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1

Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

DelVecchio, Vito G. (Scranton, PA); Gallia, Gary L. (Philadelphia, PA); McCleskey, Ferne K. (San Antonio, TX)

1997-01-21

2

Mycoplasma hominis osteitis in an immunocompetent man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma hominis has been associated with pelvic inflammatory illness, postpartum and neonatal infections and respiratory tract diseases. It is rarely isolated from patients with other infections. Reported here is a case of tibial osteitis that occurred in a 16-year-old immunocompetent man. Clinical and laboratory findings improved under treatment with clindamycin and fluoroquinolones.

F. Méchaï; G. Le Moal; S. Duchêne; C. Burucoa; C. Godet; M. Freslon

2006-01-01

3

Entry and intracellular location of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in humans. The coexistence of different sexually transmitted diseases in the same individual is very common, such as vaginal infections by T. vaginalis in association with Mycoplasma fermentans or Mycoplasma hominis. However, the consequences and behavior of mycoplasma during trichomonad infections are virtually unknown. This study was undertaken to elucidate whether mycoplasmas enter and leave trichomonad cells and if so how. M. hominis was analyzed in different trichomonad isolates and the process of internalization and the pathway within the parasite was studied. Parasites naturally and experimentally infected with mycoplasmas were used and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemistry and PCR analyses were performed. The results show that: (1) M. hominis enters T. vaginalis cells by endocytosis; (2) some mycoplasmas use a terminal polar tip as anchor to the trichomonad plasma membrane; (3) some trichomonad isolates are able to digest mycoplasmas, mainly when the trichomonads are experimentally infected; (4) some fresh virulent isolates are able to maintain mycoplasmas as cohabitants in the cell's interior; (5) some mycoplasmas are able to escape from the vacuole to the trichomonad cytosol, and trichomonad plasma membrane budding suggested that mycoplasmas could leave the parasite cell. PMID:17710384

Vancini, Ricardo Gomes; Benchimol, Marlene

2008-01-01

4

A 135-Kilodalton Surface Antigen ofMycoplasma hominisPG21 Contains Multiple Directly Repeated Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody was used to characterize a 135-kDa surface-located membrane protein (Lmp1) generally present in Mycoplasma hominis strains. The monoclonal antibody, 552, was applied to identify the corresponding gene in an expression library of M. hominis PG21 DNA. The M. hominis PG21 lmp1 gene was sequenced, and its gene product was characterized with the goal of elucidating the structure

SØREN A. LADEFOGED; SVEND BIRKELUND; STEEN HAUGE; BIRGITTE BROCK; LISE TORP JENSEN; ANDGUNNA CHRISTIANSEN

5

Molecular design of Mycoplasma hominis Vaa adhesin  

PubMed Central

The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined by a light-scattering (LS) method were 23.9 kD and 36.5 kD, respectively, and corresponded to their monomeric forms. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of the full-length forms indicated that the Vaa protein has an ?-helical content of ?80%. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of coiled-coil domains in both the conserved N-terminal and antigenic variable C-terminal part of the Vaa adhesin. Experimental results obtained with recombinant proteins corresponding to the N- or C-terminal parts of the shortest one-cassette form of the protein were consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct coiled-coil regions. The one-cassette Vaa monomer appears to be an elongated protein with a axial shape ratio of 1:10. Analysis of a two-cassette Vaa type reveals a similar axial shape ratio. The results are interpreted in terms of the topological organization of the Vaa protein indicating the localization of the adherence-mediating structure. PMID:11714926

Boesen, Thomas; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Kjeldgaard, Morten; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

2001-01-01

6

Molecular design of Mycoplasma hominis Vaa adhesin.  

PubMed

The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined by a light-scattering (LS) method were 23.9 kD and 36.5 kD, respectively, and corresponded to their monomeric forms. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of the full-length forms indicated that the Vaa protein has an alpha-helical content of approximately 80%. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of coiled-coil domains in both the conserved N-terminal and antigenic variable C-terminal part of the Vaa adhesin. Experimental results obtained with recombinant proteins corresponding to the N- or C-terminal parts of the shortest one-cassette form of the protein were consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct coiled-coil regions. The one-cassette Vaa monomer appears to be an elongated protein with a axial shape ratio of 1:10. Analysis of a two-cassette Vaa type reveals a similar axial shape ratio. The results are interpreted in terms of the topological organization of the Vaa protein indicating the localization of the adherence-mediating structure. PMID:11714926

Boesen, T; Fedosova, N U; Kjeldgaard, M; Birkelund, S; Christiansen, G

2001-12-01

7

Biochemical and serological characterization of mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Fifty-five (55) Mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans were biochemically characterized using various biochemical tests and also serologically identified by growth inhibition technique using 5 mycoplasma antisera namely M. hominis PG2 1: M. genitalium G37: M. penetrans GTU54 and 2 strains of M. fermentans PG18 (HRC 6-62-S-170 and MB713-501-069). Biochemically, 43 (78.2%) strains were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, 8 (14.5%) strains as M. fermentans and 4 (7.3%) as M. penetrans. The M. hominis strains hydrolyzed only arginine while the M. fermentans and M. penetrans strains in addition to arginine hydrolysis also broke down glucose fermentatively and oxidatively. The M. fermentans strains showed varying reactions to phosphatase activity and to the reduction of tetrazolium chloride. Serologically, 4 (7.3%) mycoplasma strains were confirmed as M. penetrans GTU54 and of the 8 M. fermentans strains, 4 (7.3%) were identified as M. fermentans PG18 serotype HRC 6-62-S-170 and the other 4 (7.3%) as M. fermentans PG18 serotype MB 713-501-069. Only 13 (30.2%) of the 43 M. hominis strains were identified as M. hominis serotype PG2 1. None was identified as M. genitalium. The heterogeneity of the mycoplasma strains especially M. hominis was observed in this study and the need for the use of multiple antisera in growth inhibition test is hereby supported. PMID:17209306

Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Adewole, I F

2006-06-01

8

Life on Arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: Clues from Its Minimal Genome and Comparison with Other Human Urogenital Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs)). Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden–Meyerhoff–Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine) and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes), plus a set of genes required for providing energy. For M. hominis, this set would include 247+9 genes, resulting in a theoretical minimal genome of 256 genes. PMID:19816563

Pereyre, Sabine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Beven, Laure; Charron, Alain; Renaudin, Hélène; Barré, Aurélien; Avenaud, Philippe; Jacob, Daniel; Couloux, Arnaud; Barbe, Valérie; de Daruvar, Antoine; Blanchard, Alain; Bébéar, Cécile

2009-01-01

9

A fatal case of Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis in a full-term newborn.  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 20-day-old full-term baby, born to a mother who had had an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery, who died 13 days after the onset of meningitis. Mycoplasma hominis was the sole agent repeatedly recovered from cerebrospinal fluid and from postmortem brain tissue. PMID:8968928

Alonso-Vega, C; Wauters, N; Vermeylen, D; Muller, M F; Serruys, E

1997-01-01

10

Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of this pestering pathogen. PMID:23326599

Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

2013-01-01

11

Autoinfection as a cause of postpartum subdural empyema due to Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal of the genitourinary tract, which is infrequently associated with urogenital infections. Extra-urogenital infections due to M. hominis are rare. Here, we report an unusual case of M. hominis subdural empyema in a woman occurring shortly after delivery. The patient presented with symptoms suggestive of bacterial meningitis. Spinal imaging revealed a subdural empyema that required neurosurgical intervention. Cultures from intraoperatively obtained biopsies identified M. hominis as the causative pathogen. The patient was treated with oral moxifloxacin for 4 weeks resulting in the resolution of the spinal lesion. The subdural empyema was presumably caused by a contaminated epidural blood patch performed with the patient's own blood during an episode of transient M. hominis bacteremia after delivery. The blood patch was indicated for the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which had occurred after epidural anesthesia. Our findings highlight the significance of transient M. hominis bacteremia after delivery and implicate that M. hominis should be considered as a causative agent of extra-genitourinary tract infections particularly during the postpartum period or after genitourinary manipulation. PMID:25491170

Hos, N J; Bauer, C; Liebig, T; Plum, G; Seifert, H; Hampl, J

2014-12-10

12

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Results Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is recommended. In addition, it is recommended that antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are determined. PMID:24679107

2014-01-01

13

Comparison of commercially available media for detection and isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed Central

The Mycotrim Triphasic flask system (Irvine Scientific, Irvine, Calif.) was compared with a system composed of Mycotrim GU broth (Irvine Scientific) and A7 or A8 agar (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.) for the ability to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis from 129 genital specimens. Of the 64 specimens positive for U. urealyticum, 25, 98, and 100% were detected on Mycotrim Triphasic agar and A7 and A8 agars, respectively. All 18 specimens that grew M. hominis were detected by A7 and A8 agars, and 94% grew on Mycotrim Triphasic agar. Mycotrim GU broth detected all of the positive specimens, and Mycotrim Triphasic broth detected all but one. Mycotrim GU broth inoculated simultaneously with either A7 or A8 agar was found to be more sensitive and cost-effective than the Mycotrim Triphasic flask system. PMID:1583143

Broitman, N L; Floyd, C M; Johnson, C A; de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M

1992-01-01

14

Genome-wide Analysis of Mycoplasma hominis for the Identification of Putative Therapeutic Targets  

PubMed Central

Ever increasing propensity of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria raises the demand for the development of novel therapeutic agents to control this grave problem. Advances in the field of bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics have greatly facilitated the discovery of alternative drugs by swift identification of new drug targets. In the present study, we employed comparative genomics and metabolic pathway analysis with an aim of identifying therapeutic targets in Mycoplasma hominis. Our study has revealed 40 annotated metabolic pathways, including five unique pathways of M. hominis. Our study also identified 179 essential proteins, including 59 proteins having no similarity with human proteins. Further filtering by molecular weight, subcellular localization, functional analysis, and protein network interaction, we identified 57 putative candidates for which new drugs can be developed. Druggability analysis for each of the identified targets has prioritized 16 proteins as suitable for potential drug development. PMID:25574133

Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

2014-01-01

15

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine  

E-print Network

- cillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus plantarumDraft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine genome sequence of the strain Lactobacillus hominis CRBIP 24.179T, isolated from a human clinical sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Long-Term Survival and Intracellular Replication of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis Cells: Potential Role of the Protozoon in Transmitting Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

The existence of a symbiotic relationship between Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis, which is the first reported example of symbiosis between two obligate human pathogens, has been recently reported by our research group. In this work, we examined the cellular location of M. hominis in respect to T. vaginalis. By using gentamicin protection assays, double immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy, we obtained strong evidence that M. hominis is located within protozoan cells. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays showed that intracellularly located mycoplasmas actively synthesize DNA. Our results demonstrate that M. hominis has the capability of entering trichomonad cells and of replicating inside the protozoon. These findings suggest that symbiosis might provide the bacteria, during human infection, with the capability to resist to environmental stresses, such as host defense mechanisms and pharmacological therapies. PMID:15664961

Dessì, Daniele; Delogu, Giuseppe; Emonte, Eleonora; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Rappelli, Paola

2005-01-01

17

Establishment of European pharmacopoeia Mycoplasma reference strains.  

PubMed

European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) general chapter 2.6.7. Mycoplasma requires for the culture test reference strains of mycoplasma field isolates with fewer than 15 passages for validation and run control and in the test for inhibitory substances. Low passage field isolates of 5 mycoplasma strains (Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma orale and Acholeplasma laidlawii) have been prepared for this purpose and a small scale collaborative study involving European laboratories was carried out to confirm the suitability of the material for the intended purpose. Strains were prepared as 1 ml samples in frozen format and are stored below -60 degrees C. Each laboratory determined a titre for the material on their in-house media. A secondary part of the study also compared the growth of prediluted samples on the different culture media. Results of the study confirm that the material is suitable for use as a biological reference preparation (BRP) and an estimated titre has been provided for each strain based on the results of the study. It was noted that differences in the culture media used in the different laboratories did not have a detrimental effect on titre estimation. The estimated titre is intended as a guide for users to validate the use of the reference material in house. The candidate BRPs were adopted by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission on June 28, 2006 and are available for use from EDQM. A revision to chapter 2.6.7, including reference to the use of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) was also adopted in June 2006 and will appear in the European Pharmacopoeia version 5.8 in January 2007 and come into force the 1st of July 2007. While it was not part of the study a number of participants also performed in-house NAT assays on the study material. Preliminary findings from these studies are presented. PMID:17270132

Milne, C; Daas, A

2006-11-01

18

Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes

A. T. R. Vasconcelos; H. B. Ferreira; C. V. Bizarro; S. L. Bonatto; M. O. Carvalho; P. M. Pinto; D. F. Almeida; L. G. P. Almeida; R. Almeida; L. Alves-Filho; E. N. Assuncao; V. A. C. Azevedo; M. R. Bogo; M. M. Brigido; M. Brocchi; H. A. Burity; A. A. Camargo; S. S. Camargo; M. S. Carepo; D. M. Carraro; J. C. de Mattos Cascardo; L. A. Castro; G. Cavalcanti; G. Chemale; R. G. Collevatti; C. W. Cunha; B. Dallagiovanna; B. P. Dambros; Odir A. Dellagostin; C. Falcao; F. Fantinatti-Garboggini; M. S. S. Felipe; L. Fiorentin; G. R. Franco; N. S. A. Freitas; D. Frias; T. B. Grangeiro; E. C. Grisard; C. T. Guimaraes; M. Hungria; S. N. Jardim; M. A. Krieger; J. P. Laurino; L. F. A. Lima; M. I. Lopes; E. L. S. Loreto; H. M. F. Madeira; G. P. Manfio; A. Q. Maranhao; C. T. Martinkovics; S. R. B. Medeiros; M. A. M. Moreira; M. Neiva; C. E. Ramalho-Neto; M. F. Nicolas; S. C. Oliveira; R. F. C. Paixao; F. O. Pedrosa; S. D. J. Pena; M. Pereira; L. Pereira-Ferrari; I. Piffer; L. S. Pinto; D. P. Potrich; A. C. M. Salim; F. R. Santos; R. Schmitt; M. P. C. Schneider; A. Schrank; I. S. Schrank; A. F. Schuck; H. N. Seuanez; D. W. Silva; R. Silva; S. C. Silva; C. M. A. Soares; K. R. L. Souza; R. C. Souza; C. C. Staats; M. B. R. Steffens; S. M. R. Teixeira; T. P. Urmenyi; M. H. Vainstein; L. W. Zuccherato; A. J. G. Simpson; A. Zaha

2005-01-01

19

Existe-t-il un bénéfice au dépistage systématique de  Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis et  Ureaplasma urealyticum dans les prélèvements génito-urinaires réalisés au cours d'un bilan d'infertilité ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a prospective study on 100 couples consulting for infertility at the teaching Hospital of Tours, with the scope to determine if there is a benefit for systematic screening of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum among genito-urinary specimen when exploring couples infertility. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR on sperm, endocervix and urine specimen. M. hominis and U. urealyticum were detected by culture

A. Rosemond; P. Lanotte; S. Watt; A. S. Sauget; F. Guerif; D. Royère; A. Goudeau; L. Mereghetti

2006-01-01

20

Diversity of Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates from Bordeaux, France, as assessed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma species that can cause various urogenital infections and, less frequently, extragenital infections. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of this species using a molecular typing method based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Results The genome content of M. hominis PG21 was analysed for tandem repeats (TRs), and five of the 130 TRs identified were selected for use in an MLVA assay. The method was based on GeneScan analysis of VNTR loci using multiplex PCR with fluorescent dyes and resolution by capillary electrophoresis. This approach was used on a collection of 210 urogenital and extragenital French clinical isolates collected between 1987 and 2009. Forty MLVA types were found. The discriminatory index of our MLVA scheme was 0.924. Using this new typing tool, persistent infection was suggested for six patients and new infection for one patient. Furthermore, mother-to-child transmission was confirmed in the two cases studied. Application of MLVA to a wide range of M. hominis isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and no obvious link between the MLVA type and the isolate year of collection, the patient’s age or sex, the anatomical origin of the isolates or resistance to antibiotics was found. Conclusions Our MLVA scheme highlights the high genetic heterogeneity of the M. hominis species. It seems too discriminatory to be used for large epidemiological studies but has proven its usefulness for molecular studies at the individual level. PMID:23710536

2013-01-01

21

Swine and poultry pathogens: the complete genome sequences of two strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of Mycoplasma synoviae.  

PubMed

This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Ferreira, Henrique B; Bizarro, Cristiano V; Bonatto, Sandro L; Carvalho, Marcos O; Pinto, Paulo M; Almeida, Darcy F; Almeida, Luiz G P; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assunção, Enedina N; Azevedo, Vasco A C; Bogo, Maurício R; Brigido, Marcelo M; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A; Camargo, Anamaria A; Camargo, Sandro S; Carepo, Marta S; Carraro, Dirce M; de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C; Castro, Luiza A; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G; Cunha, Cristina W; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambrós, Bibiana P; Dellagostin, Odir A; Falcão, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S S; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R; Freitas, Nara S A; Frías, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Grisard, Edmundo C; Guimarães, Claudia T; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Sílvia N; Krieger, Marco A; Laurino, Jomar P; Lima, Lucymara F A; Lopes, Maryellen I; Loreto, Elgion L S; Madeira, Humberto M F; Manfio, Gilson P; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Martinkovics, Christyanne T; Medeiros, Sílvia R B; Moreira, Miguel A M; Neiva, Márcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E; Nicolás, Marisa F; Oliveira, Sergio C; Paixão, Roger F C; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Pena, Sérgio D J; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S; Potrich, Deise P; Salim, Anna C M; Santos, Fabrício R; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P C; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S; Schuck, Adriana F; Seuanez, Hector N; Silva, Denise W; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sérgio C; Soares, Célia M A; Souza, Kelly R L; Souza, Rangel C; Staats, Charley C; Steffens, Maria B R; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Urmenyi, Turan P; Vainstein, Marilene H; Zuccherato, Luciana W; Simpson, Andrew J G; Zaha, Arnaldo

2005-08-01

22

Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline. PMID:8452363

ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

1993-01-01

23

Variation of genes encoding GGPLs syntheses among Mycoplasma fermentans strains.  

PubMed

The information of the biosynthesis pathways of Mycoplasma fermentans specific major lipid-antigen, named glycoglycerophospholipids (GGPLs), is expected to be some of help to understand the virulence of M. fermentans. We examined primary structure of cholinephosphotransferase (mf1) and glucosyltransferase (mf3) genes, which engage GGPL-I and GGPL-III synthesis, in 20 strains, and found four types of variations in the mf1 gene but the mf3 gene in two strains was not detected by PCR. These results may have important implications in virulence factor of M. fermentans. PMID:20134120

Fujihara, Masatoshi; Ishida, Noriko; Asano, Kozo; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Nobuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Harasawa, Ryô

2010-06-01

24

Chronic Endometritis and Positive Mycoplasma Cultures: Is There a Correlation?  

E-print Network

Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of mycoplasma strains (Mycoplasma hominis or Ureaplasma urealyticum) on the development of chronic endometritis. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with acute pelvic infection were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Endometrial cultures and biopsies were obtained on admission and 5-7 and 21-28 days after completion of treatment. Results: Of 148 samples, 40 were positive for mycoplasma strains (group A) and 58 were positive for mycoplasma with other pathogens (group B). Twenty-seven samples were positive for other pathogens only (group C). Chronic endometritis was seen in 7 (17.5%), 30 (51.7%), and 10 (37%) in group A, B, and C patients, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of mycoplasma strains in the endometrial cavity was not found to be associated with an increased incidence of chronic endometritis. (C) 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. KEY WORDS

Ashwin Chatwani; Paul Nyirjesy; Soheil Amin-hanjani

25

[Features of amino acid assimilation by representatives of the Mycoplasma genus].  

PubMed

Amino acid assimilation by different representatives of Mycoplasma genus has been investigated. All typical strains, involved in this research--Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. capricolum, M. hominis, M. mycoides subsp. capri, M. fermentans, M. salivarium were able to assimilate asparagine, glutamine, threonine, histidine and tryptophan. Most of the investigated mycoplasmas were able to assimilate proline, phenylalanine, methionine, glutamate, lysine, serine, tyrosine, glycine, valine, isoleucine and alanine; assimilation of leucine and cysteine was observed rarely. Each of the investigated species of mycoplasmas are characterized by a specific spectrum of assimilated amino acids that can be used as additional characteristic for systematics of mollicutes. PMID:15456219

Tokovenko, I P; Malynovs'ka, L P

2004-01-01

26

Decontamination of mycoplasma-contaminated Orientia tsutsugamushi strains by repeating passages through cell cultures with antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasmas-contamination of Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the obligated intracellular bacteria, is a very serious problem in in vitro studies using cell cultures because mycoplasmas have significant influence on the results of scientific studies. Only a recommended decontamination method is to passage the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains through mice to eliminate only mycoplasmas under influence of their immunity. However, this method sometimes does not work especially for low virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi which are difficult to propagate in mice. In this study, we tried to eliminate mycoplasmas contaminants from both high virulent and low virulent strains of the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi by repeating passage through cell cultures with antibiotics in vitro. Results We cultured a contaminated, high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi using a mouse lung fibroblasts cell line, L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lincomycin at various concentrations and repeated passages about every seven days. At the passage 5 only with 10 ?g/ml of lincomycin, we did not detect mycoplasmas by two PCR based methods whereas O. tsutsugamushi continued good growth. During following four passages without lincomycin, mycoplasmas did not recover. These results suggested that mycoplasmas were completely eliminated from the high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Furthermore, by the same procedures with 10 ?g/ml of lincomycin, we also eliminated mycoplasmas from a contaminated, low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Our additional assay showed that 50 ?g/ml of lyncomycin did not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, although MICs of many mycoplasmas contaminants were less than 6 ?g/ml as shown previously. Conclusion Our results showed an alternative method to eliminate mycoplasmas from the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains in place of in vivo passage through mice. Especially this notable method works for the decontamination not only from the high virulent strain also from the low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. For further elimination, lincomycin at the limit concentration, which does not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, can possibly eliminate most mycoplasmas from contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains. PMID:23394970

2013-01-01

27

Fingerprinting of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from multiple-age layers vaccinated with live F strain.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates were obtained from three multiple-age commercial layer farms on which live F strain vaccine had been administered to each replacement flock for at least 2 years. All such isolates had restriction endonuclease DNA and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns characteristic of F strain. These cultures also hybridized in dot blot assays with both the MG strain-specific and species-specific DNA probes. In contrast, the original MG isolate that came from one of the farms before vaccination began clearly was not F strain. These results suggest that continuous use of live F strain vaccine in each replacement pullet flock on multiple-age commercial layer sites will result in displacement of the original field strain of MG with the vaccine strain. PMID:2177979

Kleven, S H; Khan, M I; Yamamoto, R

1990-01-01

28

Genome sequence of the repetitive-sequence-rich Mycoplasma fermentans strain M64.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma fermentans is a microorganism commonly found in the genitourinary and respiratory tracts of healthy individuals and AIDS patients. The complete genome of the repetitive-sequence-rich M. fermentans strain M64 is reported here. Comparative genomics analysis revealed dramatic differences in genome size between this strain and the recently completely sequenced JER strain. PMID:21642450

Shu, Hung-Wei; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chan, Huang-I; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Shu, Hung-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Hu, Wensi S; Ng, Wailap Victor

2011-08-01

29

Mycoplasmas in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The genital mycoplasmas have been implicated in a number of adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth is an important contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity. If Mycoplasma hominis plays an integral part in this problem, it is likely to contribute through its involvement with bacterial vaginosis. Ureaplasmas induce cytokines and inflammation, making a casual association compelling. The role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma fermentans is less clear, but M. genitalium is potentially pathogenic and should be treated if detected. There is considerable evidence for the role of M. hominis in post-partum and post-abortal sepsis, and for ureaplasmas causing chronic lung disease or death in very low birthweight infants. The role of the genital mycoplasmas in adverse outcomes of pregnancy is complicated by the presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis, and this association requires further research. PMID:21091927

Taylor-Robinson, D; Lamont, R F

2011-01-01

30

Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and facilitate the design of new vaccines. PMID:23384176

2013-01-01

31

Complete Genome Sequences of Virulent Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains F38 and ILRI181.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a severe epidemic affecting mainly domestic Caprinae species but also affects wild Caprinae species. M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster." The disease features prominently in East Africa, in particular Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. CCPP also endangers wildlife and thus affects not only basic nutritional resources of large populations but also expensively built-up game resorts in affected countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of two M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains: the type strain F38 and strain ILRI181 isolated druing a recent outbreak in Kenya. Both genomes have a G+C content of 24% with sizes of 1,016,760 bp and 1,017,183 bp for strains F38 and ILRI181, respectively. PMID:25323717

Falquet, Laurent; Liljander, Anne; Schieck, Elise; Gluecks, Ilona; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2014-01-01

32

A family of strain-variant surface lipoproteins of Mycoplasma fermentans.  

PubMed Central

The wall-less procaryote Mycoplasma fermentans is currently being examined as an agent potentially associated with human disease, including infectious processes affecting immunocompromised individuals. To delineate and understand the interactions of M. fermentans with its host, specific membrane surface components were characterized as markers for detecting the organism and for assessing heterogeneity in antigenic surface architecture within this mycoplasma species. Detergent phase fractionation of metabolically labeled organisms of type strain PG18 identified a family of prominent integral membrane proteins; several of these labeled with 35S-cysteine and 3H-palmitate, which are characteristics of procaryotic lipoproteins. Specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised to strain PG18 components further distinguished seven of these membrane proteins, which were localized on the organism's surface by monitoring their selective susceptibility during trypsin treatment of intact cells. With these antibodies, Western immunoblot profiles of surface membrane antigens expressed on strain PG18 were compared with those expressed on the recently identified Incognitus strain of M. fermentans, as well as with several other human and animal mycoplasma species. While the antibodies were specific for M. fermentans, marked differences were observed between the strains in the size of one surface lipoprotein and in the apparent levels of several antigens expressed in the cultured populations analyzed. Some monoclonal antibodies to strain PG18 and a previously described monoclonal antibody to strain Incognitus showed apparent selectivity for the strain used for immunization. Monoclonal antibodies developed here recognize stable epitopes defining a family of surface lipoproteins and provide critical tools to determine the basis of surface variation in this mycoplasma species and to assess the location and antigenic phenotypes of organisms in the human host. Images PMID:8335364

Wise, K S; Kim, M F; Theiss, P M; Lo, S C

1993-01-01

33

Comparative in vitro activities of investigational peptide deformylase inhibitor NVP LBM-415 and other agents against human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.  

PubMed

Peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM-415 and seven other drugs were tested against Mycoplasma pneumoniae (100 isolates), Mycoplasma hominis (20 isolates), Mycoplasma fermentans (10 isolates), and Ureaplasma species (50 isolates). LBM-415 was active against M. pneumoniae (MICs, hominis and M. fermentans and modest activity against Ureaplasma spp. PMID:15917568

Waites, Ken B; Reddy, Nipun B; Crabb, Donna M; Duffy, Lynn B

2005-06-01

34

A rapid chromogenic microtitre assay of arginine aminopeptidase activity in Mycoplasma strains.  

PubMed

Arginine-utilizing strains of Mycoplasma can be screened by assay of their arginine aminopeptidase activity. A standardized chromogenic method is described that enables enzyme detection in small volumes of cell suspension in less than 3 h. Cell suspensions (10 microl) in 96-well microtitre plates are incubated at 37 degrees C, pH 8.0, with 0.1 mM arginyl-beta-naphthylamide (100 microl). This is hydrolysed to release beta-naphthylamine, which gives a coloured product on diazotization with fast garnet. M. alkalescens can be detected in this way with as few as 1.1 x 10(5) viable cells and M. fermentans with 2.3 x 10(6) cells. The method has been shown to enable division of 28 strains into three groups of fermentative and arginine-hydrolysing mycoplasmas. This procedure has potential for routine laboratory use. PMID:16448797

Lin, Yi-Ching; Miles, Roger J; Nicholas, Robin A J; Wood, Ann P

2006-11-01

35

An evaluation of PCR methods to detect strains of Mycoplasma fermentans.  

PubMed

A panel of 30 putative Mycoplasma fermentans strains, isolated from various sources including human, ovine and cell lines, were tested by a previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm their identity by amplification of a conserved 206 bp region of the insertion sequence IS1550. In addition, the application of another PCR based on the major part of the IS1550 element showed one or two products of different length (1144 and 1341 bp) enabling M. fermentans strains to be divided into two types designated as Type A and Type B. A PCR, which amplifies the macrophage activating lipopeptide gene (malp), supported the identification of all the strains as M. fermentans. Thirteen other species of Mycoplasma from human sources gave negative results in these tests, with the exception of Mycoplasma orale, which was detected by both IS1550-PCRs based on the major part and the conserved 206 bp region of the IS1550 element. This study suggests that all M. fermentans isolates possess both the IS1550 element and the malp gene. In contrast to the IS1550, the malp gene is shown to be species-specific and the use of a malp PCR described here could prove to be a useful adjunct to IS1550 detection as confirmation of the presence of M. fermentans in clinical material. PMID:17892949

Afshar, Baharak; Pitcher, David; Nicholas, Robin A J; Miles, Roger J

2008-03-01

36

Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from cattle in Hungary, Central Europe.  

PubMed

Background Mycoplasma bovis is a worldwide pathogen, causative agent of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, and a variety of other symptoms in cattle. The economic losses due to mycoplasma pneumonia could be reduced by antibiotic treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle in Hungary to eleven antibiotics.ResultsMinimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 35¿M. bovis strains collected from different parts of Hungary between 2010 and 2013 were determined by the microbroth dilution method. Strains with high MIC values were found in the case of all applied antibiotics. The most effective antibiotics tested in vitro were fluoroquinolones (MIC90 danofloxacin 0.312 ¿g/ml, enrofloxacin 0.312 ¿g/ml, marbofloxacin 0.625 ¿g/ml). Our results confirm the observations of increasing MIC values to antibiotics commonly used in the therapy of mycoplasma infections, primarily to tetracyclines; tetracycline (MIC90 16 ¿g/ml) and oxytetracycline (MIC90¿¿¿64 ¿g/ml) and macrolides; tylosin (MIC90¿¿¿128 ¿g/ml) and tilmicosin (MIC90¿¿¿128 ¿g/ml). The growth of many M. bovis strains was not inhibited by gentamicin (MIC90 8 ¿g/ml), spectinomycin (MIC90¿¿¿256 ¿g/ml), florfenicol (MIC90 8 ¿g/ml) or lincomycin (MIC90¿¿¿64 ¿g/ml).ConclusionsOur results emphasize the necessity of periodic testing for antibiotic susceptibility in this geographic region. Based on our in vitro examinations, fluoroquinolones could be the most effective drugs for the therapy of M. bovis infections in Hungary. However, current antimicrobial use policies have to be taken into account to avoid further antibiotic resistance development and to reserve fluoroquinolones for the treatment of severe infections which have responded poorly to other classes of antimicrobials. PMID:25344297

Sulyok, Kinga M; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Fekete, Lilla; Hrivnák, Veronika; Magyar, Tibor; Jánosi, Szilárd; Schweitzer, Nóra; Turcsányi, Ibolya; Makrai, László; Erdélyi, Károly; Gyuranecz, Miklós

2014-10-25

37

INITIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS FROM MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAINS TS-11 AND F DETECTED BY WESTERN BLOTTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) reduces the number of eggs produced by layer chickens. Three live MG vaccine strains are available for use in layer chickens and include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bi...

38

Integrative conjugative elements are widespread in field isolates of Mycoplasma species pathogenic for ruminants.  

PubMed

Comparative genomics have revealed massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between Mycoplasma species sharing common ruminant hosts. Further results pointed toward an integrative conjugative element (ICE) as an important contributor of HGT in the small-ruminant-pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae. To estimate the prevalence of ICEs in ruminant mycoplasmas, we surveyed their occurrence in a collection of 166 field strains representing 4 (sub)species that are recognized as major pathogens. Based on available sequenced genomes, we first defined the conserved, minimal ICE backbone as composed of 4 coding sequences (CDSs) that are evenly distributed and predicted to be essential for ICE chromosomal integration-excision and horizontal transfer. Screening of the strain collection revealed that these 4 CDSs are well represented in ruminant Mycoplasma species, suggesting widespread occurrence of ICEs. Yet their prevalence varies within and among species, with no correlation found with the individual strain history. Extrachromosomal ICE forms were also often detected, suggesting that ICEs are able to circularize in all species, a first and essential step in ICE horizontal transfer. Examination of the junction of the circular forms and comparative sequence analysis of conserved CDSs clearly pointed toward two types of ICE, the hominis and spiroplasma types, most likely differing in their mechanism of excision-integration. Overall, our data indicate the occurrence and maintenance of functional ICEs in a large number of field isolates of ruminant mycoplasmas. These may contribute to genome plasticity and gene exchanges and, presumably, to the emergence of diverse genotypes within pathogenic mycoplasmas of veterinary importance. PMID:25527550

Tardy, Florence; Mick, Virginie; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Marenda, Marc Serge; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Citti, Christine

2015-03-01

39

Mycoplasma gallisepticum transmission: Comparison of commercial F-strain vaccine versus layer complex-derived field strains in a tunnel ventilated house  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two simultaneous trials were conducted using a commercially available, live, F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine [Trial 1] or two inocula of layer complex-derived MG strains (LCD-MG) [Trial 2]. In each of the two trials, four commercial turkeys were housed in each of two adjoining pens ...

40

Effects of Prelay 6/85-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Alone or in Conjunction with the Inoculation of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum During Lay on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of 6/85 Mycoplasma gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. Gallisepticum (FMG) overlays and their timing on the blood characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inoculations at 10 wk of age. Birds in ...

41

A model of the deciliation process caused by Mycoplasma fermentans strain incognitus on respiratory epithelium.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate by light microscopy as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy the deciliation process which takes place on the respiratory epithelium of tracheal explants after experimental infection with Mycoplasma fermentans strain incognitus. Time-point photography allowed distinguishing five phases which occurred during the infection on the epithelial cell surface: (1) Attachment of M. fermentans to the cilia causing clumping of the cilia tips; (2) matting of cilia into bundles; (3) formation of abnormally shaped and shorter cilia; (4) collapse of cilia onto the epithelial cell surface; and (5) widespread loss of cilia. Based on the photographic images, a schematic model of the deciliation process was developed. Various potential factors contributing to the cilia destruction are discussed, including the release of mycoplasmal toxins, the physical presence of a high number of M. fermentans cells attached to the cilia, and the depletion of culture medium components by the mycoplasmas. This model of M. fermentans strain incognitus infection of respiratory epithelium is important for understanding mycoplasmal pathogenicity on a comparative level. PMID:16898668

Stadtländer, Christian T K H

2006-01-01

42

Complete Genome Sequence of the Bovine Mastitis Pathogen Mycoplasma californicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461T)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma californicum is one of several mycoplasmal species associated with bovine mastitis. The complete genome sequence of 793,841 bp has been determined and annotated for the M. californicum ST-6 type strain, providing a resource for the identification of surface antigens and putative pathoadaptive features. PMID:24994797

Foecking, Mark F.; Fox, Lawrence K.

2014-01-01

43

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma californicum Strain HAZ160_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan  

PubMed Central

Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. It often leads to clinical mastitis outbreaks and often results in huge economic losses. Mycoplasma californicum is an important causal species of bovine mastitis. Presented here is the 799,088-bp complete genome sequence of M. californicum strain HAZ160_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25013143

Murakami, Kenji

2014-01-01

44

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma canadense Strain HAZ 360_1 from Bovine Mastitic Milk in Japan  

PubMed Central

Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis is spreading quickly among cows. Mycoplasma canadense, a causal species of bovine mastitis, reduces milk quality and quantity via the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells. Presented here is the complete 693,241-bp genome sequence of M. canadense strain HAZ 360_1, which was isolated in Japan. PMID:25278531

2014-01-01

45

Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François

2012-01-01

46

Biological enrichment of Mycoplasma agents by cocultivation with permissive cell cultures.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe our results on the evaluation of the ability of different permissive mammalian cell lines to support the biological enrichment of mycoplasma species known to be bacterial contaminants of cell substrates. The study showed that this approach is able to significantly improve the efficiency of mycoplasma detection based on nucleic acid testing or biochemical technologies (e.g., MycoAlert mycoplasma detection). Of 10 different cell lines (Vero, MDBK, HEK-293, Hep-G2, CV-1, EBTr, WI-38, R9ab, MDCK, and High Five) used in the study, only MDCK cell culture was found to support the efficient growth of all the tested mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma arginini, M. bovis, M. fermentans, M. gallinaceum, M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. hominis, M. hyorhinis, M. orale, M. salivarium, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) known to be most frequently associated with contamination of cell substrates and cell lines in research laboratories or manufacturing facilities. The infection of MDCK cells with serial dilutions of each mycoplasma species demonstrated that these common cell line contaminants can be detected reliably after 7-day enrichment in MDCK cell culture at contamination levels of 0.05 to 0.25 CFU/ml. The High Five insect cell line was also found to be able to support the efficient growth of most mycoplasma species tested, except for M. hyorhinis strain DBS1050. However, mycoplasma growth in insect cell culture was demonstrated to be temperature dependent, and the most efficient growth was observed when the incubation temperature was increased from 28 degrees C to between 35 and 37 degrees C. We believe that this type of mycoplasma enrichment is one of the most promising approaches for improving the purity and safety testing of cell substrates and other cell-derived biologics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:18606798

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Kong, Hyesuk; George, Joseph; Anderson, Christine; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2008-09-01

47

Binding of mycoplasmas to solid phase adsorbents.  

PubMed

The capture of mycoplasmas (M. hominis, M. buccale, M. fermentans, M. bovis, M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum and M. arthritidis) based on lipid structures and adhesion molecules present in the mycoplasmal membrane was tested using different chromatographic resins (ActiClean Etox, ClarEtox, Heparin-Actigel, Sulfated Hiflow and SulfEtox). All of the resins efficiently reduced mycoplasma concentrations in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) and in Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) by 3-8 logs in a few minutes. This technology could be used for removing mycoplasmas from tissue culture components such as serum, and for concentrating mycoplasmas in vaccine production. PMID:16156125

Szathmáry, Susan; Rajapakse, Nandani; Székely, Ibolya; Pitlik, E; Bíró, Judit; Erdei, Noémi; Stipkovits, L

2005-01-01

48

Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.  

PubMed

The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain. PMID:25061745

Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

2014-01-01

49

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Isolates and Molecular Analysis of Macrolide-Resistant Strains from Shanghai, China ?  

PubMed Central

Fifty-three Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains were isolated from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China, from October 2005 to February 2008. Of 53 clinical isolates, 44 (83%) were resistant to erythromycin (MICs of >128 ?g/ml for all 44 strains), azithromycin, and clarithromycin. All macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains harbored an A-to-G transition mutation at position 2063 in 23S rRNA genes. Forty-five (85%) clinical isolates were classified into the P1 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism type I, and six (11%) were type II. PMID:19273684

Liu, Yang; Ye, Xinyu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xiaogang; Li, Wanhua; Zhu, Demei; Wang, Minggui

2009-01-01

50

Isolation and analysis of tetracycline-resistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains from an infected goat herd in Cyprus - short communication.  

