Dermabacter hominis and Staphylococcus aureus in an immunocompetent patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of recurrent abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is reported, involving the opportunistic human pathogen Dermabacter hominis, the virulent anaerobic pathogen Finegoldia magna and Staphylococcus aureus.

J. Martin; P. Bemer; S. Touchais; N. Asseray; S. Corvec

2009-01-01

315

Mycoplasma lagogenitalium sp. nov., from the preputial smegma of Afghan pikas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens).  

PubMed

Organisms with characteristics typical of mycoplasmas were isolated from the preputial smegma of Afghan picas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens). The results of growth inhibition tests, metabolic inhibition tests, and immunobinding assays showed that the isolated strains were identical and that they were distinct from previously described Mycoplasma, Entomoplasma, Mesoplasma, and Acholeplasma species. These organisms represent a new species, for which the name Mycoplasma lagogenitalium is proposed. M. lagogenitalium ferments glucose, does not hydrolyze arginine or urea, reduces tetrazolium chloride, possesses phosphatase activity, does not digest gelatin or casein, and does not produce films or spots. It lyses sheep erythrocytes and does not adsorb sheep, rabbit, or horse erythrocytes. Cholesterol or serum is required for growth. The growth temperature is 37 degrees C. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA is 23.0 +/- 1.0 mol%. The type strain is M. lagogenitalium 12MS (= ATCC 700289T). PMID:9336930

Kobayashi, H; Runge, M; Schmidt, R; Kubo, M; Yamamoto, K; Kirchhoff, H

1997-10-01

316

Mycoplasma agassizii sp. nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).  

PubMed

Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (= ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises. PMID:11321087

Brown, M B; Brown, D R; Klein, P A; McLaughlin, G S; Schumacher, I M; Jacobson, E R; Adams, H P; Tully, J G

2001-03-01

317

Mycoplasma agassizii sp., nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (=ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises.

Brown, M. B.; Brown, D. R.; Kelin, P. A.; Mclaughlin, G. S.; Schumacher, I. M.; Jacobson, E. R.; Adams, H.P.; Tully, J.G.

2001-01-01

318

Mesenchymal stem cells infected with Mycoplasma arginini secrete complement C3 to regulate immunoglobulin production in b lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory functions such as the suppression of T and B cells. MSCs suppress immunoglobulin (Ig) production by B cells via cell–cell contact as well as via secretion of soluble factors. Our study showed that the conditioned medium (CM) of MSCs infected with a mycoplasma strain, Mycoplasma arginini, has marked inhibitory effects on Ig production by lipopolysaccharide/interleukin-4-induced B cells compared with mycoplasma-free MSC-CM. We analyzed mycoplasma-infected MSC-CM by fast protein liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography to screen the molecules responsible for Ig inhibition. Complement C3 (C3) was the most critical molecule among the candidates identified. C3 was shown to be involved in the suppression of the Ig production of B cells. C3 was secreted by mycoplasma-infected MSCs, but not by mycoplasma-free MSCs or B cells. It was able to directly inhibit Ig production by B cells. In the presence of a C3 inhibitor, Ig inhibition by MSC-CM was abrogated. This inhibitory effect was concomitant with the downregulation of B-cell-induced maturation protein-1, which is a regulator of the differentiation of antibody-secreting plasma cells. These results suggest that C3 secreted from mycoplasma-infected MSCs has an important role in the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs. However, its role in vivo needs to be explored.

Lee, D-S; Yi, T G; Lee, H-J; Kim, S-N; Park, S; Jeon, M-S; Song, S U

2014-01-01

319

Sensitivites in vitro to antimicrobial drugs of bovine mycoplasmas isolated from respiratory and genital tracts.  

PubMed

A total of 155 Mycoplasma strains were examined for sensitivity to nine antibiotics and four nitrofurans by the agar dilution method. They consisted of 69 strains of Mycoplasma bovirhinis, 33 strains of M. bovigenitalium, 49 strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii and four strains of A. modicum isolated from the nasal secretions, tracheas and lungs of calves manifesting respiratory symptoms and from bovine genital tracts collected at a slaughterhouse. As a result, furamizole and mitomycin C showed the strongest growth-inhibiting effect on all the strains. They were followed in this effect by kitasamycin tartrate, spiramycin adipate, tylosin tartrate, tetracycline-HCl and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, these five drugs were followed in the effect by furazolidone, nitrofurantoin and sodium nifurstyrenate. Fradiomycin sulfate and kanamycin sulfate showed only little effect on all the strains. Erythromycin lactobionate showed a strong growth-inhibiting effect on the Acholeplasma strains, but not on the Mycoplasma strains. There were some cross resistant strains of the Acholeplasma species to the effects of the macrolides. PMID:652043

Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K; Minato, H

1978-01-01

320

Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040 is a Mg2+-Dependent, Sugar-Nonspecific SNase Recognised by the Host Humoral Response during Natural Infection  

PubMed Central

In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Recombinant GST-MAG_5040 exhibits nuclease activity similar to typical sugar-nonspecific endo- and exonucleases, with DNA as the preferred substrate and optimal activity in the presence of 20 mM MgCl2 at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45°C. According to in silico analyses, the position of the gene encoding MAG_5040 is consistently located upstream an ABC transporter, in most sequenced mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma hominis group. In M. agalactiae, MAG_5040 is transcribed in a polycistronic RNA together with the ABC transporter components and with MAG_5030, which is predicted to be a sugar solute binding protein by 3D modeling and homology search. In a natural model of sheep and goats infection, anti-MAG_5040 antibodies were detected up to 9 months post infection. Taking into account its enzymatic activity, MAG_5040 could play a key role in Mycoplasma agalactiae survival into the host, contributing to host pathogenicity. The identification of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives for the development of suitable tools for the control of contagious agalactia in small ruminants.

Cacciotto, Carla; Addis, Maria Filippa; Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Carcangiu, Laura; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Tore, Gessica; Dore, Gian Mario; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Uzzau, Sergio; Chessa, Bernardo; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2013-01-01

321

Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040 is a Mg2+-dependent, sugar-nonspecific SNase recognised by the host humoral response during natural infection.  

PubMed

In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Recombinant GST-MAG_5040 exhibits nuclease activity similar to typical sugar-nonspecific endo- and exonucleases, with DNA as the preferred substrate and optimal activity in the presence of 20 mM MgCl2 at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45°C. According to in silico analyses, the position of the gene encoding MAG_5040 is consistently located upstream an ABC transporter, in most sequenced mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma hominis group. In M. agalactiae, MAG_5040 is transcribed in a polycistronic RNA together with the ABC transporter components and with MAG_5030, which is predicted to be a sugar solute binding protein by 3D modeling and homology search. In a natural model of sheep and goats infection, anti-MAG_5040 antibodies were detected up to 9 months post infection. Taking into account its enzymatic activity, MAG_5040 could play a key role in Mycoplasma agalactiae survival into the host, contributing to host pathogenicity. The identification of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives for the development of suitable tools for the control of contagious agalactia in small ruminants. PMID:23469065

Cacciotto, Carla; Addis, Maria Filippa; Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Carcangiu, Laura; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Tore, Gessica; Dore, Gian Mario; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Uzzau, Sergio; Chessa, Bernardo; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2013-01-01

322

Protective Effect of Vaccines on Mycoplasma pulmonis-Induced Respiratory Disease of Mice  

PubMed Central

Mice inoculated intranasally with either a virulent or an avirulent strain of live Mycoplasma pulmonis were resistant to respiratory disease induced by a subsequent intranasal challenge with virulent organisms. Similarly, mice inoculated intravenously with the virulent strain were resistant to intranasal challenge with the same strain. In contrast, mice inoculated intravenously with avirulent M. pulmonis were not resistant to intranasal challenge with the virulent mycoplasma strain. Studies on mice inoculated intravenously with the two strains of M. pulmonis indicated that persistance of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tract may be important in inducing resistance to intranasal challenge with M. pulmonis. These observations, together with the lack of correlation between the level of serum antibodies and resistance to M. pulmonis-induced respiratory disease, suggested that local immune mechanisms were important in resistance. It is proposed that an effective vaccination schedule to protect mice against M. pulmonis-induced respiratory disease may be one that stimulates both systemic and local immune defenses. This suggestion is supported by the observation that systemic followed by local administration of inactivated M. pulmonis was more effective in inducing resistance in mice to intranasal challenge with live organisms than was systemic administration alone. In addition, mice inoculated solely by the intranasal route with inactivated mycoplasmas were resistant to M. pulmonis-induced respiratory disease. These studies indicate the importance of local defense mechanisms in the induction of resistance to M. pulmonis-induced respiratory disease in mice.