PubMed

A major concern with the use of tetracycline against mycoplasmas is the development of resistance. Infections in small ruminants due to tetracyclineresistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains are becoming a frequent problem worldwide. In the present paper the detection and analysis of three tetracycline-resistant M. agalactiae strains, isolated from infected goats in Cyprus, are reported. The three field isolates were identified as M. agalactiae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showing 98% identity to the M. agalactiae PG2 reference strain. Furthermore, they were found sensitive to tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin. In contrast, they were resistant to tetracycline. None of the putative genes [tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S)] that commonly contribute to high-level resistance to tetracycline could be amplified from their genome. Contrarily, the field isolates were found to carry ISMag1, an insertion sequence related to the IS30 family of mobile elements. Although ISMag1 is widely believed to induce high-frequency chromosomal rearrangements resulting in phenotypic changes of microorganisms, its potential role in tetracycline resistance of mycoplasmas requires further studies. PMID:23921341

Filioussis, George; Ioannou, Ioannis; Petridou, Evanthia; Avraam, Maria; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

2013-09-01

51

In vitro activity of tylvalosin against Spanish field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is involved in the porcine enzootic pneumonia and respiratory disease complex; therefore, the search for new treatment options that contribute to the control of this organism is relevant. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations of tylvalosin and 19 other antimicrobial agents against 20 Spanish field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae were determined using the broth microdilution method, with the type strain (J) as a control strain. Tylvalosin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.016 and 0.06?µg/ml, respectively, and was the second-most effective of the assayed antibiotics, after valnemulin. Tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin were also among the antibiotics with the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values against the 20 field isolates (0.06-0.25?µg/ml). However, resistance to tylosin and spiramycin, which like tylvalosin, are 16-membered macrolides, was observed. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin ranged from 0.125 to 1?µg/ml; the corresponding values ranged from 2 to 4?µg/ml for oxytetracyline, which was the most active tetracycline. Furthermore, tylvalosin and valnemulin exhibited the highest bactericidal activities. In conclusion, the macrolide tylvalosin and the pleuromutilin valnemulin exhibited the highest in vitro antimicrobial activities against M. hyopneumoniae field isolates in comparison with the other tested antibiotics. PMID:25185108

Tavío, M M; Poveda, C; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Poveda, J B

2014-11-29

52

Differences in Arginine Requirement for Growth Among Arginine-Utilizing Mycoplasma Species  

PubMed Central

The essentiality of arginine for initiation of growth of arginine-utilizing, nonglycolytic Mycoplasma species from small populations was studied by growing the organisms in a semisynthetic medium proven to be free from arginine by chemical and biological assays. Initiation of growth of two strains of M. arginini did not require arginine, whereas another strain of M. arginini required 4 mM arginine, as did M. gallinarum. M. hominis grew in 0.4 mM arginine. A species which utilizes both arginine and glucose, N. fermentans, did not require arginine but did require glucose for growth. When mycoplasmata were grown in human heteroploid cell cultures employing medium free from arginine but supplemented with citrulline, similar results were obtained: two M. arginini strains grew in the absence of arginine, whereas growth of M. gallinarum and M. hominis and a third M. arginini strain was dependent on arginine even though mammalian cells were present. The arginine deiminases were heterogeneous serologically: antisera to M. hominis and M. arginini showed reciprocal inhibition of their enzymes but did not inhibit arginine deiminase from M. gallinarum. Antiserum to M. gallinarum inhibited only M. gallinarum enzyme. PMID:4855781

Hahn, Ricardo G.; Kenny, George E.

1974-01-01

53

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma ovis Strain Michigan, a Hemoplasma of Sheep with Two Distinct 16S rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma ovis strain Michigan. Its single circular chromosome has 702,511 bp and contains 2 copies of the 16S rRNA gene, one corresponding to M. ovis and the other to “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis.” All housekeeping genes and the 5S-23S rRNA genes are present in single copies. PMID:24482515

Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Dyson, Melissa C.

2014-01-01

54

Mycoplasmas in the urine of HIV-1 infected men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, M. fermentans, M. pirum, M. penetrans and Ureaplasma urealyticum in HIV-infected patients. Culture and PCR were used to detect six species of Mycoplasma in first-void urine of HIV-1 infected men. A total of 497 HIV/AIDS patients (age range 5-75 years, mean 37 years) were screened in the study. All presented positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma, especially U. urealyticum and M. hominis. Six mycoplasmas were significant in the homosexual contact and heterosexual contact groups. The distribution of M. hominis, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were significantly different in this four-transmission category. CD4+ cell count levels were lower in the AIDS-associated Mycoplasma-positive group than in the Mycoplasma-negative group (P<0.01). This study indicates that U. urealyticum, M. hominis and M. fermentans are prevalent in HIV-1-infected male patients. This may be an indication of whether mycoplasmas are co-factors in the progression of HIV disease. PMID:21791147

Jian-Ru, W; Bei, W; Hao, C; Jin-Shui, X; Xi-Ping, H

2012-06-01

55

Intracellular location of mycoplasmas in cultured cells demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma fermentans (strain 'incognitus') was incubated with HeLa cells for up to 96 h. After 24 h, mycoplasma organisms were demonstrated intracellularly by immunocytochemistry using mule anti-M. fermentans antiserum and gold labelling on ultrathin sections of both Lowicryl K4M and Araldite-embedded HeLa cells, the latter being treated with hydrogen peroxide. The Araldite-embedded cells were fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide in the presence of ruthenium red to stain the mucopolysaccharide surface components of both the procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Intracellular localization of some M. fermentans organisms was confirmed by exclusion of ruthenium red from their membranes. Various numbers of mycoplasma organisms were seen per cell and occasionally some were within vacuoles, the membranes of which were also unstained by ruthenium red. The PG18 strain of M. fermentans and a strain of M. hominis were also detected intracellularly using similar methodology and homologous mule or rabbit antisera. The occasional presence of both apparently normal and some denser degenerate mycoplasmas in the same cell may indicate gradual degradation by phagolysosomal digestion. PMID:1768615

Taylor-Robinson, D; Davies, H A; Sarathchandra, P; Furr, P M

1991-12-01

56

Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas to a new investigational ketolide, CEM-101.  

PubMed

MICs were determined for an investigational ketolide, CEM-101, and azithromycin, telithromycin, doxycycline, levofloxacin, clindamycin, and linezolid against 36 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 5 Mycoplasma genitalium, 13 Mycoplasma hominis, 15 Mycoplasma fermentans, and 20 Ureaplasma isolates. All isolates, including two macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates, were inhibited by CEM-101 at < or = 0.5 microg/ml, making CEM-101 the most potent compound tested. PMID:19258276

Waites, Ken B; Crabb, D M; Duffy, Lynn B

2009-05-01

57

Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma iowae Strain 695, an Unusual Pathogen Causing Deaths in Turkeys  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma iowae is associated mainly with reduced hatchability in turkeys and is well known for the unusual ability of phenotypic variation in the Mycoplasma surface components as well as a relative resistance to heat, bile salts, and many antimicrobials. A subset of unique genes and a gene cluster responsible for these characteristics could be identified from the genome. Here, we report the first genome sequence of this species. PMID:22207750

Wei, Shun; Guo, Zisheng; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Tengfei; Li, Xiaowen; Zhou, Zutao; Li, Zili; Liu, Mei; Luo, Rui; Bi, Dingren; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

58

Attenuated Mycoplasma bovis strains provide protection against virulent infection in calves.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is a major etiological agent of pneumonia and arthritis in feedlot beef cattle. To develop a novel live vaccine against M. bovis, two attenuated M. bovis strains, P150 and P180, were tested in calves for protection against challenge with the virulent M. bovis parental strain. Twenty calves were divided into four groups of five calves each that were designated as the P150, P180, positive control (PC), and negative control (NC) groups. Each calf in the P150 and P180 groups was immunized with 10(9)CFU of P150 or P180, respectively, via the nasal cavity, and the PC and NC groups received the mock inoculation. Baseline data were collected for 46 days post-immunization. The clinical signs were scored, and rectal temperatures and daily weight gain were recorded. The blood leukocyte count, the neutrophil ratio, and the serum levels of IgG, IgA, IFN-?, and TNF-? were quantified using laboratory tests, and the nasal shedding was evaluated using microbiological methods. The P150, P180, and PC calves were challenged with a dose of 10(10)CFU of virulent M. bovis by intratracheal injection on 3 consecutive days. The calves were monitored for 25 days post-challenge to observe changes in the baseline parameters. On day 25 post-challenge the calves were euthanized for necropsy and analysis of tissue samples. The P150 and P180 immunizations caused no clinical abnormality, and did not affect daily weight gain. The post-inoculation neutrophil ratio and serum levels of IgG and IFN-? significantly increased in the P150, P180, and PC calves, whereas the serum levels of IgA and TNF-? did not. After challenge, the PC group developed the typical clinical signs and pathology associated with M. Bovis infection, whereas immunization with P150 or P180 provided efficacious protection. Based on the scores for gross pathology and lung pathology, the protection rates of the P150 and P180 immunizations were 87.7% and 70.8%, respectively. The P150 attenuated strain is a promising candidate for a live vaccine against M. bovis infection in cattle. PMID:24462404

Zhang, Rui; Han, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Qi, Jingjing; Chen, Xi; Hu, Changmin; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

2014-05-23

59

Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans. PMID:23298636

2013-01-01

60

Blastocystis hominis revisited.  

PubMed Central

Blastocystis hominis is a unicellular organism found commonly in the intestinal tract of humans and many other animals. Very little is known of the basic biology of the organism, and controversy surrounds its taxonomy and pathogenicity. There morphological forms (vacuolar, granular, and ameboid) have been recognized, but recent studies have revealed several additional forms (cyst, avacuolar, and multivacuolar). The biochemistry of the organism has not been studied to any extent, and organelles and structures of unknown function and composition are present in the cells. Several life cycles have been proposed but not experimentally validated. The form used for transmission has not been defined. Infections with the organism are worldwide and appear in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals. Symptoms generally attributed to B. hominis infection are nonspecific, and the need for treatment is debated. If treatment appears warranted, metronidazole is suggested as the drug of choice, although failures of this drug in eradicating the organism have been reported. Infection is diagnosed by light microscopic examination of stained smears or wet mounts of fecal material. Most laboratories identify B. hominis by observing the vacuolar form, although morphological studies indicate that other forms, such as the cyst form and multivacuolar form, also should be sought for diagnosis. PMID:8894352

Stenzel, D J; Boreham, P F

1996-01-01

61

Molecular Evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains, Based on Polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and is the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). All members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of both rRNA operons from 20 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae of different geographical origins in Africa and Asia were determined. Nucleotide differences which were present in only one of the two operons (polymorphisms) were detected in 24 positions. The polymorphisms were not randomly distributed in the 16S rRNA genes, and some of them were found in regions of low evolutionary variability. Interestingly, 11 polymorphisms were found in all the M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, thus defining a putative ancestor. A sequence length difference between the 16S rRNA genes in a poly(A) region and 12 additional polymorphisms were found in only one or some of the strains. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparative analysis of the polymorphisms, and this tree revealed two distinct lines of descent. The nucleotide substitution rate of strains within line II was up to 50% higher than within line I. A tree was also constructed from individual operonal 16S rRNA sequences, and the sequences of the two operons were found to form two distinct clades. The topologies of both clades were strikingly similar, which supports the use of 16S rRNA sequence data from homologous operons for phylogenetic studies. The strain-specific polymorphism patterns of the 16S rRNA genes of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae may be used as epidemiological markers for CCPP. PMID:9573185

Pettersson, Bertil; Bölske, Göran; Thiaucourt, François; Uhlén, Mathias; Johansson, Karl-Erik

1998-01-01

62

Eradication of live F strain mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine using live ts-11 on a multiage commercial layer farm.  

PubMed

Subsequent to use of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccination program, the F strain of MG had been circulating on a commercial layer farm since 1981. In 1994, the ts-11 strain was introduced on the farm; each new placement flock was vaccinated by eyedrop with ts-11 for one production cycle, and then all subsequent placement flocks were left unvaccinated. Birds were monitored by culture and serology before and after vaccination. MG isolates were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). MG was isolated from ts-11-vaccinated flocks up to 100 wk of age; all such isolates tested by RAPD were ts-11 type. After ts-11 vaccination was discontinued, no MG was detected in nonvaccinated birds. After the last vaccinated flock was marketed, no MG was detected on the farm. These results indicate a potential use for ts-11 in an MG eradication program. PMID:9645335

Turner, K S; Kleven, S H

1998-01-01

63

Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Yolk Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay)...

64

EFFECTS OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TWELVE WEEKS OF AGE ON EGG YOLK COMPOSITION IN COMMERCIAL EGG LAYING HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the content of egg yolks from commercial Single Combed White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of eight (Trial 1) or sixteen (Trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass bi...

65

Acetate kinase activity in mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Acetate kinase activity was assayed in 13 mycoplasmas. Nine species exhibited the enzymic activity in the direction of either synthesis of acetylphosphate or adenosine triphosphate. On the other hand Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma arthritidis, Ureaplasma urealyticum (10 serotypes), and two strains of Anaeroplasma species exhibited only minimal levels of the enzymic activity. In these four species, the enzyme does not seem to play a key role in adenosine triphosphate formation. PMID:6263869

Muhlrad, A; Peleg, I; Robertson, J A; Robinson, I M; Kahane, I

1981-07-01

66

Molecular Variability of the Adhesin-Encoding Gene pvpA among Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains and Its Application in Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important pathogen of chickens and turkeys that causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The reemergence of M. gallisepticum outbreaks among poultry, the increased use of live M. gallisepticum vaccines, and the detection of M. gallisepticum in game and free-flying song birds has strengthened the need for molecular diagnostic and strain differentiation tests. Molecular techniques, including restriction fragment length polymorphism of genomic DNA (RFLP) and PCR-based random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), have already been utilized as powerful tools to detect intraspecies variation. However, certain intrinsic drawbacks constrain the application of these methods. The main goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using an M. gallisepticum-specific gene encoding a phase-variable putative adhesin protein (PvpA) as the target for molecular typing. This was accomplished using a pvpA PCR-RFLP assay. Size variations among PCR products and nucleotide divergence of the C-terminus-encoding region of the pvpA gene were the basis for strain differentiation. This method can be used for rapid differentiation of vaccine strains from field isolates by amplification directly from clinical samples without the need for isolation by culture. Moreover, molecular epidemiology of M. gallisepticum outbreaks can be performed using RFLP and/or sequence analysis of the pvpA gene. PMID:11326008

Liu, T.; García, M.; Levisohn, S.; Yogev, D.; Kleven, S. H.

2001-01-01

67

Comparative in vitro activities of the investigational fluoroquinolone DC-159a and other antimicrobial agents against human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.  

PubMed

The in vitro susceptibilities of 151 unique clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma species to DC-159a, an investigational fluoroquinolone, in comparison with those to other agents were determined. Macrolides were the most active agents against M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium, whereas clindamycin was most active against M. hominis. DC-159a MICs were Mycoplasma species and or=99.9% of the inoculum at 24 h for 2 isolates. The excellent in vitro activity of DC-159a demonstrates its potential for use in the treatment of infections due to mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas. PMID:18663020

Waites, Ken B; Crabb, Donna M; Duffy, Lynn B

2008-10-01

68

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, a Hemotropic Mycoplasma?  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the genome sequence of Mycoplasma haemofelis strain Langford 1, representing the first hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) species to be completely sequenced and annotated. Originally isolated from a cat with hemolytic anemia, this strain induces severe hemolytic anemia when inoculated into specific-pathogen-free-derived cats. The genome sequence has provided insights into the biology of this uncultivatable hemoplasma and has identified potential molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. PMID:21317334

Barker, Emily N.; Helps, Chris R.; Peters, Iain R.; Darby, Alistair C.; Radford, Alan D.; Tasker, Séverine

2011-01-01

69

A chronicle of serologic response in commercial layer chickens to vaccination with commercial F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Initial efforts by the poultry industry at controlling and containing Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) included testing and slaughter of reactor flocks. Ultimately, using the aforementioned measures coupled with heat treatment of hatching eggs together with biosecurity and biosurveillance procedures, ...

70

Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry  

PubMed Central

The macrolide class of antibiotics, including tylosin and tilmicosin, is widely used in the veterinary field for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. In vitro susceptibility testing of 50 strains of M. gallisepticum isolated in Israel during the period 1997-2010 revealed that acquired resistance to tylosin as well as to tilmicosin was present in 50% of them. Moreover, 72% (13/18) of the strains isolated from clinical samples since 2006 showed acquired resistance to enrofloxacin, tylosin and tilmicosin. Molecular typing of the field isolates, performed by gene-target sequencing (GTS), detected 13 molecular types (I-XIII). Type II was the predominant type prior to 2006 whereas type X, first detected in 2008, is currently prevalent. All ten type X strains were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and macrolides, suggesting selective pressure leading to clonal dissemination of resistance. However, this was not a unique event since resistant strains with other GTS molecular types were also found. Concurrently, the molecular basis for macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum was identified. Our results revealed a clear-cut correlation between single point mutations A2058G or A2059G in domain V of the gene encoding 23S rRNA (rrnA, MGA_01) and acquired macrolide resistance in M. gallisepticum. Indeed, all isolates with MIC ? 0.63 ?g/mL to tylosin and with MIC ? 1.25 ?g/mL to tilmicosin possess one of these mutations, suggesting an essential role in decreased susceptibility of M. gallisepticum to 16-membered macrolides. PMID:21810258

2011-01-01

71

Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated prelay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum were assessed. Experimental layer diets, w...

72

Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma galli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supple mentation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-D3) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallis...

73

Dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristic of commercial...at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum 1 , 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) w...

74

Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculatio...

75

Ultrastructural insights into morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis.  

PubMed

To understand well the morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis, with the help of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy the ultrastructural details of B. hominis from fresh diarrheal specimens and cultured strains were observed. In both fecal samples and culture conditions, there were vacuolar and granular forms. In diarrhea, it exists in multivacuolar, avacuolar, and amoeboid forms. In the in vitro culture, vacuolar form could transform to granular form. The most commonly noticed structure on the cell surface was surface coat with diversity in appearance (the funiform, lamellar, filiform, and floccose in different thickness) and distributions. Three modes of reproduction were confirmed, they were binary fission, plasmotomy, and budding. Under the impact of host's response, the ultrastructures of surface coat, nucleus, and mitochondrion-like organelle sometimes changed. PMID:21845408

Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Siwei; Qiao, Jiying; Wu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Yansheng; Fan, Xiaojun

2012-03-01

76

Mycoplasma pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

Azithromycin can reduce the risk of developing mycoplasma pneumonia in close contacts of patients with the disease. However, this is not often used, and avoiding people who have the infection may also help reduce yourrisk. Infants, and persons in poor ...

77

Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement.  

PubMed

Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm. PMID:22504437

Bolland, Jeffrey R; Simmons, Warren L; Daubenspeck, James M; Dybvig, Kevin

2012-07-01

78

Simultaneous detection and identification of common cell culture contaminant and pathogenic mollicutes strains by reverse line blot hybridization.  

PubMed

We have developed a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay to detect and identify the commonest mollicutes causing cell line contamination (Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) and human infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum). We developed a nested PCR assay with "universal" primers targeting the mollicute 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Amplified biotin-labeled PCR products were hybridized to membrane-bound species-specific oligonucleotide probes. The assay correctly identified reference strains of 10 mollicute species. Cell cultures submitted for detection of mollicute contamination, clinical specimens, and clinical isolates were initially tested by PCR assay targeting a presumed mollicute-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Any that were positive were assessed by the RLB assay, with species-specific PCR assay as the reference method. Initially, 100 clinical and 88 of 92 cell culture specimens gave concordant results, including 18 in which two or more mollicute species were detected by both methods. PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and subsequent retesting by species-specific PCR assay of the four cell culture specimens for which results were initially discrepant confirmed the original RLB results. Sequencing of amplicons from 12 cell culture specimens that were positive in the 16S rRNA PCR assay but negative by both the RLB and species-specific PCR assays failed to identify any mollicute species. The RLB hybridization assay is sensitive and specific and able to rapidly detect and identify mollicute species from clinical and cell line specimens. PMID:15006769

Wang, Hui; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; James, Gregory; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

2004-03-01

79

[Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis. A case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis causing an acute mitral insufficiency complicated of left heart failure. The patient has been treated after a few days by surgical valvuloplasty. Cardiobacterium hominis is a bacteria of the HACCEK group, bacille gram-negative, sometimes anaerobic, difficult to isolate. Recently, Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis appears to be effective for the the diagnosis in the identification of fastidious micro-organisms like Cardiobacterium hominis. We have reviewed in the literature 71 cases of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis; clinical presentation is often sub-acute, the bacteriological diagnosis is based on hemocultures for which the culture is slow and require enriched environments. Hemodynamic and thrombo-embolic complications are frequent because of the high pathogenicity of the bacteria which provides big and friable vegetations. Despite a high sensibility to antibiotherapy, surgical intervention is often required. PMID:14571648

Balcou-Leroy, E; Bera, J; Fugére, A S; Gabez, V; Boldron-Ghaddar, A; Werquin, S

2003-09-01

80

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

2014-01-01

81

Haemotropic mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Practical relevance The feline haemotropic mycoplasmas (‘haemoplasmas') are a group of bacteria that can induce haemolytic anaemia in cats. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the species; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ are less pathogenic. The natural route of transmission of feline haemoplasma infection has not been confirmed, but fleas are implicated. When disease results, common clinical signs are pallor, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, depression, dehydration and pyrexia. Treatment with tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones is usually effective at resolving clinical disease, but clearance of infection may not result. Global importance The feline haemoplasmas are found worldwide, although prevalence varies geographically. Patient group Older male non-pedigree cats are believed to be at increased risk of haemoplasma infection, although younger cats are possibly more likely to show clinical disease associated with M haemofelis. Clinical challenges The significance of feline haemoplasma infection is difficult to determine due to the existence of asymptomatic carrier cats and the variable pathogenicity of the haemoplasma species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results should be interpreted in the light of the patient's clinical signs and haematological findings, infecting haemoplasma species and level of haemoplasma DNA present in the blood. Trial antibiotic treatment for haemoplasmosis may be warranted in suspected cases while awaiting PCR results. Evidence base Aspects of feline haemoplasmosis, particularly risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and treatment, have been the focus of much recent research. This article draws on the current evidence base with a view to helping clinicians diagnose and manage cases more effectively. PMID:20417898

Tasker, Séverine

2010-01-01

82

Mycoplasma agassizii strain variation and distinct host antibody responses explain differences between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot assays.  

PubMed

The precarious status of desert (Gopherus agassizii) and gopher (G. polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in conservation efforts that now include health assessment as an important component of management decision-making. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is one of very few diseases in chelonians for which comprehensive and rigorously validated diagnostic tests exist. In this study, serum samples obtained from eight Gopherus tortoises documented at necropsy to (i) be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) seropositive using the PS6 antigen, (ii) be infected with Mycoplasma agassizii as indicated by direct isolation of the pathogen from the respiratory surfaces, and (iii) have histological lesions of mycoplasmal URTD were used to evaluate four distinct clinical isolates of M. agassizii as antigens for ELISA and Western blot analyses. Each animal sample reacted in the Western blot with its homologous M. agassizii strain, but recognition of heterologous M. agassizii strains was variable. Further, individual animals varied significantly with respect to the specific proteins recognized by the humoral immune response. An additional 114 Gopherus serum samples were evaluated using ELISA antigens prepared from the four distinct M. agassizii strains; A??? values were significantly correlated (r² goodness of fit range, 0.708 to 0.771; P < 0.0001) for all antigens tested. The results confirm that strain variation is responsible for the observed differences between Western blot binding patterns. Thus, reliance on a single M. agassizii strain as an antigen in Western blot assays may provide false-negative results. This could have adverse consequences for the well-being of these environmentally sensitive hosts if false-negative animals were relocated to sites consisting of true-negative populations. PMID:20810678

Wendland, Lori D; Klein, Paul A; Jacobson, Elliott R; Brown, Mary B

2010-11-01

83

Activity of DX-619 compared to other agents against viridans group streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, and Cardiobacterium hominis.  

PubMed

Against 198 viridans group streptococci, 25 Streptococcus bovis strains, and 5 Cardiobacterium hominis strains, MICs of DX-619, a des-F(6)-quinolone, were between 0.004 and 0.25 microg/ml. These MICs were lower than those of other quinolones (< or = 0.008 to > 32 microg/ml). Beta-lactam MICs were between < or = 0.008 and 16 microg/ml. Azithromycin resistance was found in most species, while most were telithromycin susceptible. Glycopeptides and linezolid were active against viridans group strains but inactive against C. hominis. PMID:17043120

Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Smith, Kathy; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Ednie, Lois M; Jones, Ronald N; Appelbaum, Peter C

2006-12-01

84

Survey of Surface Proteins from the Pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 7448 Using a Biotin Cell Surface Labeling Approach  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia. PMID:25386928

Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

2014-01-01

85

Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., a fast growing Mycoplasma species isolated from wild Caprinae.  

PubMed

Five Mycoplasma strains from wild Caprinae were analyzed: four from Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) which died at the Berlin Zoo between 1993 and 1994, one from a Rocky Mountain goat collected in the USA prior to 1987. These five strains represented a population different from the populations belonging to the 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' as tested using multi locus sequence typing, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (rrs), genomic sequence based in silico as well as laboratory DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of phenotypic traits in particular their exceptionally rapid growth all confirmed that they do not belong to any Mycoplasma species described to date. We therefore suggest these strains represent a novel species, for which we propose the name Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. The type strain is G5847(T) (=DSM 26019(T)=NCTC 1362(T)). PMID:24016869

Jores, Joerg; Fischer, Anne; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thomann, Andreas; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Schnee, Christiane; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Heller, Martin; Frey, Joachim

2013-12-01

86

Effects of 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation alone at 10 weeks of age or in conjunction with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays at 22 or 45 weeks of age on the performance of commercial ....  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with a F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) over-lay and its timing on the performance of commercial egg laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inoculations at 10 wk of age. A second treated gro...

87

Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to Multicolored Butterfly  

PubMed Central

Summary: The history, replication, genetics, characteristics (both biological and physical), and factors involved in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium are presented. The latter factors include adhesion, the influence of hormones, motility, possible toxin production, and immunological responses. The preferred site of colonization, together with current detection procedures, mainly by PCR technology, is discussed. The relationships between M. genitalium and various diseases are highlighted. These diseases include acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis, balanoposthitis, chronic prostatitis, and acute epididymitis in men and urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and reproductive disease in women. A causative relationship, or otherwise strong association, between several of these diseases and M. genitalium is apparent, and the extent of this, on a subjective basis, is presented; also provided is a comparison between M. genitalium and two other genital tract-orientated mollicutes, namely, Mycoplasma hominis, the first mycoplasma of human origin to be discovered, and Ureaplasma species. Also discussed is the relationship between M. genitalium and infertility and also arthritis in both men and women, as is infection in homosexual and immunodeficient patients. Decreased immunity, as in HIV infections, may enhance mycoplasmal detection and increase disease severity. Finally, aspects of the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of M. genitalium, together with the treatment and possible prevention of mycoplasmal disease, are discussed. PMID:21734246

Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

2011-01-01

88

Effect of mycoplasmas on apoptosis of 32D cells is species-dependent.  

PubMed

We previously showed that mycoplasmal infection effectively prevented apoptosis of infected cells, whereas other researchers have indicated that mycoplasmal infection promoted apoptosis. To understand the mechanism underlying this discrepancy, five different species of mycoplasmas were investigated for their effects on apoptosis of interleukin (IL)-3-dependent 32D cells. Results revealed that Mycoplasma fermentans and M. penetrans effectively supported continuous growth of 32D cells after IL-3 withdrawal. M. fermentans was more potent than M. penetrans. This effect was achieved by way of preventing apoptosis and stimulating cell proliferation. On the contrary, M. hominis and M. salivarium accelerated apoptosis of 32D cells. M. genitalium had no significant effect on apoptosis. The RNase protection assay indicated that the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic mycoplasmas altered the expression of major apoptosis regulatory genes differently. The difference in apoptosis regulatory gene expression induced by different species of mycoplasmas might be accountable for their effects on host cell apoptosis. PMID:17486403

Zhang, Shimin; Lo, Shyh-Ching

2007-05-01

89

Genes Found Essential in Other Mycoplasmas Are Dispensable in Mycoplasma bovis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas are regarded to be useful models for studying the minimum genetic complement required for independent survival of an organism. Mycoplasma bovis is a globally distributed pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis media and reproductive tract disease, and genome sequences of three strains, the type strain PG45 and two strains isolated in China, have been published. In this study, several Tn4001 based transposon constructs were generated and used to create a M. bovis PG45 insertional mutant library. Direct genome sequencing of 319 independent insertions detected disruptions in 129 genes in M. bovis, 48 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC and 99 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Sixteen genes found to be essential in previous studies on other mycoplasma species were found to be dispensable. Five of these genes have previously been predicted to be part of the core set of 153 essential genes in mycoplasmas. Thus this study has extended the list of non-essential genes of mycoplasmas from that previously generated by studies in other species. PMID:24897538

Sharma, Shukriti; Markham, Philip F.; Browning, Glenn F.

2014-01-01

90

Extensive Variation and Rapid Shift of the MG192 Sequence in Mycoplasma genitalium Strains from Patients with Chronic Infection  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma genitalium causes persistent urogenital tract infection in humans. Antigenic variation of the protein encoded by the MG192 gene has been proposed as one of the mechanisms for persistence. The aims of this study were to determine MG192 sequence variation in patients with chronic M. genitalium infection and to analyze the sequence structural features of the MG192 gene and its encoded protein. Urogenital specimens were obtained from 13 patients who were followed for 10 days to 14 months. The variable region of the MG192 gene was PCR amplified, subcloned into plasmids, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 220 plasmid clones yielded 97 unique MG192 variant sequences. MG192 sequence shift was identified between sequential specimens from all but one patient. Despite great variation of the MG192 gene among and within clinical specimens from different patients, MG192 sequences were more related within M. genitalium specimens from an individual patient than between patients. The MG192 variable region consisted of 11 discrete subvariable regions with different degrees of variability. Analysis of the two most variable regions (V4 and V6) in five sequential specimens from one patient showed that sequence changes increased over time and that most sequences were present at only one time point, suggesting immune selection. Topology analysis of the deduced MG192 protein predicted a surface-exposed membrane protein. Extensive variation of the MG192 sequence may not only change the antigenicity of the protein to allow immune evasion but also alter the mobility and adhesion ability of the organism to adapt to diverse host microenvironments, thus facilitating persistent infection. PMID:24396043

Mancuso, Miriam; Williams, James A.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Jia, Qiuyao; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

2014-01-01

91

Extensive variation and rapid shift of the MG192 sequence in Mycoplasma genitalium strains from patients with chronic infection.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma genitalium causes persistent urogenital tract infection in humans. Antigenic variation of the protein encoded by the MG192 gene has been proposed as one of the mechanisms for persistence. The aims of this study were to determine MG192 sequence variation in patients with chronic M. genitalium infection and to analyze the sequence structural features of the MG192 gene and its encoded protein. Urogenital specimens were obtained from 13 patients who were followed for 10 days to 14 months. The variable region of the MG192 gene was PCR amplified, subcloned into plasmids, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 220 plasmid clones yielded 97 unique MG192 variant sequences. MG192 sequence shift was identified between sequential specimens from all but one patient. Despite great variation of the MG192 gene among and within clinical specimens from different patients, MG192 sequences were more related within M. genitalium specimens from an individual patient than between patients. The MG192 variable region consisted of 11 discrete subvariable regions with different degrees of variability. Analysis of the two most variable regions (V4 and V6) in five sequential specimens from one patient showed that sequence changes increased over time and that most sequences were present at only one time point, suggesting immune selection. Topology analysis of the deduced MG192 protein predicted a surface-exposed membrane protein. Extensive variation of the MG192 sequence may not only change the antigenicity of the protein to allow immune evasion but also alter the mobility and adhesion ability of the organism to adapt to diverse host microenvironments, thus facilitating persistent infection. PMID:24396043

Ma, Liang; Mancuso, Miriam; Williams, James A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Jia, Qiuyao; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H

2014-03-01

92

Mycoplasmal lipid-associated membrane proteins and Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen recognition by serum antibodies from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmal lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) and Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM superantigen) are potent stimulators of the immune system. The objective of this work was to detect antibodies to MAM and LAMPs of Mycoplasma hominis and M. fermentans in the sera of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to identify mycoplasmal products that can be involved in the etiopathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases. Serum samples from female RA and SLE patients and controls, recombinant MAM, and LAMPs of M. hominis PG21 and M. fermentans PG18 were used in Western blot assays. A similar frequency of sera from patients and controls reactive to MAM was detected. A larger number of M. hominis and M. fermentans LAMPs were recognized by sera from RA patients than controls, but no differences were detected between sera from SLE patients and controls. Among the LAMPs recognized by IgG antibodies from RA patients, proteins of molecular masses in a range of <49 and ?20 KDa (M. hominis) and <102 and ?58 KDa (M. fermentans) were the most reactive. These preliminary results demonstrate the strong reactivity of antibodies of RA patients with some M. hominis and M. fermentans LAMPs. These LAMPs could be investigated as mycoplasmal antigens that can take part in the induction or amplification of human autoimmune responses. PMID:21052674

da Rocha Sobrinho, Hermínio M; Jarach, Renata; da Silva, Nilzio A; Shio, Marina T; Jancar, Sonia; Timenetsky, Jorge; Oliveira, Milton A P; Dorta, Miriam L; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

2011-07-01

93

[A case report of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis].  

PubMed

We here report a case of endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis in a 53-year-old patient, who presented with large vegetations on the mitral valve. Good cooperation between clinicians and microbiologists and an efficient automated blood culture system were the decisive factors in establishing the diagnosis. Early and appropriate treatment prevented the septic embolisms often observed in this pathology. PMID:12147451

Lesimple, B; Dujardin, J J; Joly, P; Hendricx, S; Fievet, P

2002-01-01

94

21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one of which must be M. pneumoniae. One half of the plates and two tubes of broth shall be incubated aerobically at 36 °C ±1 °C and the remaining...

2014-04-01

95

21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one of which must be M. pneumoniae. One half of the plates and two tubes of broth shall be incubated aerobically at 36 °C ±1 °C and the remaining...

2011-04-01

96

21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one of which must be M. pneumoniae. One half of the plates and two tubes of broth shall be incubated aerobically at 36 °C ±1 °C and the remaining...

2013-04-01

97

21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one of which must be M. pneumoniae. One half of the plates and two tubes of broth shall be incubated aerobically at 36 °C ±1 °C and the remaining...

2010-04-01

98

21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one of which must be M. pneumoniae. One half of the plates and two tubes of broth shall be incubated aerobically at 36 °C ±1 °C and the remaining...

2012-04-01

99

Genital mycoplasmas in semen samples of males attending a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria: any role in sperm count reduction?  

PubMed

Semen samples from 54 married men attending the outpatient clinics for problems of infertility and routine semen analysis were examined for the presence of genital mycoplasmas. The mean age of the men was 36.1 years with a range of 25 55 years. Majority of the men 57.4% (31 of 54) were in their fourth decade of life (30 39 years). This age group also had the highest percentage 57.2% (8 of 14) of positive isolates of genital mycoplasmas on semen culture. A total of 21 organisms obtained from 14 (26.0%) positive samples were isolated. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. separately isolated from the samples yielded frequencies of 1 (1.9%) and 6 (11.1%) respectively and the remaining 7 (13.0%) samples were infected with both organisms. A breakdown of the mycoplasma species include 5 (23.8%) M. hominis, 2 (9.5%) M. fermentans and 1 (4.8%) M. penetrans. Apart from one isolate of M. hominis other Mycoplasma species were found in association with Ureaplasma species. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 isolates [8 (53.3%) ureaplasmas and 7 (46.7%) mycoplasmas] were isolated from samples with sperm counts less than 20 million/ml while the remaining 6 (21.6%) isolates [5 (83.3%) ureaplasmas and 1 (16.7) mycoplasma] were from samples with counts greater than 20 million/ml. This finding could indicate a possible influence of genital mycoplasmas especially mycoplasmas species on sperm count. PMID:17902513

Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Ikechebelu, J I

2007-06-01

100

Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole in blastocystis hominis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a common intestinal parasite that has long been considered nonpathogenic. Recently there have been many reports supporting a role for the organism as a potential pathogen. We performed a study to examine the pathogenicity of B. hominis and the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole (TMP-SMX) on this organism.METHODS:Stool samples of patients, who came to the Department of

Pelin Ertan; Timur Pirildar

1999-01-01

101

Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole in blastocystis hominis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a common intestinal parasite that has long been considered nonpathogenic. Recently there have been many reports supporting a role for the organism as a potential pathogen. We performed a study to examine the pathogenicity of B. hominis and the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole (TMP-SMX) on this organism.Methods:Stool samples of patients, who came to the Department of

Pelin Ertan; Timur Pirildar

1999-01-01

102

Cardiobacterium hominis-induced acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess  

PubMed Central

Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy. PMID:24008805

Manderwad, Guru Prasad; Kodiganti, Manjulatha; Ali, Mohammad Javed

2014-01-01

103

Cardiobacterium hominis-induced acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess.  

PubMed

Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy. PMID:24008805

Manderwad, Guru Prasad; Kodiganti, Manjulatha; Ali, Mohammad Javed

2014-04-01

104

Rapid detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures using SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We have developed a simple method for rapid detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures using SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To detect eight common contaminant mollicutes, including Mycoplasma (M. arginini, M. fermentans, M. orale, M. hyorhinis, M. hominis, M. salivarium, M. pirum) and Acholeplasma laidlawii, four primers were prepared based on the 23S rRNA regions. Using these primers and a minimum of 100 fg of mycoplasma genomic DNA, the 23S rRNA regions of these eight mycoplasma species were consistently amplified by real-time PCR. In contrast, no specific amplification product was observed using DNA templates prepared from various mammalian cell lines. Frozen and cultured samples of several cell lines were tested for mycoplasma contamination to evaluate the utility of this method. Of 25 samples that tested positive for mycoplasma by Hoechst staining, which requires two passages of cell cultures started from frozen samples, mycoplasma was detected by real-time PCR in 24 samples of cell extracts prepared directly from frozen samples. When cultured samples were used for this assay, the accuracy of the diagnoses was further improved. Thus, this technique, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive enough for practical application, is suitable for handling many samples and for routine screening for mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. PMID:16759150

Ishikawa, Yoko; Kozakai, Takaharu; Morita, Hatsue; Saida, Kaname; Oka, Syuichi; Masuo, Yoshinori

2006-01-01

105

A Pediatric Case of Cardiobacterium Hominis Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Gram negative endocarditis is relatively rare in pediatrics but when they occur they are most frequently caused by one of the HACEK (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) group of microorganisms. Within the HACEK group of microorganisms there have been approximately 100 cases of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis reported in the literature, but only 2 previous cases of endocarditis and one case of pericarditis have been reported in children. In this report, we present a case of a 12-year-old boy with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit for Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia who presented at an annual cardiology examination with a 3 week history of fatigue and was found to have a vegetation on routine echocardiogram. Subsequent blood cultures grew Cardiobacterium hominis and the patient was treated successfully with 6 weeks of appropriate antibiotic therapy. We present this case and a review of the literature of the HACEK group of microorganisms in pediatrics. PMID:24470958

Suresh, Priyanka; Blackwood, R. Alexander

2013-01-01

106

A pediatric case of cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis.  

PubMed

Gram negative endocarditis is relatively rare in pediatrics but when they occur they are most frequently caused by one of the HACEK (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) group of microorganisms. Within the HACEK group of microorganisms there have been approximately 100 cases of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis reported in the literature, but only 2 previous cases of endocarditis and one case of pericarditis have been reported in children. In this report, we present a case of a 12-year-old boy with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit for Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia who presented at an annual cardiology examination with a 3 week history of fatigue and was found to have a vegetation on routine echocardiogram. Subsequent blood cultures grew Cardiobacterium hominis and the patient was treated successfully with 6 weeks of appropriate antibiotic therapy. We present this case and a review of the literature of the HACEK group of microorganisms in pediatrics. PMID:24470958

Suresh, Priyanka; Blackwood, R Alexander

2013-01-22

107

Incidence of anti-zona pellucida and anti-sperm antibodies among infertile Jordanian women and its relation to mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Anti-zona-pellucida autoantibodies (AZP-Ab) and anti-sperm isoantibodies (ASA) were assessed in the cervical secretions from 73 infertile Jordanian women and 41 fertile control women using latex agglutination. Significantly more women with infertility had AZP-Ab and ASA (16.4% and 8.2% respectively) compared with fertile women (9.4% and 0%), with no relation to the etiology of infertility. Using polymerase chain reaction Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in cervical secretions of 19.2% and 13.7% of infertile women, and the presence of mycoplasma was significantly correlated with the presence of AZP-Ab and ASA. PMID:20214140

Al-Daghistani, H I; Fram, K M

2009-01-01

108

Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spray application is a commonly used time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and vaccine suspension...

109

Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.  