Taylor, Geraldine; Howard, C. J.; Gourlay, R. N.

1977-01-01

323

A study of F38-type and related mycoplasmas by mycoplasmaemia and cross-immunization tests in mice.  

PubMed Central

In vivo methods were used to study the F38-type mycoplasma in parallel with related mycoplasmas. Three of five strains of 'bovine serogroup 7' with an unknown history of subculture produced mycoplasmaemia in mice inoculated intraperitoneally. A strain of 'bovine serogroup L' also produced mycoplasmaemia, but no evidence of similar ability could be found for single strains of Mycoplasma capricolum, M. equigenitalium and M. primatum, or for two strains of the F38-type mycoplasma. In cross-immunization tests a bovine serogroup 7 strain (NCTC 10133) and a strain ('Blenheim') of the SC (small colony) type of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides were used for the purpose of challenge. Cross-protection was described as 'complete' or 'partial', depending on whether it was as great as, or less than, that produced by homologous vaccine. Although strain NCTC 10133 protected strongly, possibly completely, against Blenheim, and Blenheim gave partial protection against NCTC 10133, challenge with NCTC 10133 and Blenheim gave strikingly different results. Thus (1) F38-type strains, M equigenitalium and M. primatum all gave partial cross-protection against NCTC 10133 but not against Blenheim, (2) NCTC 10133, unlike Blenheim, was seldom susceptible to partial cross-protection by LC (large colony) strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, and (3) three SC strains - which would have protected completely against Blenheim - protected only partially against NCTC 10133. NCTC 10133 and Blenheim were similar, however, in that M. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. capri failed to cross-protect against them both.

Kanyi Kibe, M.; Smith, G. R.

1984-01-01

324

Variable surface protein Vmm of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type.  

PubMed

A variable surface protein, Vmm, of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (M. mycoides SC) has been identified and characterized. Vmm was specific for the SC biotype and was expressed by 68 of 69 analyzed M. mycoides SC strains. The protein was found to undergo reversible phase variation at a frequency of 9 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-5) per cell per generation. The vmm gene was present in all of the 69 tested M. mycoides SC strains and encodes a lipoprotein precursor of 59 amino acids (aa), where the mature protein was predicted to be 36 aa and was anchored to the membrane by only the lipid moiety, as no transmembrane region could be identified. DNA sequencing of the vmm gene region from ON and OFF clones showed that the expression of Vmm was regulated at the transcriptional level by dinucleotide insertions or deletions in a repetitive region of the promoter spacer. Vmm-like genes were also found in four closely related mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma sp. bovine serogroup 7, and Mycoplasma putrefaciens. However, Vmm could not be detected in whole-cell lysates of these species, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the vmm-like genes lack the binding epitope for the monoclonal antibody used in this study or, alternatively, that the Vmm-like proteins were not expressed. PMID:12057968

Persson, Anja; Jacobsson, Karin; Frykberg, Lars; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Poumarat, François

2002-07-01

325

Iron storage in Mycoplasma capricolum.  

PubMed Central

Considerable quantities or iron were incorporated into the Mycoplasma capricolum cell membrane. Mossbauer studies showed that the iron is in a form which becomes magnetically ordered at low temperatures. The iron-enriched cells contained membrane-bound electron-dense particles of about 6.0 nm in diameter. Images

Bauminger, E R; Cohen, S G; Labenski de Kanter, F; Levy, A; Ofer, S; Kessel, M; Rottem, S

1980-01-01

326

IMMUNOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were fractionated by chromatography on columns of diethylaminoethylcellulose and silicic acid, and on thin layers of silica gel G.Hapten activity, measured in implement-fixation tests with rabbit and with human antisera to M. pneumoniae, was found to be associated with four or more neutral glycolipids. These comprised digalactosyl- and trigalactosyldi- glycerides, a second dihexosyldiglyceride containing both glucose

P Plackett; BP Marmion; Elizabeth J Shaw; Ruth M Lemcke

1969-01-01

327

Mycoplasma bovis shares insertion sequences with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: Evolutionary and developmental aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new insertion elements, ISMbov1, ISMbov2 and ISMbov3, which are closely related to ISMag1 (Mycoplasma agalactiae), ISMmy1 and IS1634 (both Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC), respectively, have been discovered in Mycoplasma bovis, an important pathogen of cattle. Southern blotting showed that the genome of M. bovis harbours 6–12 copies of ISMbov1, 11–15 copies of ISMbov2 and 4–10 copies of ISMbov3,

Anne Thomas; Annick Linden; Jacques Mainil; Daniela F. Bischof; Joachim Frey; Edy M. Vilei

2005-01-01

328

In vitro activity of azithromycin against Mycoplasma genitalium and its efficacy in the treatment of male Mycoplasma genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis.  

PubMed

Many recent studies have shown that Mycoplasma genitalium is among the pathogens responsible for Chlamydia trachomatis-negative nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). A single 1-g dose of azithromycin (AZM) has been recommended for the treatment of NGU, including M. genitalium-positive NGU, irrespective of whether it is positive or negative for Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of AZM against Mycoplasma genitalium strains, and to assess its clinical efficacy against Mycoplasma genitalium-positive NGU. Seven Mycoplasma genitalium strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, and susceptibility testing of seven antimicrobial agents was performed using a broth microdilution method. Thirty men with M. genitalium-positive NGU were enrolled in this study and treated with a single 1-g dose of AZM. AZM and clarithromycin (CAM) were highly active against M. genitalium strains. Fluoroquinolone activities were moderate, and of the three fluoroquinolones tested, gatifloxacin (GFLX) and sparfloxacin (SPFX) were more active than levofloxacin (LVFX). In 25 of 30 (83.3%) men treated with a single 1-g dose of AZM, M. genitalium was eradicated from first-void urine samples, as determined by polymerase chain reaction. AZM was highly active against M. genitalium, and a single 1-g dose of AZM for M. genitalium-positive NGU was tolerated in Japan. These findings may be helpful in establishing optimal treatment for M. genitalium-positive NGU. PMID:21710162

Hagiwara, Noriyasu; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Deguchi, Takashi

2011-12-01

329

In Vitro Activity of BAY 12-8039, a New Fluoroquinolone, against Mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of the fluoroquinolone BAY 12-8039 against 66 strains of different mycoplasma species and 30 strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum was compared with those of three other antimicrobial agents. BAY 12-8039 at 0.5 mg\\/ml inhibited 100% of all the mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal strains tested. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of BAY 12-8039 increased only two- to eightfold compared to

C. M. BEBEAR; H. RENAUDIN; A. BOUDJADJA; Universitede Bordeaux; Bayer Pharma

1998-01-01

330

Detection of Mycoplasma genus and Mycoplasma fermentans by PCR in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma fermentans and other Mycoplasma species are colonizers of human mucosal surfaces and may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. While many infectious agents have been described in different percentages of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), little is known about the prevalence of mycoplasmas and especially M. fermentans in CFS patients. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was

A Vojdani; P. C Choppa; C Tagle; R Andrin; B Samimi; C. W Lapp

1998-01-01

331

Immunohistochemical Characterization of Lung Lesions Induced Experimentally by Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis in Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats aged 3 months were inoculated with a recent isolate of Mycoplasma agalactiae (five animals) or Mycoplasma bovis (five animals) by a combined (intratracheal+intranasal) route. Two control goats were inoculated by the same route with sterile mycoplasma broth. Animals were killed 14 or 21 days after infection. At necropsy, tracheal and lung tissue was taken for pathological and immunohistochemical examination

F. Rodr??guez; J. Sarradell; J. B. Poveda; H. J. Ball; A. Fernández

2000-01-01

332

Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture.

Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

2012-01-01

333

Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring mollicute from a plant surface.  

PubMed

Strain 831-C4T (T = type strain), isolated from the surface of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) obtained from a retail food market, was shown to be a sterol-requiring mollicute. Morphological examination of this organism by electron and dark-field microscopic techniques showed that it consists of small, nonhelical, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccoid cells, with individual cells surrounded by a single cytoplasmic membrane. No evidence of a cell wall was observed. The organism grew rapidly in all conventional culture medium formulations for mollicutes in either aerobic or anaerobic environments. The optimum temperature for growth was 30 degrees C, but multiplication occurred at 18 to 37 degrees C. Strain 831-C4T catabolized glucose, but hydrolysis of arginine or urea could not be demonstrated. The genome size of strain 831-C4T was determined to be about 569 megadaltons, while the base composition (guanine-plus-cytosine content) of the DNA was 30.0 mol%. Recent studies in which we compared the 16S rRNA sequences of strain 831-C4T with those of more than 40 other mollicutes indicated that this organism is phylogenetically related to the Spiroplasma-Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Strain 831-C4T was serologically unrelated to the type strains of previously described Mycoplasma species and to 18 other unclassified sterol-requiring isolates cultivated from various animal, plant, or insect sources. Strain 831-C4T (= ATCC 49193) is the type strain of Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov. PMID:2223606

Rose, D L; Kocka, J P; Somerson, N L; Tully, J G; Whitcomb, R F; Carle, P; Bové, J M; Colflesh, D E; Williamson, D L

1990-04-01

334

Mast Cells Protect Mice from Mycoplasma Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: As the smallest free-living bacteria and a frequent cause of respiratory infections, mycoplasmas are unique pathogens. Mice infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis can develop localized, life-long airway infection accompanied by persistent inflammation and remodeling. Objective:Becausemastcellsprotectmicefromacutesepticperitoni- tis and gram-negative pneumonia, we hypothesized that they de- fend against mycoplasma infection. This study tests this hypothesis using mast cell-deficient mice. Methods: Responses to

Xiang Xu; Dongji Zhang; Natalya Lyubynska; Paul J. Wolters; Nigel P. Killeen; Peter Baluk; Donald M. McDonald; Samuel Hawgood; George H. Caughey

2005-01-01

335

In Vitro Cell Invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to invade cultured human epithelial cells (HeLa-229) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was investigated by using the gentamicin invasion assay and a double immunofluorescence microscopic technique for accurate localization of cell-associated mycoplasmas. The presence of intracellular mycoplasmas in both cell lines was clearly demonstrated, with organisms entering the eukaryotic cells within

FLORIAN WINNER; RENATE ROSENGARTEN; CHRISTINE CITTI

2000-01-01

336

Antiphospholipid antibodies and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed Central

Anticardiolipin antibody levels were measured in 57 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and 21 patients with other infections. Significantly more patients in the mycoplasma group had increased IgM and IgG anticardiolipin. Within the mycoplasma group significantly higher titres were found in patients with severe infection (assessed by need for hospital admission) and in patients with cold agglutinins. A tendency for particularly high titres to occur in patients with extra-pulmonary complications was identified.

Snowden, N.; Wilson, P. B.; Longson, M.; Pumphrey, R. S.

1990-01-01

337

Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma agalactiae.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. We have developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme using the sequenced genomes of the M. agalactiae strains PG2 and 5632. An MLST scheme based on the genes gltX, metS, gyrB, tufA and dnaA was designed and in total 3468 bp of sequence were analysed for each strain. MLST offers a highly discriminatory typing method for M. agalactiae and was capable of subdividing 53 strains into 17 distinct sequence types, largely according to geographical origin. MLST detected unexpected diversity in recent isolates from Spain, identifying two novel outliers, and enabled typing of novel Mongolian isolates for the first time. Genetic diversity in the sequenced regions was largely due to mutation, with recombination playing a much smaller role. A web-accessible database has been set up for this MLST scheme for M. agalactiae: http://pubmlst.org/magalactiae/. MLST offers a robust, objective molecular epidemiological tool for M. agalactiae that that enables interlaboratory comparison of data. PMID:21372188

McAuliffe, L; Gosney, F; Hlusek, M; de Garnica, M L; Spergser, J; Kargl, M; Rosengarten, R; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J; Ellis, R J

2011-06-01

338

Comparison of culture, PCR, and different serologic tests for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infections.  

PubMed

In this study, the technical performance of culture, two commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, rapid plate agglutination (RPA) test, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, and eight commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared for the detection of avian mycoplasma infections from 3 days postinfection (d.p.i.) through 35 d.p.i. The tests were carried out on samples from specified pathogen-free layers that were infected at 66 wk of age with recent Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) field strains, MS and MG ATCC strains, and Mycoplasma imitans (MIM), respectively. Results showed a high percentage of positive samples in the homologous infected groups and a high percentage of negative samples (100%) in the uninfected and heterologous infected groups during 35 d.p.i. of both culture and PCR tests. For the group infected with the MG 15302 ATCC strain, serology was more sensitive than bacteriology. All MG and MS tests, with the exception of MG ELISA kit D showed a lower percentage of positive samples during 35 d.p.i. for the detection of the MG and MS ATCC strain infection compared with that of the field strains. Also, the number of cross-reactions (false positives) in the serologic tests was lower after infection with an ATCC strain than after an infection with the MG or MS field strain. Contradictory to other studies, the ELISAs and the RPA test using undiluted serum showed a relatively high number of false-positive results. The MG ELISAs (except ELISA kit D) showed more false-positive results (up to 37%) in the MIM-infected group than in the MS-infected groups. This was not unexpected, as MIM and MG have a close antigenic relationship. The results of the serologic tests in this study showed that a certain level of false-positive results can be expected in about any serologic test. Although the level of false-positive results varied between several serologic tests, this study showed that it is not advisable to rely completely on one test (system) only. PMID:16094832

Feberwee, A; Mekkes, D R; de Wit, J J; Hartman, E G; Pijpers, A

2005-06-01

339

Identification and distribution of genetic markers in three closely related taxa of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster: refining the relative position and boundaries of the Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 taxon (Mycoplasma leachii).  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides phylogenetic cluster are all important ruminant pathogens that are genetically closely related but differ in terms of severity and prevalence of the associated diseases. They are distributed among six taxa, the description of which has recently been amended. In the present study, DNA fragments that diverge between the type strains of three taxa were enriched using suppression subtractive hybridization. Of the three taxa, two were representative of the well-established species M. mycoides and M. capricolum, while the third one, Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 (Mbg7), has only recently been proposed as a separate species, Mycoplasma leachii. Specific DNA fragments were further characterized by sequencing and used as markers to assess the genetic diversity within and between taxa. The data indicate that the selected markers are unequally distributed within their own taxon but also across taxa. The patterns observed suggest the occurrence of a genetic continuum of strains within the M. mycoides cluster that may compromise the boundaries between taxa and, in turn, diagnosis outcomes. For Mbg7, the overall nature and distribution of the markers indicate a rather homogeneous group that is distinct from the M. capricolum and M. mycoides species and might be considered as a genomic chimera between these two species. PMID:19696102

Tardy, Florence; Maigre, Laure; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine

2009-11-01

340

Metronidazole induces programmed cell death in the protozoan parasite Blastocystis hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies by the authors have shown that the protozoan parasite Blastocystis hominis succumbed to a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody with a number of cellular and biochemical features characteristic of apoptosis in higher eukaryotes. The present study reports that apoptosis-like features are also observed in growing cultures of axenic B. hominis upon exposure to metronidazole, a drug commonly used for the

A. M. A. Nasirudeen; Yap Eu Hian; Mulkit Singh; Kevin S. W. Tan

2004-01-01

341

Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive baboons in Kenya.  

PubMed

Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were detected in 42 (17.9%), 6 (2.6%), and 29 (12.3%) of 235 newly captured baboons in Kenya, respectively. Most C. hominis subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes found have been detected in humans in the area, suggesting that cross-species transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis is possible. PMID:21956988

Li, Wei; Kiulia, Nicholas M; Mwenda, Jason M; Nyachieo, Atunga; Taylor, Maureen B; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

2011-12-01

342

Molecular Epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in Caprinae: Transmission across Species in Natural Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma conjunctivae is the etiological agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis, a highly contagious ocular infection that affects both domestic and wild Caprinae species in the European Alps. In order to study the transmission and spread of M. conjunctivae across domestic and wild Caprinae populations, we developed a molecular method for subtyping and identifying strains of M. conjunctivae. This method is based

Luc Belloy; Martin Janovsky; Edy M. Vilei; Paola Pilo; Marco Giacometti; Joachim Frey

2003-01-01

343

VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. RESULTS: We have developed variable number tandem repeat

Laura McAuliffe; Colin P Churchward; Joanna R Lawes; Guido Loria; Roger D Ayling; Robin AJ Nicholas

2008-01-01

344

Characterization of membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma agalactiae during natural infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed antigenic variation of seven M. agalactiae wild strains using different sera from naturally infected sheep. Only 30 day sera recognized all surface proteins and inhibited the growth of mycoplasmas. Furthermore, we have observed that two strongly immunogenic proteins: 55 and 35 kDa were digested using 500 ?g\\/ml of trypsin. These two bands are immunoprecipitated together with four