PubMed

The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

2013-06-01

110

Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma bovis is associated with pneumonia in calves characterized by the development of chronic caseonecrotic lesions with the agent persisting within the lesion. The purposes of this study were to characterize the morphology of lung lesions, examine the presence of M. bovis variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and study the local immune responses in calves after infection with M. bovis strain 1067. Methods Lung tissue samples from eight calves euthanased three weeks after experimental infection with M. bovis were examined by bacteriology and pathology. Lung lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for wide spectrum cytokeratin and for M. bovis Vsp antigens and pMB67 antigen. IHC identification and quantitative evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA)-containing plasma cells was performed. Additionally, expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) was studied by IHC. Results Suppurative pneumonic lesions were found in all calves. In two calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia, necrotic foci were surrounded by epithelial cells resembling bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium. In all calves, M. bovis Vsp antigens were constantly present in the cytoplasm of macrophages and were also present extracellularly at the periphery of necrotic foci. There was a considerable increase in numbers of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves. In M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells, but only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Conclusions The results from this study show that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins. PMID:22305416

2012-01-01

111

Cardiobacterium hominis bioprosthetic mitral valve endocarditis presenting as septic arthritis.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of Cardiobacterium hominis bioprosthetic valve endocarditis presenting as septic arthritis. This remarkable presentation had clinical features consistent with endocarditis generally associated with highly virulent pathogens. A literature search has failed to disclose a report of septic arthiritis as a manifestation of C. hominis endocarditis. PMID:11821177

Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Johnson, Raymond M; Braverman, Alan C; Dunne, William Michael; Little, J Russell

2002-01-01

112

In Vitro Activities of ABT-773 and Other Antimicrobials against Human Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 103 Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates, 14 Mycoplasma hominis isolates, 12 Mycoplasma fermentans isolates, and 24 Ureaplasma species to ABT-773, an investigational ketolide, and seven other agents were determined. For M. pneumoniae, the ABT-773 MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90; ?0.001 ?g/ml) was comparable to those of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin and at least 128-fold lower than those of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and doxycycline. For M. fermentans, the ABT-773 MIC90 (?0.008 ?g/ml) was 2- to 128-fold lower than those of all other agents tested. For M. hominis, the ABT-773 MIC90 (0.031 ?g/ml) was equivalent to that of moxifloxacin, 2-fold lower than those of gatifloxacin and clindamycin, and 16-fold lower than that of levofloxacin. ABT-773 was equally active against doxycycline-susceptible and doxycycline-resistant organisms. The ABT-773 MICs (0.016 ?g/ml) for Ureaplasma species were the lowest of those of any drug tested. The MIC90 was 4- to 64-fold lower than those of clarithromycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin and ?16-fold lower than those of all three fluoroquinolones. Minimal bactericidal concentrations determined for a subgroup of organisms were ?0.063 ?g/ml for M. pneumoniae and 0.25 ?g/ml for M. fermentans, but they were several dilutions higher for M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. ABT-773 has great potential for further study for the treatment of infections due to mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas. PMID:12499166

Waites, Ken B.; Crabb, Donna M.; Duffy, Lynn B.

2003-01-01

113

Clinical Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in multiplier breeder and meat turkeys caused by F strain: identification by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

In February 1991, a flock of North Carolina multiplier breeder turkeys experienced respiratory signs, sinusitis, airsacculitis, and increased mortality. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was isolated, and appropriate control measures were initiated. Ultimately, this outbreak involved several breeder flocks of an integrated turkey production company before the last infected flock was identified in May 1991. During this time, MG was also isolated from a flock of commercial layer-type chickens raised as pullets in close proximity to the index turkey flock. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis indicated that these isolates were identical to each other and to examples of the vaccinal F strain. Additionally, MG isolates from the affected turkey breeder and layer flocks were identified as MG F strain by use of an F strain-specific DNA probe and polymerase chain reaction. A separate outbreak of MG disease in several meat-turkey flocks of a Midwest producer/processor yielded isolates identified as F strain by the polymerase chain reaction. These studies demonstrated: 1) the utility of newer technologies for disease outbreak investigations; and 2) the potential of MG F strain to cause disease in breeder and meat turkeys under field conditions. PMID:8257382

Ley, D H; Avakian, A P; Berkhoff, J E

1993-01-01

114

Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing.  

PubMed Central

Automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used for determination of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of mycoplasmas. The sequence information was used to establish phylogenetic relationships of 11 different mycoplasmas whose 16S rRNA sequences had not been determined earlier. A biotinylated fragment corresponding to positions 344 to 939 in the Escherichia coli sequence was generated by PCR. The PCR product was immobilized onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and direct sequencing was performed in both directions. One previously unclassified avian mycoplasma was found to belong to the Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster of the hominis group. Microheterogeneities were discovered in the rRNA operons of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC type), confirming the existence of two different rRNA operons. The 16S rRNA sequence of M. mycoides subsp. capri was identical to that of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (type SC), except that no microheterogeneities were revealed. Furthermore, automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used to identify a mycoplasmal contamination of a cell culture as Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which proved to be very difficult by conventional methods. The results suggest that the direct solid-phase DNA sequencing procedure is a powerful tool for identification of mycoplasmas and is also useful in taxonomic studies. Images PMID:7521158

Pettersson, B; Johansson, K E; Uhlén, M

1994-01-01

115

Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation. PMID:23105057

Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Kritchevsky, Janice E.

2012-01-01

116

Quantitative Assessment of Mycoplasma Hemadsorption Activity by Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

A number of adherent mycoplasmas have developed highly complex polar structures that are involved in diverse aspects of the biology of these microorganisms and play a key role as virulence factors by promoting adhesion to host cells in the first stages of infection. Attachment activity of mycoplasma cells has been traditionally investigated by determining their hemadsorption ability to red blood cells and it is a distinctive trait widely examined when characterizing the different mycoplasma species. Despite the fact that protocols to qualitatively determine the hemadsorption or hemagglutination of mycoplasmas are straightforward, current methods when investigating hemadsorption at the quantitative level are expensive and poorly reproducible. By using flow cytometry, we have developed a procedure to quantify rapidly and accurately the hemadsorption activity of mycoplasmas in the presence of SYBR Green I, a vital fluorochrome that stains nucleic acids, allowing to resolve erythrocyte and mycoplasma cells by their different size and fluorescence. This method is very reproducible and permits the kinetic analysis of the obtained data and a precise hemadsorption quantification based on standard binding parameters such as the dissociation constant Kd. The procedure we developed could be easily implemented in a standardized assay to test the hemadsorption activity of the growing number of clinical isolates and mutant strains of different mycoplasma species, providing valuable data about the virulence of these microorganisms. PMID:24498118

García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Costa, Manuela; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

2014-01-01

117

The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas) and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca.

Michael Kube; Bernd Schneider; Heiner Kuhl; Thomas Dandekar; Katja Heitmann; Alexander M Migdoll; Richard Reinhardt; Erich Seemüller

2008-01-01

118

In Vitro Susceptibilities to and Bactericidal Activities of Garenoxacin (BMS-284756) and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Human Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities to garenoxacin (BMS-284756), an investigational des-fluoroquinolone, and eight other agents were determined for 63 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 45 Mycoplasma hominis, 15 Mycoplasma fermentans, and 68 Ureaplasma sp. isolates. Garenoxacin was the most active quinolone, inhibiting all isolates at ?1 ?g/ml. The garenoxacin MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s; ?0.008 ?g/ml) was at least 4-fold less than those of moxifloxacin and clindamycin, 8-fold less than that of sparfloxacin, and 64-fold less than those of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin for M. pneumoniae. For M. hominis, the garenoxacin MIC90 (?0.008 ?g/ml) was 4-fold less than those of clindamycin and moxifloxacin, 8-fold less than that of sparfloxacin, and 64-fold less than those of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. All 15 M. fermentans isolates were inhibited by garenoxacin at concentrations ?0.008 ?g/ml, making it the most active drug tested against this organism. For Ureaplasma spp., the garenoxacin MIC90 (0.25 ?g/ml) was equivalent to those of moxifloxacin and doxycycline, 4-fold less than those of levofloxacin and sparfloxacin, 8-fold less than that of azithromycin, and 32-fold less than that of ciprofloxacin. Garenoxacin and the other fluoroquinolones tested were demonstrated to have bactericidal activities against M. pneumoniae and M. hominis by measurement of minimal bactericidal activities and by time-kill studies. Further study of garenoxacin is required, as it has great potential for use in the treatment of infections due to mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas. PMID:12499185

Waites, Ken B.; Crabb, Donna M.; Bing, Xue; Duffy, Lynn B.

2003-01-01

119

PCR-based detection of Mycoplasma species.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe our newly-developed sensitive two-stage PCR procedure for the detection of 13 common mycoplasmal contaminants (M. arthritidis, M. bovis, M. fermentans, M. genitalium, M. hominis, M. hyorhinis, M. neurolyticum, M. orale, M. pirum, M. pneumoniae, M. pulmonis, M. salivarium, U. urealyticum). For primary amplification, the DNA regions encompassing the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of 13 species were targeted using general mycoplasma primers. The primary PCR products were then subjected to secondary nested PCR, using two different primer pair sets, designed via the multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences obtained from the 13 mycoplasmal species. The nested PCR, which generated DNA fragments of 165-353 bp, was found to be able to detect 1-2 copies of the target DNA, and evidenced no cross-reactivity with the genomic DNA of related microorganisms or of human cell lines, thereby confirming the sensitivity and specificity of the primers used. The identification of contaminated species was achieved via the performance of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) coupled with Sau3AI digestion. The results obtained in this study furnish evidence suggesting that the employed assay system constitutes an effective tool for the diagnosis of mycoplasmal contamination in cell culture systems. PMID:16554716

Sung, Hyeran; Kang, Seung Hye; Bae, Yoon Jin; Hong, Jin Tae; Chung, Youn Bok; Lee, Chong-Kil; Song, Sukgil

2006-02-01

120

Increasing the value of hominy feed as a coproduct by fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hominy feed is a low value ($83.7/metric ton) coproduct of the corn dry milling process that accounts for nearly 35% of the starting corn quantity. The average composition of hominy feed on a dry basis is 56.9% starch, 25.2% neutral detergent fiber, 11.1% protein, and 5.3% fat. Starch in hominy fe...

121

Antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol. Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hominis, three strains of Mycoplasma fermentans, and one strain of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were used. For M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. fermentans, the MICs were 0.5, 0.03 (for 90% of the strains tested), and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively. PMID:15561875

Furneri, Pio Maria; Piperno, Anna; Sajia, Antonella; Bisignano, Giuseppe

2004-12-01

122

Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats. PMID:11972343

Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

2002-01-01

123

Rapid and efficient preparation of monoclonal antibodies against 35 kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma penetrans.  

PubMed

To develop a rapid and efficient method for preparing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against 35 kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma penetrans, BALB/c mice were injected into the footpads for immunization, and the popliteal lymph nodes were isolated 19 days later for MAb-producing hybridomas, from which the mAbs against the 35 kDa lipoprotein were screened. The identification of the mAb against the 35 kDa lipoprotein was performed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Using popliteal lymph node procedures, we generated several positive clones, one of which we characterized by ELISA and immunoblot. The clone 1D41B8 was identified as the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, kappa chain with affinity constants (Ka) of 2.95 x 10(9) M(-1). The MAbs did not cross-react with a number of control bacteria, which included Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. This is the first report on the preparation of mAbs against M. penetrans that is specific to 35 kDa lipoprotein using popliteal lymph nodes. The high-specificity and high-affinity MAbs produced by two methodologies used of hybridomas provide a basis for further research on the pathogenesis and early diagnosis of M. penetrans. This simple approach may become a method of choice for the generation and production of MAbs in a short period of time. PMID:17451357

Ferraz, Aline S; Belo, Elza F T; Coutinho, Ligia M C C; Oliveira, Ana P; De Gaspari, Elizabeth N

2007-04-01

124

Survival of genital mycoplasma on various bacteriological swabs and transport media.  

PubMed

An approach to diagnostic microbiology necessitates measures which maintain the flora unchanged during the transportation of the specimens to the laboratory, preserving the viability of labile and fastidious organisms such as mycoplasma. Some of these problems have been studied in the present investigation. Five different swabs (untreated, albu, charcoal, alginate and phosphate-buffered albumin) and three transport media (Stuart, Amies and MTB) were examined using genital mycoplasma. Absorbent effect of swabs treated with albumin is lower than all the others while the antimycoplasma activity, due to the toxic substances present in the fiber of tip swab, is always lower for the charcoal swab. Concerning transport media, the most favourable results were obtained with the MTB medium. In this medium M. hominis and U. urealyticum counts decreased about 0.5 log and M. fermentans decreased 1.25 log after seven days at 4 degrees C. Furthermore, after inoculation of mycoplasma, MTB can be frozen at -20 degrees C without greatly modifying the titer. The reasons of the different performance of transport media on mycoplasma survival were discussed. PMID:7272010

Busolo, F; Baratto, T; Bertoloni, G; Grossato, A

1981-01-01

125

Induced recurrent keratitis in rabbits infected with Herpesvirus hominis  

E-print Network

evaluated for their capacity to induce re- tk tt kk't p ty' f td tk~H hominis. Agents tested were azathioprine, ultraviolet irradfation, and histam1ne phosphate. H. hominis was instilled into the cul-de- sac of the left eye of 40 rabbits and 36 responded.... Each agent was used on 8 animals. A recurrence rate of I of 8, 3 of 8, and 5 of 8 was observed for azathioprine, ultraviolet irrad1ation, and histamine phosphate, respectively. Virus isolates recovered from the reacting animals produced the same...

Johnson, David Kendall

2012-06-07

126

Mycoplasma contamination of murine embryonic stem cells affects cell parameters, germline transmission and chimeric progeny.  

PubMed

Murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) inoculated at passage P13 with the mycoplasma species M. hominis, M. fermentans and M. orale and cultured over 20 passages showed reduced growth rate and viability (P < 0.0001) compared to control mESCs. Spectral karyotypic analysis of mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed a number of non-clonal chromosomal aberrations which increased with the duration of infection. The differentiation status of the infected mESCs was most affected at passage P13+6 where the infection was strongest and 46.3% of the mESCs expressed both POU5F1 and SSEA-1 markers whereas 84.8% of control mESCs expressed both markers. The percentage of germline chimeras from mycoplasma-infected mESCs was examined after blastocyst injection and embryo transfer to suitable recipients at different passages and, compared to the respective control group, was most affected at passage P13+5 (50% vs. 90%; P < 0.07). Further reductions were obtained at the same passage in the percentage of litters born (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.07) and in the percentage of pups born (22% vs. 45%; P < 0.001). Thirty three chimeras (39.8%) obtained from blastocyst injection with mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed reduced body weight (P < 0.0001), nasal discharge, osteoarthropathia, and cachexia. Flow cytometric analysis of plasma from chimeras produced with mycoplasma-infected mESCs revealed statistically significant differences in the proportions of T-cells and increased levels of IgG1 (P < 0.001), IgG2a (P < 0.05) and IgM (P < 0.05), anti-DNA antibodies (P < 0.05) and rheumatoid factor (P < 0.01). The present data indicate that mycoplasma contamination of mESCs affects various cell parameters, germline transmission, and postnatal development of the resulting chimeras. PMID:18819014

Markoullis, Kyriaki; Bulian, Diana; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Heiliger, Katrin-Janine; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Scherb, Hagen; Mysliwietz, Josef; Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H; Schmidt, Jörg; Mahabir, Esther

2009-02-01

127

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro properties of capsulated and noncapsulated variants of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides strain Afadé: a potential new insight into the biology of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) strain Afadé had previously been shown to undergo spontaneous phase variations between an opaque capsulated variant and a translucent (TR) variant devoid of a capsule but able to secrete cell-free exopolysaccharides. This phase variation is associated with an ON/OFF genetic switch in a glucose permease gene. In this study, in vivo and in vitro assays were conducted to compare the virulence of the two variants and their abilities to resist host defence. Capsulated variants were shown, in a mouse model, to induce longer bacteraemia that was correlated with better serum resistance in vitro. In contrast, TR variants displayed better ability to adhere to an inert support, linked to the absence of a capsule, changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and increased resistance to antimicrobial peptide and hydrogen peroxide. The switch from one variant population to another, which was observed both in vivo and in vitro under stress conditions, is further discussed as a means for Mmm to modulate its interactions with animal hosts during different stages of the disease. PMID:25123820

Gaurivaud, Patrice; Lakhdar, Latifa; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Tardy, Florence

2014-10-01

128

Mycoplasma-enhanced priapism in mice.  

PubMed

Priapism seen occasionally in mice used in various mycoplasmal studies over several years prompted further investigation. Of six strains of young adult male mice inoculated intravenously with Mycoplasma pulmonis, of murine origin, priapism was seen only in CBA mice, penile erections persisting in some for seven to 44 weeks. A few mice given broth medium without mycoplasmas also developed priapism, and mice given five mycoplasmal species, of human origin, developed the condition in a way similar to these controls. However, those given M. pulmonis developed priapism earlier and of longer duration than other mice, suggesting that it was an enhancing factor. The duration of the phenomenon is remarkable and, as yet, has no clear explanation. PMID:15949071

Taylor-Robinson, David; Furr, Patricia M

2005-05-01

129

Development and immunogenicity of recombinant GapA(+) Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries. The efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. To improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a derivative of ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein (IBV-S1) and releasing chicken interleukin-6 into the extracellular milieu (MG ts-11 C3 (+CS)) using a transposon-based delivery vector. Following administration of MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) to chickens by eye-drop, an antibody response to MG and IBV-S1, as determined by the rapid serum agglutination test (RSA) and Western blotting, respectively, could be detected. Birds inoculated with the recombinant vaccine had significantly enhanced weight gain and were partially protected against damage by pathogenic IBV. These results indicate that the ChIL-6 released by MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) may have had a non-specific effect on growth rate. They also suggest that ts-11 is a promising vaccine vector, capable of delivering heterologous protective antigens, and may also provide non-specific benefits when engineered to express immunomodulatory proteins. With some improvements in the expression system, it could be used to induce a targeted immune response against specific mucosal pathogens, and co-expression of several antigens would allow development of a novel multivalent vaccine. PMID:21354248

Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

2011-04-12

130

Cardiobacterium hominis prosthetic valve endocarditis: an infrequent infection.  

PubMed

A case of prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis in a 67-year-old woman is described. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive blood culture and echocardiographic detection of aortic valve vegetations. The patient underwent replacement of the valve with a homograft, and received antibiotics postoperatively. She remained well after 12 months. PMID:22718724

Pousios, Dimitrios; Gao, Fangfei; Tsang, Geoff M

2012-06-01

131

In vitro response of Blastocystis hominis against traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in vitro study on the activity of 20 kinds of crude extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the intestinal parasite, Blastocystis hominis using the criteria of living cell count (LCC) and living cell rate (LCR). LCC and LCR were applied as observation indicators, the former as a fixed-quantity and the latter as a fixed-quality method.

L. Q. Yang; Mulkit Singh; E. H. Yap; G. C. Ng; H. X. Xu; K. Y. Sim

1996-01-01

132

[Trichomonas hominis: isolation and axenic cultivation (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Recently we have isolated Trichomonas hominis from diarrheic stools of a patient and established it in an axenic culture medium. The procedures are as follows: Diarrheic stool containing numerous trophozoites was first inoculated into the TYM (Trypticase Yeast extract Maltose) medium of Diamond (1975) to establish a polyxenic culture. Antibiotics, containing penicillin (1000 U/ml), streptomycin (1000 micrograms/ml), and cephalosporin (20 micrograms/ml) were added to prevent overgrowth of bacteria and fungi. After several passages, a specially-designed culture-tube was employed to separate T. hominis from the contaminants. The isolated T. hominis was then introduced into the modified TYI-S-33 (Trypticase Yeast extract Iron-Serum-33) medium of Diamond (1978). The organism established itself readily to this axenic culture medium. Sterility tests employing fluid thioglycollate, nutrient broth, and blood agar plate gave negative results indicating the absence of contaminants. The axenic culture of T. hominis provides us with a source of pure flagellates for biological, biochemical, and immunological studies. PMID:7030663

Shaio, M F; Lo, H S; Huang, S W

1981-06-01

133

Isolation ofMycoplasma hominisfrom a Brain Abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma hominisis a commensal in the genital tract of women and has been associated with urogenital and extragenital infections. However, central nervous system infections with this organism in adults are very rare. Here we describe the recovery ofM. hominisfrom a brain abscess associated with a postpartum infection. Seroconversion to the isolated strain was detected by both a metabolic inhibition test

XIAOTIAN ZHENG; DOUGLAS A. OLSON; JOSEPH G. TULLY; HAROLD L. WATSON; GAIL H. CASSELL; DANIEL R. GUSTAFSON; KATHLEEN A. SVIEN; THOMAS F. SMITH

134

The incidence of Mycoplasma dispar, Ureaplasma and conventional Mycoplasma in the pneumonic calf lung.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the incidence of Mycoplasma dispar, ureaplasma and conventional (large colony) mycoplasma isolated from the pneumonic lungs of groups of young calves and the identification to species level of mycoplasmas in mixed populations with the aid of the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Pneumonic lung tissue yielded one or more mycoplasma species from 88% of the 153 calves cultured. The mycoplasmas identified and percent of the calves with lungs positive for each species were: M. dispar (56%), ureaplasma (44%), Mycoplasma bovis (37%), Mycoplasma arginini (33%) and Mycoplasma bovirhinis (23%). Conventional mycoplasmas isolated from two calves (1%) could not be identified using the antisera available. PMID:398234

Muenster, O A; Ose, E E; Matsuoka, T

1979-01-01

135

Molecular characterization of the Mycoplasma bovis p68 gene, encoding a basic membrane protein with homology to P48 of Mycoplasma agalactiae.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmal lipoproteins are considered to be potential virulence determinants, which may carry out numerous important functions in pathogenesis including adhesion and immunomodulation. The prototype mycoplasmal immunomodulin is the macrophage-activating lipoprotein (MALP) of Mycoplasma fermentans. In this study, a homolog of the malp gene, designated p68, was identified and characterized in Mycoplasma bovis strain PG45 clonal variant #6. P68 belongs to the family of basic membrane proteins, which have been identified in diverse prokaryotes, including mycoplasmas. P68 revealed significant similarity and shared conserved selective lipoprotein-associated motifs with the highly immunogenic MALP-related lipoproteins P48 of M. bovis and P48 of Mycoplasma agalactiae. Determination of the genomic distribution of both M. bovis malp-homologs showed that p48 was present in all M. bovis strains tested, whereas the p68 gene was missing in some. Sequence comparison of the p68 genomic region in strains with and without this gene revealed that the region is very dynamic, with multiple genetic changes. Reverse-transcription PCR and primer extension analysis indicated that both p68 and p48 are transcribed in M. bovis under in vitro growth conditions. Mycoplasma bovis is the first mycoplasma species in which two malp-related genes have been identified. PMID:18194339

Lysnyansky, Inna; Yogev, David; Levisohn, Sharon

2008-02-01

136

Human Cytomegalovirus and Monocytes: Limited Infection and Negligible Immunosuppression in Normal Mononuclear Cells Infected in vitro with Mycoplasma-free Virus Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has previously been associated with the production of immunosuppression. The mechanism by which any such immuno- suppressive effect might be mediated is unclear but previous work has implicated an effect of the virus on monocytes. We have attempted to characterize the immunosuppressive activity produced by in vitro infection of normal monocytes with HCMV strain AD169.

DIANE M. SCOTT; BRIAN C. RODGERS; COLETTE FREEKE; JEAN BUITER; J. G. P. Sissons

1989-01-01

137

Complexity of the Mycoplasma fermentans M64 genome and metabolic essentiality and diversity among mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Recently, the genomes of two Mycoplasma fermentans strains, namely M64 and JER, have been completely sequenced. Gross comparison indicated that the genome of M64 is significantly bigger than the other strain and the difference is mainly contributed by the repetitive sequences including seven families of simple and complex transposable elements ranging from 973 to 23,778 bps. Analysis of these repeats resulted in the identification of a new distinct family of Integrative Conjugal Elements of M. fermentans, designated as ICEF-III. Using the concept of "reaction connectivity", the metabolic capabilities in M. fermentans manifested by the complete and partial connected biomodules were revealed. A comparison of the reported M. pulmonis, M. arthritidis, M. genitalium, B. subtilis, and E. coli essential genes and the genes predicted from the M64 genome indicated that more than 73% of the Mycoplasmas essential genes are preserved in M. fermentans. Further examination of the highly and partly connected reactions by a novel combinatorial phylogenetic tree, metabolic network, and essential gene analysis indicated that some of the pathways (e.g. purine and pyrimidine metabolisms) with partial connected reactions may be important for the conversions of intermediate metabolites. Taken together, in light of systems and network analyses, the diversity among the Mycoplasma species was manifested on the variations of their limited metabolic abilities during evolution. PMID:22509252

Shu, Hung-Wei; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chan, Huang-I; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Shu, Hung-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Hu, Wensi S; Ng, Wailap Victor

2012-01-01

138

Dermatobia hominis: Small Migrants Hidden in Your Skin  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of vertebrate animal tissues due to maggots of two-winged flies (Diptera) that feed on living or necrotic tissue. Dermatobia hominis occurs widely in tropical parts of Latin America; it is the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in this region. The continuous increase in international travel has increased the possibility of observing this pathology outside endemic countries, especially in travelers returning from the tropics. If clinicians are aware of the possibility of the disease and its treatment options, this dermatosis can be easily managed. However, diagnostic delay is very common because the disease is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial skin infection. Here, we report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis caused by D. hominis in travelers returning to Italy from Latin America. Surgical and noninvasive treatment approaches are also described. PMID:25324659

Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Viligiardi, Riccardo; Strohmeyer, Marianne

2014-01-01

139

Blastocystis hominis infection in long-term care facilities in Taiwan: prevalence and associated clinical factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blastocystis hominis is probably the most common protozoan found in the human gut worldwide. In Taiwan, the prevalence of B. hominis infection is yet to be determined but is expected to be relatively higher among foreign workers. No data is available on\\u000a the prevalence of B. hominis infection in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. This study included 713 subjects (552

Fu-Hsiung Su; Fang-Yeh Chu; Chung-Yi Li; Hui-Fei Tang; Yu-Shiang Lin; Yu-Ju Peng; Yih-Ming Su; Shyh-Dye Lee

2009-01-01

140

Increasing the Value of Hominy Feed as a Coproduct by Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hominy feed is a low value ($83.7\\/metric ton) coproduct of the corn dry milling process that accounts for nearly 35% of the\\u000a starting corn quantity. The average composition of hominy feed on a dry basis is 56.9% starch, 25.2% neutral detergent fiber,\\u000a 11.1% protein, and 5.3% fat. Starch in hominy feed can be fermented to ethanol thus increasing its levels

Vivek Sharma; Robert A. Moreau; Vijay Singh

2008-01-01

141

The biology and control of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.)  

E-print Network

. Man, cattle, horses, swine, dogs and cats may become infested in areas where the insect density is heavy. A knowledge of this species is important because it constitutes a major problem to the economy of the cattle industry in certain areas... Dermatobia hominis attacks man and a host of domestic and wild animals including cattle, horses, mules, swine, dogs, cats, monkeys, rabbits, pan? thers, jaguars, rodents and birds. Andrade (1927) stated that over 44- P?r cent of 819 people examined living...

Neel, William Wallace

1954-01-01

142

Role for Mannose Binding Lectin in the Prevention of Mycoplasma Infection  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL-2 gene, resulting in reduced plasma levels of mannose binding lectin, were significantly overrepresented in 23 patients with primary antibody deficiency and culture-proven mycoplasma infections (P = 0.0038). This association persisted with the inclusion of a further nine suspected (doxycycline-responsive) cases (P = 0.0087). The lectin was shown to bind to three strains of mycoplasma. PMID:16041047

Hamvas, Renata M. J.; Johnson, Marina; Vlieger, Arine M.; Ling, Clare; Sherriff, Andrea; Wade, Angela; Klein, Nigel J.; Turner, Malcolm W.; Webster, A. David B.

2005-01-01

143

Effects of Time Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts11-strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays at 2 different age periods during lay on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commerci...

144

Effects of 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccination Alone at Ten Weeks of Age or in Conjunction with F-strain M. gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays at 22 or 45 Weeks of Age on the Reproductive and Digestive....Hens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum (6/85MG) vaccination alone or in conjunction with time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation overlays on the gross reproductive and digestive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens...

145

The phospholipid profile of mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disaturated PC. Although their small genome, in some Mycoplasma species, other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis were detected, resulting in the synthesis of a variety of glycolipis, phosphoglycolipids and ether lipids. We suggest that analyses and comparisons of mycoplasma polar lipids may serve as a novel and useful tool for classification. Nonetheless, to evaluate the importance of polar lipids in mycoplasma, further systematic and extensive studies on more Mycoplasma species are needed. While studies are needed to elucidate the role of lipids in the mechanisms governing the interaction of mycoplasmas with host eukaryotic cells, the finding that a terminal phosphocholine containing glycolipids of M. fermentans serves both as a major immune determinants and as a trigger of the inflammatory responses, and the findings that the fusogenicity of M. fermentans with host cells is markedly stimulated by lyso-ether lipids, are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of M. fermentans pathogenicity. PMID:22848839

Kornspan, Jonathan D; Rottem, Shlomo

2012-01-01

146

Isolation of Cardiobacterium hominis from the peritoneal fluid of a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

Cardiobacterium hominis, an uncommon cause of bacterial endocarditis, is rarely implicated in infections outside the vascular system. We report the isolation of C. hominis from the peritoneal fluid of a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with a presentation suggestive of peritonitis but no evidence of infective endocarditis. PMID:16709531

Bhan, Ishir; Chen, Eddy Java; Bazari, Hasan

2006-01-01

147

High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of obg Gene to Differentiate the Temperature-Sensitive Mycoplasma synoviae Vaccine Strain MS-H from Non-Temperature-Sensitive Strains  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive (ts+) vaccine strain MS-H is the only live attenuated M. synoviae vaccine commercially available for use in poultry. With increasing use of this vaccine to control M. synoviae infections, differentiation of MS-H from field M. synoviae strains and from rarely occurring non-temperature-sensitive (ts–) MS-H revertants has become important, especially in countries where local strains are indistinguishable from MS-H by sequence analysis of variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the obg of MS-H have been found to associate with ts phenotype. In this study, four PCRs followed by high-resolution melting (HRM)-curve analysis of the regions encompassing these SNPs were developed and evaluated for their potential to differentiate MS-H from 36 M. synoviae strains/isolates. The nested-obg PCR-HRM differentiated ts+ MS-H vaccine not only from field M. synoviae strains/isolates but also from ts– MS-H revertants. The mean genotype confidence percentages, 96.9±3.4 and 8.8±11.2 for ts+ and ts– strains, respectively, demonstrated high differentiating power of the nested-obg PCR-HRM. Using a combination of nested-obg and obg-F3R3 PCR-HRM, 97% of the isolates/strains were typed according to their ts phenotype with all MS-H isolates typed as MS-H. A set of respiratory swabs from MS-H vaccinated specific pathogen free chickens and M. synoviae infected commercial chicken flocks were tested using obg PCR-HRM system and results were consistent with those of vlhA genotyping. The PCR-HRM system developed in this study, proved to be a rapid and reliable tool using pure M. synoviae cultures as well as direct clinical specimens. PMID:24643035

Shahid, Muhammad A.; Markham, Philip F.; Marenda, Marc S.; Agnew-Crumpton, Rebecca; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

2014-01-01

148

Nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes in mycoplasma-infected tumor cell cultures compromise the cytostatic activity of the anticancer drug gemcitabine.  

PubMed

The intracellular metabolism and cytostatic activity of the anticancer drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine; dFdC) was severely compromised in Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected tumor cell cultures. Pronounced deamination of dFdC to its less cytostatic metabolite 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxyuridine was observed, both in cell extracts and spent culture medium (i.e. tumor cell-free but mycoplasma-containing) of mycoplasma-infected tumor cells. This indicates that the decreased antiproliferative activity of dFdC in such cells is attributed to a mycoplasma cytidine deaminase causing rapid drug catabolism. Indeed, the cytostatic activity of gemcitabine could be restored by the co-administration of tetrahydrouridine (a potent cytidine deaminase inhibitor). Additionally, mycoplasma-derived pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNP) activity indirectly potentiated deamination of dFdC: the natural pyrimidine nucleosides uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine and thymidine inhibited mycoplasma-associated dFdC deamination but were efficiently catabolized (removed) by mycoplasma PyNP. The markedly lower anabolism and related cytostatic activity of dFdC in mycoplasma-infected tumor cells was therefore also (partially) restored by a specific TP/PyNP inhibitor (TPI), or by exogenous thymidine. Consequently, no effect on the cytostatic activity of dFdC was observed in tumor cell cultures infected with a PyNP-deficient Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain. Because it has been reported that some commensal mycoplasma species (including M. hyorhinis) preferentially colonize tumor tissue in cancer patients, our findings suggest that the presence of mycoplasmas in the tumor microenvironment could be a limiting factor for the anticancer efficiency of dFdC-based chemotherapy. Accordingly, a significantly decreased antitumor effect of dFdC was observed in mice bearing M. hyorhinis-infected murine mammary FM3A tumors compared with uninfected tumors. PMID:24668817

Vande Voorde, Johan; Sabuncuo?lu, Suna; Noppen, Sam; Hofer, Anders; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Fieuws, Steffen; Balzarini, Jan; Liekens, Sandra

2014-05-01

149

The Origin of the ‘Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster’ Coincides with Domestication of Ruminants  

PubMed Central

The ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ comprises the ruminant pathogens Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae the agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, Mycoplasma leachii and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. CBPP and CCPP are major livestock diseases and impact the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through reduced food-supply and international trade restrictions. In addition, these diseases are a threat to disease-free countries. We used a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach to gain insights into the demographic history of and phylogenetic relationships among the members of the ‘M. mycoides cluster’. We collected partial sequences from seven housekeeping genes representing a total of 3,816 base pairs from 118 strains within this cluster, and five strains isolated from wild Caprinae. Strikingly, the origin of the ‘M. mycoides cluster’ dates to about 10,000 years ago, suggesting that the establishment and spread of the cluster coincided with livestock domestication. In addition, we show that hybridization and recombination may be important factors in the evolutionary history of the cluster. PMID:22558362

Fischer, Anne; Shapiro, Beth; Muriuki, Cecilia; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2012-01-01

150

Cryptosporidium hominis Infection Diagnosed by Real-Time PCR-RFLP  

PubMed Central

There are approximately 20 known species of the genus Cryptosporidium, and among these, 8 infect immunocompetent or immunocompromised humans. C. hominis and C. parvum most commonly infect humans. Differentiating between them is important for evaluating potential sources of infection. We report here the development of a simple and accurate real-time PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method to distinguish between C. parvum and C. hominis. Using the CP2 gene as the target, we found that both Cryptosporidium species yielded 224 bp products. In the subsequent RFLP method using TaqI, 2 bands (99 and 125 bp) specific to C. hominis were detected. Using this method, we detected C. hominis infection in 1 of 21 patients with diarrhea, suggesting that this method could facilitate the detection of C. hominis infections. PMID:23864748

Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sejoung; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Woo-Yoon; Sim, Seobo

2013-01-01

151

Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM. PMID:18922196

de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

2009-02-01

152

DNA repair in reduced genome: the Mycoplasma model.  

PubMed

The occurrence of bacteria with a reduced genome, such as that found in Mycoplasmas, raises the question as to which genes should be enough to guarantee the genomic stability indispensable for the maintenance of life. The aim of this work was to compare nine Mycoplasma genomes in regard to DNA repair genes. An in silico analysis was done using six Mycoplasma species, whose genomes are accessible at GenBank, and M. synoviae, and two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, whose genomes were recently sequenced by The Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium and Southern Genome Investigation Program (Brazil) respectively. Considering this reduced genome model, our comparative analysis suggests that the DNA integrity necessary for life can be primarily maintained by nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is the only complete repair pathway. Furthermore, some enzymes involved with base excision repair (BER) and recombination are also present and can complement the NER activity. The absence of RecR and RecO-like ORFs was observed only in M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae, which can be involved with the conservation of gene order observed between these two species. We also obtained phylogenetic evidence for the recent acquisition of the ogt gene in M. pulmonis and M. penetrans by a lateral transference event. In general, the presence or nonexistence of repair genes is shared by all species analyzed, suggesting that the loss of the majority of repair genes was an ancestral event, which occurred before the divergence of the Mycoplasma species. PMID:16153783

Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Fonseca, Marbella Maria; Batistuzzo De Medeiros, Sílvia; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

2005-11-01

153

Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel

2008-01-01

154

Proposal for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anemia or splenomegaly in rodents. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes rnpB and dnaK in M. haemomuris strains detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpB nucleotide sequences in M. haemomuris strains isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89% sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnaK had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 84% between the subgroups. These results support the classification of M. haemomuris into two genetically distinct subgroups. Here we propose the establishment of these subgroups as 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi', detected in small field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 'Candidatus M. haemomuris subsp. ratti', detected in black rats (Rattus rattus). PMID:25406232

Harasawa, Ryo; Fujita, Hiromi; Kadosaka, Teruki; Ando, Shuji; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2014-11-18

155

Cytokine and chemokine transcription profile during Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in susceptible and resistant strains of mice: macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (CCL4) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (CCL8) and accumulation of CCR5+ Th cells.  

PubMed

The progression of murine mycoplasma pneumonia is dependent on T cells and other immune cells. The role of cytokines in immunity are complex, and identifying the network of cytokines produced after infection of mice is essential in dissecting the key cytokine cascades involved mycoplasma disease pathogenesis. In the present study, mRNA expression of 143 different cytokines, chemokines, or receptors were evaluated in lung tissues from both susceptible (BALB/c and C3H/HeN) and resistant (C57BL/6) mice after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. To accomplish this, membrane-based cDNA microarrays were used to monitor changes mRNA expression in lungs. There was a clear association with disease susceptibility and development of cytokine mRNA expression. In addition to proinflammatory cytokines, mRNA expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10, increased with disease severity, suggesting an attempt to moderate the severity of the inflammatory response. Furthermore, it is clear that an array of chemokines produced in susceptible mice could contribute to the recruitment and maintenance of inflammatory cells at the site of disease. In support of this, there was an increase in macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP-1beta; CCL4) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2; CCL8) mRNA levels from mycoplasma-infected mice and a corresponding accumulation of CD4+ Th cells expressing the MIP-1beta/MCP-2 receptor, CCR5, in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, MIP-1beta- and MCP-2-producing cells and CD4+ T cells were found to be in close association in pulmonary lesions. Thus, there was a significant cytokine response associated with disease pathogenesis, and these studies provide important leads and insights into ongoing cytokine- and chemokine-mediated processes in this persistent inflammatory disease. PMID:16988274

Sun, Xiangle; Jones, Harlan P; Hodge, Lisa M; Simecka, Jerry W

2006-10-01

156

Detection and Differentiation of Avian Mycoplasmas by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based on a Silver Nanorod Array  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterial pathogen of poultry that is estimated to cause annual losses exceeding $780 million. The National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines recommend regular surveillance and intervention strategies to contain M. gallisepticum infections and ensure mycoplasma-free avian stocks, but several factors make detection of M. gallisepticum and diagnosis of M. gallisepticum infection a major challenge. Current techniques are laborious, require special expertise, and are typically plagued by false results. In this study, we describe a novel detection strategy which uses silver nanorod array–surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (NA-SERS) for direct detection of avian mycoplasmas. As a proof of concept for use in avian diagnostics, we used NA-SERS to detect and differentiate multiple strains of avian mycoplasma species, including Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallinaceum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and M. gallisepticum, including vaccine strains 6/85, F, and ts-11. Chemometric multivariate analysis of spectral data was used to classify these species rapidly and accurately, with >93% sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, NA-SERS had a lower limit of detection that was 100-fold greater than that of standard PCR and comparable to that of real-time quantitative PCR. Detection of M. gallisepticum in choanal cleft swabs from experimentally infected birds yielded good sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that NA-SERS is applicable for clinical detection. PMID:22210215

Hennigan, Suzanne L.; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Dluhy, Richard A.; Zhao, Yiping; Tripp, Ralph A.

2012-01-01

157

[A case of cerebral embolism caused by Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis].  

PubMed

A 45-year-old woman was referred to our hospital by ambulance with left-sided palsy presented at dinner. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) showed a somewhat high intensity area in the right frontal lobe, and brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the M1 distal segment. Although intravenous rt-PA treatment was initiated at 2 hours and 10 minutes after onset, recanalization was not achieved. The patient was diagnosed as infectious endocarditis, because highly echogenic vegetation was observed in the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve; furthermore, Cardiobacterium hominis was incubated in blood culture, although fever was not so high and C-reactive protein (CRP) was not elevated at the time of hospitalization. It was thought that the bacteremia and infectious endocarditis had occurred due to tooth extraction about six months previously. The diagnosis of infectious endocarditis caused by the HACEK group containing C. hominis may become difficult because the fever was not so high and inflammation was not so severe. PMID:23965861

Shindo, Seigo; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ueda, Akihiko; Maeda, Yasushi; Ando, Yukio

2013-01-01

158

Liquid-based urine cytology as a tool for detection of human papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in men.  

PubMed

Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The ?-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis. PMID:22135257

Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

2012-02-01

159

Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Toxicity by a Catalase from Mycoplasma iowae  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute. PMID:25127127

Pritchard, Rachel E.; Prassinos, Alexandre J.; Osborne, John D.; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F.