Sebastiana Tola; Daniela Manunta; Monica Cocco; Franco Turrini; Angela M. Rocchigiani; Graziano Idini; Antonio Angioi; Guido Leori

1997-01-01

345

SERUM ZINC AND COPPER CONCENTRATIONS IN RAMS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED BY MYCOPLASMA AGALACTIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: In this study, 15 Kivircik rams aged 1.5 years, were used. After determining the spermatologic characteristics of all individuals, five of the rams were vaccinated to constitute the control group. Mycoplasma agalactiae 99 M (AIK 2) strain was inoculated in all of the rams 34 days after the vaccination. Before the inoculation and 15 days after, semen and blood

Mehmet Erman; Seyyal Ak; Abdullah Kayar; Serhat Alkan; Aydin Gürel; Yunus Karakoç; Kemal Ak; Tarik Bilal; Tamer Dodurka; Bora Barutçu

346

Lipoquinones of some bacteria and mycoplasmas, with considerations on their functional significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comparative study the lipoquinones of some chemoorganotrophic, facultatively aerobic bacteria, and representative Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma, and Thermoplasma strains were investigated. The quinones were partly purified by preparative thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts, and characterized by their difference spectra (reduced minus oxidized) and Rf values. Respiring bacteria expectedly contained benzoquinones and\\/or naphthoquinones in micromolar concentrations whereas some aerotolerant,

R. Holländer; Gerda Wolf; W. Mannheim

1977-01-01

347

A tissue culture system to study respiratory ciliary epithelial adherence of selected swine mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro culture system for swine tracheal epithelial cells was developed to study the adherence of swine mycoplasmas. Swine tracheal epithelial cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured on microporous membranes. Growth medium was placed under the membrane support to create air–liquid interface feeding resulting in the cells growing cilia and microvilli on the apical surface. Two strains

Theresa F. Young; Eileen L. Thacker; Barbara Z. Erickson; Richard F. Ross

2000-01-01

348

Interaction of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with the porcine respiratory epithelium as observed by electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

An in vivo-passaged strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae attained viability titers of 10(6) to 10(8) color-changing units per mg of tissue in pig lungs and caused gross and histological pulmonic lesions. Mycoplasmas were readily located in the lumina of the respiratory tract by electron microscopy. In sections of tissue fixed in glutaraldehyde-osmium, the organisms were found to possess many radial fibrils on the outer surface of the limiting membrane. These fibrils appeared to interconnect adjacent mycoplasmas and to extend between the organism and epithelial cell. Ruthenium red staining demonstrated a thick, dark layer of capsular material enveloping the entire mycoplasma cell. The capsular material was seen to bridge the space between the mycoplasma and host cell. The general morphology of the in vitro-passaged strains grown in broth medium was essentially similar to that of the in vivo-passaged strain. In these organisms, however, no long fibrils were seen, although a fuzzy layer was present outside the cell membrane. The ruthenium red-positive capsule was stained less intensely, and its width was only about one-half that observed for the in vivo-passaged strain. In negatively stained preparations, the cells had an outer fringe of amorphous material apparently corresponding to the fuzzy layer seen in thin sections. The in vitro-passaged strain grew poorly in pig lungs and lost its ability to produce gross pulmonic lesions. The organisms in the respiratory tract had a capsule much thinner than that of the in vivo-passaged strain. Images

Tajima, M; Yagihashi, T

1982-01-01

349

Comparative Analysis of Gene Content Evolution in Phytoplasmas and Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Phytoplasmas and mycoplasmas are two groups of important pathogens in the bacterial class Mollicutes. Because of their economical and clinical importance, these obligate pathogens have attracted much research attention. However, difficulties involved in the empirical study of these bacteria, particularly the fact that phytoplasmas have not yet been successfully cultivated outside of their hosts despite decades of attempts, have greatly hampered research progress. With the rapid advancements in genome sequencing, comparative genome analysis provides a new approach to facilitate our understanding of these bacteria. In this study, our main focus is to investigate the evolution of gene content in phytoplasmas, mycoplasmas, and their common ancestor. By using a phylogenetic framework for comparative analysis of 12 complete genome sequences, we characterized the putative gains and losses of genes in these obligate parasites. Our results demonstrated that the degradation of metabolic capacities in these bacteria has occurred predominantly in the common ancestor of Mollicutes, prior to the evolutionary split of phytoplasmas and mycoplasmas. Furthermore, we identified a list of genes that are acquired by the common ancestor of phytoplasmas and are conserved across all strains with complete genome sequences available. These genes include several putative effectors for the interactions with hosts and may be good candidates for future functional characterization.

Lin, Chan-Pin; Kuo, Chih-Horng

2012-01-01

350

[Clinical symptoms in cases caused by entamoeba coli and blastocystis hominis.].  

PubMed

E. coli and B. hominis are usually accepted as members of normal intestinal flora during stool examinations, but in recent years there has been controversy as to whether they may be pathogen protozoa. In this study, 92 individuals who were found to have E. coli (58/92) and B. hominis (34/92) in their stools were included in a study of clinical symptoms. No other parasitological or bacteriological agents were found in the stools of these persons. The percentages of intestinal symptoms were found to be 67.2% and 79.4% for E. coli and B. hominis, respectively. As a result of these findings we concluded that intestinal symptoms may be seen frequently if E. coli and B. hominis are present. In conclusion, E. coli and B. hominis may be considered to be pathogens, especially when no other agents are present. PMID:17124674

Kaya, Selçuk; Cet?n, Emel Sesl?; Akçam, Zeynep; Kesb?ç, Hasan; Dem?rc?, Mustafa

2005-01-01

351

In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis to Fifty-One Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

By a tube dilution assay technique, 51 antimicrobial agents were singly tested against 9 strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and 1 strain of M. hyorhinis for the purpose of obtaining information useful for selecting an agent for testing in vivo against porcine mycoplasmal pneumonia. Based on determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and chemically grouping the agents into nine classes, all M. hyopneumoniae strains were found resistant to penicillins and peptides and susceptible to sulfonamides and tetracyclines, and, in other classes, were either susceptible or resistant depending on the particular agent being tested. Strains were susceptible to the same 33 of the 51 agents. Minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 9.20 ?g/ml. M. hyorhinis was susceptible to 19 of the 33 agents that M. hyopneumoniae was susceptible to. Minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 8.10 ?g/ml. All strains of M. hyopneumoniae differed from M. hyorhinis in that they were susceptible to cephaloglycin and nitrofurazone.

Williams, Phletus P.

1978-01-01

352

Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are able to stimulate as well as suppress lymphocytes in a nonspecific, polyclonal manner, both in vitro and in vivo. As well as to affecting various subsets of lymphocytes, mycoplasmas and mycoplasma-derived cell components modulate the activities of monocytes/macrophages and NK cells and trigger the production of a wide variety of up-regulating and down-regulating cytokines and chemokines. Mycoplasma-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6, by macrophages and of up-regulating cytokines by mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes plays a major role in mycoplasma-induced immune system modulation and inflammatory responses.

Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

1998-01-01

353

A search for mycoplasma infections in patients with chronic bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throat and bronchoscopy specimens for mycoplasma isolation studies were collected from 22 patients with chronic bronchitis and 20 patients without chronic bronchitis. Twenty-six of 50 patients attending a chronic bronchitis clinic had throat, nasal, or sputum specimens collected for attempted mycoplasma isolation, and all of these patients had multiple serum samples taken for mycoplasma antibody studies. Mycoplasmas were recovered from

J. D. Cherry; D. Taylor-Robinson; H. Willers; A. C. Stenhouse

1971-01-01

354

Phase and size variable surface-exposed proteins in equine genital mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma subdolum have been associated with infertility, endometritis, vulvitis and abortions in mares, and with reduced fertility and balanoposthitis in stallions. Despite their role in equine genital disorder, determinants of virulence and pathogenesis as well as factors provoking specific host immune responses have not been identified, so far. To establish the major immunogenic components of Mycoplasma (M.) equigenitalium and M. subdolum, antigen profiles of their type strains as well as 30 clinical isolates were compared by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis using hyperimmune rabbit sera and equine sera from clinical cases. To define the major protein antigens of both mycoplasma species, detergent-phase fractionation with Triton X-114 was performed. Western blot analysis of 30 clinical isolates revealed a high similarity of their overall antigen profile with only slight differences. In contrast, monospecific polyclonal antibodies raised against detergent-phase proteins of the two mycoplasma species identified three prominent proteins (pST17, pST42, and pET45) undergoing variation in expression and size among clinical and clonal isolates. PMID:16143468

Tortschanoff, Magdalena; Aurich, Christine; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

2005-10-31

355

Molecular Methods for the Detection of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques.

Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M.; Glass, John I.

2012-01-01

356

In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae by PCR.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae are two very closely related species which cause mastitis in cows and goats, respectively. M. bovis can also cause arthritis and respiratory disease in cattle. It has recently been shown that the 16S rRNA sequences differ only in 8 nucleotide positions between the two species [J.G. Mattsson, B. Guss and K.-E. Johansson (1994) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 115: 325-328]. These nucleotide differences are distributed over the molecule in such a way that it is difficult to design specific identification systems, based on PCR only, for M. bovis and M. agalactiae. Two different PCR systems based on 16S rRNA sequence data have, however, been designed for these two species. The forward primers were identical in the two systems and complementary to a segment of the evolutionarily variable region V2. The reverse primers were complementary to the variable region V6, in which there are two nucleotide differences between M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The size of the PCR products, generated with these primers, was 360 bp. Cross-amplification was obtained with the two species in the heterologous PCR systems, but with approximately a 100-fold lower efficiency. Cross-amplification was not obtained with any other bovine or caprine mycoplasma except for Mycoplasma sp. strain A1343 of the caprine group 7. The detection limit of the PCR system for M. bovis with a reference culture was 4 x 10(2) CFU/ml and of the PCR system for M. agalactiae 2 x 10(2) CFU/ml. The M. bovis-PCR system was used to analyze nasal samples of calves from a herd where an outbreak of pneumonia had occured and it proved possible to detect M. bovis in these samples. PMID:8604550

Chávez González, Y R; Ros Bascuñana, C; Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Fernández Molina, C; Johansson, K E

1995-11-01

357

Prevalence of mycoplasmas in eggs from birds of prey using culture and a genus-specific mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas are commensals and pathogens of different avian species, especially poultry and passeriforms. The role of mycoplasmas in raptors has not yet been completely determined, and especially not the possibility of vertical transmission. Therefore 424 raptor eggs were examined for the occurrence of mycoplasmas using culture, and 155 of these eggs with a Mycoplasma genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

M. Lierz; N. Hagen; N. Harcourt-Brown; S. J. Hernandez-Divers; D. Lüschow; H. M. Hafez

2007-01-01

358

Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen causing respiratory disease, otitis media, arthritis, mastitis, and a variety of other diseases in cattle worldwide. It is increasingly recognized by the veterinary and livestock communities as having an important impact on the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy and beef cattle. M. bovis diseases can be difficult to diagnose and control because of inconsistent disease expression and response to treatments and vaccines, and large gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these diseases. There are limited data on which to base evidence-based decisions for treatment and control, and the literature contains differing clinical biases and opinions. This document is intended for veterinarians dealing with cattle and is focused on the cattle production systems of North America. The goal of the consensus statement panel was to encourage an evidence-based approach to M. bovis problems. The scientific literature was critically reviewed, including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews obtained by database searches using the terms "Mycoplasma bovis" or "mycoplasma + cattle." Where other data were lacking, conference proceedings were reviewed as a source of expert opinion. PMID:21745245

Maunsell, F P; Woolums, A R; Francoz, D; Rosenbusch, R F; Step, D L; Wilson, D J; Janzen, E D

2011-01-01

359

Adherence of Pathogenic Mycoplasmas to Host Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant genome compaction in mycoplasmas was made possible by adoption of a parasitic lifestyle. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems enabling their attachment to host tissues as well as a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins. The generation of a versatile surface coat through high-frequency phase

Shmuel Razin

1999-01-01

360

Transcriptome Changes in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes swine pneumonia and contributes significantly to the porcine respiratory disease complex. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are difficult to address, since there is a lack of genetic tools, but microarrays are available and can be used to study transcriptional changes that occur during disease as a way to identify important virulence-related genes. Mycoplasmas were collected from bronchial alveolar

Melissa L. Madsen; Supraja Puttamreddy; Eileen L. Thacker; Michael D. Carruthers; F. Chris Minion

2008-01-01

361

Sequence variations of the VP1 gene of Polyomavirus hominis 1 among Bulgarians.  

PubMed

Polyomavirus hominis 1 (BK virus, BKV) is an important pathogen in the field of transplantation medicine. BKV reactivation among renal-transplant recipients could cause BK associated nephropathy, which has unfavorable prognosis and is a cause for graft rejection. It is not clear why only few transplanted patients develop BK associated nephropathy while most exhibit asymptomatic viruria. One of the possible reasons lies in the mutations of the VP1 gene, encoding the main structural protein, bearing important determinants for the recognition of specific cellular receptors. The change of amino acid sequence could result in altered pathogenicity of BKV. The amplified sequences of BK in this research were from urines of patients with various clinical conditions along with healthy individuals. Nevertheless the sequence analysis which was undertaken did not show correlation between the viral genotype and the clinical condition. It was demonstrated that the most common BKV genotype in Bulgaria is genotype I and that the strains common in Bulgaria (genotypes I and IV) have typical European origin. Most of the sequenced BKV DNA samples (8/10) were correlated with the highest degree of similarity (81%) to the subcluster Ib. A specific place among the samples is taken by Pr-9, amplified from the urine of a pregnant woman that has a different evolutionary origins and might establish the beginning of a new distinct BKV strain. PMID:20029813

Slavov, Svetoslav; Tsekov, Iliya; Kalvatchev, Zlatko

2010-02-01

362

Biodiversity of Pneumocystis carinii hominis: typing with different DNA regions.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the most useful gene for the detection of biodiversity of Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolates and to compare samples from French and Italian subjects. We studied 20 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens from 20 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (10 French and 10 Italian patients) with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by DNA sequencing of the thymidylate synthase (TS), 5S rRNA, large-subunit mitochondrial rRNA (mt LSU rRNA), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) genes. Thirteen of the 20 sequenced samples had the prototype TS gene sequence. Fourteen of the 20 samples showed the prototype sequence of the 5S rRNA gene, and 6 had variant sequences of the 5S rRNA gene. The mt LSU rRNA gene was sequenced for 18 of the 20 samples; all sequences were different from the prototype sequence and were classified into four groups. Thirteen of the 20 ITS1 and ITS2 sequences were analyzed, and all the sequences were found to be different from the prototype sequence and were classified into 10 groups. The internal transcribed spacer regions thus appear to be the most discriminatory region of DNA for analysis of the biodiversity of P. carinii hominis isolates.

Latouche, S; Ortona, E; Mazars, E; Margutti, P; Tamburrini, E; Siracusano, A; Guyot, K; Nigou, M; Roux, P

1997-01-01

363

[Comparative studies of avian mycoplasmas by flat gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The phenol-acetic-acid extraced cell proteins of Mycoplasma (M.) and Acholeplasma (A.) reference strains (PG31 (M. gallisepticum), PG 16 (M. gallinarum), PG30 (M iners), 17529 (M. meleagridis), WVU 1853 (M. synoviae), 1340 (M. anatis), PG8 and PG9 (A. laidlawii), CKK (Serovar C), DD (Serovar D), WR1 (Serogroup F), 695 (Serogroup I) and 694 (Serogroup L) were anlysed by the flat gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis. With exception of PG8 and PG9 the Coomassie Blue-stained protein patterns show that each of the strains produced reproducible characteristic electrophoretic pattern by which the reference strains could be differentiated. However, before the question could be answered whether the procedure described is suitable to replace the serological species differentiation of avian mycoplasmas, serological and electrophoretic studies of a relevant number of field strain are necessary. PMID:566006

Hinz, K H; Neumann, U

1978-04-01

364

Relation of Catalase to Substrate Utilization by Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

No catalase activity was detected in four strains of glucose-grown Mycoplasma pneumoniae at any time during the replication of the organism. Exogenous catalase dramatically increased the O2 uptake with glycerol, presumably by releasing inhibition caused by hydrogen peroxide. The effect of added catalase on the O2 uptake of washed organisms with glucose as substrate was moderate and variable in degree. The production of hydrogen peroxide was demonstrated by the quantitative enzymatic assay for inorganic peroxide and by the fact that added pyruvate, which is non-enzymatically oxidized by H2O2 to acetic acid and CO2 could mimic the action of catalase.

Low, I. E.; Eaton, M. D.; Proctor, P.