2014-01-01

160

Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: Two cases and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species), is a rare cause of endocarditis. There are 61 reported cases of C. hominis infective endocarditis in the English-language literature, 15 of which involved prosthetic valve endocarditis. There is one reported case of C. hominis after upper endoscopy and none reported after colonoscopy. Presented here are two cases of C. hominis prosthetic valve endocarditis following colonoscopy and a review of the microbiological and clinical features of C. hominis endocarditis. Patients with C. hominis infection have a long duration of symptoms preceding diagnosis (138+/-128 days). The most common symptoms were fever (74%), fatigue/malaise (53%), weight loss/anorexia (40%), night sweats (24%), and arthralgia/myalgia (21%). The most common risk factors were pre-existing cardiac disease (61%), the presence of a prosthetic valve (28%), and history of rheumatic fever (20%). Of the 61 cases reviewed here, the aortic valve was infected in 24 (39%) and the mitral valve in 19 (31%) patients. The average duration of blood culture incubation before growth was detected was 6.3 days (range, 2-21 days). Complications were congestive heart failure (40%), central nervous system (CNS) emboli (21%), arrhythmia (16%), and mycotic aneurysm (9%). C. hominis is almost always susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics. Ceftriaxone is recommended by the recently published American Heart Association guidelines. The prognosis of C. hominis native valve and prosthetic valve endocarditis is favorable. The cure rate among 60 patients reviewed was 93% (56/60). For prosthetic valve endocarditis, the cure rate was 16/17 (94%). Valve replacement was required in 27 (45%) cases. PMID:16955250

Malani, A N; Aronoff, D M; Bradley, S F; Kauffman, C A

2006-09-01

161

Suppression subtractive hybridization as a basis to assess Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis genomic diversity and species-specific sequences.  

PubMed

The phylogenically related Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis species are two ruminant pathogens difficult to differentiate and for which a limited amount of sequence data are available. To assess the degree of genomic diversity existing between and within these mycoplasma species, sets of DNA fragments specific for M. bovis type-strain PG45 or for M. agalactiae type-strain PG2 were isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization and used as probes on a panel of M. agalactiae and M. bovis field isolates. Results indicated that approximately 70 % of the DNA fragments specific to one or the other type strain are represented in all field isolates of the corresponding species. Only one M. bovis isolate, which was first classified as M. agalactiae, reacted with 15 % of the PG2-specific probes, while several M. agalactiae isolates reacted with 15 % of the PG45-specific probes. Sequence analyses indicated that most of the genomic diversity observed within one species is related to ORFs with (i) no homologies to proteins recorded in the databases or (ii) homologies to proteins encoded by restriction modification systems. Reminiscent of gene transfer as a means for genomic diversity, a PG45-specific DNA fragment with significant homologies to a central protein of an integrative conjugative element of Mycoplasma fermentans (ICEF) was found in most M. bovis field isolates and in a few M. agalactiae isolates. Finally, sequences encoding part of DNA polymerase III were found in both sets of M. agalactiae- and M. bovis-specific DNA fragments and were used to design a species-specific PCR assay for the identification and differentiation of M. agalactiae and M. bovis. PMID:15699197

Marenda, Marc S; Sagné, Evelyne; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine

2005-02-01

162

Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040 is a Mg2+-Dependent, Sugar-Nonspecific SNase Recognised by the Host Humoral Response during Natural Infection  

PubMed Central

In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Recombinant GST-MAG_5040 exhibits nuclease activity similar to typical sugar-nonspecific endo- and exonucleases, with DNA as the preferred substrate and optimal activity in the presence of 20 mM MgCl2 at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45°C. According to in silico analyses, the position of the gene encoding MAG_5040 is consistently located upstream an ABC transporter, in most sequenced mycoplasmas belonging to the Mycoplasma hominis group. In M. agalactiae, MAG_5040 is transcribed in a polycistronic RNA together with the ABC transporter components and with MAG_5030, which is predicted to be a sugar solute binding protein by 3D modeling and homology search. In a natural model of sheep and goats infection, anti-MAG_5040 antibodies were detected up to 9 months post infection. Taking into account its enzymatic activity, MAG_5040 could play a key role in Mycoplasma agalactiae survival into the host, contributing to host pathogenicity. The identification of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives for the development of suitable tools for the control of contagious agalactia in small ruminants. PMID:23469065

Cacciotto, Carla; Addis, Maria Filippa; Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Carcangiu, Laura; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Tore, Gessica; Dore, Gian Mario; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Uzzau, Sergio; Chessa, Bernardo; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2013-01-01

163

In Vitro Activity of BAY 12-8039, a New Fluoroquinolone, against Mycoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of the fluoroquinolone BAY 12-8039 against 66 strains of different mycoplasma species and 30 strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum was compared with those of three other antimicrobial agents. BAY 12-8039 at 0.5 mg\\/ml inhibited 100% of all the mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal strains tested. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of BAY 12-8039 increased only two- to eightfold compared to

C. M. BEBEAR; H. RENAUDIN; A. BOUDJADJA; Universitede Bordeaux; Bayer Pharma

1998-01-01

164

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma detection media and components...Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a) Identification. Mycoplasma detection media and components...

2010-04-01

165

Association of Blastocystis hominis with signs and symptoms of human disease.  

PubMed Central

Purged stools from 389 patients were evaluated microscopically for the presence of Blastocystis hominis. A total of five or more B. hominis cells per 40X field were observed in 43 patients (11%), and B. hominis was the only intestinal parasite present in 23 (6%) of these patients. Of the 23 patients, 19 had symptoms which included abdominal discomfort (15 patients), anorexia (10 patients), diarrhea (9 patients), and flatus (9 patients). The remaining four patients were asymptomatic. The proportion of eosinophils in the peripheral blood ranged from 4 to 12% in 11 (58%) of the symptomatic patients. Absolute eosinophil counts were greater than 250/microliter in 8 patients and greater than 400/microliter in 5 patients. Eosinophilia was not observed in the remaining symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. This study supports the emerging concept of the role of B. hominis as an intestinal parasite causative of human disease. PMID:3771743

Sheehan, D J; Raucher, B G; McKitrick, J C

1986-01-01

166

Pathobiology of Mycoplasma suis.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma suis is an uncultivable bacterium lacking a cell wall that attaches to and may invade the red blood cells of pigs. M. suis infections occur worldwide and cause the pig industry serious economic losses due to the disease known as infectious anaemia of pigs or, historically, porcine eperythrozoonosis. Infectious anaemia of pigs is characterised predominantly by acute haemolytic or chronic anaemia, along with non-specific manifestations, such as growth retardation in feeder pigs and poor reproductive performance in sows. The fastidious nature of M. suis, as well as the lack of an in vitro cultivation system, has hampered the understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of this organism. Pathogenetic mechanisms of M. suis include direct destruction of red blood cells by adhesion, invasion, nutrient scavenging, immune-mediated lysis and eryptosis, as well as endothelial targeting. Recently published genome sequences, in combination with proteome analyses, have generated new insights into the pathogenicity of M. suis. The present review combines these data with the knowledge provided by experimental M. suis infections. PMID:25128978

Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Zeder, Michael; Felder, Kathrin M; Hoelzle, Katharina

2014-10-01

167

Mycoplasma fermentans infection promotes immortalization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture.  

PubMed

Chronic infection or colonization by mycoplasma(s) could gradually and significantly alter many biologic properties of mammalian host cells in culture, including induction of malignant transformation. We examined effects of Mycoplasma fermentans infection on the continuing survival and immortality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. Without specific supplemental growth factors, human PBMCs normally die rapidly, with few cells other than macrophages/monocytes surviving after 2 weeks in cultures. Only occasional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B lymphocytes would continue to proliferate and undergo spontaneous immortalization. Our present study revealed that infection of human PBMCs in culture with the incognitus and PG18 strains of M fermentans, but surprisingly not with some other strains tested in parallel, markedly enhanced the rate of EBV-positive B lymphocytes to undergo immortalization (74% vs 17%). Compared with spontaneously immortalized PBMCs, the PBMCs immortalized in cultures infected with the mycoplasmas often had prominent karyotype changes with chromosomal loss, gain, or translocations. Furthermore, many of these immortalized B lymphocytes were found to be monoclonal in nature. The in vitro findings would be of relevance to lymphoproliferative disorders that occurred in patients with immune suppression. The mycoplasma-mediated promotional effect in cell immortalization and its potential clinical implications warrant further study. PMID:15331449

Zhang, Shimin; Tsai, Shien; Wu, Timothy T; Li, Bingjie; Shih, James W-K; Lo, Shyh-Ching

2004-12-15

168

Infective endocarditis complicated with progressive heart failure due to beta-lactamase-producing Cardiobacterium hominis.  

PubMed

We describe a 66-year-old woman with infective endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis whose condition, complicated by severe aortic regurgitation and congestive heart failure, necessitated aortic valve replacement despite treatment with ceftriaxone followed by ciprofloxacin. The blood isolate of C. hominis produced beta-lactamase and exhibited high-level resistance to penicillin (MIC, >==256 microgram/ml) and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MIC, 8 microgram/ml). PMID:10790145

Lu, P L; Hsueh, P R; Hung, C C; Teng, L J; Jang, T N; Luh, K T

2000-05-01

169

Stress Exacerbates Infectivity and Pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences  

PubMed Central

Background Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. Methods/Findings Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n?=?20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b). Conclusion The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations. PMID:24788756

Chandramathi, Samudi; Suresh, Kumar; Sivanandam, Sinnadurai; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

2014-01-01

170

Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls  

PubMed Central

Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and ?2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297

Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

2014-01-01

171

Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The present case report describes the clinical course of a patient who presented with Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis. A review of the literature follows the case presentation. C hominis, a fastidious Gram-negative bacillus, is a member of the HACEK group of microorganisms (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae). Endocarditis caused by C hominis is uncommon and generally follows a subacute course. Patients may present with constitutional symptoms, symptoms related to valvular destruction or symptoms secondary to embolic events. Diagnosis requires identification of the pathogen from blood or vegetation by either culture or molecular techniques. Blood cultures may require prolonged incubation, highlighting the importance of incubating blood cultures for at least two to three weeks in patients with suspected endocarditis. In the past, C hominis was generally sensitive to penicillin. However, reports of beta-lactamase-producing C hominis have appeared in the literature over the past decade. The current recommendation for first-line treatment is a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) for four weeks (six weeks if a prosthetic valve is in place). PMID:18159562

Walkty, Andrew

2005-09-01

172

Blastocystis hominis among apparently healthy food handlers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A prospective study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 250 non Saudi males over 21 years of age were examined. Ninety (36%) had pathogenic and non pathogenic intestinal parasites. A total of 143 parasites were detected in their stool specimens. Twenty were B. hominis (13.99%) while other parasites were 123 (86.01%). B. hominis was found in 20 positive cases (22.22%) with an overall rate of 8%. Of these twenty cases, two had B. hominis as a sole parasite, twelve as a double infection and six as a triple infection. Other intestinal parasites were found, Giardia lamblia (16.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (10%), E. coli (6.4%), Chilomastix mesnili (5.6%), Trichomonas hominis (1.2%), and Endolimax nana (0.8%). The helminths were represented by Ascaris lumbricoides (4%), Hymenolepis nana (3.2%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.2%) and Trichocephalus trichiura (0.8%). No doubt, B. hominis should be in mind of parasitologists and physicians when dealing with patients with gastrointestinal troubles. PMID:9425825

Amin, A M

1997-12-01

173

Blastocystis hominis among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Blastocystis hominis is now getting acceptance as an agent of human intestinal disease. B. hominis in stool samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals was evaluated as a possible cause of gastro-intestinal troubles. B. hominis was found in 106 (10.1%) out of 1050 individuals examined from six villages and one city in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate. The highest infection rate was in Manshayt El-Badawy village (25.47%), whereas Talkha City showed the lowest rate (4.73%). Age group 10-20 years had higher infection (13.3%). In twenty-three symptomatic patients, B. hominis represented the only causative parasitic agent. The most common symptoms were diarrhoea (30.4%), abdominal pain (26.1%), flatulence (21.7%). vomiting (13.1%) and fatigue (8.7%). High concentrations of B. hominis were found in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic ones with statistical significant difference (8.2 cells/100 x field versus 3.8 respectively). The mean number of B. hominis was significantly high in patients complaining of diarrhoea and abdominal pain. PMID:16083074

El-Shazly, Atef M; Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; El-Nahas, Hala A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Monib, Mohamed S M

2005-08-01

174

The occurrence of Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, and Mycoplasma phocirhinis in grey and common seals (Halichoerus grypus and Phoca vitulina) in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Following the isolation of Mycoplasma phocicerebrale from the flipper wound of a grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) in Cornwall, UK, surveillance for Mycoplasma species was extended to include other seals rescued or found dead around the UK. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale was frequently detected from the teeth of seals and from infected wounds and respiratory tracts. Mycoplasma phocirhinis, Mycoplasma phocidae, and some unidentified Mycoplasma species were also detected. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale and M. phocidae were the only bacteria consistently identified from the wound infections, but their role in respiratory and other diseases remains unknown, as other bacteria were also isolated from respiratory sites. PMID:21441202

Ayling, Roger D; Bashiruddin, Samantha; Davison, Nicholas J; Foster, Geoffrey; Dagleish, Mark P; Nicholas, Robin A J

2011-04-01

175

The importance of B-cells and ecto-5'nucleotidase in Mycoplasma fermentans infection and the relevance to rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to discover if Mycoplasma fermentans, which is known to infect B cells, could be the cause of the raised ecto-5'-nucleotidase observed in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in the patients' serum has been shown to correlate with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and DNA from the mycoplasma has been found in the synovial fluid. B lymphoblastoid cell lines were exposed to 16 strains of Mycoplasma fermentans and their ecto-5'-nucleotidase, CD73, was measured both biochemically and by mouse antibodies to human ecto 5'-nucleotidase using the fluorescence activated cell sorter. The type strain, PG 18, did not grow with the B cells. Some of the mycoplasma strains (9/15) increased the cellular ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity from twice to 17 fold, and usually showed 5'-nucleotidase activity themselves. At least one strain, M106, induced human 5'-nucleotidase on the normally 5'-nucleotidase negative Daudi and Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, and increased sevenfold the 5'-nucleotidase on the monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1. Growing the cells in aged medium increased the level of mycoplasma infection. This mycoplasma-induced enzyme showed a conformational change and an increase in activity with a glycosylation change involving mannose groups. The other group of strains, mostly of respiratory or cell culture origin, usually did not have any 5'-nucleotidase of their own and decreased the B-cell enzyme activity by about half. Electron microscopy and flow cytometry showed that the strain M106 was filamentous and could be found inside the B-cells. The 5'-nucleotidase-inducing strains of M. fermentans may be important in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17680797

Johnson, Sheena M

2008-02-01

176

Highly Dynamic Genomic Loci Drive the Synthesis of Two Types of Capsular or Secreted Polysaccharides within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster are all ruminant pathogens. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Previous studies have strongly suggested a role for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides polysaccharides in pathogenicity. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted EPS was recently characterized as a ?(1?6)-galactofuranose homopolymer (galactan) identical to the capsular product. Here, we extended the characterization of secreted polysaccharides to all other members of the M. mycoides cluster: M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. leachii, and M. mycoides subsp. capri (including the LC and Capri serovars). Extracted EPS was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, resulting in the identification of a homopolymer of ?(1?2)-glucopyranose (glucan) in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii. Monoclonal antibodies specific for this glucan and for the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted galactan were used to detect the two polysaccharides. While M. mycoides subsp. capri strains of serovar LC produced only capsular galactan, no polysaccharide could be detected in strains of serovar Capri. All strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii produced glucan CPS and EPS, whereas glucan production and localization varied among M. capricolum subsp. capricolum strains. Genes associated with polysaccharide synthesis and forming a biosynthetic pathway were predicted in all cluster members. These genes were organized in clusters within two loci representing genetic variability hot spots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some of these genes, notably galE and glf, were acquired via horizontal gene transfer. These findings call for a reassessment of the specificity of the serological tests based on mycoplasma polysaccharides. PMID:25398856

Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gaurivaud, Patrice; Thiaucourt, François

2015-01-15

177

Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte encapsulation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae for enhanced Raman detection.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans and accounts for as much as 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia. Existing mycoplasma diagnosis is primarily limited by the poor success rate at culturing the bacteria from clinical samples. There is a critical need to develop a new platform for mycoplasma detection that has high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we report the layer-by-layer (LBL) encapsulation of M. pneumoniae cells with Ag nanoparticles in a matrix of the polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS). We evaluated nanoparticle encapsulated mycoplasma cells as a platform for the differentiation of M. pneumoniae strains using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Three separate M. pneumoniae strains (M129, FH and II-3) were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence imaging showed that the Ag nanoparticles were incorporated between the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layers. SERS spectra showed that LBL encapsulation provides excellent spectral reproducibility. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Raman spectra differentiated the three M. pneumoniae strains with 97-100% specificity and sensitivity, and low (0.1-0.4) root mean square error. These results indicated that nanoparticle and polyelectrolyte encapsulation of M. pneumoniae is a potentially powerful platform for rapid and sensitive SERS-based bacterial identification. PMID:25017005

Rivera-Betancourt, Omar E; Sheppard, Edward S; Krause, Duncan C; Dluhy, Richard A

2014-09-01

178

Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are able to stimulate as well as suppress lymphocytes in a nonspecific, polyclonal manner, both in vitro and in vivo. As well as to affecting various subsets of lymphocytes, mycoplasmas and mycoplasma-derived cell components modulate the activities of monocytes/macrophages and NK cells and trigger the production of a wide variety of up-regulating and down-regulating cytokines and chemokines. Mycoplasma-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6, by macrophages and of up-regulating cytokines by mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes plays a major role in mycoplasma-induced immune system modulation and inflammatory responses. PMID:9841667

Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

1998-01-01

179

Isolation of Mycoplasma meleagridis from chickens.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Formerly it was thought that this species was very host specific and only restricted to turkey. In this study, we report on the recovery of MM from breeding flocks of chickens located near a turkey breeding unit. Ten MM field strains were isolated (by culture on Frey broth medium) from tracheal swabs of chickens displaying clinical signs of mycoplasmosis-essentially respiratory symptoms and poor performance. Assignment of the isolated field strains to MM was confirmed by a growth inhibition assay using MM-specific polyclonal antiserum and by PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA sequence as well as the Mm14 sequence, a MM-species-specific DNA fragment previously identified and characterized in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of Mm14 proved to be highly conserved among the 10 MM field strains, indicating a common source of infection. However, on the basis of slight differences in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell proteins and western blot profiles, two groups of the isolated MM field strains could be distinguished. Evidence of MM infection of chickens was further provided by serology, since 13.77% (35/254) of sera proved positive to MM by either rapid serum agglutination or recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, sera of all chickens from which MM was isolated were positive for antibodies to MM. Collectively, the data unambiguously show that MM could infect chickens; thus, MM warrants further exploration to determine its pathogenicity in this unusual host. PMID:21500629

Béjaoui Khiari, A; Landoulsi, A; Aissa, H; Mlik, B; Amouna, F; Ejlassi, A; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, B

2011-03-01

180

Adaptation of Mycoplasmas to Antimicrobial Agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii Extracellular Vesicles Mediate the Export of Ciprofloxacin and a Mutant Gene Related to the Antibiotic Target  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations. PMID:24605048

Medvedeva, Elena S.; Baranova, Natalia B.; Mouzykantov, Alexey A.; Grigorieva, Tatiana Yu.; Davydova, Marina N.; Trushin, Maxim V.; Chernova, Olga A.; Chernov, Vladislav M.

2014-01-01

181

Adaptation of mycoplasmas to antimicrobial agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediate the export of ciprofloxacin and a mutant gene related to the antibiotic target.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations. PMID:24605048

Medvedeva, Elena S; Baranova, Natalia B; Mouzykantov, Alexey A; Grigorieva, Tatiana Yu; Davydova, Marina N; Trushin, Maxim V; Chernova, Olga A; Chernov, Vladislav M

2014-01-01

182

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcription Unit Organization: Genome Survey and Prediction  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is associated with swine respiratory diseases. Although gene organization and regulation are well known in many prokaryotic organisms, knowledge on mycoplasma is limited. This study performed a comparative analysis of three strains of M. hyopneumoniae (7448, J and 232), with a focus on genome organization and gene comparison for open read frame (ORF) cluster (OC) identification. An in silico analysis of gene organization demonstrated 117 OCs and 34 single ORFs in M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and J, while 116 OCs and 36 single ORFs were identified in M. hyopneumoniae 232. Genomic comparison revealed high synteny and conservation of gene order between the OCs defined for 7448 and J strains as well as for 7448 and 232 strains. Twenty-one OCs were chosen and experimentally confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome, validating our prediction. A subset of the ORFs within an OC could be independently transcribed due to the presence of internal promoters. Our results suggest that transcription occurs in ‘run-on’ from an upstream promoter in M. hyopneumoniae, thus forming large ORF clusters (from 2 to 29 ORFs in the same orientation) and indicating a complex transcriptional organization. PMID:22086999

Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene Silveira

2011-01-01

183

Pathologic lesions caused by coinfection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Chickens were infected under experimental conditions with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07 (H3N8). Two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with M. gallisepticum strain 1226. Seven days later, one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group was challenged with LPAI H3N8 virus; one group without challenge remained as negative control. Eight days later, the birds were euthanized and examined for gross pathologic and histologic lesions. The body weight was measured, and the presence of antimycoplasma and antiviral antibodies was tested before the mycoplasma challenge, before the virus challenge, and at the end of the study to confirm both infections. Chickens in the mycoplasma-infected group developed antibodies against M. gallisepticum but not against the influenza virus. Chickens of the group infected with the influenza virus became serologically positive only against the virus, while the birds in the coinfected group developed antibodies against both agents. The LPAI H3N8 virus strain did not cause decrease in body weight and clinical signs, and macroscopic pathological lesions were not present in the chickens. The M. gallisepticum infection caused respiratory signs, airsacculitis, and peritonitis characteristic of mycoplasma infection. However, the clinical signs and pathologic lesions and the reduction in weight gain were much more significant in the group challenged with both M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus than in the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. PMID:21825309

Stipkovits, L; Glavits, R; Palfi, V; Beres, A; Egyed, L; Denes, B; Somogyi, M; Szathmary, S

2012-03-01

184

Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...

185

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae contains a novel lipoyl domain arrangement.  

PubMed

The genes encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex (pdhA, pdhB, pdhC and pdhD) from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been cloned and sequenced. The genes are arranged into two operons, designated pdhAB and pdhCD, which are not found together in the chromosome. The pdhA, pdhB, pdhC and pdhD genes encode proteins of predicted molecular masses of 44.2 kDa (pyruvate dehydrogenase major subunit; E1alpha), 36.6 kDa (pyruvate dehydrogenase minor subunit; E1beta), 33.1 kDa (dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase; E2) and 66.3 kDa (dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase; E3), respectively. Sequence analysis of the pdhCD operon revealed the presence of a lipoyl-binding domain in pdhD but not in pdhC. The lipoyl domain is believed to act as a "swinging arm" that spans the gaps between the catalytic domains of each of the subunits. Portions of the N-terminal regions of pdhA and pdhD were expressed as 6xHis-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The purified proteins were used to raise antibodies in rabbits, and Western blot analysis was performed with the polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Both the pdhA and pdhD genes were expressed among various strains of M. hyopneumoniae as well as the porcine mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma flocculare. Southern hybridisation analysis using probes from pdhA and pdhD detected one copy of each gene in the chromosome of M. hyopneumoniae. Since previous studies have shown pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in M. hyopneumoniae [J. Gen. Microbiol. 134 (1988) 791], it appears likely that a functional lipoyl-binding domain in the N terminus of PdhC is not an absolute prerequisite for pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. We hypothesise that the lipoyl-binding domain of PdhD is performing the enzymatic function normally attributed to the PdhC lipoyl-binding domain in other organisms. Searches of pyruvate dehydrogenase gene sequences derived from other Mycoplasma species showed that a putative lipoyl domain was absent in the pdhC gene from Mycoplasma pulmonis. However, like other bacterial species, pdhC gene sequences from Mycoplasma capricolum, Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae contain a putative lipoyl domain. PMID:14597175

Matic, Jake N; Wilton, Jody L; Towers, Rebecca J; Scarman, Anthony L; Minion, F Chris; Walker, Mark J; Djordjevic, Steve P

2003-11-13

186

Late prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis, an unusual complication.  

PubMed

We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis in a patient who had undergone atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve replacement of the heart in 1978. He presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and congestive cardiac failure. Investigations revealed infective endocarditis of prosthetic valve in mitral portion. Blood culture samples grew C. hominis. The patient was empirically started on vancomycin and gentamicin intravenously and ceftriaxone was added after isolation of the organism. Though subsequent blood cultures were negative, patient remained in congestive cardiac failure and died due to complications. PMID:17377358

Shivaprakasha, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Kamath, P; Karim, Pms

2007-01-01

187

Diagnosis of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis by broad-range PCR from arterio-embolic tissue.  

PubMed

A case of culture-negative endocarditis is reported, in which the diagnosis of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis was made from arterio-embolic tissue removed by percutaneous transluminal embolectomy by broadrange polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16 rRNA gene, followed by single-strand sequencing. The use of this technique to identify etiologic agents from arterio-embolic material has not been reported so far. A serologic assay employing complement fixation against a crude antigen of Cardiobacterium hominis confirmed the diagnosis of endocarditis caused by this unusual fastidious etiologic agent. PMID:10885844

Mueller, N J; Kaplan, V; Zbinden, R; Altwegg, M

1999-01-01

188

Genomic Investigations Unmask Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a New Respiratory Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Background.?Mycoplasma amphoriforme has been associated with infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). Little is known about the natural history of infection with this organism and its ability to be transmitted in the community. Methods.?The bacterial load was estimated in sequential sputum samples from 9 patients by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The genomes of all available isolates, originating from patients in the United Kingdom, France, and Tunisia, were sequenced along with the type strain. Genomic data were assembled and annotated, and a high-resolution phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results.?By using high-resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, we show that patients can be chronically infected with M. amphoriforme manifesting as a relapsing-remitting bacterial load, interspersed by periods when the organism is undetectable. Importantly, we demonstrate transmission of strains within a clinical environment. Antibiotic resistance mutations accumulate in isolates taken from patients who received multiple courses of antibiotics. Conclusions.?Mycoplasma amphoriforme isolates form a closely related species responsible for a chronic relapsing and remitting infection in PAD patients in the United Kingdom and from immunocompetent patients in other countries. We provide strong evidence of transmission between patients attending the same clinic, suggesting that screening and isolation may be necessary for susceptible patients. This work demonstrates the critical role that WGS can play in rapidly unraveling the biology of a novel pathogen. PMID:25344534

Gillespie, Stephen H.; Ling, Clare L.; Oravcova, Katarina; Pinheiro, Miguel; Wells, Louise; Bryant, Josephine M.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Bébéar, Cecile; Webster, David; Harris, Simon R.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

2015-01-01

189

Evaluation of virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates.  

PubMed

The course of enzootic pneumonia, caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is strongly influenced by management and housing conditions. Other factors, including differences in virulence between M. hyopneumoniae strains, may also be involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the virulence of six M. hyopneumoniae field isolates and link it to genetic differences as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ninety, conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were inoculated intratracheally with the field isolates, a virulent reference strain or sterile culture medium. Animals were examined daily for the presence of disease signs and a respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed per pig. Twenty-eight days post infection, pigs were euthanized, blood sampled and a lung lesion score was given. Lung samples were processed for histopathology, immunofluorescence testing for M. hyopneumoniae and isolation of M. hyopneumoniae. RAPD analysis was performed on all M. hyopneumoniae strains. Significant differences between isolates were found for the RDS, lung lesion score, histopathology, immunofluorescence and serology. Based on the results of the different parameters, isolates were divided into three "virulence" groups: low, moderately and highly virulent strains. Typically, a 5000 bp RAPD fragment was associated with the highly and moderately virulent strains whereas it was absent in low virulent strains. It was concluded that high variation in virulence exists between M. hyopneumoniae strains isolated from different swine herds. Further studies are required to determine whether the 5000 bp fragment obtained in the RAPD analysis can be used as a virulence marker. PMID:14654289

Vicca, J; Stakenborg, T; Maes, D; Butaye, P; Peeters, J; de Kruif, A; Haesebrouck, F

2003-12-30

190

Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

2014-01-01

191

Interaction of cationic antimicrobial peptides with Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

We investigated the mode of action underlying the anti-mycoplasma activity of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) using four known AMPs and Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model mycoplasma. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the integrity of the M. pulmonis membrane was significantly damaged within 30 min of AMPs exposure, which was confirmed by measuring the uptake of propidium iodine into the mycoplasma cells. The anti-mycoplasma activity of AMPs was found to depend on the binding affinity for phosphatidylcholine, which was incorporated into the mycoplasma membrane from the growth medium and preferentially distributed in the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer. PMID:23994526

Park, Ho Jin; Kang, Ki Mo; Dybvig, Kevin; Lee, Bok Luel; Jung, Yong Woo; Lee, In Hee

2013-10-11

192

Studies in vitro on the relative efficacy of current acaricides for Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of Sarcoptes scabiei to various topical therapies has been described, but clinical assessment of treatment failure is problematic and in-vitro assays are generally not available. We describe a simple in-vitro analysis used to evaluate the relative efficacy of a range of topical, oral, and herbal treatments available in Australia for the treatment of scabies. S. scabiei var. hominis mites

S. F. Walton; M. R. Myerscough; B. J. Currie

2000-01-01

193

Aortic homograft endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis and complicated by agranulocytosis due to ceftriaxone.  

PubMed

The present report describes a very rare case of an aortic homograft valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis. The case was complicated by an agranulocytosis after 3 weeks of antibiotic treatment induced by ceftriaxone. Alternative oral treatment with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin was successful, no surgical intervention was needed and homograft function could be preserved. PMID:22797477

Braun, Dominique; Horovitz, Arthur; Bertea, Mihai; Jenni, Rolf; Günthard, Huldrych F

2010-01-01

194

Kinetics of decolourisation and biotransformation of direct black 38 by C. hominis and P. stutzeri.  

PubMed

In the present study, a consortium of Cardiobacterium hominis and Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated from an effluent treatment plant of a textile industry, based on its ability to decolourise azo dyes including direct black 38 (DB38), a benzidine-based azo dye. The role of each culture in the decolourisation process was elucidated, and C. hominis was found to decolourise the dye. Although P. stutzeri could not decolourise the dye, it was found to synergistically enhance dye decolourisation activity of C. hominis by scavenging oxygen in the medium and creating an anaerobic condition (oxidation/reduction potential -440 mV), which is known to be necessary for azo dye decolourisation. Together, the cultures could decolourise 90.5% of 100 mg l(-1) DB38 within 24 h. Kinetics of DB38 decolourisation was also examined, and P. stutzeri was found to increase V (max) and K (m) of decolourisation activity of C. hominis by 3.6- and 3-fold, respectively. The study also revealed a pathway of DB38 degradation with the release of benzidine from DB38 and subsequent degradation of benzidine to 4-aminobiphenyl by the cultures. PMID:17318544

Bafana, Amit; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Chakrabarti, Tapan

2007-04-01

195

Short tandem repeat sequences in the Mycoplasma genitalium genome and their use in a multilocus genotyping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several methods have been reported for strain typing of Mycoplasma genitalium. The value of these methods has never been comparatively assessed. The aims of this study were: 1) to identify new potential genetic markers based on an analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) sequences in the published M. genitalium genome sequence; 2) to apply previously and newly identified markers

Liang Ma; Stephanie Taylor; Jørgen S Jensen; Leann Myers; Rebecca Lillis; David H Martin

2008-01-01

196

In vitro susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis to antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Fifty-four Japanese strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from porkers during 1980 to 1995, and 107 Japanese strains of M. hyorhinis isolated from piglets with respiratory disease during 1991 to 1994 were investigated for the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents [josamycin, tylosin, spiramycin, kitasamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin (LCM), kanamycin (KM), chloramphenicol (CP), thiamphenicol (TP), tiamulin (TML), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and enrofloxacin (ERFX)] by the agar dilution method. Of the drugs tested TML showed the highest activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.013 to 0.1 microgram/ m/ (MIC90; 0.05 microgram/ml) against strains of M. hyosynoviae, and 0.2 to 0.78 microgram/ml (MIC90; 0.39 microgram/ml) against strains of M. hyorhinis. ERFX, LCM, most of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotics and tetracyclines also showed low MICs against both mycoplasma species. The susceptibility of KM, CP and TP to the mycoplasmas was considered to be of a secondary grade. Two of 54 strains of M. hyosynoviae, and 11 of 107 strains of M. hyorhinis showed resistance to all 14- and 16-membered macrolide antibiotics tested. Tetracyclines (OTC and CTC) showed a relatively broad MIC distribution from 0.1 to 6.25 micrograms/ml against the M. hyosynoviae strains tested. All of the strains isolated during 1980 to 1984 were susceptible at the concentration of 0.78 microgram/ml or less (MIC90; 0.78 microgram/ml) to OTC and 1.56 micrograms/ml or less (MIC90; 1.56 micrograms/ml) to CTC, while the susceptibility of strains isolated recently, during 1994 to 1995, was more than 0.78 microgram/ml (MIC90; 3.13 micrograms/ml) to OTC, and more than 1.56 micrograms/ml (MIC90; 6.25 micrograms/ml) to CTC. PMID:8959659

Kobayashi, H; Sonmez, N; Morozumi, T; Mitani, K; Ito, N; Shiono, H; Yamamoto, K

1996-11-01

197

O-Linked Protein Glycosylation in Mycoplasma  

PubMed Central

Summary Although mycoplasmas have a paucity of glycosyltransferases and nucleotidyltransferases recognizable by bioinformatics, these bacteria are known to produce polysaccharides and glycolipids. We show here that mycoplasmas also produce glycoproteins and hence have glycomes more complex than previously realized. Proteins from several species of Mycoplasma reacted with a glycoprotein stain, and the murine pathogen Mycoplasma arthritidis was chosen for further study. The presence of M. arthritidis glycoproteins was confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. O-linked glycosylation was clearly identified at both serine and threonine residues. No consensus amino acid sequence was evident for the glycosylation sites of the glycoproteins. A single hexose was identified as the O-linked modification, and glucose was inferred by 13C labeling to be the hexose at several of the glycosylation sites. This is the first study to conclusively identify sites of protein glycosylation in any of the mollicutes. PMID:24118505

Jordan, David S.; Daubenspeck, James M.; Laube, Audra H.; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Dybvig, Kevin

2013-01-01

198

A College Epidemic of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports on an outbreak of mycoplasma pneumoniae at the California Polytechnic State University including a historical background of the disease, clinical features, laboratory findings for treated patients, treatment, and clinical clues for diagnosis. (JMF)

Ralston, David; Cochran, Burt

1979-01-01

199

Mycoplasma pneumonia: Clinical features and management  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common respiratory pathogen that produces diseases of varied severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe atypical pneumonia. Apart from respiratory tract infections, this organism is also responsible for producing a wide spectrum of non-pulmonary manifestations including neurological, hepatic, cardiac diseases, hemolytic anemia, polyarthritis and erythema multiforme. This review focuses on molecular taxonomy, biological characteristics, epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiology and various laboratory tools in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mycoplasma pneumonia. PMID:20616940

Kashyap, Surender; Sarkar, Malay

2010-01-01

200

Molecular Demonstration of Hemotropic Mycoplasmas in Wild Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild monkeys is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood specimens collected from wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) tentatively captured for ecological survey in Mie prefecture, Japan. We examined 9 monkeys using hemoplasma-specific real-time PCR and found all of them positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in wild monkeys were amplified using end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed a wide prevalence of a hemoplasma strain in Japanese monkeys, which was similar to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’ reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma strain remain unexplored. PMID:23978941

SASHIDA, Hinako; SUZUKI, Yoshihisa; ROKUHARA, Sou; NAGAI, Kazuya; HARASAWA, Ryô

2013-01-01

201

Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas as Neonatal Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The genital mycoplasmas represent a complex and unique group of microorganisms that have been associated with a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and infants. The lack of conclusive knowledge regarding the pathogenic potential of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. in many conditions is due to a general unfamiliarity of physicians and microbiology laboratories with their fastidious growth requirements, leading to difficulty in their detection; their high prevalence in healthy persons; the poor design of research studies attempting to base association with disease on the mere presence of the organisms in the lower urogenital tract; the failure to consider multifactorial aspects of diseases; and considering these genital mycoplasmas only as a last resort. The situation is now changing because of a greater appreciation of the genital mycoplasmas as perinatal pathogens and improvements in laboratory detection, particularly with regard to the development of powerful molecular nucleic acid amplification tests. This review summarizes the epidemiology of genital mycoplasmas as causes of neonatal infections and premature birth; evidence linking ureaplasmas with bronchopulmonary dysplasia; recent changes in the taxonomy of the genus Ureaplasma; the neonatal host response to mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections; advances in laboratory detection, including molecular methods; and therapeutic considerations for treatment of systemic diseases. PMID:16223956

Waites, Ken B.; Katz, Brenda; Schelonka, Robert L.

2005-01-01

202

Avoidance of the host immune system through phase variation in Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

Phase-variable lipoproteins are commonly found in Mycoplasma species. Mycoplasma pulmonis contains a family of extensively studied phase- and size-variable lipoproteins encoded by the vsa locus. The Vsa surface proteins vary at a high frequency, the in vivo significance of which has yet to be determined. We investigated the role of Vsa phase variation in respect to tissue tropism and avoidance of the immune system in the mouse host. Mycoplasmas were cultured 3, 14, and 21 days postinoculation from the nose, lung, trachea, liver, and spleen of experimentally infected C57BL/6 (wild-type), C57BL/6-RAG-1-/- (RAG-/-), and C57BL/6-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-/- (iNOS-/-) mice. In wild-type and iNOS-/- mice, a large number of Vsa variants were seen by 21 days postinoculation. In contrast, little Vsa variation occurred in all tissues of RAG-/- mice. Analysis of isolates from 14 days postinoculation revealed less variation of the Vsa proteins in iNOS-/- mice than in the wild type. Western blot analysis of isolates from each strain of mouse demonstrated that Vsa phase variation occurred independently of size variation, indicating no obvious selection pressure for size variants. Additionally, these experiments provided no evidence that mycoplasmas producing particular Vsa proteins adhered only to specific tissues. The data strongly indicate that Vsa phase variation is a mechanism for avoidance of the immune system with no obvious contribution to tissue tropism. PMID:15784544

Denison, Amy M; Clapper, Brenda; Dybvig, Kevin

2005-04-01

203

Experimental Infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae Identify Key Factors Involved in Host-Colonization  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs. PMID:24699671

Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagné, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine

2014-01-01

204

In Vitro Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Colonization of Human Airway Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory disease, especially in school-age children and young adults. We employed normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in air-liquid interface culture to study the interaction of M. pneumoniae with differentiated airway epithelium. These airway cells, when grown in air-liquid interface culture, polarize, form tight junctions, produce mucus, and develop ciliary function. We examined both qualitatively and quantitatively the role of mycoplasma gliding motility in the colonization pattern of developing airway cells, comparing wild-type M. pneumoniae and mutants thereof with moderate to severe defects in gliding motility. Adherence assays with radiolabeled mycoplasmas demonstrated a dramatic reduction in binding for all strains with airway cell polarization, independent of acquisition of mucociliary function. Adherence levels dropped further once NHBE cells achieved terminal differentiation, with mucociliary activity strongly selecting for full gliding competence. Analysis over time by confocal microscopy demonstrated a distinct colonization pattern that appeared to originate primarily with ciliated cells, but lateral spread from the base of the cilia was slower than expected. The data support a model in which the mucociliary apparatus impairs colonization yet cilia provide a conduit for mycoplasma access to the host cell surface and suggest acquisition of a barrier function, perhaps associated with tethered mucin levels, with NHBE cell polarization. PMID:24478073

Prince, Oliver A.; Krunkosky, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

205

9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.28 Detection of mycoplasma contamination. The heart infusion test, using heart infusion broth and heart infusion agar, provided in this section shall be conducted when a test for mycoplasma...

2010-01-01

206

9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.28 Detection of mycoplasma contamination. The heart infusion test, using heart infusion broth and heart infusion agar, provided in this section shall be conducted when a test for mycoplasma...

2011-01-01

207

9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tested using a set of chicken and a set of turkey serums (the positive serums shall have...Meleagridis Antigen shall be tested using turkey serums. (g) Specificity requirements...Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and five Mycoplasma...

2013-01-01

208

9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tested using a set of chicken and a set of turkey serums (the positive serums shall have...Meleagridis Antigen shall be tested using turkey serums. (g) Specificity requirements...Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and five Mycoplasma...

2010-01-01

209

9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tested using a set of chicken and a set of turkey serums (the positive serums shall have...Meleagridis Antigen shall be tested using turkey serums. (g) Specificity requirements...Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and five Mycoplasma...

2011-01-01

210

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

211

Nationwide Surveillance of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Pediatric Patients  

PubMed Central

We conducted nationwide surveillance to investigate regional differences in macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Japan. The prevalence of MR M. pneumoniae in pediatric patients gradually increased between 2008 and 2012. Although regional differences were observed, high levels of MR genes were detected in all seven surveillance areas throughout Japan and ranged in prevalence from 50% to 93%. These regional differences were closely related to the previous administration of macrolides. PMID:23716043

Kawai, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Mika; Akaike, Hiroto; Kato, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Yoko; Saito, Aki; Kondo, Eisuke; Teranishi, Hideto; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Ogita, Satoko; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu

2013-01-01

212

The Complete Genome and Proteome of Mycoplasma mobile  

E-print Network

The Complete Genome and Proteome of Mycoplasma mobile Jacob D. Jaffe,1,2 Nicole Stange-Thomann,3 sequence and proteogenomic map for the piscine mycoplasma Mycoplasma mobile, noted for its robust gliding identical yet uniquely expressed proteins. M. mobile has among the lowest DNA GC contents (24.9%) and most

Church, George M.

213

In silico metabolic pathway modeling and analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

E-print Network

In silico metabolic pathway modeling and analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Jin Sik Kim Sang Yup Lee-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea Keywords: metabolic pathway modeling, Mycoplasma pneumoniae 1 Introduction of the metabolic model [2, 5]. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogen causing atypical pneumonia in human beings

214

Wax D from Different Bovine Strains of Mycobacterium1  

PubMed Central

Wax DP, a peptido-glycolipid found in extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis, was not found in extracts of three strains of still-grown M. tuberculosis var. bovis (BCG, Marmorek and Dupray). However, extracts from three other bovine strains (Behring, LA and BB) did yield waxes DP, and these did not differ as to their molar ratios of alanine/glutamic acid/diaminopimelic acid from human waxes DP. PMID:5000307

Migliore, D.; Augier, J.; Boisvert, H.; Jollès, P.

1971-01-01

215

Wax D from different bovine strains of Mycobacterium.  

PubMed

Wax D(P), a peptido-glycolipid found in extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis, was not found in extracts of three strains of still-grown M. tuberculosis var. bovis (BCG, Marmorek and Dupray). However, extracts from three other bovine strains (Behring, LA and BB) did yield waxes D(P), and these did not differ as to their molar ratios of alanine/glutamic acid/diaminopimelic acid from human waxes D(P). PMID:5000307

Migliore, D; Augier, J; Boisvert, H; Jollès, P

1971-08-01

216

Induction of Constitutive High-Level Expression of c-Myc in 32D Cells by Mycoplasmas is Associated with their Ability to Prevent Apoptosis and Induce Malignant Transformation.  

PubMed

Our previous studies showed that mycoplasmas prevented apoptosis and induced the malignant transformation of mammalian cells. Other studies indicate that c-Myc plays an important role in promoting apoptosis and malignant transformation of cells. To understand the role of c-Myc in the mycoplasma induced apoptosis prevention and malignant cell transformation, 32D cells, an IL-3 dependent cell line, were infected and transformed by different species of mycoplasmas. The expression of Myc and ras gene families, apoptosis and the cell cycle during the infection and transformation were examined. Results showed that c-Myc expression was significantly increased in mycoplasma transformed 32D cells. Withdrawal of IL-3 substantially decreased c-Myc expression and led to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase followed by rapid apoptosis. Infection by M. fermentans or M. penetrans not only alleviated the sharp decrease of c-Myc expression, rescued 32D cells from cell-cycle arrest and prevented apoptosis in IL-3-free culture, but also induced autonomous growth of 32D cells. Although M. hominis and M. salivarium had the ability neither to prevent apoptosis nor to induce malignant transformation, they were still able to rescue the cells from cell cycle arrest. The expression of ras family did not change significantly during the infection and transformation. These results suggest that constitutive expression of c-Myc appears to be associated with the continuous growth and malignant transformation of 32D cells induced by M. fermentans and M. penetrans, but not with rescuing the cell cycle arrest by the mycoplasmas. PMID:23675000

Zhang, Shimin; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

2006-12-01

217

The Mycoplasma fermentans prophage phiMFV1: genome organization, mobility and variable expression of an encoded surface protein.  

PubMed

The approximately 16 kb genome of the Mycoplasma fermentans phiMFV1 prophage is described, and its mobility, replication and effect on the mycoplasma surface phenotype are demonstrated. In various M. fermentans strains, phiMFV1 was either absent or integrated at diverse (and sometimes multiple) chromosomal sites, each marked by a conserved TTTTTA target sequence that is duplicated upon integration. Precise excision, replication of an extrachromosomal form and loss of phiMFV1 from the mycoplasmal genome were documented in a series of clonal derivatives of M. fermentans propagated in culture. Of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by phiMFV1, most can be ascribed functions related to phage biology, whereas one encodes a unique coiled-coil membrane surface protein, Mem, that was confirmed to be expressed in propagating populations of M. fermentans. With the exception of Mem and other minor ORFs, the striking similarity between the deduced proteomes of phiMFV1 and the recently described phiMAV1 of arthritogenic strains of Mycoplasma arthritidis, along with the prominent gene synteny between these elements, provides the taxonomic basis for a new family of prophage. Their coding features are consistent with long-term residence in mycoplasma genomes and the divergence of species within a phylogenetic clade of mycoplasmas. The unique Mem protein expressed from phiMFV1 and the unique hypothetical surface lipoproteins encoded by phiMAV1 and phiMFV1 also suggest that prophage-associated genes may provide specific, selectable phenotypic traits during co-evolution of mycoplasma species with their respective mammalian hosts. Retention of these labile prophage elements in organisms with such drastically reduced genome sizes implies a significant role in adaptation and survival. PMID:15186419

Röske, K; Calcutt, M J; Wise, K S

2004-06-01

218

Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis presenting as acute embolic stroke: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report on a case of endocarditis attributable to Cardiobacterium hominis in a 31-year-old man who presented with acute-onset, left-sided hemiparesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute infarctions in 2 areas of the right cerebral cortex, and a transesophageal echocardiogram revealed vegetation in a previously unrecognized bicuspid aortic valve. The patient completed a 6-week course of ceftriaxone and aspirin, with resolution of the vegetation and neurological complications. Our literature review of C. hominis endocarditis suggests that aortic-valve involvement is associated with high stroke and valve-surgery rates. Favorable outcomes and treatment success are evident with either penicillin or ceftriaxone, in combination with (if indicated) valve surgery in patients with neurological complications. PMID:20598374

Chentanez, Teera; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Chokrungvaranon, Nalurporn; Joyner, James

2011-01-01

219

Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis associated with very severe thrombocytopenia and platelet autoantibodies.  

PubMed

Severe thrombocytopenia is a life-threatening condition. It is often associated with immune-mediated platelet destruction or myeloablative chemotherapy. Infective endocarditis has been associated with thrombocytopenia, which, as in sepsis, tends to be mild and is often the result of several pathological mechanisms. We report a case of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis associated with very severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding in a patient who refused platelet transfusion. Platelet autoantibodies directed against glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa and Gp Ib/IX were detected during active infection using a glycoprotein-specific assay. Successful treatment of C. hominis endocarditis was associated with loss of platelet autoantibodies and recovery of the platelet count. This report illustrates that the development of platelet autoantibodies can contribute to very severe thrombocytopenia in occasional patients with infective endocarditis. PMID:15282672

Arnold, Donald M; Smaill, Fiona; Warkentin, Theodore E; Christjanson, Lisa; Walker, Irwin

2004-08-01

220

Rapid identification of Cardiobacterium hominis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry during infective endocarditis.  

PubMed

We report a new case of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis identified during an acute coronary syndrome. The positivity of the blood cultures was confirmed rapidly (50 h) as a result of improvements to the automated detection system, whereby it is no longer necessary to incubate the vials for long periods of time when Aggregatibacter-Cardiobacterium-Eikenella-Kingella infections is suspected. The phenotype-based VITEK 2 NH identification system is not able to distinguish between the two species of Cardiobacterium, as it does not contain C. valvarum in its library. The method for 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is able to separate the two species but is not available in all laboratories. We used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, as an alternative, to rapidly distinguish between C. hominis and C. valvarum, because both species are contained in the system library. PMID:21788710

Wallet, Frédéric; Loïez, Caroline; Decoene, Christophe; Courcol, René

2011-01-01

221

Biology, persistence and detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocyst.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are obligate enteric protozoan parasites which infect the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. The mechanism(s) by which these parasites cause gastrointestinal distress in their hosts is not well understood. The risk of waterborne transmission of Cryptosporidium is a serious global issue in drinking water safety. Oocysts from these organisms are extremely robust, prevalent in source water supplies and capable of surviving in the environment for extended periods of time. Resistance to conventional water treatment by chlorination, lack of correlation with biological indicator microorganisms and the absence of adequate methods to detect the presence of infectious oocysts necessitates the development of consistent and effective means of parasite removal from the water supply. Additional research into improving water treatment and sewage treatment practices is needed, particularly in testing the efficiency of ozone in oocyst inactivation. Timely and efficient detection of infectious C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts in environmental samples requires the development of rapid and sensitive techniques for the concentration, purification and detection of these parasites. A major factor confounding proper detection remains the inability to adequately and efficiently concentrate oocysts from environmental samples, while limiting the presence of extraneous materials. Molecular-based techniques are the most promising methods for the sensitive and accurate detection of C. parvum and C. hominis. With the availability of numerous target sequences, RT-PCR will likely emerge as an important method to assess oocyst viability. In addition, a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of C. parvum, C. hominis and other waterborne pathogens such as Giardia lamblia would greatly benefit the water industry and protect human health. PMID:14769405

Carey, C M; Lee, H; Trevors, J T

2004-02-01

222

The first reported cases of human cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in Slovak Republic.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis belongs to the important parasitic infections with zoonotic potential and the occurrence in European countries is rare. The first cases of cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis detected in the Slovak republic were described here. Collection of examined humans consisted of five family members. Faecal specimens were examined by formalin sedimentation, by the Sheather's sugar flotation and by immunochromatography and visualised by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and species was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the endonucleases SspI and VspI. C. hominis was found in faeces of two immunocompetent siblings (a 7-year-old boy and a 2-year-old girl). The symptoms occurred only in the boy as gastrointestinal disorders lasting 5 days, and manifested by abdominal pain, an elevated body temperature (37.2 °C), mild diarrhoea, accompanied by lassitude, depression and anorexia. Ultrasonic scan revealed enlarged spleen and mezenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic examination of the stool sample revealed numerous Cryptosporidium oocysts. The DNA typing identified C. hominis subtype IbA10G2. Cryptosporidium was also detected in the boy's sister without any complications and symptoms. Their father, mother and grandmother were parasitologically negative. The source of infection remained unknown. Human cases in present study reflect necessity of systematic attention on intestinal parasites diagnostic inclusive of cryptosporidia. PMID:22826020

Ondriska, František; Vrabcová, Ivana; Brin?áková, Silvia; Kvá?, Martin; Ditrich, Oleg; Boldiš, Vojtech; Bastlová, Marcela

2013-01-01

223

The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback. PMID:8592358

Goldberg, D R; Samuel, M D; Thomas, C B; Sharp, P; Krapu, G L; Robb, J R; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Chipley, W H; Conroy, M J

1995-07-01

224

Transposon mutagenesis in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a novel mariner-based system for generating random mutations  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, a chronic respiratory disease associated with significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of infection is poorly understood due to the lack of genetic tools to allow manipulation of the organism and more generally for the Mycoplasma genus. The objective of this study was to develop a system for generating random transposon insertion mutants in M. hyopneumoniae that could prove a powerful tool in enabling the pathogenesis of infection to be unraveled. A novel delivery vector was constructed containing a hyperactive C9 mutant of the Himar1 transposase along with a mini transposon containing the tetracycline resistance cassette, tetM. M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 was electroporated with the construct and tetM-expressing transformants selected on agar containing tetracycline. Individual transformants contained single transposon insertions that were stable upon serial passages in broth medium. The insertion sites of 44 individual transformants were determined and confirmed disruption of several M. hyopneumoniae genes. A large pool of over 10 000 mutants was generated that should allow saturation of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome. This is the first time that transposon mutagenesis has been demonstrated in this important pathogen and could be generally applied for other Mycoplasma species that are intractable to genetic manipulation. The ability to generate random mutant libraries is a powerful tool in the further study of the pathogenesis of this important swine pathogen. PMID:24359443

2013-01-01

225

Synergism between upregulation of Rab7 and inhibition of autophagic degradation caused by mycoplasma facilitates intracellular mycoplasma infection  

PubMed Central

Following fusion of a mycoplasma with a host cell membrane, the inserted components of mycoplasma may then be transported through the endocytic pathway. However, the effects of mycoplasmas on the host cell endomembrane system are largely unknown. In this study, mycoplasma-induced changes in the dynamics of endocytic and autophagic systems were investigated. Endocytosis and autophagy are two major processes involved in the survival of intracellular prokaryotic pathogens. It was found that, immediately following infection, mycoplasmas induce endocytosis in the host cell; however, in the long term the mycoplasmas suppress turnover of the components of the endocytic pathway. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Rab7 and LC3-II are recruited to the intracellular mycoplasma-containing compartments. Western blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that mycoplasmas increase expression of Rab7 by upregulating transcription, but increase levels of LC3-II and p62 by post-translational regulation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that mycoplasma infection causes inhibition of autophagic degradation of LC3-II and p62. In addition, it was found that upregulation of Rab7 and inhibition of autophagic degradation synergistically contributes to intracellular mycoplasma accumulation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that mycoplasmas may manipulate host cell endosomal and autophagic systems in order to facilitate intracellular infection. PMID:24452847

HU, XIAOPENG; YU, JIE; ZHOU, XIANG; LI, ZHAOMING; XIA, YUN; LUO, ZHIYONG; WU, YAQUN

2014-01-01

226

Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus hominis (MRSHo): Low Clonality and Reservoirs of SCCmec Structural Elements  

PubMed Central

Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus hominis (MRSHo) are important human pathogens in immunocompromised patients. However, little is known regarding its population structure and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) content. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the population structure and the SCCmec content of S. hominis, 34 MRSHo and 11 methicillin-susceptible S. hominis (MSSHo) from neutropenic patients collected over a 3-year period were studied. The genetic backgrounds of S. hominis isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and SCCmec types were determined by PCR. Cassette chromosome recombinases (ccr) were characterized by PCR and ccrB sequencing. The 34 S. hominis isolates were classified into as many as 28 types and 32 subtypes (SID?=?99.82%); clonal dissemination was occasionally observed. The main SCCmec structures identified were SCCmec type VI (4B) (20%), SCCmec VIII (4A) (15%), and a new SCCmec composed of mec complex A in association with ccrAB1 (38%); 27% of the isolates harbored non-typeable SCCmec. Overall, a high prevalence of mec complex A (73.5%), ccrAB1 (50%) and ccrAB4 (44%) were found. Importantly, ccrB1 and ccrB4 from both MRSHo and MSSHo showed a high nucleotide sequence homology with those found in S. aureus SCCmec I, VI and VIII respectively (>95%). Conclusions/Significance The S. hominis population showed a limited clonality and a low genetic diversity in the allotypes of ccr and classes of mec complex. Moreover, our data suggest that S. hominis might have been a privileged source of mec complex A, ccrB1 and ccrB4, for the assembly of primordial SCCmec types. PMID:21760926

Bouchami, Ons; Ben Hassen, Assia; de Lencastre, Herminia; Miragaia, Maria

2011-01-01

227

Assessment of polymorphic genetic markers for multi-locus typing of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis.  

PubMed

The use of high resolution molecular tools to study Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis intra-species variation is becoming common practice, but there is currently no consensus in the methods used. The most commonly applied tool is partial gp60 gene sequence analysis. However, multi-locus schemes are acknowledged to improve resolution over analysis of a single locus, which neglects potential re-assortment of genes during the sexual phase of the Cryptosporidium life-cycle. Multi-locus markers have been investigated in isolates from a variety of sampling frames, in varying combinations and using different assays and methods of analysis. To identify the most informative markers as candidates for the development of a standardised multi-locus fragment size-based typing (MLFT) scheme to integrate with epidemiological analyses, we examined the published literature. A total of 31 MLFT studies were found, employing 55 markers of which 45 were applied to both C. parvum and C. hominis. Of the studies, 11 had sufficient raw data, from three or more markers, and a sampling frame containing at least 50 samples, for meaningful in-depth analysis using assessment criteria based on the sampling frame, study size, number of markers investigated in each study, marker characteristics (>2 nucleotide repeats) and the combinations of markers generating all possible multi-locus genotypes. Markers investigated differed between C. hominis and C. parvum. When each scheme was analysed for the fewest markers required to identify 95% of all MLFTs, some redundancy was identified in all schemes; an average redundancy of 40% for C. hominis and 27% for C. parvum. Ranking markers, based on the most productive combinations, identified two different sets of potentially most informative candidate markers, one for each species. These will be subjected to technical evaluation including typability (percentage of samples generating a complete multi-locus type) and discriminatory power by direct fragment size analysis and analysed for correlation with epidemiological data in suitable sampling frames. The establishment of a group of users and agreed subtyping scheme for improved epidemiological and public health investigations of C. parvum and C. hominis will facilitate further developments and consideration of technological advances in a harmonised manner. PMID:22781277

Robinson, Guy; Chalmers, Rachel M

2012-10-01

228

Mycoplasma contamination in the 1000 Genomes Project  

PubMed Central

Background In silco Biology is increasingly important and is often based on public data. While the problem of contamination is well recognised in microbiology labs the corresponding problem of database corruption has received less attention. Results Mapping 50 billion next generation DNA sequences from The Thousand Genome Project against published genomes reveals many that match one or more Mycoplasma but are not included in the reference human genome GRCh37.p5. Many of these are of low quality but NCBI BLAST searches confirm some high quality, high entropy sequences match Mycoplasma but no human sequences. Conclusions It appears at least 7% of 1000G samples are contaminated. PMID:24872843

2014-01-01

229

DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase. PMID:24148612

2013-01-01

230

Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides  

PubMed Central

With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of “whole genome writing” in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF) of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in M. mycoides. PMID:25101070

Karas, Bogumil J.; Wise, Kim S.; Sun, Lijie; Venter, J. Craig; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Suzuki, Yo

2014-01-01

231

Influence of cold-pressed canola, brewers grains and hominy meal as dietary supplements suitable for reducing enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data in the literature concerning in vivo effects of dietary fat supplementation on enteric CH4 emissions from lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate four dietary treatments designated as control (CON), brewers grains (BG), hominy meal and cold-pressed canola (HCC) and hominy meal only (HM) for their effects on CH4 emissions and milk

P. J. Moate; S. R. O. Williams; C. Grainger; M. C. Hannah; E. N. Ponnampalam; R. J. Eckard

2011-01-01

232

Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticums vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a previous study, it was shown to occur in response to an F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers from our laboratory a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation to...

233

Chronic "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infection  

PubMed Central

"Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infects felids. The pathogenesis of "Candidatus M. turicensis" chronic infection is poorly understood. The goals of the present study were to (1) induce reactivation of the infection in chronic carrier cats by attempted immunosuppression, (2) identify potential tissue sequestration using real-time TaqMan® PCR and (3) monitor the humoral immune response by DnaK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten specified pathogen-free cats that had ostensibly recovered from experimental "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection were used: five cats (group 1) received high dose methylprednisolone (attempted immunosuppression), while five cats served as untreated controls (group 2). Besides weekly blood samples, tissue samples were collected from bone marrow, kidney, liver and salivary glands at selected time points. The cats in group 1 had significantly lower lymphocyte counts and higher blood glucose levels after methylprednisolone administration than the controls. After methylprednisolone administration one blood and three tissue samples from cats in group 1 tested PCR-positive; before the administration, only one sample was positive. All other samples tested PCR-negative. All cats stayed seropositive; the antibody levels of the cats in group 1 showed a significant transient decrease after methylprednisolone administration. This is the first study to report the presence of "Candidatus M. turicensis" in tissues of chronically infected cats and the persistence of anti-feline hemoplasma antibodies in the absence of detectable bacteremia. Methylprednisolone administration did not lead to a significant reactivation of the infection. Our results enhance the knowledge of "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection pathogenesis and are clinically relevant to the prognosis of hemoplasma-infected cats. PMID:21507220

2011-01-01

234

A novel transposon construct expressing PhoA with potential for studying protein expression and translocation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major poultry pathogen and causes severe economic loss to the poultry industry. In mycoplasmas lipoproteins are abundant on the membrane surface and play a critical role in interactions with the host, but tools for exploring their molecular biology are limited. Results In this study we examined whether the alkaline phosphatase gene (phoA ) from Escherichia coli could be used as a reporter in mycoplasmas. The promoter region from the gene for elongation factor Tu (ltuf) and the signal and acylation sequences from the vlhA 1.1 gene, both from Mycoplasma gallisepticum , together with the coding region of phoA , were assembled in the transposon-containing plasmid pISM2062.2 (pTAP) to enable expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a recombinant lipoprotein. The transposon was used to transform M. gallisepticum strain S6. As a control, a plasmid containing a similar construct, but lacking the signal and acylation sequences, was also produced (pTP) and also introduced into M. gallisepticum . Using a colorimetric substrate for detection of alkaline phosphatase activity, it was possible to detect transformed M. gallisepticum . The level of transcription of phoA in organisms transformed with pTP was lower than in those transformed with pTAP, and alkaline phosphatase was not detected by immunoblotting or enzymatic assays in pTP transformants, eventhough alkaline phosphatase expression could be readily detected by both assays in pTAP transformants. Alkaline phosphatase was shown to be located in the hydrophobic fraction of transformed mycoplasmas following Triton X-114 partitioning and in the membrane fraction after differential fractionation. Trypsin proteolysis confirmed its surface exposure. The inclusion of the VlhA lipoprotein signal sequence in pTAP enabled translocation of PhoA and acylation of the amino terminal cysteine moiety, as confirmed by the effect of treatment with globomycin and radiolabelling studies with [14?C]palmitate. PhoA could be identified by mass-spectrometry after separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Conclusion This is the first study to express PhoA as a lipoprotein in mycoplasmas. The pTAP plasmid will facilitate investigations of lipoproteins and protein translocation across the cell membrane in mycoplasmas, and the ease of detection of these transformants makes this vector system suitable for the simultaneous screening and detection of cloned genes expressed as membrane proteins in mycoplasmas. PMID:22770122

2012-01-01

235

Comparative geno-plasticity analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese isolate).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

236

Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

237

Infective endocarditis in a child caused by Cardiobacterium hominis after right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction using an expanded tetrafluoroethylene conduit.  

PubMed

Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group of organisms, is a rare cause of endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by C. hominis in a male child who had undergone right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene conduit for tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia. Two days before admission, the patient suffered from exertional shortness of breath. Right ventricular hypertension was confirmed and RVOT stenosis was suspected based on the echocardiography findings. A CT scan revealed vegetation above the cusp of the conduit. An emergency operation was performed to avoid a pulmonary embolism due to large friable vegetation. C. hominis was cultured from the blood and the vegetation, prompting a diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis. The patient was discharged after a 6-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone therapy. PMID:21674312

Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Umezu, Kentaroh; Ohashi, Noburoh; Harada, Yorikazu

2011-06-01

238

Infection of human B lymphoma cells by Mycoplasma fermentans induces interaction of its elongation factor with the intracytoplasmic domain of Epstein-Barr virus receptor (gp140, EBV/C3dR, CR2, CD21).  

PubMed

Human cell lines are often infected by mycoplama strains. We have demonstrated that when infected by Mycoplasma fermentans, human B lymphoma cell proliferation increased strongly. These infected B cells expressed a p45 kDa protein which interacted with the intracellular domain of CD21, the EBV/C3d receptor. p45 analysis demonstrated that this is a new gene which encodes an elongation factor originating from Mycoplasma fermentans. p45 interaction with CD21 was specific, there being no interaction with CD19. This is the first demonstration that Mycoplasma fermentans, in infecting human B cells, generates a p45 Mycoplasma component that interacts with CD21, which is involved in B cell proliferation. PMID:16054780

Balbo, Michelle; Barel, Monique; Lottin-Divoux, Séverine; Jean, Didier; Frade, Raymond

2005-08-15

239

Mycoplasma haemocanis – the canine hemoplasma and its feline counterpart in the genomic era  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed or splenectomized dogs. The genome of the strain Illinois, isolated from blood of a naturally infected dog, has been entirely sequenced and annotated to gain a better understanding of the biology of M. haemocanis. Its single circular chromosome has 919 992 bp and a low G?+?C content (35%), representing a typical mycoplasmal genome. A gene-by-gene comparison against its feline counterpart, M. haemofelis, reveals a very similar composition and architecture with most of the genes having conserved synteny extending over their entire chromosomes and differing only by a small set of unique protein coding sequences. As in M. haemofelis, M. haemocanis metabolic pathways are reduced and apparently rely heavily on the nutrients afforded by its host environment. The presence of a major percentage of its genome dedicated to paralogous genes (63.7%) suggests that this bacterium might use antigenic variation as a mechanism to evade the host’s immune system as also observed in M. haemofelis genome. Phylogenomic comparisons based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide signature suggest that these two pathogens are different species of mycoplasmas, with M. haemocanis infecting dogs and M. haemofelis infecting cats. PMID:23020168

2012-01-01

240

Development of a novel plasmid as a shuttle vector for heterologous gene expression in Mycoplasma yeatsii.  

PubMed

A circular plasmid, pMyBK1, was detected in Mycoplasma yeatsii strain GIH(T). Analysis of the sequence of the 3432-bp replicon identified two predicted open reading frames (ORFs), one with sequence similarity to multiple plasmid mobilization proteins and one that matches only to hypothetical ORFs encoded by integrated chromosomal elements in the sequenced genomes of two Mycoplasma species. Shuttle vectors were constructed in Escherichia coli which could be introduced into M. yeatsii at high efficiency (10(4)-10(5) per ?g DNA) by electroporation. Independent deletion analysis of the two ORFs disclosed that whereas mob was dispensable, orf2 was necessary for plasmid replication or maintenance. The absence of plasmid-encoded database matches for ORF2 indicates that pMyBK1 represents a novel plasmid family. One shuttle vector was used to demonstrate heterologous expression of the Mycoplasma fermentans malp gene and was stable during multiple passages. The host-plasmid system described has potential application for genetic manipulation in a genus for which few replicative vectors are available. PMID:22968084

Kent, Bethany N; Foecking, Mark F; Calcutt, Michael J

2012-10-01

241

Reconstitution of an Active Arginine Deiminase Pathway in Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129  

PubMed Central

Some species of the genus Mycoplasma code for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI), which enables these bacteria to produce ATP from arginine by the successive reaction of three enzymes: arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC). It so far appears that independently isolated strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encode an almost identical truncated version of the ADI pathway in which the proteins ArcA and ArcB have lost their original enzymatic activities due to the deletion of significant regions of these proteins. To study the consequences of a functional ADI pathway, M. pneumoniae M129 was successfully transformed with the cloned functional arcA, arcB, and arcC genes from Mycoplasma fermentans. Enzymatic tests showed that while the M. pneumoniae ArcAB and ArcABC transformants possess functional arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, they were unable to grow on arginine as the sole energy source. Nevertheless, infection of a lung epithelial cell line, A549, with the M. pneumoniae transformants showed that almost 100% of the infected host cells were nonviable, while most of the lung cells infected with nontransformed M. pneumoniae were viable under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23897620

Rechnitzer, Hagai; Herrmann, Richard

2013-01-01

242

Reconstitution of an active arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129.  

PubMed

Some species of the genus Mycoplasma code for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI), which enables these bacteria to produce ATP from arginine by the successive reaction of three enzymes: arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC). It so far appears that independently isolated strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encode an almost identical truncated version of the ADI pathway in which the proteins ArcA and ArcB have lost their original enzymatic activities due to the deletion of significant regions of these proteins. To study the consequences of a functional ADI pathway, M. pneumoniae M129 was successfully transformed with the cloned functional arcA, arcB, and arcC genes from Mycoplasma fermentans. Enzymatic tests showed that while the M. pneumoniae ArcAB and ArcABC transformants possess functional arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, they were unable to grow on arginine as the sole energy source. Nevertheless, infection of a lung epithelial cell line, A549, with the M. pneumoniae transformants showed that almost 100% of the infected host cells were nonviable, while most of the lung cells infected with nontransformed M. pneumoniae were viable under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23897620

Rechnitzer, Hagai; Rottem, Shlomo; Herrmann, Richard

2013-10-01

243

In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of field isolates of Mycoplasma synoviae in Argentina.  

PubMed

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in vitro for 7 antibiotics (aivlosin, enrofloxacine, tylosin, tiamulin, kitasamycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) against eight recent local Argentinean isolates and two standard strains of Mycoplasma synoviae. Aivlosin (3-acetyl-4"-isovaleryl tylosin tartrate), tylosin, and tiamulin showed the lowest MICs with MIC90s of 0.006, 0.012, and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Except one strain that showed resistant values to chlortetracycline (> or = 12.5 microg/ml), all the analyzed strains were susceptible in different degrees to all the antibiotics tested. In this study, the improved activity of the tylosin-derived drug, aivlosin, was confirmed because it showed, in most strains, MIC values half those for tylosin. PMID:11922338

Cerdá, R O; Giacoboni, G I; Xavier, J A; Sansalone, P L; Landoni, M F

2002-01-01

244

Surfactant dysfunction in SP-A-/- and iNOS-/- mice with mycoplasma infection.  

PubMed

Surfactant dysfunction was studied in C57BL/6 (B6), B6.SP-A(-/-), and B6.iNOS(-/-) mice with pulmonary mycoplasma infection (10(7) colony-forming units). Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from uninfected B6.SP-A(-/-) versus B6 mice had a reduced content of very large aggregates (VLA) and an increase in intermediate large aggregates (ILA), with no difference in total large aggregates (LA = VLA + ILA). However, LA from uninfected B6.SP-A(-/-) versus B6 mice contained less protein and were more sensitive to inhibition by serum albumin and lysophosphatidylcholine in pulsating bubble studies in vitro. Infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis caused significant lung injury and surfactant abnormalities in B6.SP-A(-/-), B6.iNOS(-/-), and B6 mice at 24, 48, 72 h after infection compared with uninfected mice of the same strain. Analyses of time-pooled data indicated that mycoplasma-infected B6.SP-A(-/-) and B6.iNOS(-/-) mice had significantly lower levels of LA and higher protein/phospholipid ratios in BAL compared with infected B6 mice. Infected B6.iNOS(-/-) versus B6 mice also had increased minimum surface tensions on the pulsating bubble and decreased levels of surfactant protein (SP)-B in BAL. These results indicate that pulmonary mycoplasma infection in vivo causes lung injury and surfactant abnormalities that are dependent in part on iNOS and SP-A. In addition, SP-A deficiency modifies surfactant aggregate content and lowers the inhibition resistance of LA surfactant in vitro compared with congenic normal mice. PMID:16917077

Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Wang, Zhengdong; Fierro-Perez, German Alejandro; Chess, Patricia R; Page, Grier P; Matalon, Sadis; Notter, Robert H

2007-01-01

245

Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation. PMID:6434601

Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

1984-08-01

246

[Imported myiasis: 7 cases of cutaneous parasitism caused by Dermatobia hominis flie larvas].  

PubMed

Myiasis is the parasitism of organs and tissues of warm-blooded vertebrates by flies larvae. D hominis is a flie geographically restricted to tropical America from Mexico to northern Argentina. The adult flie, which is not hematophagous, needs to put its eggs on the abdominal surface of hematophagous arthropods which serve as carriers of future larvae which are deposited on the skin of the hosts (mammals, birds and accidentally men) when biting. Seven patients (two females) aged 7 to 35 years old, of different nationalities, recalled receiving mosquito bites, after staying in tropical American areas in the previous forty days. They presented furuncle-like lesions in exposed surfaces of the body. These lesions, 2-3 cm long, pruritic and mildly tender, broke and released a serous or serohematic fluid. Through the resulting opening, it was possible to partially observe the larva. Larvae were extracted by manual pressure (4) or surgical incision (3) and identified as D hominis larvae. Diagnosis of dermatobiasis, an imported myiasis, must be based on the characteristics of lesions and the previous residence in endemic areas of America. PMID:11552448

Schenone, H; Apt, W; Vélez, R; Bustamante, S; Sepúlveda, C; Montaldo, G; Salinas, E

2001-07-01

247

Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ?1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Prá Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bébéar, C.

2013-01-01

248

Molecular characterisation of the Mycoplasma cynos haemagglutinin HapA.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma (M.) cynos is a proven pathogen of dogs causing respiratory infections including pneumonia. We examined 19 M. cynos strains isolated from different organs of dogs in Austria, Denmark and Israel. All strains agglutinated mammalian and chicken erythrocytes. Using erythrocytes of chickens or dogs as specific ligands we isolated an approximately 65 kDa protein from cell-free supernatants of 3 M. cynos strains, which showed an apparent capacity for haemagglutination. The N-terminal sequence of a 25 kDa fragment of this protein was identified as NNEMTPKVTVEAKSMELLLSVEK. The identical amino acid sequence is encoded by the gene MCYN_0308 in the genome of M. cynos C142. This gene belongs to a family of some 20 genes which encode putative lipoproteins with proline-rich regions (PRR) in the first third of their molecules. We termed the 65 kDa haemagglutinin HapA and sequenced hapA gene homologues of 16 M. cynos strains. Analyses of hapA gene homologues revealed similar but not identical sequences, some having insertions and/or deletions in the PRR. We produced a recombinant HapA protein (rHapA) and also mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing HapA. However, enzyme immunoassays using native M. cynos colonies and mAbs 5G2 or 3B7 showed variable expression of HapA in all M. cynos strains. This was further confirmed by Western blot analyses which showed different HapA quantities and also size-variation of HapA among strains. Analyses of cDNA of the expressed hapA genes showed that besides the hapA gene cultures of M. cynos (strains 105, 2002, 2297) can also express other forms of hap genes. In addition, in cloned cultures of strain 2297 altered HapA epitopes for mAbs 5G2 and 3B7 with distinct hapA gene mutations that resulted in altered HapA amino acid sequence were found. Most of the dogs examined had serum antibodies to rHapA. In conclusion, we characterized the M. cynos haemagglutinin HapA protein and encoding gene hapA, a factor involved in cytadherence to host cells and therefore important for M. cynos infection, and showed that expression of HapA is varied in M. cynos by two distinct mechanisms; differential gene expression and nucleic acid substitution within hapA homologues. PMID:25465173

Kastelic, Saša; Cizelj, Ivanka; Narat, Mojca; Tozon, Nataša; Chalker, Victoria J; Lysnyansky, Inna; Spergser, Joachim; Ben?ina, Dušan

2015-01-30

249

The Minimal Gene Complement of Mycoplasma genitalium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence (580,070 base pairs) of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism, has been determined by whole-genome random sequencing and assembly. A total of only 470 predicted coding regions were identified that include genes required for DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. Comparison of this genome

Claire M. Fraser; Jeannine D. Gocayne; Owen White; Mark D. Adams; Rebecca A. Clayton; Robert D. Fleischmann; Carol J. Bult; Anthony R. Kerlavage; Granger Sutton; Jenny M. Kelley; Janice L. Fritchman; Janice F. Weidman; Keith V. Small; Mina Sandusky; Joyce Furhmann; David Nguyen; Teresa R. Utterback; Deborah M. Saudek; Cheryl A. Phillips; Joseph M. Merrick; Jean-Francois Tomb; Brian A. Dougherty; Kenneth F. Bott; Ping-Chuan Hu; Thomas S. Lucier; Scott N. Peterson; Hamilton O. Smith; Clyde A. Hutchison III; J. Craig Venter

1995-01-01

250

Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

251

Furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur,

Guilherme G. Verocai; Julio I. Fernandes; Thais R. Correia; Clarissa P. de Souza; Raquel M. P. S. Melo; Fabio B. Scott

2010-01-01

252

[Mycoplasmas and dysplasia of the uterine cervix].  

PubMed

The Authors report a case-list of 395 patients vaginal specimens who were never treated with chemo-antibiotic therapy. Cell dysplastic impairments were found in 213 cases. About these dysplastic alterations, 133 are of slight type, 53 intermediate type and 27 are in advanced phase. We can say, about the last 27 cases, that the concomitance of pH greater than 6.1 in 67% of the cases and the absence of Lactobacillus acidophilus in 81.4% of the cases is not casual. Furthermore, we can notice that vaginal pH suffers an increase in dysplastic patients with a smaller colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus that, in dysplastic advanced phase is absent in 81.4% of the cases. It is also to remark a significant increase of cases Trichomonas-positive and Mycoplasmas-positive in dysplastic patients, as compared with normal women. The results of the case-list, even if preliminary, seem to be indicative for an evolution of the studies on the relationship between uterine cervix cells and Mycoplasmas and eventual possibility the Mycoplasmas can act as carriers of oncogenic viruses such as Herpes and Papova Virus. PMID:6258612

Averna, R; Martelli, D; Migliorini, D; Saudelli, M

1980-09-30

253

Mycoplasma ovis in captive cervids: Prevalence, molecular characterization and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria that attach to red blood cells of mammals, leading to acute and\\/or subclinical disease in infected animals. It has been suggested that Mycoplasma ovis, a hemoplasma that infects sheep and goats worldwide, may also infect deer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether South American deer are infected with M. ovis. EDTA-anticoagulated blood

Ana Laura Grazziotin; Andrea Pires Santos; Ana Marcia Sa Guimaraes; Ahmed Mohamed; Zalmir Silvino Cubas; Marcos Jose de Oliveira; Leonilda Correia dos Santos; Wanderlei de Moraes; Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira; Lucelia Donatti; Ivan Roque de Barros Filho; Alexander Welker Biondo; Joanne Belle Messick

2011-01-01

254

“Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque” and Bartonella quintana Bacteremia in Cynomolgus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism. PMID:23408694

Mascarelli, Patricia E.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M.; Kelly, Catherine M.; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2013-01-01

255

THE OCCURRENCE OF MYCOPLASMAS IN SELECTED WILD NORTH AMERICAN WATERFOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya va!isineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples

D. R. Goldberg; M. D. Samuel; C. B. Thomas; P. Sharp; G. L Krapu; J. R. Robb; K. P. Kenow; C. E. Korschgen; W. H. Chipley; M. J. Conroy; S. H. Kleven

256

Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. PMID:21856079

Mostegl, Meike M.; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

2012-01-01

257

Immunological and pathological reactions in piglets experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or Mycoplasma flocculare.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to examine in vivo whether infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyop) and/or Mycoplasma flocculare (M. floc) would interact and influence the severity of enzootic pneumonia in piglets. Specific pathogen-free, hysterectomy-derived piglets were allocated to six groups and experimentally inoculated with M. hyop. and/or M. floc at the age of 2 or 8 weeks. Clinical symptoms, frequency of coughing and temperature measurement were noted daily. Lung lesions were recorded by post-mortem examination and histological observations. The cross-inoculation with both mycoplasmas did not influence the clinical or the pathological picture of the disease. Evolution of specific and crossreacting antibodies was analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting. Animals inoculated with M. floc did not develop any lesions but showed a weak antibody response 6-8 weeks post-infection (p.i.). No cross-reacting antibodies against M. hyop proteins were detected. In animals inoculated with M. hyop, the first antibody response was detectable 4-5 weeks p.i. and was stronger in piglets infected at the age of 2 weeks than at the age of 8 weeks. Three cross-reacting antibodies against M. floc proteins with molecular weights of 110, 47 and 33 kDa were detected by antibodies to M. hyop. Experimental infections with both mycoplasmas did not show differences in the pattern of species-specific proteins. PMID:1570675

Strasser, M; Abiven, P; Kobisch, M; Nicolet, J

1992-02-15

258

Neutrophil histamine contributes to inflammation in mycoplasma pneumonia.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas cause chronic inflammation and are implicated in asthma. Mast cells defend against mycoplasma infection and worsen allergic inflammation, which is mediated partly by histamine. To address the hypothesis that mycoplasma provokes histamine release, we exposed mice to Mycoplasma pulmonis, comparing responses in wild-type and mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/KitW-sh (W-sh) mice. Low histamine levels in uninfected W-sh mice confirmed the conventional wisdom that mast cells are principal sources of airway and serum histamine. Although mycoplasma did not release histamine acutely in wild-type airways, levels rose up to 50-fold above baseline 1 week after infection in mice heavily burdened with neutrophils. Surprisingly, histamine levels also rose profoundly in infected W-sh lungs, increasing in parallel with neutrophils and declining with neutrophil depletion. Furthermore, neutrophils from infected airway were highly enriched in histamine compared with naive neutrophils. In vitro, mycoplasma directly stimulated histamine production by naive neutrophils and strongly upregulated mRNA encoding histidine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in histamine synthesis. In vivo, treatment with antihistamines pyrilamine or cimetidine decreased lung weight and severity of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis in infected W-sh mice. These findings suggest that neutrophils, provoked by mycoplasma, greatly expand their capacity to synthesize histamine, thereby contributing to lung and airway inflammation. PMID:17158962

Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Dongji; Zhang, Hong; Wolters, Paul J; Killeen, Nigel P; Sullivan, Brandon M; Locksley, Richard M; Lowell, Clifford A; Caughey, George H

2006-12-25

259

[Presence of Mycoplasma in laboratory cell cultures from Cordoba, Argentina].  