1968-01-01

365

Adaptation of Mycoplasmas to Antimicrobial Agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii Extracellular Vesicles Mediate the Export of Ciprofloxacin and a Mutant Gene Related to the Antibiotic Target  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations.

Medvedeva, Elena S.; Baranova, Natalia B.; Mouzykantov, Alexey A.; Grigorieva, Tatiana Yu.; Davydova, Marina N.; Trushin, Maxim V.; Chernova, Olga A.; Chernov, Vladislav M.

2014-01-01

366

Demonstration of cross-reactive antigens in F38 and related mycoplasmas by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting.  

PubMed Central

The ELISA and an immunoblotting technique were used to study F38-type mycoplasmas - an important cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia - and a number of related mycoplasma species, subspecies, types or serogroups. Two-way ELISA cross-reactivity was demonstrated between five mycoplasmas, namely strain F38, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC strain), M. equigenitalium, M. primatum and bovine serogroup 7. In addition one-way cross-reactivity was demonstrated between F38 and each of the following mycoplasmas: M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (two SC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri, and bovine serogroup L. F38 and M. capricolum did not cross-react. Immunoblot analysis, unlike ELISA, revealed that F38 and M. capricolum were closely related. At least four major protein antigens were shared between F38, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC and LC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri and bovine serogroup 7. The ELISA cross-reactions (above) shown by M. equigenitalium and M. primatum with each other, with F38 and with other mycoplasmas were not apparent by immunoblotting. Images Fig. 1 (a and b ) Fig. 2

Kibe, M. K.; Bidwell, D. E.; Turp, P.; Smith, G. R.

1985-01-01

367

Antigenic variation in Mycoplasma hyorhinis: increased repertoire of variable lipoproteins expanding surface diversity and structural complexity.  

PubMed Central

VlpE is characterized as a new member in a family of variable surface lipoproteins (Vlps) of Mycoplasma hyorhinis. VlpE shows phenotypic variation in expression and size within isogenic lineages of some strains but is absent from lineages of other strains that express only three previously known Vlps. Expression of four Vlps in some cells further indicates the presence and usage of an expanded reservoir of Vlp coding sequences, which greatly increases the capacity for surface diversification. Images

Rosengarten, R; Theiss, P M; Yogev, D; Wise, K S

1993-01-01

368

[Detección de Mycoplasma canadense y Mycoplasma californicum en ganado lechero de Argentina].  

PubMed

Different species of Mycoplasma can affect bovine cattle, causing several diseases. PCR sequencing and further analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region have shown a significant interspecies variability among Mollicutes. Sixteen suspected isolates of Mycoplasma spp. obtained from milk samples from dairy herds were amplified (16S-23S rRNA ITS region). Fourteen out of those 16 suspected Mycoplasma spp. isolates were PCR-positive. To confirm the identity of Mycoplasma bovis, these 14 isolates were tested by another species-specific PCR. Seven of the isolates rendered a positive result. The products of 16S-23S rRNA ITS PCR from one isolate that was identified as M. bovis and from two other isolates, identified as non- M. bovis were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. The three sequences (A, B and C) showed 100% similarity with M. bovis, Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum respectively. PMID:25011595

Tamiozzo, Pablo J; Estanguet, Abel A; Maito, Julia; Tirante, Liliana; Pol, Martin; Giraudo, José A

2014-01-01

369

?-D-Glucoside utilization by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: possible involvement in the control of cytotoxicity towards bovine lung cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC) is among the most serious threats for livestock producers in Africa. Glycerol metabolism-associated H2O2 production seems to play a crucial role in virulence of this mycoplasma. A wide number of attenuated strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC are currently used in Africa as live vaccines.

Edy M Vilei; Ivone Correia; M Helena Ferronha; Daniela F Bischof; Joachim Frey

2007-01-01

370

Evaluation of a microscopy method for rapid detection and identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

A microscopy test that used the typical shape of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells growing on glass was investigated for its value for diagnostic purposes. Suspensions from 108 throat swabs were infected artificially with 102, 103, and 104 colony-forming units of three M. pneumoniae strains per ml. Agar medium, a diphasic medium, and the microscopy method with liquid medium in cover slip chambers were compared for isolation of the mycoplasmas. The mycoplasms were detected first by the microscopy method in nearly all concentrations tested. Typical M. pneumoniae cells could often be detected after 48 h. No differences were found between a laboratory strain and two low-passage strains. The experimental results suggest that under special circumstances the microscopy method could be a useful tool for isolation and identification of M. pneumoniae. Images

Bredt, W; Lam, W; Berger, J

1975-01-01

371

Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male  

PubMed Central

Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

Shah, Mitanshu; Tan, Christopher Bryan; Rajan, Dhyan; Ahmed, Shadab; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

2012-01-01

372

Gastritis associated with Gastrospirillum hominis in children. Comparison with Helicobacter pylori and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Interest in possible microbiological causes of gastritis has significantly increased since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Recently a spiral bacterium named Gastrospirillum hominis was described in association with chronic gastritis in adult patients. Here, we present the finding of Gastrospirillum hominis in the gastric biopsies of two children who underwent upper endoscopy for gastrointestinal symptoms. The frequency of Gastrospirillum hominis (0.3%) in our pediatric population was similar to that reported in adults. We observed a chronic gastritis associated with the spiral bacteria which was milder than the gastritis noted in our pediatric patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. Further comparisons between these two organisms, as well as the literature on Gastrospirillum hominis, are also reviewed. PMID:8248105

Oliva, M M; Lazenby, A J; Perman, J A

1993-09-01

373

Recurrent abscesses due to Finegoldia magna, Dermabacter hominis and Staphylococcus aureus in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

A case of recurrent abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is reported, involving the opportunistic human pathogen Dermabacter hominis, the virulent anaerobic pathogen Finegoldia magna and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:19332143

Martin, J; Bemer, P; Touchais, S; Asseray, N; Corvec, S

2009-10-01

374

Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus causing septicemia in patients with malignancy.  

PubMed

A new subspecies of Staphylococcus hominis described by Kloos et al. in 1998 and named S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus (SHN) has been implicated in nosocomial outbreaks. Multidrug resistance, including resistance to novobiocin and oxacillin, is a particularly important feature of SHN. In our institute, we encountered 13 cases of S. hominis subsp. hominis in cancer patients with septicemia, of which seven were methicillin resistant. The isolates were identified by VITEK ® 2 compact automated system, using GP REF 21342 identification card and antimicrobial susceptibility testing card P-628. The biochemical reactions and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the seven methicillin-resistant isolates were re-analyzed and patient details were re-checked to finally identify them as SHN. The increasing number of cases reporting isolation of SHN from biological specimens point to potential virulence and clinical importance of this bacterium. PMID:24943764

Roy, Priyamvada; Ahmed, Nishat Hussain; Biswal, Indu; Grover, Rajesh Kumar

2014-01-01

375

[The case of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura associated with Blastocystis hominis].  

PubMed

Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a parasite that often causes gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with immune deficiency and has a controversial pathogenicity in healthy people, although some symptoms are reported outside of the gastrointestinal system in healthy persons. Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) vasculitis is an acute autoimmune disease characterised by IgA storage of small vessels that is believed to include infectious factors in its aetiology. A 30-month follow-up with a boy diagnosed with HSP being treated with steroid therapy showed that he had recurrent symptoms within two days, and B. hominis was detected in the faecal analysis. His symptoms including rash, abdominal pain, and arthritis improved after treatment with steroid and co-trimaksazol. This paper is the first to present a case of HSP associated with B. hominis. PMID:23955912

Tutanç, Murat; Silfeler, Ibrahim; Ozgür, Tümay; Motor, Vicdan Köksald?; Kurto?lu, Ahmet Ibrahim

2013-01-01

376

The passive haemagglutination test for the detection of Mycoplasma suipneumoniae and the possible diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia of pigs  

PubMed Central

Fourteen cases of enzootic pneumonia, nearly all of which had presented diagnostic difficulties using the metabolic-inhibition test, were re-examined using specific pig antisera in the passive haemagglutination test (PHA). All proved positive for Mycoplasma suipneumoniae, indicating that the test, used in this manner, might be particularly valuable for routine diagnosis. The PHA test was also used to demonstrate antibody to M. suipneumoniae in pneumonic tissue and the associated bronchial lymph nodes. To allay our concern that cross-reactions might interfere with this and other serological tests—the complement-fixation test (CF) and precipitation in agar-gel—the specificity of our reagents and the antigenic relationships of Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma granularum, mycoplasma B3, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and three strains of M. suipneumoniae (including cloned and uncloned isolates of the J strain) were studied in various ways. Antibodies to medium constituents occurred in rabbit antiserum but did not present a problem with pig antisera. These antibodies were successfully absorbed from the rabbit antisera but it was not possible to remove medium constituents from the antigens used to produce antisera in rabbits by repeated washing. By all these tests, the main species of mycoplasmas studied seemed to be antigenically distinct. No major antigenic differences between the three strains of M. suipneumoniae were revealed by the PHA test and the CF test; a slight difference in the precipitation lines of one of these strains (MG) in agar-gel might have indicated an antigenic variation or been a measure of some other factor.