PubMed

In this paper we determined the prevalence of mycoplasma contamination in 17 cell lines. Eighty per cent of the laboratories that currently use cell culture techniques participated in this study. Hoechst 33258 dye was used to detect mycoplasma contamination. The relationship between culture maintenance conditions and the presence of mycoplasma were analyzed, considering the use of antibiotics in the culture media, fetal calf serum (FCS) quality, culture media processing, use of disponsable labware, type of laminar flow cabinet, quantity of operators, and cell culture system. Thirty-five per cent of the analyzed cell lines showed mycoplasma contamination. Those lines belonged to 2 of the 8 surveyed laboratories. When confronting the working conditions versus mycoplasma contamination, 66% of the laboratories that employ non-certified FCS or reuse their labware, show mycoplasma contamination. Mycoplasma presence was found in 50% of the laboratories that use closed culture system, or more than one operator. Laboratories that process their culture media or that include antibiotic in the growing media, show a 40% contamination. The results obtained help to establish working conditions necessary to avoid introducing or spreading the microorganism. PMID:9793145

Cumino, A C; Córdoba, P; Zapata, T M

1998-01-01

260

Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory illness - two rural counties, West Virginia, 2011.  

PubMed

On October 28, 2011, the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources notified CDC of an increase in pneumonia cases among school-aged children in two rural counties. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was the suspected cause, based on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and testing of specimens sent to CDC. Three of six nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for M. pneumoniae in testing by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources and CDC conducted an outbreak investigation to confirm the etiology of the outbreak, establish active case surveillance, and provide recommendations for treatment and containment. The investigation confirmed M. pneumoniae as the cause and identified 125 cases, including two caused by macrolide-resistant isolates. The outbreak was contained with public health interventions that included communicating to the public the importance of respiratory hygiene, providing hand sanitizer in schools, and informing health-care providers about macrolide resistance; antibiotic prophylaxis was not used. Despite the large number of cases and macrolide-resistant strains, no severe extrapulmonary manifestations (e.g., erythema multiforme) were reported. PMID:23076092

2012-10-19

261

Rapid detection of Mycoplasma synoviae by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) remains a serious concern in production of poultry and affects world production of chickens and turkeys. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA has been recently used for the identification of different economically important avian pathogens. The aim of this study was to develop LAMP for simple and inexpensive detection of MS strains in poultry using specifically designed primers targeting hemagglutin A (vlh) gene. The assay was conducted in a water bath for 1 h at 63 °C. The results were visualized after addition of SYBR Green(®) fluorescent dye. LAMP was specific exclusively for MS without cross-reactivity with other Mycoplasma species. The sensitivity of LAMP was determined as 10(-1) CFU/ml and was 1,000 times higher than MS-specific polymerase chain reaction. LAMP assay was conducted on 18 MS field strains to ensure its reliability and usefulness. This is the first report on LAMP development and application for the rapid detection of MS isolated from chickens. This simple method may be applied by diagnostic laboratories without access to expensive equipment. PMID:25413672

Kursa, Olimpia; Wo?niakowski, Grzegorz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Anna; Minta, Zenon

2014-11-21

262

Morphology of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-mycoplasma) organisms and colonies.  

PubMed Central

The morphology of Ureaplasm urealyticum in broth cultures was studied by phase-contrast microscopy. Most organisms appeared singly or in pairs. Long filaments and long chains of cocci, common in classical mycoplasma cultures, were not observed. On solid medium, U. urealyticum produced "fried-egg" colonies which developed according to the scheme suggested by Razin and Oliver (J. Gen. Microbiol., 1961) for the morphogenesis of the classical mycoplasma colonies. The formation of the peripheral zone of the colonies followed that of the central zone only when growth conditions were adequate, Hence, the appearance of peripheral zones, and consequently the larger colony size, can be taken as an indicator of improved growth conditions. Incubation in an atmosphere of 100% CO2 resulted in significantly larger colonies than in an atmosphere of N2, O2, or air. CO2 acts as a buffer, keeping the pH at the optimal range for Ureaplasma growth (pH 6.0 to 6.5) in the presence of the ammonia produced from the urea hydrolyzed by the organisms. The addition to the medium of 0.01 M urea together with 0.01 M putrescine enabled better growth than with urea alone. Small amounts of phosphate improved growth in an atmosphere of CO2, apparently fulfilling a nutritional role. Under nitrogen, higher phosphate concentrations were required for good growth, apparently serving as a buffer as well as a nutrient. Sodium chloride and sucrose which had been added to increase the tonicity of the medium inhibited growth above 0.1 M. An increase in the agar concentration above 2% resulted in decreased colony size. Likewise, prolonged drying of the agar plates caused a marked decrease in colony size, mostly affecting the peripheral zone. The addition of both urea and putrescine to the growth medium and incubation in a humidified CO2 atmosphere are recommended for improved growth and formation of fried-egg colonies of U. ureaplyticum on agar. It must be emphasized that these experiments were carried out with a laboratory-adapted strain. Images PMID:15986

Razin, S; Masover, G K; Palant, M; Hayflick, L

1977-01-01

263

Laser radiation effects on Mycoplasma agalactiae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological effects of the laser radiation emitted by the Nd:YAG laser (second harmonic, wavelength 532 nm /fluence 32 mJ/cm2/pulse duration 6 ns) on the Mycoplasma agalactiae bacterium were studied. The radiation was found to intensify the multiplication of the bacteria irradiated in TRIS buffer (0.125 M), without however affecting the proteinic composition of the cell membrane. When the bacteria were irradiated in their growth medium (PPLO broth) being later cultivated on a solid medium (PPLO agar), the exclusive presence of the atypical colonies (granular and T-like ones) was noticed.

Dinu, Cerasela Z.; Grigoriu, Constantin; Dinescu, Maria; Pascale, Florentina; Popovici, Adrian; Gheorghescu, Lavinia; Cismileanu, Ana; Avram, Eugenia

2002-08-01

264

Ultrastructure and Capsule of Mycoplasma meleagridis  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural study of Mycoplasma meleagridis utilized the electron microscope techniques of sectioning, histochemical staining, critical-point drying, and freeze etching. The predominant morphotype was a spherical form ranging in diameter from 200 to 700 nm. The other morphotypes were dumbbell-shaped cells interconnected by membranous tubules, and chains of streptococcal-like cells. These forms suggest replication by binary fission. An extracellular structure in the form of a capsular matrix was observed by staining with ruthenium red and potassium tellurite, and was also seen in specimens prepared by critical-point drying and freeze etching. Images PMID:4126825

Green, Frederick; Hanson, Robert P.

1973-01-01

265

New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences that may help to explain why one species is pathogenic and the other is considered to be commensal. However, it was not possible to identify specific virulence determinant factors that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the analyzed species. The M. hyorhinis genome contains differences in some components involved in metabolism and evasion of the host’s immune system that may contribute to its growth aggressiveness. Several horizontal gene transfer events were identified. The phylogenomic analysis places M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis in the hyopneumoniae clade. PMID:23497205

2013-01-01

266

Direct detection of Cardiobacterium hominis in serum from a patient with infective endocarditis by broad-range bacterial PCR.  

PubMed

Bacterial DNA was detected directly in the serum of a patient with endocarditis by broad-range 16S rRNA PCR followed by sequencing and analysis of the results by the BLAST search. Using these methods, Cardiobacterium hominis was identified in 2 days from the date of serum collection. The microorganism was also isolated and identified using conventional methods (bacterial culture and biochemical tests) 17 days from the date of sample collection. This is the first report showing the direct detection of C. hominis in a patient's serum using molecular-based methods, emphasizing their potential usefulness as additional and rapid diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of fastidious bacteria. PMID:16455944

Gatselis, N; Malli, E; Papadamou, G; Petinaki, E; Dalekos, G N

2006-02-01

267

Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Layers Innoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Stain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on BW and the blood characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were assessed at 34, ...

268

Mycoplasma biofilms ex vivo and in vivo.  

PubMed

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that are encased in polymeric matrixes and grow attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces. Despite their enhanced ability to resist antimicrobials and components of the immune system in vitro, few studies have addressed the interactions of biofilms with the host at the organ level. Although mycoplasmas have been shown to form biofilms on glass and plastic surfaces, it has not been determined whether they form biofilms on the tracheal epithelium. We developed a tracheal organ-mounting system that allowed the entire surface of the tracheal lumen to be scanned using fluorescence microscopy. We observed the biofilms formed by the murine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis on the epithelium of trachea in tracheal organ culture and in experimentally infected mice and found similar structure and biological characteristics as biofilms formed in vitro. This tracheal organ-mounting system can be used to study interactions between biofilms formed by respiratory pathogens and the host epithelium and to identify the factors that contribute to biofilm formation in vivo. PMID:19473253

Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

2009-06-01

269

The reducing antioxidant capacity of Mycoplasma fermentans.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma fermentans is an extracellular microorganism capable of adhering to the surface of host cells. It has been recently shown that plasminogen binding to M. fermentans in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promotes the invasion of host cells by this organism. In this report, we show that viable mycoplasmas persist within the infected HeLa cells for prolonged periods of time despite the expectation that within host cells the organism may be exposed to oxidative stress. Using cyclic voltammetry and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, we detected a potent reducing antioxidant activity in M. fermentans. The reducing antioxidant activity was heat stable, not affected by proteolysis and was almost totally lost upon dialysis suggesting that the activity is due to a nonproteinaceus low molecular weight antioxidant. This antioxidant was partially purified by Bio-Gel column chromatography followed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. We suggest that the high reducing antioxidant capacity in M. fermentans is a principal defense mechanism playing a major role in the battle of the organism against oxidative stress within the host cells. PMID:16734779

Yavlovich, Amichai; Kohen, Ron; Ginsburg, Isaac; Rottem, Shlomo

2006-06-01

270

Rapid identification of Mycoplasma pulmonis isolated from laboratory mice and rats using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma species identification is based on biochemical, immunological, and molecular methods that require several days for accurate identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a novel method for identification of bacteria and has recently been introduced into the clinical microbiology laboratory as a rapid and accurate technique. This method allows a characteristic mass spectral fingerprint to be obtained from whole inactivated mycoplasmal cells. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of Mycoplasma by comparison with standard sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. We developed the first database of MALDI-TOF MS profiles of Mycoplasma species, containing Mycoplasma pulmonis, M. arthritidis, and M. neurolyticum, which are the most common pathogens in mice and/or rats, and species-specific spectra were recorded. Using the database, 6 clinical isolates were identified. Six tracheal swabs from 4 mice and 2 rats were cultured on PPLO agar for 4 to 7 days, and the colonies were directly applied to analyze the protein profiles. Five strains were identified as M. pulmonis, and 1 strain from a mouse was identified as M. neurolyticum (spectral scores were >2.00); the results were consistent with the results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (homologies>97.0%). These data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a clearly rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for the identification of M. pulmonis isolates, and this system may represent a serious alternative for clinical laboratories to identify Mycoplasma species. PMID:22498928

Goto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Asahara, Miwa; Tamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Makimura, Koichi

2012-08-01

271

Detection of Mycoplasma pulmonis in laboratory rats and technicians.  

PubMed

Five species of mycoplasma are associated with several rat diseases. Mycoplasma pulmonis is the most important and most studied, possibly causing disease in rats and undermining the validity of laboratory experiments. M. pulmonis was isolated in 144/240 laboratory rats and identified by PCR in 155/240. This species was also detected in 12 human individuals (technicians of a laboratory animal house hold) in contact with these rats. The results were confirmed by sequencing of DNA products. Mycoplasma species are host specific; however, M. pulmonis was identified in humans, suggesting a case of unspecific colonization. Statistical analysis shows a greater risk for M. pulmonis colonizing individuals who are exposed to infected rats in animal facilities than individuals who do not. The detection of M. pulmonis in humans indicates a new status for this mollicute mycoplasmas in animal-holding facilities. PMID:18454744

Ferreira, J B; Yamaguti, M; Marques, L M; Oliveira, R C; Neto, R L; Buzinhani, M; Timenetsky, J

2008-06-01

272

Rhamnose biosynthesis in mycoplasmas requires precursor glycans larger than monosaccharide.  

PubMed

Despite the apparent absence of genes coding for the known pathways for biosynthesis, the monosaccharide rhamnose was detected in the d configuration in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pulmonis, and in both the d and l configurations in Mycoplasma arthritidis. Surprisingly, the monosaccharide glucose was not a precursor for rhamnose biosynthesis and was not incorporated at detectable levels in glucose-containing polysaccharides or glycoconjugates. In contrast, carbon atoms from starch, a polymer of glucose, were incorporated into rhamnose in each of the three species examined. When grown in a serum-free medium supplemented with starch, M.?arthritidis synthesized higher levels of rhamnose, with a shift in the relative amounts of the d and l configurations. Our findings suggest the presence of a novel pathway for rhamnose synthesis that is widespread in the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:23826905

Jordan, David S; Daubenspeck, James M; Dybvig, Kevin

2013-09-01

273

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a)...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components. (a)...

2014-04-01

275

9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be 7.0±0.2. (e) Purity requirements. The antigen shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in § 113.26. (f) Sensitivity requirements. The reactivity of each antigen shall...

2014-01-01

276

Rhamnose Biosynthesis in Mycoplasmas Requires Precursor Glycans Larger than Monosaccharide  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite the apparent absence of genes coding for the known pathways for biosynthesis, the monosaccharide rhamnose was detected in the D configuration in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pulmonis, and in both the D and L configurations in Mycoplasma arthritidis. Surprisingly, the monosaccharide glucose was not a precursor for rhamnose biosynthesis and was not incorporated at detectable levels in glucose-containing polysaccharides or glycoconjugates. In contrast, carbon atoms from starch, a polymer of glucose, were incorporated into rhamnose in each of the three species examined. When grown in a serum-free medium supplemented with starch, M. arthritidis synthesized higher levels of rhamnose, with a shift in the relative amounts of the D and L configurations. Our findings suggest the presence of a novel pathway for rhamnose synthesis that is widespread in the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:23826905

Jordan, David S.; Daubenspeck, James M.; Dybvig, Kevin

2013-01-01

277

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components...organisms (PPLO), a common microbial contaminant in cell cultures. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2013-04-01

278

21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2360 Mycoplasma detection media and components...organisms (PPLO), a common microbial contaminant in cell cultures. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2012-04-01

279

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conditions of the urinary and respiratory tracts, the genitals, and the mouth. The effects in humans of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial...

2012-04-01

280

IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOGENS OF 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' BY PROTEIN BLOTTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet by blotting. Sera obtained from infected hamsters and immunized rabbits were then incubated with the nitrocellulose strips. Proteins which are capa...

281

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...conditions of the urinary and respiratory tracts, the genitals, and the mouth. The effects in humans of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial...

2014-04-01

282

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions of the urinary and respiratory tracts, the genitals, and the mouth. The effects in humans of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial...

2013-04-01

283

Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells  

SciTech Connect

Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

1985-06-01

284

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...conditions of the urinary and respiratory tracts, the genitals, and the mouth. The effects in humans of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial...

2011-04-01

285

21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of the urinary and respiratory tracts, the genitals, and the mouth. The effects in humans of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae range from inapparent infection to mild or severe upper respiratory disease, ear infection, and bronchial...

2010-04-01

286

DNA sequences identical to Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii and Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis in samples of air spora.  

PubMed Central

Samples of ambient air collected with three different types of spore traps in a rural location were examined for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii by screening for P. carinii-specific DNA sequences by DNA amplification. Eleven spore trap samples were analyzed by nested PCR, using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis. The samples were collected over a 3-year period during the months of May to September, with a range of sampling times from 9 to 240 h. One air sample from an animal facility housing P. carinii-infected rats was also examined. P. carinii-specific amplification products were obtained from samples from each of the spore traps. The amplification products from eight air samples were cloned and sequenced. The majority of the recombinants from each of these samples had sequences identical to those of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis, and a number of clones had single-base differences. These data suggest that sequences identical to those of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis can be detected in samples of air collected in a rural location and that P. carinii may be a component of the air spora of rural Oxfordshire. PMID:8784583

Wakefield, A E

1996-01-01

287

Detection of Cryptosporidium species and sources of contamination with Cryptosporidium hominis during a waterborne outbreak in north west Wales.  

PubMed

As part of investigations into the cause of a waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection linked to a mains water supply, surface waters and wastewater treatment plants were tested for Cryptosporidium spp. Oocyst counts in base flow surface water samples ranged from nil to 29 per 10 l. Oocyst counts in effluent from a community wastewater treatment plant were up to 63 fold higher and breakout from one septic tank five logs higher. There were no peak (storm) flow events during the investigation. C. hominis, four named genotypes (cervine, muskrat II, rat, W19) and six new small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identified. Four of the new sequences were closely related to Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I, one was closely related to the fox genotype and one to Cryptosporidium canis. C. hominis was found extensively in the catchment, but only at sites contaminated by wastewater, and in the treated water supply to the affected area. All were gp60 subtype IbA10G2, the outbreak subtype. Multiple routes of contamination of the reservoir were identified, resulting in persistent detection of low numbers of oocysts in the final water. This work demonstrates the utility of genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates in environmental samples during outbreak investigations. PMID:20154394

Chalmers, Rachel M; Robinson, Guy; Elwin, Kristin; Hadfield, Stephen J; Thomas, Euron; Watkins, John; Casemore, David; Kay, David

2010-06-01

288

Isolation of a Mycoplasma sp. from three buzzards (Buteo spp.).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the respiratory tissues of three buzzards. Bird I, a rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus), showed airsacculitis, catarrhal-fibrinous pneumonia, and catarrhal tracheitis. Bird II, a common buzzard (Buteo buteo), revealed mycotic airsacculitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Bird III was a healthy rough-legged buzzard. All isolates metabolized glucose but not arginine and were serologically identical by immunofluorescence and growth-inhibition tests. No serological cross-reactions were seen with several known Mycoplasma species. PMID:7049150

Bölske, G; Mörner, T

1982-01-01

289

Selective inhibition of DNA amplification in nonadhering Mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of amplification of various genome regions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was observed in the polymerase chain reaction, and was dependent on cultivation conditions. A protein stably associated with DNA is responsible for the inhibitory effect. It is assumed that when the protein selectively associates with separate DNA regions, it can inhibit genes encoding pathogenicity factors, thus promoting mycoplasma transformation into persistent variants. 16 refs., 2 figs.

Zigangirova, N.A.; Solov`eva, S.V.; Rakovskaya, I.V. [Gamaleya Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-08-01

290

Distribution of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma salivarium in the synovial fluid of arthritis patients.  

PubMed

By use of a very sensitive nested PCR method targeting part of the strongly conserved mycoplasmal 16S RNA genes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was found in the synovial fluid of 19/24 (79%) of rheumatoid arthritis patients, 6/6 (100%) of patients with nonrheumatoid inflammatory arthritis, and 8/10 (80%) of osteoarthritis patients attending the rheumatology clinic for drainage of joint effusions. It was not found in the synovial exudates of 13 people attending the orthopedic clinic with traumatic knee injuries or undergoing surgery for knee replacement. However, M. pneumoniae was detected in 2/4 synovial biopsy specimens from orthopedic patients with traumatic knee injuries. M. pneumoniae was associated with the increased synovial fluids found in arthritic flares but was not found in the synovial fluids of trauma patients. Mycoplasma salivarium occurred sporadically. Mycoplasma fermentans had previously been isolated from patients with inflammatory cellular infiltrates, such as rheumatoid arthritis, but it was not detected for osteoarthritic patients from either clinic. It is possible that these organisms may contribute to chronic inflammation within the joints. PMID:17122006

Johnson, Sheena M; Bruckner, Felix; Collins, David

2007-03-01

291

Mycoplasma Removal from Cell Culture Using Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the removal of mycoplasmas from contaminated cells. Background data: Mycoplasmas often contaminate cell cultures. The cell-contaminating mycoplasmas are removed by antibiotics, but the use of antibiotics usually induces antibiotic-resistant bacteria. aPDT is expected to be a possible alternative to antibiotic treatments for suppressing infections. Materials and Methods: Mycoplasma salivarium (Ms)-infected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were irradiated using a red light-emitting diode (LED) in the presence of methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer. The Ms viable count was determined using culture on agar plates or using a mycoplasma detection kit. Results: aPDT performed using red LED irradiation was effective in decreasing live Ms in the presence of MB without damaging the HEK293 cells. aPDT removed live Ms from the infected cells after washing the cells with sterilized phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to decrease the initial number of live Ms before aPDT. Conclusions: This study suggests that aPDT could remove mycoplasmas from contaminated cells. PMID:23402393

Hasebe, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao; Shamsul, Haque M.; Ohtani, Makoto; Segawa, Taku; Saeki, Ayumi; Tanizume, Naoho; Oouchi, Manabu; Okagami, Yoshihide; Okano, Teruo

2013-01-01

292

Detection of multiple mycoplasma infection in cell cultures by PCR.  

PubMed

A total of 301 cell cultures from 15 laboratories were monitored for mycoplasma (Mollicutes) using PCR and culture methodology. The infection was detected in the cell culture collection of 12 laboratories. PCR for Mollicutes detected these bacteria in 93 (30.9%) samples. Although the infection was confirmed by culture for 69 (22.9%) samples, PCR with generic primers did not detect the infection in five (5.4%). Mycoplasma species were identified with specific primers in 91 (30.2%) of the 98 samples (32.6%) considered to be infected. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was detected in 63.3% of the infected samples, M. arginini in 59.2%, Acholeplasma laidlawii in 20.4%, M. fermentans in 14.3%, M. orale in 11.2%, and M. salivarium in 8.2%. Sixty (61.2%) samples were co-infected with more than one mycoplasma species. M. hyorhinis and M. arginini were the microorganisms most frequently found in combination, having been detected in 30 (30.6%) samples and other associations including up to four species were detected in 30 other samples. Failure of the treatments used to eliminate mycoplasmas from cell cultures might be explained by the occurrence of these multiple infections. The present results indicate that the sharing of non-certified cells among laboratories may disseminate mycoplasma in cell cultures. PMID:16862282

Timenetsky, J; Santos, L M; Buzinhani, M; Mettifogo, E

2006-07-01

293

Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans induce cell apoptosis and changes in gene expression profiles of 32D cells.  

PubMed

Infection of mycoplasmas has been linked to various human diseases including arthritis, pneumonia, infertility and cancer. While Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans have been detected in gastric adenocarcinomas, the mechanisms underlyine the pathogenesis are unknown. In this study, cell growth kinetics, Hoechst 33258 staining, DNA ladder assays, Western blotting analysis and cDNA microarray assays were performed to investigate the roles of M. hyorhinis and M. fermentans during infection of mammalian cells. Our data demonstrated that these mycoplasmas inhibid the growth of immortalised cell lines (32D and COS-7) ane tumor cell lines (HeLa and AGS). In addition, the infection of the 32D cell line with M. hyorhinis and M. fermentans induced compression of the nucleus, degradation of the cell genome and dysregulation of the expression of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, signaling pathway and metabolism. Apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2, Bid and p53 were down-regulated, Fas was up-regulated and Bax was dysregulated in mycoplasma-infected 32D cells. Together, our data demonstrated that infection of mycoplasmas inhibitd cele growts through modification of gene expression profiles and post-translation modification of proliferation and apoptosis related proteins. PMID:22446603

Liu, Wenbin; Shou, Chengchao

2011-01-01

294

Promotion of arthritis and allergy in mice by aminoglycoglycerophospholipid, a membrane antigen specific to Mycoplasma fermentans.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas, which lack a cell wall and are the smallest self-replicating bacteria, have been linked to some chronic diseases, such as AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and oncogenic transformation of cells. Their membrane components (lipoproteins and glycolipids) have been identified as possible causative factors in such diseases. Glycoglycerophospholipid (GGPL)-III, a unique phosphocholine-containing aminoglycoglycerophospholipid, is a major specific antigen of Mycoplasma fermentans, and has been detected in 38% of RA patients. Unlike those of lipoproteins, which induce inflammation via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), the pathologic effects of GGPL-III are poorly understood. RA and metal allergies are chronic inflammatory diseases in which autoantigens have been implicated. Here, we examined the effects of chemically synthesized GGPL-III in murine arthritis and allergy models. GGPL-III alone exhibited little inflammatory effect, but promoted both collagen-induced arthritis and nickel (Ni) allergy, although less powerfully than Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The augmenting effect of GGPL-III on Ni allergy was present in mice deficient in either T cells or active TLR4, but it was markedly weaker in mice deficient in macrophages, interleukin-1, or the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase than in their control strains. These results suggest that GGPL-III may play roles in some types of chronic diseases via the innate immune system. PMID:20236320

Sato, Naoki; Oizumi, Takefumi; Kinbara, Masayuki; Sato, Tadasu; Funayama, Hiromi; Sato, Seiji; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Takada, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

2010-06-01

295

Occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis apparently caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum in layer chickens.  

PubMed

Natural cases of keratoconjunctivitis, apparently caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), in layer chickens are described. The disease occurred in a commercial flock consisting of 36,000 pullets (Babcock), first appearing around 30 days of age. Clinically, affected chickens showed unilateral or bilateral swelling of the facial skin and the eyelids, increased lacrimation, congestion of conjunctival vessels, and respiratory rales. Some of the severely affected chickens closed their eyes. The morbidity reached 27.8%, and it was estimated that approximately 10% died from reduced feed intake due to impaired vision. Ten 70-day-old chickens with clinical diseases were examined for lesions. There was acute to subacute keratoconjunctivitis in all of the chickens, and some exhibited laryngitis. Adherence of mycoplasma organisms to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, cornea, and larynx was frequently observed. These organisms had an ultrastructure characteristic of MG and showed a positive reaction with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the S6 strain of MG by immunohistochemical analysis. MG was isolated from tissue homogenates of the eyelids and tracheas of the affected chickens. Many of the chickens had atrophic bursae, and infectious bursal disease virus antigens were detected in necrotic bursal follicles by immunostaining. Therefore, immunosuppression due to infectious bursal disease was implicated in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis in the present cases. PMID:7725593

Nunoya, T; Yagihashi, T; Tajima, M; Nagasawa, Y

1995-01-01

296

Proteomics inference of genes involved in host adaptation of Mycoplasma gallinarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different from most other host-specific mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallinarum has been isolated from various hosts, such as poultry, pig, cattle, and sheep. The wide distribution among different hosts, the low pathogenesis, and the weak host immunological responses suggest this mycoplasma has a unique ...

297

Presence of human mycoplasma DNA in gastric tissue samples from Korean chronic gastritis patients.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine whether mycoplasmas are present in Korean chronic gastritis, and to understand their roles in gastric cancer tumorigenesis, because mycoplasmas resemble Helicobacter pylori in terms of ammonia production and induction of inflammatory cytokines in immune and non-immune cells. The presence and identity of mycoplasmas were assessed by semi-nested PCR and sequencing, and the results were compared with pathologic data. Fifty-six samples collected from Korean chronic gastritis patients were used for this study. Twenty-three (41.1%) were positive for mycoplasmas. Eighteen sequenced samples contained a single human mycoplasma or two mycoplasmas, which were identified as Mycoplasma faucium (13/18), M. fermentans (3/18), M. orale (1/18), M. salivarium (2/18), and M. spermatophilum (1/18). Mycoplasma-infected chronic gastritis samples showed significantly more severe neutrophil infiltration than non-infected samples (P = 0.0135). Mycoplasma profiles in the oral cavity (M. salivarium is major) and stomach were different, and the presence of significant proinflammatory responses in mycoplasma-positive patients suggests that the mycoplasmas are not simply contaminants. Further studies are required to understand whether mycoplasmas play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:15072588

Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kang, Jeong-Ok; Cho, Sun-Hee; Kang, Hee-Bum; Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Song, Byung-Cheol; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Shim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Hee-Sun; Kim, Young-Bae; Hahm, Ki-Baeg; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Chung, Myung-Hee; Hyun, Jin-Won

2004-04-01

298

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality  

PubMed Central

Abstract A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. PMID:16642877

Hernandez, Laura; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

2006-01-01

299

Cytoskeletal elements in the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogenic eubacterium lacking a cell wall. Three decades ago, a "rod", an intracellular cytoskeletal structure, was discovered that was assumed to define and stabilize the elongated cell shape. Later, by treatment with detergent, a "Triton shell" (i.e. a fraction of detergent-insoluble cell material) could be obtained, believed to contain additional cytoskeletal elements. Now, by application of a modified Triton X-100 treatment, we are able to demonstrate that M. pneumoniae possesses a cytoskeleton consisting of a blade-like rod and a peripheral lining located close to the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane, exhibiting features of a highly regular network. Attached "stalks" may support the cytoplasmic membrane. The rod was connected to the cell periphery by "spokes" and showed a defined ultrastructure. Its proximal end was found to be attached to a wheel-like complex. Fibrils extended from the proximal end of the rod into the cytoplasm.

Hegermann, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Mayer, Frank

2002-09-01

300

Adherence of erythrocytes to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae adheres to a variety of cells, including erythrocytes. A hemadsorption technique was developed to quantitate adherence by photometric measurement of lysates of erythrocytes that attached to sheets of M. pneumoniae grown in cups of Linbro plates. Attachment of sheep erythrocytes (SE) increased with higher ionic strength, was unaffected by minor pH variations (6 to 9), and was blocked by anti-M. pneumoniae antiserum, but was not inhibited by a variety of sugars, amino acids, and bovine serum albumin. The reaction was time and temperature dependent. The temperature curve showed peaks at 14 and 28 degrees C with untreated SE but only one peak at about 38 degrees C with glutaraldehyde-treated SE. The temperature dependence indicated involvement of either metabolic or membrane activities in the binding process. Trypsin treatment of the M. pneumoniae sheet abolished adherence of SE but was only partially effective with human erythrocytes and noneffective with rabbit erythrocytes. The binding capacity of the mycoplasma cells for SE was restored by incubation in growth medium for 3 to 4 h; this restoration was inhibited by 10 mug of chloramphenicol per ml. Neuraminidase treatment of SE removed their attachment capacity but had no effect on attachment of rabbit erythrocytes and only a slight effect on attachment of human erythrocytes. Pretreatment of M. pneumoniae with neuraminic acid partially blocked the adherence of SE, whereas rabbit erythrocyte attachment was not affected. Attached SE could be detached by trypsin, but not by neuraminidase. For human and rabbit erythrocytes, the results suggest binding mechanisms other than the interaction between neuraminidase-sensitive receptors and protein-containing binding sites shown for SE. PMID:39034

Feldner, J; Bredt, W; Kahane, I

1979-07-01

301

Characterization of MGC2, a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Cytadhesin with Homology to the Mycoplasma pneumoniae 30-Kilodalton Protein P30 and Mycoplasma genitalium P32†  

PubMed Central

A second cytadhesin-like protein, MGC2, was identified in the avian respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The 912-nucleotide mgc2 gene encodes a 32.6-kDa protein with 40.9 and 31.4% identity with the M. pneumoniae P30 and M. genitalium P32 cytadhesins, respectively. Functional studies with reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, double-sided immunogold labeling, and attachment inhibition assays demonstrated homology to the human mycoplasmal P30 and P32 cytadhesins. These findings suggest that there is a family of cytadhesin genes conserved among pathogenic mycoplasmas infecting widely divergent hosts. PMID:9632619

Hnatow, Linda L.; Keeler, Calvin L.; Tessmer, Laura L.; Czymmek, Kirk; Dohms, John E.

1998-01-01

302

Characterization and Molecular Analysis of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Obtained in Japan  

PubMed Central

In recent years, Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains that are clinically resistant to macrolide antibiotics have occasionally been encountered in Japan. Of 76 strains of M. pneumoniae isolated in three different areas in Japan during 2000 to 2003, 13 strains were erythromycin (ERY) resistant. Of these 13 strains, 12 were highly ERY resistant (MIC, ?256 ?g/ml) and 1 was weakly resistant (MIC, 8 ?g/ml). Nucleotide sequencing of domains II and V of 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22, which are associated with ERY resistance, showed that 10 strains had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (corresponding to 2058 in Escherichia coli numbering), 1 strain showed A-to-C transversion at position 2063, 1 strain showed an A-to-G transition at position 2064, and the weakly ERY-resistant strain showed C-to-G transversion at position 2617 (corresponding to 2611 in E. coli numbering) of domain V. Domain II and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 were not involved in the ERY resistance of these clinical M. pneumoniae strains. In addition, by using our established restriction fragment length polymorphism technique to detect point mutations of PCR products for domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of M. pneumoniae, we found that 23 (24%) of 94 PCR-positive oral samples taken from children with respiratory infections showed A2063G mutation. These results suggest that ERY-resistant M. pneumoniae infection is not unusual in Japan. PMID:15561835

Matsuoka, Mayumi; Narita, Mitsuo; Okazaki, Norio; Ohya, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Isao; Andoh, Tomoaki; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Yuko; Horino, Atsuko; Shintani, Miharu; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Sasaki, Tsuguo

2004-01-01

303

Development of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection model in turkeys.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and is also highly pathogenic in turkeys. Several live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccines are available for prevention of disease in chickens but they are considered to be either not safe or not efficacious in turkeys. The studies presented here aimed to develop a suitable infection model in turkeys, a prerequisite for development of a vaccine against M. gallisepticum for turkeys. Two wild-type Australian M. gallisepticum strains, Ap3AS and 100809/31, were used and their capacity to induce lesions was evaluated in 5-week-old to 6-week-old turkeys exposed to aerosols of these strains. Gross air sac lesion scores in the group exposed to Ap3AS were significantly greater than those in the group exposed to 100809/31 (P < 0.05). Histological tracheal lesion scores and tracheal mucosal thicknesses were significantly greater in birds exposed to either strain than in the unexposed birds (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between the two infected groups. In a subsequent experiment, 6-week-old to 7-week-old turkeys were exposed to different doses of M. gallisepticum Ap3AS. Serology and M. gallisepticum re-isolation performed 14 days after infection showed that all birds exposed to Ap3AS were positive by rapid serum agglutination and by culture. Gross air sac lesion scores in the groups exposed to the highest dose, 8.17 × 10(8) colour-changing units Ap3AS/ml, as well as a 10-fold lower dose were significantly more severe than in the uninfected control group. Lesion scores and tracheal mucosal thicknesses were significantly greater in birds exposed to Ap3AS than in the unexposed birds (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were seen in tracheal mucosal thicknesses or lesion scores between the groups exposed to the different doses of Ap3AS. This study has established a reliable challenge model for M. gallisepticum infection in turkeys, which will be useful for evaluation of potential M. gallisepticum vaccine candidates for this species. PMID:25431001

Wijesurendra, Dinidu S; Kanci, Anna; Tivendale, Kelly A; Bacci, Barbara; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

2015-02-01

304

In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of Citrus bergamia essential oil and its major components.  

PubMed

Forty-two strains of Mycoplasma hominis (including PG21), 2 strain of Mycoplasma fermentans (Pg18 and K7), 1 strain of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (strain m129) were investigated for their susceptibilities to Citrus bergamia essential oil and to its major components (limonene, linalyl acetate and linalool). C. bergamia essential oil inhibited mycoplasmas at concentrations from 0.5 to 1% (MIC value as % v/v). M. hominis showed MIC(50) values of 0.5% and MIC(90) values of 1%; M. pneumoniae showed a MIC value of 0.5% while M. fermentans strains were inhibited by MIC values of 1%. M. pneumoniae and M. hominis shared the same susceptibility to linalyl acetate, with MIC values of 0.015% (corresponding to MIC(50) and MIC(90) for M. hominis); M. fermentans strains were less susceptible with MIC values of 0.12%. Among the major components tested, linalool showed higher activity against M. pneumoniae and M. fermentans (MIC values of 0.015 and 0.06%, respectively) but was less active against M. hominis (MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of both 1%); limonene was active against M. pneumoniae (MIC value of 0.03%) but was less active against M. fermentans (MIC values of 1%) and M. hominis (both MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of ?4%). The results indicated that C. bergamia essential oil and its major components had shown an interesting in vitro antimycoplasmal activity. PMID:22465092

Furneri, Pio Maria; Mondello, Luigi; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Paolino, Donatella; Dugo, Paola; Garozzo, Adriana; Bisignano, Giuseppe

2012-06-01

305

Mycoplasma synoviae enolase is a plasminogen/fibronectin binding protein.  

PubMed

Background Mycoplasma synoviae is an avian pathogen that can lead to respiratory tract infections and arthritis in chickens and turkeys, resulting in serious economic losses to the poultry industry. Enolase reportedly plays important roles in several bacterial pathogens, but its role in M. synoviae has not been established. Therefore, in this study, the enolase encoding gene (eno) of M. synoviae was amplified from strain WVU1853 and expressed in E. coli BL21 cells. Then the enzymatic activity, immunogenicity and binding activity with chicken plasminogen (Plg) and human fibronectin (Fn) was evaluated.ResultsWe demonstrated that the recombinant M. synoviae enolase protein (rMsEno) can catalyze the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the Km and Vmax values of rMsEno were 1.1¿×¿10¿3 M and 0.739 ¿mol/L/min, respectively. Western blot and immuno-electron microscopy analyses confirmed that enolase was distributed on the surface and within the cytoplasm of M. synoviae cells. The binding assays demonstrated that rMsEno was able to bind to chicken Plg and human Fn proteins. A complement-dependent mycoplasmacidal assay demonstrated that rabbit anti¿rMsEno serum had distinct mycoplasmacidal efficacy in the presence of complement, which also confirmed that enolase was distributed on the surface of M. synoviae. An inhibition assay showed that the adherence of M. synoviae to DF-1 cells pre-treated with Plg could be effectively inhibited by treatment with rabbit anti-rMsEno serum.ConclusionThese results reveal that M. synoviae enolase has good catalytic activity for conversion of 2-PGA to PEP, and binding activity with chicken Plg and human Fn. Rabbit anti¿rMsEno serum displayed an obvious complement-dependent mycoplasmacidal effect and adherent inhibition effect. These results suggested that the M. synoviae enolase plays an important role in M. synoviae metabolism, and could potentially impact M. synoviae infection and immunity. PMID:25253294

Bao, Shijun; Guo, Xiaoqin; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Jiabo; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Fanqin; Sun, Yingjie; Qiu, Xusheng; Chen, Guanghua; Ding, Chan

2014-09-25

306

Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) in experimental Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection of pigs.  

PubMed

Twenty-five hysterectomy-derived piglets were infected intratracheally at 16 days of age with a field strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Twenty uninfected piglets constituted the control group. Clinical symptoms were noted daily and sera collected weekly. The 45 pigs were killed from 1 to 20 weeks after infection. M. hyopneumoniae induced a temperature response, coughing and pneumonia. After 10 weeks, a noticeable regression of the macroscopic lung lesions was observed. The infection was followed by an antibody response, and the antibody titers reflected the disease stages. ELISA appears to be the most sensitive procedure to detect early and late antibody production. PMID:3667230

Kobisch, M; Nicolet, J

1987-06-01

307

Resistance of Mycoplasma pulmonis to complement lysis is dependent on the number of Vsa tandem repeats: shield hypothesis.  

PubMed

The Vsa proteins are associated with the virulence of the murine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis. The antigens consist of a conserved N-terminal region that is combined with one of several different variable C-terminal regions comprised of tandem repeats. M. pulmonis strains that produce VsaA with about 40 tandem repeats do not adhere to polystyrene or erythrocytes and are highly resistant to complement killing. Strains that produce VsaA with three tandem repeats adhere strongly to polystyrene and erythrocytes and are highly susceptible to complement killing. We report here that the resistance to complement lysis was not due to a lack of activation of the complement cascade. Isolation and analysis of M. pulmonis strains that produced Vsa proteins other than VsaA (VsaG and VsaI) with either long or short repeat regions indicated that adherence to polystyrene and resistance to complement were dependent on the length of the repeat region but not on the Vsa type. Furthermore, M. pulmonis Vsa variants were susceptible to the polypeptide pore-forming molecule gramicidin D, independent of the Vsa type and length. Collectively, the data indicate the Vsa proteins nonspecifically mediate M. pulmonis surface interactions and function to sterically hinder access of complement to the mycoplasma cell membrane while permitting access of smaller molecules. PMID:15557605

Simmons, Warren L; Denison, Amy M; Dybvig, Kevin

2004-12-01

308

Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were

Vanessa Lemos; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Margarida Alves; Maria Luísa Lobo; Maria C. Sousa; Francisco Antunes; Olga Matos

2005-01-01

309

Extended survival times of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae on kanekalon synthetic hair fibres.  

PubMed

The survival times of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms) on washed and unwashed natural and synthetic kanekalon hair samples over a 5-d period were evaluated using the color changing unit method for comparison with results of previous studies conducted on natural hair. Regardless of whether synthetic or natural hair samples prewashed with a disinfectant shampoo were spiked with Mg or Ms, all viable organisms rapidly dropped below a count of 1 × 10(1)/mL of culture. Unwashed natural hair seeded with a titer of approximately 1 × 10(6)/mL of viable Mg or Ms decreased to 6 × 10(5)/mL and 6 × 10(3)/mL, respectively, by 4 h postseeding, but no viable Mg or Ms were detected on natural hair from 8 h onwards. By contrast, the titers of Mg and Ms on synthetic hair did not decline from the initial 1 × 10(6)/mL seed dose up to 96 h postseeding, and, in fact, viable Mg and Ms was still detectable at 9 d postinfection. Application of a real-time quantitative single-tube duplex PCR assay confirmed that no proliferation of Mg or Ms had occurred on the synthetic hair samples, the cells simply remained viable. The unexpected finding that Mg and Ms survive for extended periods on synthetic kanekalon hair fibers raises the question of whether attachment to a surface is a prerequisite for the survival and persistence of Mg and Ms in the extra-host environment. Future studies should be aimed at determining whether other synthetic hair types or indeed other types of plastics commonly found in the poultry house offer similar survival advantages to mycoplasmas. PMID:24570416

Abolnik, Celia; Gouws, Johan

2014-01-01

310

Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A (MsrA) Deficient Mycoplasma genitalium Shows Decreased Interactions with Host Cells  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma genitalium is an important sexually transmitted pathogen that affects both men and women. In genital-mucosal tissues, it initiates colonization of epithelial cells by attaching itself to host cells via several identified bacterial ligands and host cell surface receptors. We have previously shown that a mutant form of M. genitalium lacking methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), an antioxidant enzyme which converts oxidized methionine (Met(O)) into methionine (Met), shows decreased viability in infected animals. To gain more insights into the mechanisms by which MsrA controls M. genitalium virulence, we compared the wild-type M. genitalium strain (G37) with an msrA mutant (MS5) strain for their ability to interact with target cervical epithelial cell lines (HeLa and C33A) and THP-1 monocytic cells. Infection of epithelial cell lines with both strains revealed that MS5 was less cytotoxic to HeLa and C33A cell lines than the G37 strain. Also, the MS5 strain was more susceptible to phagocytosis by THP-1 cells than wild type strain (G37). Further, MS5 was less able to induce aggregation and differentiation in THP-1 cells than the wild type strain, as determined by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeling of the cells, followed by counting of cells attached to the culture dish using image analysis. Finally, MS5 was observed to induce less proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? by THP-1 cells than wild type G37 strain. These results indicate that MsrA affects the virulence properties of M. genitalium by modulating its interaction with host cells. PMID:22558404

Das, Kishore; De la Garza, Georgina; Maffi, Shivani; Saikolappan, Sankaralingam; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian

2012-01-01

311

A stochastic mechanism for biofilm formation by Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms are communities of bacteria that are enclosed in an extracellular matrix. Within a biofilm the bacteria are protected from antimicrobials, environmental stresses, and immune responses from the host. Biofilms are often believed to have a highly developed organization that is derived from differential regulation of the genes that direct the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and the attachment to surfaces. The mycoplasmas have the smallest of the prokaryotic genomes and apparently lack complex gene-regulatory systems. We examined biofilm formation by Mycoplasma pulmonis and found it to be dependent on the length of the tandem repeat region of the variable surface antigen (Vsa) protein. Mycoplasmas that produced a short Vsa protein with few tandem repeats formed biofilms that attached to polystyrene and glass. Mycoplasmas that produced a long Vsa protein with many tandem repeats formed microcolonies that floated freely in the medium. The biofilms and the microcolonies contained an extracellular matrix which contained Vsa protein, lipid, DNA, and saccharide. As variation in the number of Vsa tandem repeats occurs by slipped-strand mispairing, the ability of the mycoplasmas to form a biofilm switches stochastically. PMID:17142389

Simmons, Warren L; Bolland, Jeffrey R; Daubenspeck, James M; Dybvig, Kevin

2007-03-01

312

In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species.  

PubMed

The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens with MIC ranges from 3.125-12.5 mg/ml. Allium sativum and Punica grantum showed limited activity against some Mycoplasma isolates. Olea europea and Citrullus colocynthis showed no in vitro activity against any of the Mycoplasma species tested. Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens may therefore be useful for the treatment of mycoplasma infections. PMID:17969714

Al-Momani, W; Abu-Basha, E; Janakat, S; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

2007-10-01

313

Economic impact of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae in commercial layer flocks.  

PubMed

An egg-production function was constructed, using data collected from 366 commercial layer flocks in California, to predict the impact of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) on egg production while controlling for confounding factors. In the first and second cycles, respectively, an MG-infected flock produced 12 and 5 fewer eggs per hen than an uninfected flock. Flocks that became infected with MG after F-strain vaccination produced 6 eggs/hen more than unvaccinated infected flocks in the first cycle, but no significant difference was observed between such groups in the second cycle. No association was found between MS-infection and egg production. Commercial layer producers in Southern California lost an estimated 127 million eggs because of MG in 1984. This lost egg production and associated MG-control-program costs amounted to an estimated financial loss of approximately $7 million. This represented a loss of approximately $6 million in consumer surplus. PMID:3675423

Mohammed, H O; Carpenter, T E; Yamamoto, R

1987-01-01

314

Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289  

SciTech Connect

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

2009-01-01

315

Hemagglutinating activity of Mycoplasma salivarium and its attachment to sheep red blood cells.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma salivarium (ATCC 23064) and 10 other strains isolated from human saliva agglutinated red blood cells of rabbits and human types A and O weakly, and those of sheep (SRBC) and human type B strongly. Glycoproteins on the surface of the organism cells and N-acetylneuraminic acid residues and some sugars on SRBC were suggested to be involved in agglutination of SRBC. Protein A-like activity was detected in the organism cells. The organism cells were also shown to attach to SRBC in PPLO broth (Difco) supplemented with 10% horse serum, and bivalent metal ions were suggested to be involved in the attachment. The organism cells attaching to SRBC activated complement through the alternative pathway and lyzed the SRBC. PMID:2392065

Watanabe, T; Shibata, K; Yukitake, H

1990-01-01

316

Field evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a temperature-sensitive Mycoplasma synoviae live vaccine.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) strain MS-H was used in three separate commercial flocks for large-scale evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the vaccine under commercial conditions. MS-H successfully colonized meat and layer-breeders vaccinated by eyedrop and persisted for up to 55 wk after vaccination. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that MS-H was the only strain isolated from two vaccinated flocks. In a third flock, challenge with a wild-type MS occurred, and this strain was isolated from both vaccinated and unvaccinated birds. Vertical transmission of MS-H was investigated by culturing pipped embryos and testing broiler progeny for MS antibody at processing (56 days old). No evidence of vertical transmission was detected. Lateral transmission of MS-H strain from vaccinated to unvaccinated birds occurred in one of the commercial flocks. Forty-one of 50 isolates of MS-H obtained from vaccinated flocks maintained their temperature-sensitive phenotype, but nine isolates showed a nontemperature-sensitive phenotype. PMID:9876836

Markham, J F; Scott, P C; Whithear, K G

1998-01-01

317

Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in a herd of North American bison (Bison bison).  

PubMed

A disease outbreak of high morbidity and high mortality in bison (Bison bison) was investigated. Clinical signs included lameness, swollen joints, respiratory distress, and lethargy. Fifty-three of 194 animals died. Cows between 5 and 10 years of age were the most affected group, in which 40 of 88 animals died. Necropsies were performed on several animals. There were abscesses in the lung and liver, as well as fibrinosuppurative pleuritis, polyarthritis, and disseminated microabscesses in various organs. No significant bacteria were isolated by routine aerobic cultures of lung and liver from 2 representative cases. However, Mycoplasma cultures were positive. Polymerase chain reaction tests on the isolated bacteria were positive for Mycoplasma bovis. Histologically, the abscesses were characterized by areas of necrosis with variable mineralization rimmed by granulomatous inflammation and fibrous tissue. No new animals had been introduced into the herd, but a cattle herd was present adjacent to the affected bison herd. Two restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques were used to compare the bison isolate and another bison isolate from an outbreak in North Dakota with a field isolate of M. bovis from cattle and with a laboratory control strain of M. bovis; the isolates and control strain were found to be similar. The isolates and the control were sequenced and compared with sequences in GenBank. Bison isolates were more than 99% homologous to M. bovis sequences in GenBank. It was concluded that M. bovis in bison can cause disseminated infection with a high morbidity and mortality and that bison isolates are similar to bovine M. bovis isolates. PMID:20807947

Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Hays, Mike; Dyer, Neil; Oberst, Richard D; Debey, Brad M

2010-09-01

318

EPS-I polysaccharide protects Mycoplasma pulmonis from phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Few mycoplasmal polysaccharides have been described and little is known about their role in pathogenesis. The infection of mice with Mycoplasma pulmonis has been utilized in many in vivo and in vitro studies to gain a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions during chronic respiratory infection. Although alveolar macrophages have a primary role in host defence, M. pulmonis is killed inefficiently in vitro. One antiphagocytic factor produced by the mycoplasma is the family of phase- and size-variable Vsa lipoproteins. However, bacteria generally employ multiple strategies for combating host defences, with capsular polysaccharide often having a key role. We show here that mutants lacking the EPS-I polysaccharide of M. pulmonis exhibit increased susceptibility to binding and subsequent killing by alveolar macrophages. These results give further insight into how mycoplasmas are able to avoid the host immune system and sustain a chronic infection. PMID:23190331

Shaw, Brandon M; Daubenspeck, James M; Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

2013-01-01

319

Polymerase chain reaction with a primer pair in the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region for detection of Mycoplasma pulmonis in clinical isolates.  

PubMed

To develop a diagnostic tool to identify Mycoplasma pulmonis (M. pulmonis) in clinical isolates, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers specific for the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (SR) of M. pulmonis. One pair of PCR primers reacted specifically with two reference strains of M. pulmonis tested and seven samples isolated from naturally infected rats. The primer pair did not produce PCR products of the correct size from any other rodent or human mycoplasmas or cellular DNA from rodent lungs. Specificity of the PCR assay was confirmed by Southern blotting with probe specific for the SR of M. pulmonis. The PCR assay for detection of M. pulmonis established in this study is suitable for diagnosis of M. pulmonis infection in clinical cases. PMID:14690721

Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K; Matsushita, S; Kobayashi, H; Yamamoto, K

2004-03-01

320

The Vsa proteins modulate susceptibility of Mycoplasma pulmonis to complement killing, hemadsorption, and adherence to polystyrene.  

PubMed

The variable surface antigens (Vsa) of the murine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis are associated with the virulence of the microorganism in the lung. In strain UAB CT, the antigens consist of an N-terminal region that is combined with one of seven different C-terminal variable regions comprised of tandem repeats. M. pulmonis producing a VsaA protein with about 40 tandem repeats (R40) does not adhere to red blood cells or polystyrene. Strains that produce VsaH contain a short C-terminal region that lacks tandem repeats and adhere to red blood cells and plastic. We isolated and analyzed M. pulmonis strain CT variants (CT182 and derivatives) that produced a VsaA protein with only three tandem repeats (R3). These variants adhered to plastic and red blood cells similarly to the VsaH-producing strain. When the R3-producing CT182 strain or the VsaH-producing strains were incubated with normal guinea pig serum, they were efficiently killed. Killing was abolished when the serum was heat inactivated. In contrast, the M. pulmonis strains that produced VsaA R40 were highly resistant to complement killing. CT182R3 variants that survived the complement killing reactions all produced the R40 form of VsaA and were resistant to complement killing. VsaA R40 is the first mycoplasmal protein shown to be associated with resistance to complement. As both VsaH and VsaA can mediate adherence to plastic, cytadherence, and susceptibility to complement, we propose that Vsa modulates these phenotypes by nonspecific interactions. PMID:14500494

Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

2003-10-01

321

Fewer essential genes in mycoplasmas than previous studies suggest.  

PubMed

Here, we describe mutants of Mycoplasma pulmonis that were obtained using a minitransposon, Tn4001TF1, which actively transposes but is then unable to undergo subsequent excision events. Using Tn4001TF1, we disrupted 39 genes previously thought to be essential for growth. Thus, the number of genes required for growth has been overestimated. This study also revealed evidence of gene duplications in M. pulmonis and identified chromosome segregation proteins that are dispensable in mycoplasmas but essential in Bacillus subtilis. PMID:20722737

Dybvig, Kevin; Lao, Ping; Jordan, David S; Simmons, Warren L

2010-10-01

322

Mycoplasma salivarium in the Blood of a Child with Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma salivarium was recovered from the blood of a five-year-old girl who had leukemia and subsequently developed pneumonitis. The patient's pneumonitis failed to respond to nafcillin, a cell-wall-active antibiotic, but eventually she recovered from the pneumonia after a regimen of erythromycin. Sputum, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal cultures revealed normal bacterial flora; a blood culture was negative for bacteria. Throat and sputum cultures were negative for mycoplasma; however, M salivarium was recovered from the patient's blood. The patient had a cold hemagglutinin titer of 1:250. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:281539

Gregory, James E.; Chisom, Josie L.; Naiman, J. Lawrence

1978-01-01

323

A comprehensive proteome of Mycoplasma genitalium.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen associated with several sexually transmitted diseases. Proteomic technologies, along with other methods for global gene expression analysis, play a key role in understanding the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The proteome of M. genitalium, model of a minimal cell, has been extended using a combination of different proteomic approaches and technologies. The total proteome of this microorganism has been analyzed using gel-based and gel-free approaches, achieving the identification of 85.3% of the predicted ORFs. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of membrane subproteome has been performed. For this purpose, the TX-114 soluble fraction has been analyzed as well as the surface proteins, using cell-surface protein labeling with CyDye. Finally, the serological response of M. genitalium-infected patients and healthy donors has been analyzed to identify proteins that trigger immunological response. Here, we present the most extensive M. genitalium proteome analysis (85.3% of predicted ORFs), a comprehensive M. genitalium membrane analysis, and a study of the human serological response to M. genitalium. PMID:22582988

Párraga-Niño, Noemí; Colomé-Calls, Nuria; Canals, Francesc; Querol, Enrique; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario

2012-06-01

324

A Novel Rapid DNA Microarray Assay Enables Identification of 37 Mycoplasma Species and Highlights Multiple Mycoplasma Infections  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas comprise a conglomerate of pathogens and commensals occurring in humans and animals. The genus Mycoplasma alone contains more than 120 species at present, and new members are continuously being discovered. Therefore, it seems promising to use a single highly parallel detection assay rather than develop separate tests for each individual species. In this study, we have designed a DNA microarray carrying 70 oligonucleotide probes derived from the 23S rRNA gene and 86 probes from the tuf gene target regions. Following a PCR amplification and biotinylation step, hybridization on the array was shown to specifically identify 31 Mycoplasma spp., as well as 3 Acholeplasma spp. and 3 Ureaplasma spp. Members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster can be recognized at subgroup level. This procedure enables parallel detection of Mollicutes spp. occurring in humans, animals or cell culture, from mono- and multiple infections, in a single run. The main advantages of the microarray assay include ease of operation, rapidity, high information content, and affordability. The new test's analytical sensitivity is equivalent to that of real-time PCR and allows examination of field samples without the need for culture. When 60 field samples from ruminants and birds previously analyzed by denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were tested by the microarray assay both tests identified the same agent in 98.3% of the cases. Notably, microarray testing revealed an unexpectedly high proportion (35%) of multiple mycoplasma infections, i.e., substantially more than DGGE (15%). Two of the samples were found to contain four different Mycoplasma spp. This phenomenon deserves more attention, particularly its implications for epidemiology and treatment. PMID:22479374

Schnee, Christiane; Schulsse, Samuel; Hotzel, Helmut; Ayling, Roger D.; Nicholas, Robin A. J.; Schubert, Evelyn; Heller, Martin; Ehricht, Ralf; Sachse, Konrad

2012-01-01

325

Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue)  

PubMed Central

Objective Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method Placenta Hominis (PH), steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue) has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia. PMID:20360892

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Kano, Takashi; Xi, Lu

2009-01-01

326

High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT), M. hominis (MH), and U. urealyticum (UU) infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED), since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n = 114) and nondry eye control (n = 98) groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them. PMID:24967096

Boiko, Ernest V.; Pozniak, Alexei L.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.; Suetov, Alexei A.; Nuralova, Irina V.

2014-01-01

327

Identification of three novel mycoplasma species from ostriches in South Africa.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas have been implicated in certain clinical syndromes in ostriches and are associated with upper respiratory tract infections. As these infections result in production losses, they are of considerable economic importance to the South African ostrich industry. Although poultry mycoplasmas have been shown to infect ostriches, the existence of unique ostrich-specific mycoplasmas has been suggested. In this study, mycoplasmas were isolated from ostriches in the Klein Karoo, Central Karoo and Garden Route areas of the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These sequences indicated that ostriches in these areas carry three unique mycoplasmas and were not infected with chicken mycoplasmas. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of the three isolated ostrich mycoplasmas showed them to be quite divergent and to fall into two distinct phylogenetic groupings. Unique sequences within the 16S rRNA gene of the ostrich mycoplasmas were subsequently used for the development of specific primers for the detection and diagnosis of mycoplasma infections in ostriches. Chickens kept in close proximity to infected ostriches were not infected with these ostrich mycoplasmas. PMID:16280203

Botes, A; Peyrot, B M; Olivier, A J; Burger, W P; Bellstedt, D U

2005-12-20

328

Large-scale transposon mutagenesis of Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

To obtain mutants for the study of the basic biology and pathogenic mechanisms of mycoplasmas, the insertion site of transposon Tn4001T was determined for 1700 members of a library of Mycoplasma pulmonis mutants. After evaluating several criteria for gene disruption, we concluded that 321 of the 782 protein coding regions were inactivated. The dispensable and essential genes of M. pulmonis were compared with those reported for Mycoplasma genitalium and Bacillus subtilis. Perhaps the most surprising result of the current study was that unlike other bacteria, ribosomal proteins S18 and L28 were dispensable. Carbohydrate transport and the susceptibility of selected mutants to UV irradiation were examined to assess whether active transposition of Tn4001T within the genome would confound phenotypic analysis. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that mycoplasmas were limited in their DNA repair machinery, mutations in recA, uvrA, uvrB and uvrC resulted in a DNA-repair deficient phenotype. A mutant with a defect in transport of N-acetylglucosamine was identified. PMID:18452587

French, Christopher T; Lao, Ping; Loraine, Ann E; Matthews, Brian T; Yu, Huilan; Dybvig, Kevin

2008-07-01

329

Transcriptional starts for cytadherence-related operons of Mycoplasma genitalium.  

PubMed

One mechanism of mycoplasma cytadherence possessed by several mycoplasmas, including Mycoplasma genitalium, necessitates coordination of multiple adhesins and adherence-associated proteins. The genes encoding these adherence-related proteins are located in three different regions of the M. genitalium genome and exhibit an operon-like organization with surrounding genes. To understand whether genes encoding adherence-related proteins in M. genitalium are regulated as operons, we performed transcriptional and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses on the loci mg191 (encoding major cytadhesin P140 localized at the specialized tip organelle) and mg218 (encoding high molecular mass cytadherence-related protein MG218 required for tip-mediated adherence). Primer extension suggested that transcription of mg191 was under the control of two transcriptional starts, one immediately upstream of mg191 (Prm(MG191)) and the other upstream of mg190 (Prm(MG190)). In contrast, mg218 appeared to be transcribed by a single transcriptional start, located upstream of mg217. RT-PCR indicated that transcription was continuous from mg190 to mg192 and mg217 to mg219, suggesting that these loci constitute true operons. Additional data revealed heretofore undetected similarities between adherence-related operons of M. genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. PMID:14659545

Musatovova, Oxana; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Baseman, Joel B

2003-12-01

330

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

2004-01-01

331

Methyl-prednisolone in neurologic complications of Mycoplasma pneumonia.  

PubMed

In patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia extrapulmonary manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, cerebellar and brain stem involvement, cranial nerve lesions, peripheral neuropathy, polymyositis have been observed. We report a 16-year-old girl with M. pneumonia infection, acute behavioral changes and coma. Treatment with high dose methyl-prednisolone and clarithromycin led to rapid clinical improvement. PMID:10932970

Gücüyener, K; Sim?ek, F; Yilmaz, O; Serdaro?lu, A

2000-06-01

332

Mycoplasma blood infection in chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are characterised by a lack of consistent laboratory and clinical abnormalities. Although they are distinguishable as separate syndromes based on established criteria, a great number of patients are diagnosed with both. In studies using polymerase chain reaction methods, mycoplasma blood infection has been detected in about 50% of patients with CFS and\\/or

Gerhard K. M. Endresen

2003-01-01

333

Atypical pneumonia associated with a Mycoplasma isolate in a kitten.  

PubMed

An atypical case of Mycoplasma pneumonia with an unusual radiographic and computed tomographic pattern was diagnosed in a Siamese kitten. The cat showed no response to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy including enrofloxacin. The administration of doxycycline led to a dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement. PMID:23543932

Bongrand, Yannick; Blais, Marie-Claude; Alexander, Kate

2012-10-01

334

Role of innate immunity in respiratory mycoplasma infection.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are unique among respiratory pathogens. They possess very small genomes, lack cell walls and are strictly dependent on the host for survival. These pathogens have developed the ability to quickly adapt to the host environment through attachment to target cells within the host. Mycoplasmas have been identified as commensal microbial flora of healthy persons yet, infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts can result in acute cough, fever and headache, and even chronic disease involving multiple organs. The lung contains a complex system of defense mechanisms with which to combat these pathogens, including innate (nonspecific) and acquired (specific) immune responses. Innate defenses include mechanical clearance, cellular responses provided by host phagocytes and molecular protection in the form of antimicrobial peptides. The interaction of mycoplasmas with different components of the innate immune system and mechanisms by which they incite pathology has proved elusive. The mechanisms by which pathogenic mycoplasmas evade the innate immune system are unknown. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge of these interactions in the hope of identifying new avenues for research and therapy. PMID:11991835

Hickman-Davis, Judy M

2002-05-01

335

Protective Immunity against Infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis  

PubMed Central

Hemoplasmas are potentially zoonotic mycoplasmal pathogens, which are not consistently cleared by antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic feline hemoplasma species. The aim of this study was to determine how cats previously infected with M. haemofelis that had recovered reacted when rechallenged with M. haemofelis and to characterize the immune response following de novo M. haemofelis infection and rechallenge. Five specific-pathogen-free (SPF)-derived naive cats (group A) and five cats that had recovered from M. haemofelis infection (group B) were inoculated subcutaneously with M. haemofelis. Blood M. haemofelis loads were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), antibody response to heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), blood lymphocyte cell subtypes by flow cytometry, and cytokine mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Group A cats all became infected with high bacterial loads and seroconverted, while group B cats were protected from reinfection, thus providing the unique opportunity to study the immunological parameters associated with this protective immune response against M. haemofelis. First, a strong humoral response to DnaK was only observed in group A, demonstrating that an antibody response to DnaK is not important for protective immunity. Second, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels appeared to increase rapidly postinoculation in group B, indicating a possible role in protective immunity. Third, an increase in IL-12p35 and -p40 mRNA and decrease in the Th2/Th1 ratio observed in group A suggest that a Th1-type response is important in primary infection. This is the first study to demonstrate protective immunity against M. haemofelis reinfection, and it provides important information for potential future hemoplasma vaccine design. PMID:25410206

Hicks, Chelsea A. E.; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L.; Stokes, Christopher R.; Helps, Christopher R.; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2014-01-01

336

What are mycoplasmas: the relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

Woese, C. R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Ludwig, W.

1984-01-01

337

What are mycoplasmas - The relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

Woese, C. R.; Stackebrand, E.; Ludwig, W.

1985-01-01

338

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species. PMID:24018179

Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-12-01

339

Biofilms protect Mycoplasma pulmonis cells from lytic effects of complement and gramicidin.  

PubMed

The length of the tandem repeat region of the Vsa protein of Mycoplasma pulmonis has previously been shown to modulate the susceptibility of mycoplasmas to killing by complement: cells that produce a short form of the Vsa protein are highly sensitive, and cells producing the long Vsa protein are resistant. In contrast to their differing susceptibilities to complement, the mycoplasmas were highly sensitive to gramicidin irrespective of the length of the Vsa protein produced. We show here that when encased within a biofilm, cells of M. pulmonis producing a short form of the Vsa protein were more resistant to complement and gramicidin than mycoplasmas that were dispersed. The resistance appeared to be localized to those mycoplasmas within tower structures of the biofilms. Biofilm formation may be a mechanism that protects mycoplasmas from host immunity. PMID:17517864

Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

2007-08-01

340

Mycoplasma pulmonis Vsa proteins and polysaccharide modulate adherence to pulmonary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The Mycoplasma pulmonis Vsa proteins are a family of size- and phase-variable lipoproteins that shield the mycoplasmas from complement and modulate attachment to abiotic surfaces. Mycoplasmas producing a long Vsa protein hemadsorb poorly and yet are proficient at colonizing rats and mice. The effect of the length of the Vsa protein on the attachment of mycoplasmas to epithelial cells has not been previously explored. We find that independent of Vsa isotype, mycoplasmas producing a long Vsa protein with many tandem repeats adhere poorly to murine MLE-12 cells compared with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa. We also find that mutants lacking the EPS-I polysaccharide of M. pulmonis exhibited decreased adherence to MLE-12 cells, even though it has been shown previously that such mutants have an enhanced ability to form a biofilm. PMID:22428866

Bolland, Jeffrey R; Dybvig, Kevin

2012-06-01

341

Comparative analysis of the genomes of the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium.  

PubMed Central

The sequenced genomes of the two closely related bacteria Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were compared with emphasis on genome organization and coding capacity. All the 470 proposed open reading frames (ORFs) of the smaller M.genitalium genome (580 kb) were contained in the larger genome (816 kb) of M.pneumoniae. There were some discrepancies in annotation, but inspection of the DNA sequences showed that the corresponding DNA was always present in M. pneumoniae. The two genomes could be subdivided into six segments. The order of orthologous genes was well conserved within individual segments but the order of these segments in both bacteria was different. We explain the different organization of the segments by translocation via homologous recombination. The translocations did not disturb the continuous bidirectional course of transcription in both genomes, starting at the proposed origin of replication. The additional 236 kb in M.pneumoniae,compared with theM.genitalium genome, were coding for 209 proposed ORFs not identified in M.genitalium. Of these ORFs, 110 were specific to M.pneumoniae exhibiting no significant similarity to M.genitalium ORFs, while 76 ORFs were amplifications of ORFs existing mainly as single copies in M. genitalium. In addition, 23 ORFs containing a copy of either one of the three repetitive DNA sequences RepMP2/3, RepMP4 and RepMP5 were annotated in M.pneumoniae but not in M.genitalium,although similar DNA sequences were present. TheM.pneumoniae-specific genes included a restriction-modification system, two transport systems for carbohydrates, the complete set of three genes coding for the arginine dihydrolase pathway and 14 copies of the repetitive DNA sequence RepMP1 which were part of several different translated genes with unknown function. PMID:9016618

Himmelreich, R; Plagens, H; Hilbert, H; Reiner, B; Herrmann, R

1997-01-01

342

Distribution and diversity of mycoplasma plasmids: lessons from cryptic genetic elements  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of mycoplasmas from a common ancestor with Firmicutes has been characterized not only by genome down-sizing but also by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasma species sharing a common host. The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. In particular, only a few plasmids have been described within the Mycoplasma genus. Results We have shown that several species of ruminant mycoplasmas carry plasmids that are members of a large family of elements and replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. All plasmids were isolated from species that either belonged or were closely related to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster; none was from the Mycoplasma bovis-Mycoplasma agalactiae group. Twenty one plasmids were completely sequenced, named and compared with each other and with the five mycoplasma plasmids previously reported. All plasmids share similar size and genetic organization, and present a mosaic structure. A peculiar case is that of the plasmid pMyBK1 from M. yeatsii; it is larger in size and is predicted to be mobilizable. Its origin of replication and replication protein were identified. In addition, pMyBK1 derivatives were shown to replicate in various species of the M. mycoides cluster, and therefore hold considerable promise for developing gene vectors. The phylogenetic analysis of these plasmids confirms the uniqueness of pMyBK1 and indicates that the other mycoplasma plasmids cluster together, apart from the related replicons found in phytoplasmas and in species of the clade Firmicutes. Conclusions Our results unraveled a totally new picture of mycoplasma plasmids. Although they probably play a limited role in the gene exchanges that participate in mycoplasma evolution, they are abundant in some species. Evidence for the occurrence of frequent genetic recombination strongly suggests they are transmitted between species sharing a common host or niche. PMID:23145790

2012-01-01

343

The response of chickens to experimental infection with strains of M. gallisept1cum of different virulence and M. gallinarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of M. gallisepticum comprising S6 of low passage (virulent), S6 of high passage and A514 of high passage in artificial media and one M. gallinarum strain of high passage, were inoculated into 18?day?old chick embryos. Four groups of infected chicks hatched, one corresponding to each mycoplasma strain; these were investigated during the first 28 days of life and

Judith Varley; F. T. W. Jordan

1978-01-01

344

Mycoplasma detection and isolation from one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

In scientific literature, a small amount of information is found concerning mycoplasmosis in camel species. Mycoplasma (M.) arginini, Acholeplasma (A.) laidlawii, and Acholeplasma oculi have been reported to be isolated from these host species. Serologically positive results have been reported for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC type, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, and M. mycoides subsp. capri. The aims of this study were to detect, isolate, and identify mycoplasmas from camels (Camelus dromedarius). Initially, saliva and ear smears plus conjunctival and vaginal secretions were taken from five female animals, but only conjunctival secretions in three male animals, all belonging to the same farm. An unknown mycoplasma was isolated from one of the vagina samples. Additionally, another unknown and uncultured mycoplasma was detected with molecular biology in the same sample. In the second stage, 23 vaginal secretions were taken from the same farm plus another secretion from a different one. Ten isolates of the same unknown and previously isolated mycoplasma were detected, nine of them recovered from the vagina of female camels. Some mycoplasmas have been related to reproductive disorders; however, there is no evidence that the isolated mycoplasmas are related to such disorders. PMID:25059705

Mederos-Iriarte, Lidia E; Poveda, José B; Poveda, Carlos G; Vega-Orellana, Orestes M; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Corbera, Juan A; Ramírez, Ana S

2014-10-01

345

Detection and Antibiotic Treatment of Mycoplasma arginini Contamination in a Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Restore Normal Cell Physiology  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material. PMID:24772428

Resnick, Andrew

2014-01-01

346

Late aortic homograft valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

An unusual case of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis involving an aortic homograft valve is presented. Although the patient was young (a 17 year old man) and showed few of the characteristic features of the disease, the report does illustrate a number of the problems associated with this illness and highlights the need for the careful assessment of apparent culture negative endocarditis. The organism itself is susceptible to most antibiotics but further treatment, including surgery, may be necessary. Patients must therefore be examined repeatedly and assessed for haemodynamic deterioration, valve destruction or embolic phenomena. Homograft valve replacement may offer some benefits in the setting of aortic valve endocarditis and is therefore an attractive option in this situation. PMID:10768915

Currie, P F; Codispoti, M; Mankad, P S; Godman, M J

2000-05-01

347

In vitro susceptibilities of caprine Mycoplasma agalactiae field isolates to six antimicrobial agents using the E test methodology.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, spiramycin and erythromycin against 30 caprine Greek isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae were determined using E test methodology. The E test strips were placed on Eaton's agar medium without antimicrobials and phenol red. MICs were then read by determining where the growth inhibition zone intersected with the MIC scale on the strip. An MIC value of 8?µg/mL was considered as a guide to mycoplasma resistance. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones (MIC50, 0.19?g/mL; MIC90, 0.38?µg/mL; highest MIC, 0.5?µg/mL), spectinomycin (MIC50, 0.5?µg/mL; MIC90, 1?µg/mL; highest MIC, 1?µg/mL), and spiramycin (MIC50, 1?µg/mL; MIC90, 1.5?µg/mL; highest MIC, 2?µg/mL). Two strains exhibited resistance to tetracycline (MIC 32?µg/mL) but these were not found to carry any of the tet(M), tet(O), and tet(S) resistance genes. Finally all isolates expressed resistance to erythromycin (MIC50, 128?µg/mL; MIC90, >256?µg/mL). PMID:25439442

Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

2014-12-01

348

Phase-locked mutants of Mycoplasma agalactiae: defining the molecular switch of high-frequency Vpma antigenic variation  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma agalactiae, an important pathogen of small ruminants, exhibits antigenic diversity by switching the expression of multiple surface lipoproteins called Vpmas (Variable proteins of M. agalactiae). Although phase variation has been shown to play important roles in many host–pathogen interactions, the biological significance and the mechanism of Vpma oscillations remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that all six Vpma proteins are expressed in the type strain PG2 and all undergo phase variation at an unusually high frequency. Furthermore, targeted gene disruption of the xer1 gene encoding a putative site-specific recombinase adjacent to the vpma locus was accomplished via homologous recombination using a replicon-based vector. Inactivation of xer1 abolished further Vpma switching and the ‘phase-locked’ mutants (PLMs) continued to steadily express only a single Vpma product. Complementation of the wild-type xer1 gene in PLMs restored Vpma phase variation thereby proving that Xer1 is essential for vpma inversions. The study is not only instrumental in enhancing our ability to understand the role of Vpmas in M. agalactiae infections but also provides useful molecular approaches to study potential disease factors in other ‘difficult-to-manipulate’ mycoplasmas. PMID:18248580

Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Citti, Christine; Glew, Michelle D; Zimmermann, Martina; Rosengarten, Renate; Jechlinger, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

349

Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control. PMID:24828562

Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

2014-08-01

350

Molecular Characterization of Acquired Enrofloxacin Resistance in Mycoplasma synoviae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of enrofloxacin against 73 Mycoplasma synoviae field strains isolated in Israel and Europe was determined by broth microdilution. Decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin was identified in 59% of strains, with the MICs ranging from 1 to >16 ?g/ml. The estimated MIC50 and MIC90 values for enrofloxacin were 2 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. Moreover, this study showed that 92% of recent Israeli field isolates (2009 to 2011) of M. synoviae have MICs of ?2 ?g/ml to enrofloxacin. Comparison of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in M. synoviae isolates revealed a clear correlation between the presence of one of the amino acid substitutions Asp79-Asn, Thr80-Ala/Ile, Ser81-Pro, and Asp84-Asn/Tyr/His of the ParC QRDR and decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml). Amino acid substitutions at positions GyrA 87, GyrB 401/402, and ParE 420/454 were also identified, but there was no clear-cut correlation with susceptibility to enrofloxacin. Comparison of vlhA molecular profiles revealed the presence of 9 different genotypes in the Israeli M. synoviae field isolates and 10 genotypes in the European isolates; only one vlhA genotype (type 4) was identified in both cohorts. Based on results of vlhA molecular typing, several mechanisms for emergence and dissemination of Israeli enrofloxacin-resistant M. synoviae isolates are suggested. PMID:23612192

Gerchman, I.; Mikula, I.; Gobbo, F.; Catania, S.; Levisohn, S.

2013-01-01

351

Characterization of macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children in Shenzhen, China.  

PubMed

Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MR-M. pneumoniae) was isolated from clinical specimens in Shenzhen, China from November 2010 to July 2011. A comparative study was conducted to determine whether macrolides are effective in treating patients infected with MR-M. pneumoniae. Of 57 M. pneumoniae strains, 36 harbored point mutations on A2063G in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 36 (63%) strains were classified as MR-M. pneumonia and 21 (37%) as macrolide-susceptible M. pneumoniae (MS-M. pneumoniae). The clinical courses of MR-M. pneumoniae-infected patients (MR patients) treated with macrolides were compared with those of MS-M. pneumoniae-infected patients (MS patients). The patient demographics (sex, age), most laboratory findings, and diagnosis did not show significant differences between the two groups. The MR patients had higher mean total febrile days compared with MS patients (6.56?±?6.17 days vs. 3.57?±?3.80 days, P?=?0.05). The MR patients were more likely to be have levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than MS patients (42% (15/36) vs. 14% (3/21), P?=?0.03). Although the febrile period was prolonged in MR patients treated with macrolides, the fever resolved even when the initial prescription was unchanged. Therefore, these results suggest that macrolides are less effective in MR patients than in MS patients. PMID:23861188

Ma, Zhuoya; Zheng, Yuejie; Deng, Jikui; Ma, Xiaoli; Liu, Hui

2014-07-01

352

Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae in commercial layers in southern and central California.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) in commercial pullet and layer flocks in Southern and Central California was estimated by testing serum and egg-yolk samples from 360 sample flocks in Southern California and 41 sample flocks in Central California. Data relating to potential risk factors associated with MG and MS infections were collected. The estimated true prevalence rate of MG was 73% in Southern California and 3% in Central California. The estimated true prevalence rate of MS was 91% in Southern California and 32% in Central California. Compared with uninfected flocks, MG-infected flocks in Southern California were significantly older and were medicated less (P less than 0.05). More managements were under a multiple-age system, more flocks had molted, more were vaccinated with F-strain, and more had concurrent infection with MS (P less than 0.05). Only one sample flock in Central California was MG-infected; none were vaccinated with F-strain. In Southern California, MS-infected flocks were older than uninfected flocks, more had molted, more were medicated, and more had concurrent infection with MG (P less than 0.05). In Central California, MS-infected flocks did not differ significantly from uninfected flocks in any factor examined; the lack of statistical significance may be due to small sample size. PMID:3767813

Mohammed, H O; Carpenter, T E; Yamamoto, R; McMartin, D A

1986-01-01

353

Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma bovis reveals host-specific genotypes in cattle versus bison.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex. Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necrotic pharyngitis, pneumonia, dystocia and abortion. Whether isolates from cattle and bison comprise genetically distinct populations is unknown. This study describes the development of a highly discriminatory multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) method for M. bovis and its use to investigate the population structure of the bacterium. Genome sequences from six M. bovis isolates were used for selection of gene targets. Seven of 44 housekeeping genes initially evaluated were selected as targets on the basis of sequence variability and distribution within the genome. For each gene target sequence, four to seven alleles could be distinguished that collectively define 32 sequence types (STs) from a collection of 94 cattle isolates and 42 bison isolates. A phylogeny based on concatenated target gene sequences of each isolate revealed that bison isolates are genetically distinct from strains that infect cattle, suggesting recent disease outbreaks in bison may be due to the emergence of unique genetic variants. No correlation was found between ST and disease presentation or geographic origin. MLST data reported here were used to populate a newly created and publicly available, curated database to which researchers can contribute. The MLST scheme and database provide novel tools for exploring the population structure of M. bovis and tracking the evolution and spread of strains. PMID:25433454

Register, Karen B; Thole, Luke; Rosenbush, Ricardo F; Minion, F Chris

2015-01-30

354

Detection of feline Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma and chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

Little is known about the aetiology of inflammatory lower airway disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma (FA) and chronic bronchitis (CB). The study population consisted of 17 cats with FA/CB, and 14 sick cats without clinical and historical signs of respiratory disease, which were euthanased for various other reasons. Nasal swabs, nasal lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from patients from both groups. Mycoplasma species culture with modified Hayflick agar and Mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on all samples followed by sequencing of all Mycoplasma species-positive samples for differentiation of subspecies. PCR testing detected significantly more Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples than Mycoplasma culture (P = 0.021). When cats with oropharyngeal contamination were excluded from comparison, the numbers of Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples in the group with FA/CB (6/17) and the control group (4/9) were not significantly different (P = 0.6924). While all nasal samples of the cats with FA/CB were negative for Mycoplasma organisms, five samples in the control group (P = 0.041) were positive on PCR. Sequencing revealed Mycoplasma felis in all PCR-positive samples. Mycoplasma species can be detected in the lower airways of cats with FA/CB, as well as in the BALF of sick cats without respiratory signs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possibility that Mycoplasma species represent commensals of the lower respiratory tract of cats. PMID:24574148

Schulz, Bianka S; Richter, Petra; Weber, Karin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Zenker, Isabella; Hartmann, Katrin

2014-12-01

355

Mycoplasmas infection in male HIV/AIDS patients in Jiangsu, China.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas are widely distributed among animals, plants, and human. The four species namely, Mycoplasmas genitalium(Mg), Mycoplasmas fermentans(Mf), Mycoplasmas pentrans(Mpe), Mycoplasmas pirum(Mpi) are also called AIDS-associated mycoplasmas due to their involvement in the development and outcome of AIDS. To investigate the infection prevalence of Mg, Mf, Mpe and Mpi among male HIV/AIDS patients in Jiangsu Province and to analyze the relationship between pathogenic mycoplasmas and cellular immune function of them. First void urine and venous blood samples were collected and epidemiology questionnaires were administered after informed consent. Nested PCR was performed to determine the infection of Mg, Mf, Mpe and Mpi while ELISA assay was applied to detect interleukin-2(IL-2), interferon-?(IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor-?(TNF-?). SAS 9.0 software was applied to analyze the data. A total of 713 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in this study. The overall infection rates of Mg, Mf, Mpe and Mpi are 27.9%, 9.7%, 1.0% and 18.4% respectively. Generally, the infection rates of Mg(?(2) = 10.311, P = 0.006) and Mpi were declined as the CD4+ cell counts increased, while Mf infection was higher in CD4+ T cell>350/?l group. The levels of cytokines are different with the variance of mycoplasmas infection. Mycoplasma infection among male HIV/AIDS patients is associated with changes in cellular immune response (cytokines). However, the affect of mycoplasmas on the immune function is complex, further studies are still required to elucidate whether mycoplasmas interact with HIV by interfering host immune system. PMID:23823084

Wu, Jian-ru; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Liang-jia; Xie, Yan-xin; Xu, Jin-shui; Chen, Lu-si; Yang, Tian; Guo, Hong-xiong

2013-10-01

356

Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. PMID:25236987

Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

2014-11-01

357

Reproducible pneumonia in gnotobiotic piglets induced with broth cultures of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and the effect of animal passage on virulence.  