Goodwin, R. F. W.; Hodgson, Ruth G.

1970-01-01

377

Infective Endocarditis Complicated with Progressive Heart Failure due to ?-Lactamase-Producing Cardiobacterium hominis  

PubMed Central

We describe a 66-year-old woman with infective endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis whose condition, complicated by severe aortic regurgitation and congestive heart failure, necessitated aortic valve replacement despite treatment with ceftriaxone followed by ciprofloxacin. The blood isolate of C. hominis produced ?-lactamase and exhibited high-level resistance to penicillin (MIC, ?256 ?g/ml) and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MIC, 8 ?g/ml).

Lu, Po-Liang; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Hung, Chien-Ching; Teng, Lee-Jene; Jang, Tsrang-Neng; Luh, Kwen-Tay

2000-01-01

378

Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls  

PubMed Central

Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and ?2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection.

Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

2014-01-01

379

Stress Exacerbates Infectivity and Pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences  

PubMed Central

Background Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. Methods/Findings Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n?=?20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b). Conclusion The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations.

Chandramathi, Samudi; Suresh, Kumar; Sivanandam, Sinnadurai; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

2014-01-01

380

Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis in patients fulfilling irritable bowel syndrome criteria.  

PubMed

Studies have suggested a possible role for Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis in the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the prevalence of B. hominis and D. fragilis in patients with IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D). Three hundred and thirty patients were enrolled, 171 (52%) with IBS-D and 159 (48%) were controls, respectively. Stool microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. hominis and D. fragilis were done. B. hominis was positive by stool microscopy in 49% (83/171) of IBS compared to 24% (27/159) in control (p < 0.001). B. hominis culture was positive in 53% (90/171) in IBS compared to 16% (25/159) in control (p < 0.001). B. hominis PCR was positive in 44% (75/171) in IBS compared to 21% (33/159) in control (p < 0.001). D. fragilis microscopy was positive in 3.5% (6/171) in IBS-D compared to 0.6% (1/159) in control (p = 0.123). D. fragilis culture was positive in 4% (7/171) in IBS compared to 1.3% (2/159) in control (p = 0.176). D. fragilis PCR was positive in 4% (6/171) in IBS-D compared to 0% (0/159) in control (p = 0.030). B. hominis is common, while D. fragilis was less prevalent in our patients with IBS-D. B. hominis and D. fragilis culture had a better yield compared to stool microscopy and PCR. PMID:20532564

Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Abbas, Zaigham; Naz, Shagufta; Islam, Muhammad; Khan, Rustam

2010-08-01

381

Humoral and bronchial immune responses in cattle experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of immune reactions of the manifold antigens of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) was analysed in serum and bronchial lavage of cattle experimentally infected with the African strain Afadé and the European strain L2 using Western-blots and complement fixation. Western-blot analysis of total antigens of both strains with sera from animals infected with the homologous

El-Mostafa Abdo; Jacques Nicolet; Raymond Miserez; Rosario Gonçalves; José Regalla; Christian Griot; Albert Bensaide; Marike Krampe; Joachim Frey

1998-01-01

382

Detection of mycoplasmas in goat milk by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The detection of mycoplasma in milk can be performed by either culture techniques or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Although PCR can reduce the average diagnostic time to 5 h in comparison with the several days for the isolation of the agent, there is still a need to develop methods, which could give earlier results. For this purpose, we tested the ability of flow cytometry (FC) to detect mycoplasmas in milk samples. Milk samples inoculated with four different mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capricolum, or Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, known to cause contagious agalactia in goats, were stained with the DNA stain SYBR Green I and analyzed by FC. Three goat milk samples, from which mycoplasmas have been isolated in broth medium were also analyzed. All mycoplasmas were easily distinguished from debris of milk samples, but it was not possible to distinguish between the different mycoplasma species. In our conditions, the detection limit of the technique was of the order of 10(3)-10(4) cells ml(-1). Furthermore, mycoplasmas were also distinguished from Staphylococcus aureus. FC together with SYBR Green I was able to distinguish between mycoplasma cells and debris present in milk samples and gave results in 20-30 min. This is an important first step in developing a robust, routine flow cytometric method for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk samples. PMID:17972304

Assunção, Patricia; Davey, Hazel M; Rosales, Ruben S; Antunes, Nuno T; de la Fe, Christian; Ramirez, Ana S; de Galarreta, Carlos M Ruiz; Poveda, Jose B

2007-12-01

383

Attachment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to respiratory epithelium.  

PubMed

The attachment of radioisotope-labeled Mycoplasma pneumoniae to hamster tracheal rings in organ culture was examined by radioautography and liquid scintillation counting. Radioautographs of individual rings exposed for 8 h to (3H) thymidine-labeled virulent M. pneumoniae revealed a dense extracellular collection of emulsion grains along the luminal surface of epithelial cells. Similar exposure of rings to isotope-labeled avirulent M. pneumoniae resulted in no accumulation of emulsion grains. The numbers of attached virulent mycoplasmas, as measured by liquid scintillation counting of infected rings, were found to increase in a nearly linear fashion over an 8-h incubation period. Viability of the mycoplasmas and metabolic integrity of the tracheal rings were important for optimal attachment. Pretreatment of rings with neuraminidase or sodium periodate significantly impaired orgainism adherence. These data suggest a specificity of interation between virulent M. pneumoniae and tracheal epithelial cells that can be further examined through the use of isotopically labeled mycoplasmas. PMID:178600

Powell, D A; Hu, P C; Wilson, M; Collier, A M; Baseman, J B

1976-03-01

384

Host discrimination of Mycoplasma pneumoniae proteinaceous immunogens  

PubMed Central

The immune response of experimentally infected hamsters and human patients to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was examined by radioimmunoprecipation in conjunction with gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Both intrinsically and extrinsically labeled mycoplasma proteins were coincubated with acute and convalescent sera in a radioimmunoprecipitation assay. Two M. pneumoniae proteins were selectively precipitated by convalescent sera. These predominant immunogens were trypsin-sensitive, antibody-accessible surface proteins that co-migrate on polyacrylamide gels with proteins P1 and P2, which were previously implicated by us as mediators of cytadsorption. Anti-M. pneumoniae antiserum did not precipitate radiolabeled antigens derived from Mycoplasma orale or Mycoplasma salivarium. These data indicate that M. pneumoniae infection stimulates a specific and highly targeted host antibody response to key proteinaceous immunogens.

1983-01-01

385

Mycoplasma pneumonia: Clinical features and management  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common respiratory pathogen that produces diseases of varied severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe atypical pneumonia. Apart from respiratory tract infections, this organism is also responsible for producing a wide spectrum of non-pulmonary manifestations including neurological, hepatic, cardiac diseases, hemolytic anemia, polyarthritis and erythema multiforme. This review focuses on molecular taxonomy, biological characteristics, epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiology and various laboratory tools in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mycoplasma pneumonia.

Kashyap, Surender; Sarkar, Malay

2010-01-01

386

Detection of anaerobic mycoplasmas in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A commercially available anaerobic generator and incubation system that develops a low oxidation-reduction potential was used\\u000a for the assay of cell cultures for mycoplasmal contamination. Mycoplasma broth and agar media supplemented with dextrose,\\u000a yeast extract, and horse serum were used. This system supported growth of some mycoplasmas that failed to grow in incubators\\u000a with 5% CO2 in nitrogen previously used

Gerard J. McGarrity; Lewis L. Coriell

1973-01-01

387

Transcriptional Analysis of the Conserved ftsZ Gene Cluster in Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental approaches were used to construct a detailed transcriptional profile of the phyloge- netically conserved ftsZ cell division gene cluster in both Mycoplasma genitalium and its closest relative, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. We determined initiation and termination points for the cluster, as well as an absolute steady-state RNA level for each gene. Transcription of this cluster in both these organisms was

Gwynedd A. Benders; Bradford C. Powell; Clyde A. Hutchison III

2005-01-01

388

Seroepidemiological survey of sheep flocks from Northern Japan for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae.  

PubMed

Sheep flocks from Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori, three northern prefectures of Japan, were screened for antibodies to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae by ELISA. Sixty four animals out of 246 (26%) were seropositive to M. ovipneumoniae, with positive results obtained from all three prefectures. None of the sera tested were serologically positive to M. agalactiae. PMID:21830171

Giangaspero, Massimo; Nicholas, Robin A J; Hlusek, Miroslav; Bonfini, Barbara; Osawa, Takeshi; Orusa, Riccardo; Tatami, Shingo; Takagi, Eishu; Moriya, Hiroaki; Okura, Norimoto; Kato, Kazuo; Kimura, Atsushi; Harasawa, Ryô; Ayling, Roger D

2012-03-01

389

Seroepidemiological survey of sheep flocks from Northern Japan for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep flocks from Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori, three northern prefectures of Japan, were screened for antibodies to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae by ELISA. Sixty four animals out of 246 (26%) were seropositive to M. ovipneumoniae, with positive results obtained from all three prefectures. None of the sera tested were serologically positive to M. agalactiae.

Massimo Giangaspero; Robin A. J. Nicholas; Miroslav Hlusek; Barbara Bonfini; Takeshi Osawa; Riccardo Orusa; Shingo Tatami; Eishu Takagi; Hiroaki Moriya; Norimoto Okura; Kazuo Kato; Atsushi Kimura; Ryô Harasawa; Roger D. Ayling

390

Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these

Katharina Hoelzle; Simone Peter; Michele Sidler; Manuela M Kramer; Max M Wittenbrink; Kathrin M Felder; Ludwig E Hoelzle

2010-01-01

391

Swab absorbability--effect on Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolation.  

PubMed

A single strain of commercial Leghorn vaccinated with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was used in two trials to determine the effect of swab absorbability on MG isolation. For each of the two trials, 34 birds from each of five 10,000 bird houses were randomly selected and swabbed from the choanal cleft region; 17 birds from each house were swabbed with ethylene-oxide sterilized, 2.4-mm diameter calcium alginate-tipped swabs, while the remaining 17 birds were swabbed with similarly sized and sterilized rayon-tipped swabs. Results of this study indicate swab absorbability does not affect the recovery and subsequent isolation of MG from commercial layers. PMID:3906617

Branton, S L; May, J D; Kleven, S H

1985-11-01

392

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

393

Intranasal and Aerosol Exposure of Gerbils to 'Mycoplasma Pneumoniae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae was administered to Mongolian gerbils by intranasal instillation or by exposure to small-particle aerosols (2 micrometers). From 7 - 14 days after exposure, approximately 5 log of mycoplasma were recovered from the lungs of the major...

J. V. Jemski S. V. Machotka

1978-01-01

394

Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Infections (Course 8226-C).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is designed for use with the Center for Disease Control Course No. 8226-C, Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Infections and is a reference for performing Mycoplasma diagnostic tests. This manual contains laboratory protocols recommended for t...

B. R. Bird F. T. Forrester W. M. Velleca

1980-01-01

395

Phylogeny of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster based on analysis of five conserved protein-coding sequences and possible implications for the taxonomy of the group.  

PubMed

A phylogenetic tree of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster was inferred from a set of concatenated sequences from five housekeeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA and rpoB). The relevance of this phylogeny was reinforced by detailed analysis of the congruence of the phylogenies derived from each of the five individual gene sequences. Two subclusters were distinguished. The M. mycoides subcluster comprised M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotypes Small Colony (SC) and Large Colony (LC) and M. mycoides subsp. capri. The latter two groups could not be clearly separated, which supports previous proposals that they be united into a single taxonomic entity. The Mycoplasma capricolum subcluster included M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach, a group of strains that remains unassigned. This group constituted a distinct branch within this cluster, supporting its classification as a subspecies of M. capricolum. Mycoplasma cottewii and Mycoplasma yeatsii clustered in a group that was distinct from Mycoplasma putrefaciens and they were all clearly separated from the M. mycoides cluster. In conclusion, this approach has allowed us to assign phylogenetic positions to all members of the M. mycoides cluster and related species and has proved the need to adjust the existing taxonomy. Furthermore, this method may be used as a reference technique to assign an unequivocal position to any particular strain related to this cluster and may lead to the development of new techniques for rapid species identification. PMID:17911291

Manso-Silván, Lucía; Perrier, Xavier; Thiaucourt, François

2007-10-01

396

Comparison of in vitro activity of danofloxacin, florlenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and tilmicosin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (Mic) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentrations (MMc) of the antimicrobials danofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spedinomycin and tilmicosin were determined in vitro for 20 isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (Mmmsc), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The majority of strains were most susceptible to tilmicosin, followed by danofloxacin, oxytetracycline, florfenicol and spectinomycin with Mic0values

R. D. Ayling; S. E. Baker; R A. J. Nicholas; M. L Peek; A. J. Simon

2000-01-01

397

Gene Rearrangements in the vsa Locus of Mycoplasma pulmonis  

PubMed Central

The vsa genes of Mycoplasma pulmonis encode the V-1 lipoproteins. Most V-1 proteins contain repetitive domains and are thought to be involved in mycoplasma-host cell interactions. Previously, we have reported the isolation and characterization of six vsa genes comprising a 10-kb region of the genome of M. pulmonis strain KD735-15. In the current study, vsa-specific probes were used to clone several fragments from a genomic library of KD735-15 DNA and assemble a single 20-kb contig containing 11 vsa genes. The middle region of the vsa locus contains a large open reading frame (ORF) that is not a vsa gene and has undergone an internal deletion in some strains. The ORF is predicted to encode a membrane protein that may have a role in disease pathogenesis. To examine vsa genes in a strain of M. pulmonis that is unrelated to KD735-15, strain CT was studied. Through Southern hybridization and genomic cloning analyses, CT was found to possess homologs of the KD735-15 vsaA, -C, -E, and -F genes and two unique genes (vsaG and vsaH) that were not found in KD735-15. High-frequency, site-specific DNA inversions serve to regulate the phase-variable production of individual V-1 proteins. As a result of the sequence analysis of vsa recombination products, a model in which DNA inversion arises from strand exchange involving at least six nucleotides of the vrs box is proposed.

Shen, Xuejun; Gumulak, Juliann; Yu, Huilan; French, C. Todd; Zou, Nianxiang; Dybvig, Kevin

2000-01-01

398

Polyacrylamide Gel Identification of Bacterial L-Forms and Mycoplasma Species of Human Origin  

PubMed Central

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of acidified phenol extracts prepared from whole cells can be used for the identification of bacterial L-forms and Mycoplasma species of human origin. Ten human Mycoplasma serotypes and eight L-forms belonging to five different genera were studied. The gel patterns were sufficiently distinct and reproducible that it was possible not only to identify L-forms at the genus level (group with streptococci) and different Mycoplasma serotypes but also to differentiate between the two of them. The parentage of L-forms of Streptobacillus moniliformis L1, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus MG, and Staphylococcus aureus Smith strain was established by relating their gel patterns directly to parent bacteria. It was found that an L-form designated S. moniliformis An (ATCC 14220) was actually an L-form of Proteus. In addition, it was shown electrophoretically that no relationship existed between the Streptococcus MG L-form and M. pneumoniae. The applicability of this method as a diagnostic and taxonomic tool for the differentiation of L-forms and mycoplasmas is discussed. Images

Theodore, Theodore S.; Tully, Joseph G.; Cole, Roger M.

1971-01-01

399

Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.  

PubMed

Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs. PMID:24699671

Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagné, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine

2014-01-01

400

Experimental Infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae Identify Key Factors Involved in Host-Colonization  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagne, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine

2014-01-01

401

Molecular Demonstration of Hemotropic Mycoplasmas in Wild Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild monkeys is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood specimens collected from wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) tentatively captured for ecological survey in Mie prefecture, Japan. We examined 9 monkeys using hemoplasma-specific real-time PCR and found all of them positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in wild monkeys were amplified using end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed a wide prevalence of a hemoplasma strain in Japanese monkeys, which was similar to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’ reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma strain remain unexplored.

SASHIDA, Hinako; SUZUKI, Yoshihisa; ROKUHARA, Sou; NAGAI, Kazuya; HARASAWA, Ryo

2013-01-01

402

Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Myco- plasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identifica- tion of large numbers of potentially variable regions,

Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Alain Blanchard

2002-01-01