PubMed

The virulence of a laboratory adapted culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain NB12 was determined in three- to five-day-old gnotobiotic piglets. Intranasal inoculation or exposure to an aerosol of the culture caused low incidences of pneumonia in the piglets. Passage of M hyopneumoniae strain NB12 in gnotobiotic piglets resulted in a rapid increase in virulence. After only three in vivo passages, severe pneumonia involving most lobes of the lung developed in all inoculated piglets within three and a half weeks. All 49 piglets inoculated with the piglet-passaged NB12 strain in nine subsequent experiments developed pneumonia but the extent of the pneumonic lesions varied considerably from piglet to piglet. The histopathology of the lung lesions was similar to that reported as being induced by other strains of M hyopneumoniae in gnotobiotic piglets and resembled that seen previously in conventionally reared neonatal piglets inoculated with homogenised lung from pigs with enzootic pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia caused by milk inhalation occurred in some piglets. The pneumonia induced with the piglet-passaged NB12 strain was judged to be suitable for the study of porcine enzootic pneumonia or for the evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:6718814

Hannan, P C; Banks, R M; Bhogal, B S; Blanchflower, S E; Donald, A C; Fish, J P; Smith, D

1984-03-01

358

Mycoplasma edwardii peritonitis in a patient on maintenance peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma edwardii (M. edwardii) is an anthropozoonotic microorganism found in the upper respiratory and urogenital tracts of dogs. M. edwardii was one of the microbes isolated from peritoneal fluid of a 10-year-old child diagnosed with polymicrobial peritonitis following a puncture of dialysis tubing by a pet dog. Other unique pathogens representative of canine oral microflora isolated from this patient on peritoneal dialysis were Kingella denitrificans, Actinomycetes species and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi. PMID:24040782

Lalan, Shwetal P; Warady, Bradley A; Blowey, Douglas; Waites, Ken B; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

2015-01-01

359

A change in the genetic code in Mycoplasma capricolum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mycoplasma capricolum was previously found to use UGA instead of UGG as its codon for tryptophan and to contain 75 percent A + T in its DNA. The codon change could have been due to mutational pressure to replace C + G by A + T, resulting in the replacement of UGA stop codons by UAA, change of the anticodon in tryptophan tRNA from CCA to UCA, and replacement of UGG tryptophan codons by UGA. None of these changes should have been deleterious.

Jukes, T. H.

1985-01-01

360

Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides  

PubMed Central

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical ?(1?>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an antigenic switch constitutes a finely tuned mechanism that may be involved in virulence. PMID:23869216

Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

2013-01-01

361

Mycoplasma genitalium: Is It a Sexually Transmitted Pathogen?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging pathogen that has been detected in the male and female reproductive tracts. It is an established cause of\\u000a nongonococcal urethritis and evidence linking it to cervicitis, endometritis, and tubal factor infertility is accumulating.\\u000a Whether a pathogen is sexually transmitted has important implications for clinical management because partner management strategies\\u000a are an essential part of the

Lisa E. Manhart; Noa Kay

2010-01-01

362

Cell Reproduction and Morphological Changes in Mycoplasma capricolum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell reproduction of Mycoplasma capricolum was studied. The velocity of DNA replication fork progres- sion was about 6 kb\\/min, which is 10 times slower than that of Escherichia coli. The time required for one round of DNA replication accorded with the doubling time. The origin\\/terminus ratio was 2.0. M. capricolum cell morphology was classified into two types, rod and

SHINTARO SETO; MAKOTO MIYATA

1998-01-01

363

Cerebellar syndrome with hydrocephalus due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed Central

A 27 year old woman developed a cerebellar syndrome with serological evidence of recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The cranial computed tomographic scan showed effacement of the fourth ventricle, enhancement of the basal meninges and hydrocephalus affecting the lateral and third ventricles. Clinical and radiological recovery occurred over 5 weeks. We propose that this was a manifestation of immune-mediated encephalomyelitis induced by the infection rather than direct invasion of the central nervous system. Images Figure 1 PMID:2217014

Coleman, R. J.; Brown, J. S.; Butler, P.; Swash, M.

1990-01-01

364

Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated opsoclonus–myoclonus syndrome in three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opsoclonus–myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare acquired movement disorder occurring in all age groups, predominantly in infants.\\u000a Although the exact pathogenesis is still undefined, there is strong evidence for a paraneoplastic or parainfectious immune\\u000a process resulting in central nervous system dysfunction. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been implicated in a number of immune-mediated neurologic diseases [28]. However, the association of M. pneumoniae

Benedikt Maria Huber; Susi Strozzi; Maja Steinlin; Christoph Aebi; Simon Fluri

2010-01-01

365

Anti-galactocerebroside testing in Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is the most frequently identified pathogen in the California Encephalitis Project, but the role and mechanism of Mp is unclear. Since auto-antibodies to anti-galactocerebroside (anti-GalC) have been reported in patients with evidence of acute Mp infection of the central nervous system (CNS), serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 26 patients with evidence of Mp were tested

Laura J. Christie; Somayeh Honarmand; Shigeo Yagi; Sara Ruiz; Carol A. Glaser

2007-01-01

366

The Vsa shield of Mycoplasma pulmonis is antiphagocytic.  

PubMed

The infection of mice with Mycoplasma pulmonis is a model for studying chronic mycoplasmal respiratory disease. Many in vivo and in vitro studies have used the organism to gain a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions in chronic respiratory infection. The organism's Vsa proteins contain an extensive tandem repeat region. The length of the tandem repeat unit varies from as few as 11 amino acids to as many as 19. The number of tandem repeats can be as high as 60. The number of repeats varies at a high frequency due to slipped-strand mispairing events that occur during DNA replication. When the number of repeats is high, e.g., 40, the mycoplasma is resistant to lysis by complement but does not form a robust biofilm. When the number of repeats is low, e.g., 5, the mycoplasma is killed by complement when the cells are dispersed but has the capacity to form a biofilm that resists complement. Here, we examine the role of the Vsa proteins in the avoidance of phagocytosis and find that cells producing a protein with many tandem repeats are relatively resistant to killing by macrophages. These results may be pertinent to understanding the functions of similar proteins that have extensive repeat regions in other microbes. PMID:22083715

Shaw, Brandon M; Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

2012-02-01

367

Stabilization of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines during vaccination with second generation Spray-Vac® vaccine stabilizer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dilutions and application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines without the use of vaccine stabilizing compounds may lead to significant loss of vaccine viability and loss of vaccine efficacy. Vaccine viability may decreases due to osmotic lysis of the mycoplasma as well as the presence of chlo...

368

Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Lung Epithelial Cells Infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small bacterium without a cell wall that causes tracheobronchitis and atypical pneumonia in humans. It has also been associated with chronic conditions, such as arthritis, and extrapul- monary complications, such as encephalitis. Although the interaction of mycoplasmas with respiratory epi- thelial cells is a critical early phase of pathogenesis, little is known about the cascade of

Jun Yang; W. Craig Hooper; Donald J. Phillips; Deborah F. Talkington

2002-01-01

369

Detection, Characterization, and Molecular Typing of Human Mycoplasma spp. from Major Hospitals in Cairo, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas are fastidious slow growing organisms lacking a cell wall and mostly isolated from the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. There is a dearth of information regarding clinical Mycoplasma spp. isolates among Egyptian patients. A total of 170 samples were collected from patients and apparently healthy personnel in local public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Isolation of Mycoplasma spp. was carried out using appropriate culture media and further identification was carried out by biochemical tests followed by serotyping using specific antisera. Confirmation was done by PCR for detection of different Mycoplasma spp. using genus-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Characterization of the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity pattern against different antimicrobials was carried out using disc diffusion test. The results indicated the presence of six Mycoplasma spp. in 22.94% of the samples. Mycoplasmas were detected more frequently in throat swabs than sputum. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was highly sensitive to macrolides and quinolones but less sensitive to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Molecular techniques were found to be of more rapid, highly sensitive, able to detect nonviable organisms, and cost effective. These results shed light on difficulties of Mycoplasma detection and the superiority of molecular techniques over culture. PMID:25506614

Metwally, Mirihan A.; Yassin, Aymen S.; Essam, Tamer M.; Hamouda, Hayam M.; Amin, Magdy A.

2014-01-01

370

Gaussia luciferase-based mycoplasma detection assay in mammalian cell culture.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma contamination in mammalian cell culture is a common problem with serious consequences on experimental data, and yet many laboratories fail to perform regular testing. In this chapter, we describe a simple and sensitive mycoplasma detection assay based on the bioluminescent properties of the Gaussia luciferase reporter. PMID:24166367

Degeling, M Hannah; Bovenberg, M Sarah S; Tannous, Marie; Tannous, Bakhos A

2014-01-01

371

The effects of increasing sodium chloride concentration on Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine survival in solution.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lyophilized Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines are generally rehydrated and diluted with distilled or chlorine-free water as per manufacturer recommendations. However, as mycoplasma species lack a cell wall, this can lead to decreased viability of live vaccine during administration. The abilit...

372

Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Newly Accepted Strain Details Strain Code: 01XBU  Common Strain Name: p16INKa4a L   Strain Nomenclature: B6.129(Cg)-Cdkn2atm2.1Nesh/Nci/Nci  Register Interest in this Strain Strain Description: Conditional knockout for p16INK4a gene when deleted somatically

373

Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Newly Accepted Strain Details Strain Code: 01XJA  Common Strain Name: PML (conventional k/o) - C57BL/6  Strain Nomenclature: B6.129S7-Pmltm1Ppp>/Nci  Register Interest in this Strain Strain Description: The promyelocytic leukemia gene PML was originally

374

Isolation and Characterization of Two Novel Bacteria Afipia cberi and Mesorhizobium hominis from Blood of a Patient Afflicted with Fatal Pulmonary Illness  

PubMed Central

We recently isolated and discovered new Bradyrhizobiaceae microbes from the cryopreserved culture broth of blood samples from 3 patients with poorly defined illnesses using modified SP4 media and culture conditions coupled with genomic sequencing. Using a similar protocol, we studied a previously cryopreserved culture broth of blood sample from a patient who had succumbed to an acute onset of fulminant pulmonary illness. We report that two phases of microbial growth were observed in the re-initiated culture. Biochemical and genomic characterization revealed microbes isolated from the first phase of growth were new Afipia species of Bradyrhizobiaceae, tentatively named A. cberi with a ~ 5 MB chromosome that was different from those of all previously known Afipia microbes including the newly discovered A. septicemium. The microbes isolated from the second phase of growth were prominent sugar assimilators, novel Phyllobacteriaceae, phylogenetically most closely related to Mesorhizobium and tentatively named M. hominis with a ~ 5.5 MB chromosome. All A. cberi isolates carry a circular ~ 140 KB plasmid. Some M. hominis isolates possess a circular ~ 412 KB plasmid that can be lost in prolonged culture or passage. No antibiotics resistant genes could be identified in both of the A. cberi and M. hominis plasmids. Antibiotic susceptibility studies using broth culture systems revealed isolates of A. cberi could be sensitive to some antibiotics, but all isolates of M. hominis were resistant to essentially all tested antibiotics. However, the cell-free antibiotics susceptibility test results may not be applicable to clinical treatment against the microbes that are known to be capable of intracellular growth. It remains to be determined if the 2 previously unknown Rhizobiales were indeed pathogenic and played a role in the pulmonary disease process in this patient. Specific probes and methods will be developed to re-examine the diseased lungs from patient's autopsy. PMID:24367538

Lo, Shyh-Ching; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Zhang, Jing; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Tsai, Shien; Zucker, Mark J.; Olesnicky, Ludmilla

2013-01-01

375

Cytoskeletal asymmetrical dumbbell structure of a gliding mycoplasma, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, revealed by negative-staining electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Several mycoplasma species feature a membrane protrusion at a cell pole, and unknown mechanisms provide gliding motility in the direction of the pole defined by the protrusion. Mycoplasma gallisepticum, an avian pathogen, is known to form a membrane protrusion composed of bleb and infrableb and to glide. Here, we analyzed the gliding motility of M. gallisepticum cells in detail. They glided in the direction of the bleb at an average speed of 0.4 microm/s and remained attached around the bleb to a glass surface, suggesting that the gliding mechanism is similar to that of a related species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Next, to elucidate the cytoskeletal structure of M. gallisepticum, we stripped the envelopes by treatment with Triton X-100 under various conditions and observed the remaining structure by negative-staining transmission electron microscopy. A unique cytoskeletal structure, about 300 nm long and 100 nm wide, was found in the bleb and infrableb. The structure, resembling an asymmetrical dumbbell, is composed of five major parts from the distal end: a cap, a small oval, a rod, a large oval, and a bowl. Sonication likely divided the asymmetrical dumbbell into a core and other structures. The cytoskeletal structures of M. gallisepticum were compared with those of M. pneumoniae in detail, and the possible protein components of these structures were considered. PMID:19286806

Nakane, Daisuke; Miyata, Makoto

2009-05-01

376

Induction of enzootic pneumonia in pigs by the administration of an aerosol of in vitro-cultured Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish whether enzootic pneumonia could be induced reliably in piglets by administering an aerosolised culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Groups of five M hyopneumoniaefree Landrace x Large White piglets weaned at 11 to 14 days of age were exposed to aerosols of in vitro cultures of a virulent strain of M hyopneumoniae. In three separate trials, 14 of 15 pigs exposed to the bacteria developed pneumonia, but pigs exposed to the culture medium alone did not develop the disease. Lung pathology, both gross and histological, indicated acute disease. Ten of the pigs were tested for seroconversion by Western blot and they were all positive. The growth rates of the infected pigs were significantly reduced and the water consumption of the infected groups was also depressed. M hyopneumoniae was recovered from eight of the 15 infected pigs. PMID:11817868

Czaja, T; Kanci, A; Lloyd, L C; Markham, P F; Whithear, K G; Browning, G F

2002-01-01

377

Clinical and haematological characterisation of Mycoplasma suis infections in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anaemia in pigs (IAP), which can manifest in various degrees of severity depending on the virulence and the host's susceptibility. As M. suis cannot be cultured in vitro experimental infections of splenectomised animals play an essential role for pathogenesis research. The aim of the present study was to characterise the course of experimental infection using the highly virulent and red blood cell (RBC-) invasive M. suis strain KI3806, to compare the experimental course in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs and to correlate clinical and haematological parameters with M. suis blood loads. All infected splenectomised pigs (n=7) were PCR-positive 2 days post infection (DPI) with maximum mean bacterial loads of 1.61 × 10(10)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed severe anaemia and massive hypoglycaemia by 8 DPI and had to be euthanised preterm (until 8 DPI) without seroconversion. The non-splenectomised pigs (n=7) became PCR-positive within 23 DPI and reached a maximum mean M. suis load of 1.64 × 10(5)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed mild anaemia, massive skin alterations with petechiae and haemorrhagic diathesis and seroconverted within 35 DPI. The study demonstrated that experimental infection of splenectomised pigs with the highly virulent M. suis strain KI3806 induces a fulminant course of infection. In contrast, M. suis strain KI3806 induces a mild course of disease in non-splenectomised pigs, which resembles the situation in naturally infected pigs. Therefore, these infection models are valuable for future pathogenesis studies on acute and chronic M. suis infections. PMID:24933162

Stadler, J; Jannasch, C; Mack, S L; Dietz, S; Zöls, S; Ritzmann, M; Hoelzle, K; Hoelzle, L E

2014-08-01

378

Factors influencing the cell adhesion and invasion capacity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background The cell invasiveness of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the causative agent of respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, may be a substantial factor in the well-known chronicity of these diseases and in the systemic spread of infection. To date, not much is known about the host factors and mechanisms involved in promotion or obstruction of M. gallisepticum adherence and/or cell invasion. In the current study, the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin, collagen type IV and heparin, as well as plasminogen/plasmin, on the adhesion and cell invasion levels of M. gallisepticum to chicken erythrocytes and HeLa cells was investigated in vitro. Two strains, Rhigh and Rlow, which differ in their adhesion and invasion capacity, were analyzed by applying a modified gentamicin invasion assay. Binding of selected ECM molecules to M. gallisepticum was proven by Western blot analysis. Results Collagen type IV, fibronectin, and plasminogen exerted positive effects on adhesion and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum, with varying degrees, depending on the strain used. Especially strain Rhigh, with its highly reduced cell adhesion and invasion capabilities seemed to profit from the addition of plasminogen. Western and dot blot analyses showed that Rhigh as well as Rlow are able to adsorb horse fibronectin and plasminogen present in the growth medium. Depletion of HeLa cell membranes from cholesterol resulted in increased adhesion, but decreased cell invasion. Conclusion ECM molecules seem to play a supportive role in the adhesion/cell invasion process of M. gallisepticum. Cholesterol depletion known to affect lipid rafts on the host cell surface had contrary effects on cell adherence and cell invasion of M. gallisepticum. PMID:24011130

2013-01-01

379

Immunologic cross-reactivity among various strains of Sarcoptes scabiei.  

PubMed

Varieties of Sarcoptes scabiei from different hosts are highly host specific but they are morphologically indistinguishable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunologic cross-reactivity among several varieties of scabies mites using serum from a human scabies patient and from several other species of infested hosts. Homologous and heterologous crossed-immunoelectrophoretic (CIE) analysis of extracts prepared from var. canis (dog) and var. suis (pig) mites yielded very similar antigen profiles. Serum from a human patient infested with var. hominis had circulating IgE that bound to antigens present in extracts prepared from each animal mite variety. Antigen homology was further confirmed by fused peaks on tandem CIE. Additionally, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/immunoblot analysis showed that the 2 extracts contained proteins that bound antibody in serum from a var. suis-infested pig, a var. canis-infested dog, var. canis-infested rabbits, and a var. hominis-infested human. The results of this study clearly indicate that different varieties of scabies mites, though host specific, introduce some immunologically cross-reactive molecules into the host. However, each serum from the 4 scabies-infested hosts also contained antibody that was specific for proteins in extract from only 1 variety of mite. These data indicated that each variety of scabies introduced some unique molecules into the host, each strain produced some similar molecules, or both, but different hosts responded immunologically to different sets of these. PMID:8627503

Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Arends, J J

1996-02-01

380

Tropism of Mycoplasma gallisepticum for Arterial Walls  

PubMed Central

The fatal encephalopathy associated with M. gallisepticum strain S6 in turkey poults was completely curable by treatment with tylosin or pleuromutilin. The lesions of cerebral polyarteritis disappeared after therapy. Polyarthritis developed in some birds after recovery from encephalitis. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that intravenously injected organisms became localized as microcolonies within the walls of cerebral and periarticular arteries, and in the glomeruli. Turkey IgG deposition was demonstrated on the glomerular basement membranes, but not in the arterial lesions. The results suggest that the pathologic changes caused by this microorganism are due to selective localization and growth in arteries. Images PMID:4576023

Clyde, Wallace A.; Thomas, Lewis

1973-01-01

381

Molecular detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in a lion (Panthera leo) from a Brazilian zoological garden.  

PubMed

Although Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections have been reported in wild cats from United States, their presence among native and captive wild cats in Brazil is still unknown. A 12 year old healthy male lion (Panthera leo) from the Zoological Garden of Curitiba, Brazil was anesthetized for transportation and dental evaluation. A blood sample was obtained for a complete blood cell count (CBC) and PCR analysis. DNA was extracted and fragments of Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified in PCR assays. CBC results were within reference intervals. A weak band of 192 pb for "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was observed, and no band was amplified from Mycoplasma haemofelis reaction. A weak PCR band associated with normal CBC results and without visible parasitemia or clinical signs may suggest a chronic subclinical infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum". The lack of clinical signs may also represent the low pathogenicity of this organism; however, it is noteworthy that immune suppression caused by management and/or corticoids treatment may induce parasitemia and anemia in this animal. This detection suggests further studies in captive wild cats in Brazilian Zoological Gardens. PMID:17625699

Guimaraes, Ana M S; Javorouski, Manoel L; Bonat, Marcelo; Lacerda, Oneida; Balbinotti, Bruna; Queiroz, Lucyenne G P B; Timenetsky, Jorge; Biondo, Alexander W; Messick, Joanne B

2007-01-01

382

Mycoplasmas isolated from stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) used in falconry in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. from quarry to hunting falcons in the Middle East. Groups of 17 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata) and 29 stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) kept at three different private collections in Dubai were evaluated for the presence of Mycoplasma. Additionally, 10 falcons used for hunting were investigated for comparison. The falcons showed no clinical signs and were examined within the scope of a routine health check. From all birds, conjunctival and choanal swabs were taken and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction and culture. Although mycoplasmas were not recovered from choanal and conjunctival swabs taken from the houbara bustards, Mycoplasma gypis and M. falconis were isolated from the majority (28/29; 97%) of the stone curlews from choanal and conjunctival swabs. Most of the birds had no associated pathologic findings. Mycoplasma falconis was also detected in samples collected from 2 of the 10 falcons, and M. buteonis was isolated from the majority of falcons (6/10 falcons) from choanal (n = 5) and conjunctival (n = 1) swabs. Mycoplasma gypis could also be isolated from tissue samples (liver, oviduct, syrinx) of one dead stone curlew. This study presents the first isolation of mycoplasmas from stone curlews. PMID:19569479

Schmidt, Volker; Spergser, Joachim; Cramer, Kerstin; Di Somma, Antonio; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bailey, Tom

2009-06-01

383

Extracellular membrane vesicles secreted by mycoplasma Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 are enriched in virulence proteins.  

PubMed

Mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), the smallest prokaryotes capable of self-replication, as well as Archaea, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria constitutively produce extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, little is known regarding the content and functions of mycoplasma vesicles. Here, we present for the first time a proteomics-based characterisation of extracellular membrane vesicles from Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The ubiquitous mycoplasma is widespread in nature, found in humans, animals and plants, and is the causative agent of phytomycoplasmoses and the predominant contaminant of cell cultures. Taking a proteomics approach using LC-ESI-MS/MS, we identified 97 proteins. Analysis of the identified proteins indicated that A. laidlawii-derived EVs are enriched in virulence proteins that may play critical roles in mycoplasma-induced pathogenesis. Our data will help to elucidate the functions of mycoplasma-derived EVs and to develop effective methods to control infections and contaminations of cell cultures by mycoplasmas. In the present study, we have documented for the first time the proteins in EVs secreted by mycoplasma vesicular proteins identified in this study are likely involved in the adaptation of bacteria to stressors, survival in microbial communities and pathogen-host interactions. These findings suggest that the secretion of EVs is an evolutionally conserved and universal process that occurs in organisms from the simplest wall-less bacteria to complex organisms and indicate the necessity of developing new approaches to control infects. PMID:25088052

Chernov, Vladislav M; Mouzykantov, Alexey A; Baranova, Natalia B; Medvedeva, Elena S; Grygorieva, Tatiana Yu; Trushin, Maxim V; Vishnyakov, Innokentii E; Sabantsev, Anton V; Borchsenius, Sergei N; Chernova, Olga A

2014-10-14

384

SP-A Preserves Airway Homeostasis During Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

The lung is constantly challenged during normal breathing by a myriad of environmental irritants and infectious insults. Pulmonary host defense mechanisms maintain homeostasis between inhibition/clearance of pathogens and regulation of inflammatory responses that could injure the airway epithelium. One component of this defense mechanism, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), exerts multifunctional roles in mediating host responses to inflammatory and infectious agents. SP-A has a bacteriostatic effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), which occurs by binding surface disaturated phosphatidylglycerols. SP-A can also bind the Mp membrane protein, MPN372. In this study we investigated the role of SP-A during acute phase pulmonary infection with Mp using mice deficient in SP-A. Biologic responses, inflammation and cellular infiltration, were much greater in Mp infected SP-A?/? mice than wild type mice. Likewise, physiologic responses (airway hyperresponsiveness and lung compliance) to Mp infection were more severely affected in SP-A?/? mice. Both Mp-induced biologic and physiologic changes were attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of TNF-?. Our findings demonstrate that SP-A is vital to preserving lung homeostasis and host defense to this clinically relevant strain of Mp by curtailing inflammatory cell recruitment and limiting an overzealous TNF-? response. PMID:19494306

Ledford, Julie G.; Goto, Hisatsugu; Potts, Erin N.; Degan, Simone; Chu, Hong Wei; Voelker, Dennis R.; Sunday, Mary E.; Cianciolo, George J.; Foster, William M.; Kraft, Monica; Wright, Jo Rae

2013-01-01

385

Functional Characterization of Osmotically Inducible Protein C (MG_427) from Mycoplasma genitalium  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma genitalium is the smallest self-replicating bacterium and an important human pathogen responsible for a range of urogenital infections and pathologies. Due to its limited genome size, many genes conserved in other bacteria are missing in M. genitalium. Genes encoding catalase and superoxide dismutase are absent, and how this pathogen overcomes oxidative stress remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized MG_427, a homolog of the conserved osmC, which encodes hydroperoxide peroxidase, shown to protect bacteria against oxidative stress. We found that recombinant MG_427 protein reduced organic and inorganic peroxide substrates. Also, we showed that a deletion mutant of MG_427 was highly sensitive to killing by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and H2O2 compared to the sensitivity of the wild type. Further, the fully complemented mutant strain reversed its oxidative sensitivity. Examination of the expression pattern of MG_427 during osmotic shock, oxidative stress, and other stress conditions revealed its lack of induction, distinguishing MG_427 from other previously characterized osmC genes. PMID:24363346

Zhang, Wenbo

2014-01-01

386

Genome of Mycoplasma haemofelis, unraveling its strategies for survival and persistence  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma haemofelis is a mycoplasmal pathogen (hemoplasma) that attaches to the host's erythrocytes. Distributed worldwide, it has a significant impact on the health of cats causing acute disease and, despite treatment, establishing chronic infection. It might also have a role as a zoonotic agent, especially in immunocompromised patients. Whole genome sequencing and analyses of M. haemofelis strain Ohio2 was undertaken as a step toward understanding its survival and persistence. Metabolic pathways are reduced, relying on the host to supply many of the nutrients and metabolites needed for survival. M. haemofelis must import glucose for ATP generation and ribose derivates for RNA/DNA synthesis. Hypoxanthine, adenine, guanine, uracil and CMP are scavenged from the environment to support purine and pyrimidine synthesis. In addition, nicotinamide, amino acids and any vitamins needed for growth, must be acquired from its environment. The core proteome of M. haemofelis contains an abundance of paralogous gene families, corresponding to 70.6% of all the CDSs. This "paralog pool" is a rich source of different antigenic epitopes that can be varied to elude the host's immune system and establish chronic infection. M. haemofelis also appears to be capable of phase variation, which is particularly relevant to the cyclic bacteremia and persistence, characteristics of the infection in the cat. The data generated herein should be of great use for understanding the mechanisms of M. haemofelis infection. Further, it will provide new insights into its pathogenicity and clues needed to formulate media to support the in vitro cultivation of M. haemofelis. PMID:21936946

2011-01-01

387

Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

2014-01-01

388

Optical and ultrastructural studies of midgut and salivary glands of first instar of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).  

PubMed

Midguts and salivary glands of newly hatched larvae (L1) of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) were studied using light and electron microscopy. The larval midgut has a tubular, sinusoidal form and consists of a monolayer of epithelial cells with an underlying basement membrane and a surrounding layer of connective tissue. The fine structure of the midgut shows digestive cells with short microvilli, large nuclei, and cytoplasm containing few visible organelles (mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes). In the basal region, the plasma membrane of the cells is folded into a labyrinth area. Hemidesmosomes link the basal surface to the basement membrane and septet junctions are present between adjacent cells. The connective tissue circling the basement membrane contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers, and tracheal tubes. Prominent nuclei with evident nucleoli occur in the digestive cells. The salivary gland is simple and tubular. It has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The fine structure of the salivary gland shows epithelial cells, microvilli, secretion into the lumen, septate junctions at the lateral face and a basal labyrinth region. The cell nucleus is large and the cytoplasm contains rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and mitochondria. PMID:15962767

Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

2005-05-01

389

Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with ?-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the ?-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and ?-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to ?-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class. PMID:24643287

Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

2014-12-01

390

Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)] [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

2012-01-27

391

Eggshell apex abnormalities associated with Mycoplasma synoviae infection in layers.  

PubMed

Eggs exhibiting eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) were evaluated for changes in shell characteristics such as strength, thickness, and ultrastructure. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection was confirmed by serological assay along with isolation of MS from the trachea and oviduct. Changes in eggshell quality were shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). We also identified ultrastructural changes in the mammillary knob layer by Scanning Electron Microscopy. While eggs may seem to be structurally sound, ultrastructural evaluation showed that affected eggs do not regain their former quality. In our knowledge, this is the first report describing the occurrence of EAA in Korea. PMID:24962418

Jeon, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jong-Nyeo; Lee, Hae-Rim; Koo, Bon-Sang; Min, Kyeong-Cheol; Han, Moo-Sung; Lee, Seung-Baek; Bae, Yeon-Ji; Mo, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Chang-Hee; Mo, In-Pil

2014-12-01

392

Eggshell apex abnormalities associated with Mycoplasma synoviae infection in layers  

PubMed Central

Eggs exhibiting eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) were evaluated for changes in shell characteristics such as strength, thickness, and ultrastructure. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection was confirmed by serological assay along with isolation of MS from the trachea and oviduct. Changes in eggshell quality were shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). We also identified ultrastructural changes in the mammillary knob layer by Scanning Electron Microscopy. While eggs may seem to be structurally sound, ultrastructural evaluation showed that affected eggs do not regain their former quality. In our knowledge, this is the first report describing the occurrence of EAA in Korea. PMID:24962418

Jeon, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jong-Nyeo; Lee, Hae-Rim; Koo, Bon-Sang; Min, Kyeong-Cheol; Han, Moo-Sung; Lee, Seung-Baek; Bae, Yeon-Ji; Mo, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Chang-Hee

2014-01-01

393

Differential identification of mycoplasma pulmonis and M. arthritidis using PCR-based RFLP.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma arthritidis were differentially identified using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A genus-specific sequence of mycoplasma was amplified by PCR and the PCR products were digested with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Each PCR product from the four isolates of M. pulmonis was digested with SmaI into two fragments; however, there was no digestion in the PCR product from M. arthritidis. This method might be useful to differentiate infection of M. pulmonis from that of M. arthritidis. PMID:16093650

Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Cho, Sun-A; Baek, Min-Won; Lee, Hui-Young; Yang, Ki-Hwa; Jang, Dong Deuk; Han, Beom-Seok; Park, Jae-Hak

2005-07-01

394

Evolutionary history of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia using next generation sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides "Small Colony".  

PubMed

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th) century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th) century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th) century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected. PMID:23071648

Dupuy, Virginie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Barbe, Valérie; Thebault, Patricia; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Poumarat, François; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thiaucourt, François

2012-01-01

395

Gene expression modulation in chicken macrophages exposed to Mycoplasma synoviae or Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma synoviae and Escherichia coli are two avian pathogens that exhibit markedly different mechanisms for infection and pathogenicity and may be expected to manipulate the host innate immune response differently. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of modulated genes and make a comparison between the transcriptomes of chicken macrophages exposed to either M. synoviae type strain WVU 1853 (MS) or avian pathogenic E. coli strain V-G (APEC). To analyze temporal gene expression profile of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and HD11 cell line macrophages after each exposure, two avian immunity microarrays were used: the avian macrophage microarray (AMM) and the avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM). The quantity of MS-modulated genes was estimated in three experiments, using both microarrays. A cross-section revealed 14 AMM/AIIM genetic elements that were modulated in both types of macrophages. Additionally, to compare immunomodulatory activity of MS and APEC, MDM were exposed to each pathogen and gene modulation was detected by AIIM microarray. This study revealed 157 elements uniquely modulated by MS and 1603 elements uniquely modulated by APEC. AIIM microarray analysis also revealed a core set of 146 elements modulated by both pathogens, with generally higher induction/repression levels after APEC exposure. Validation of selected gene expression was done by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The study shows higher transcription levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, iNOS, NCF1, peroxiredoxin 1 and cathepsin L genes after MDM exposure to APEC than after exposure to MS. Surprisingly, complement component C3 gene was repressed after MDM exposure to APEC, while being induced after exposure to MS. PMID:17656046

Lavric, Miha; Maughan, Michele N; Bliss, Travis W; Dohms, John E; Bencina, Dusan; Keeler, Calvin L; Narat, Mojca

2008-01-01

396

Mycoplasma gallisepticum in vivo induced antigens expressed during infection in chickens.  

PubMed

Until now only a few genes encoding virulence factors have been characterized in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. In order to identify candidate targets associated with infection we applied an immunoscreening technique-in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT)-to detect immunogens of M. gallisepticum strain Rlow expressed preferentially during in vivo infection. We identified 13 in vivo-induced (IVI) proteins that correspond to different functional categories including: previously reported putative virulence factors (GapA, PlpA, Hlp3, VlhA 1.07 and VlhA 4.01), transport (PotE, MGA_0241 and 0654), translation (L2, L23, ValS), chaperone (GroEL) and a protein with unknown function (MGA_0042). To validate the in vivo antigenic reactivity, 10 IVI proteins were tested by Western blot analysis using serum samples collected from chickens experimentally (with strain Rlow) and naturally (outbreaks, N=3) infected with M. gallisepticum. All IVI proteins tested were immunogenic. To corroborate these results, we tested expression of IVI genes in chickens experimentally infected with M. gallisepticum Rlow, and in MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts cell culture by using relative real time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). With the exception of MGA_0338, all six genes tested (MGA_1199, 0042, 0654, 0712, 0928 and 0241) were upregulated at least at one time point during experimental infection (2-4 week post-infection). In contrast, the expression of seven out of eight IVI genes (MGA_1199, 0152, 0338, 0042, 0654, 0712, 0928) were downregulated in MRC-5 cell culture at both 2 and 4h PI; MGA_0241 was upregulated 2h PI. Our data suggest that the identified IVI antigens may have important roles in the pathogenesis of M. gallisepticum infection in vivo. PMID:25575879

Ron, Merav; Gorelick-Ashkenazi, Anna; Levisohn, Sharon; Nir-Paz, Ran; Geary, Steven J; Tulman, Edan; Lysnyansky, Inna; Yogev, David

2015-02-25

397

Mycoplasma agassizii in Morafka's desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted health evaluations of 69 wild and 22 captive Morafka's desert tortoises (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico between 2005 and 2008. The wild tortoises were from 11 sites in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, and the captive tortoises were from the state-managed Centro Ecológico de Sonora Zoo in Hermosillo and a private residence in the town of Alamos. We tested 88 tortoises for mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific antibody and by culture and PCR for detection of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum. Fifteen of 22 captive tortoises had one or more positive diagnostic test results for M. agassizii whereas no wild tortoises had positive tests. Tortoises with positive tests also had significantly more moderate and severe clinical signs of mycoplasmosis on beaks and nares compared to tortoises with negative tests. Captive tortoises also exhibited significantly more clinical signs of illness than did wild tortoises, including lethargy and moderate to severe ocular signs. The severity of trauma and diseases of the shell and integument did not differ significantly among tortoises by site; however, clinical signs of moderate to severe trauma and disease were more prevalent in older tortoises. Similar to research findings for other species in the genus Gopherusin the US, we found that URTD is an important disease in captive tortoises. If they escape or are released by intention or accident to the wild, captive tortoises are likely to pose risks to healthy, naïve wild populations.

Berry, Kristin H.; Brown, Mary B.; Vaughn, Mercy; Gowan, Timothy A.; Hasskamp, Mary Ann; Torres, Ma. Cristina Melendez

2015-01-01

398

Mycoplasma agassizii in morafka's desert tortoise (gopherus morafkai) in Mexico.  

PubMed

Abstract We conducted health evaluations of 69 wild and 22 captive Morafka's desert tortoises (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico between 2005 and 2008. The wild tortoises were from 11 sites in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, and the captive tortoises were from the state-managed Centro Ecológico de Sonora Zoo in Hermosillo and a private residence in the town of Alamos. We tested 88 tortoises for mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific antibody and by culture and PCR for detection of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum. Fifteen of 22 captive tortoises had one or more positive diagnostic test results for M. agassizii whereas no wild tortoises had positive tests. Tortoises with positive tests also had significantly more moderate and severe clinical signs of mycoplasmosis on beaks and nares compared to tortoises with negative tests. Captive tortoises also exhibited significantly more clinical signs of illness than did wild tortoises, including lethargy and moderate to severe ocular signs. The severity of trauma and diseases of the shell and integument did not differ significantly among tortoises by site; however, clinical signs of moderate to severe trauma and disease were more prevalent in older tortoises. Similar to research findings for other species in the genus Gopherus in the US, we found that URTD is an important disease in captive tortoises. If they escape or are released by intention or accident to the wild, captive tortoises are likely to pose risks to healthy, naïve wild populations. PMID:25375948

Berry, Kristin H; Brown, Mary B; Vaughn, Mercy; Gowan, Timothy A; Hasskamp, Mary Ann; Torres, Ma Cristina Meléndez

2015-01-01

399

Molecular characterization of the uncultivatable hemotropic bacterium Mycoplasma haemofelis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma haemofelis is a pathogenic feline hemoplasma. Despite its importance, little is known about its metabolic pathways or mechanism of pathogenicity due to it being uncultivatable. The recently sequenced M. haemofelis str. Langford 1 genome was analysed and compared to those of other available hemoplasma genomes. Analysis showed that in hemoplasmas genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are limited to enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, with glucose appearing to be the sole energy source. The majority of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes that catalyze the de novo synthesis of ribonucleotides were absent, as were cell division protein FtsZ and chaperonins GroEL/ES. Uncharacterized protein paralogs containing putative surface expression motifs, comprised 62% of M. haemofelis and 19% of Mycoplasma suis genome coverage respectively, the majority of which were present in a small number of unstructured islands. Limited mass spectrometry and immunoblot data matched a number of characterized proteins and uncharacterized paralogs, confirming their expression and immunogenicity in vivo. These data have allowed further characterization of these important pathogens, including their limited metabolic capabilities, which may contribute to their uncultivatable status. A number of immunogenic proteins, and a potential mechanism for host immune system evasion, have been identified. PMID:21749699

2011-01-01

400

?-Enolase, an Adhesion-Related Factor of Mycoplasma bovis  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis is the causative agent of Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease (MbAD). Although the mechanisms underlying M. bovis adherence to host cells is not clear, recent studies have shown that the cell surface protein ?-enolase facilitates bacterial invasion and dissemination in the infected host. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant M. bovis ?-enolase and induced polyclonal anti-?-enolase antibodies in rabbits. M. bovis ?-enolase was detected in the cytoplasmic and membrane protein fractions by these antibodies. Triple immunofluorescence labeling combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the plasminogen (Plg) enhanced the adherence of M. bovis to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells; the values obtained for adherence and inhibition are consistent with this finding. Interestingly, we found that trace amounts of trypsin acted as a more effective enhancer of cell adherence than Plg. Hence, our data indicate that surface-associated M. bovis ?-enolase is an adhesion-related factor of M. bovis that contributes to adherence by binding Plg. PMID:22719960

Liu, Yang; Xin, Jiuqing; Zou, Xiaohui; Sun, Wenjing

2012-01-01

401

Identification of exopolysaccharide-deficient mutants of Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

The presence of capsular exopolysaccharide (EPS) in Mollicutes has been inferred from electron micrographs for over 50 years without conclusive data to support the production of complex carbohydrates by the organism. Mycoplasma pulmonis binds the lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I (GS-I), which is specific for terminal beta-linked galactose residues. Mutants that failed to produce the EPS bound by GS-I were isolated from a transposon library. All of the mutants had the transposon located in open reading frame MYPU_7410 or MYPU_7420. These overlapping genes are predicted to code for a heterodimeric pair of ABC transporter permeases and may code for part of a new pathway for synthesis of EPS. Analysis by lectin-affinity chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography demonstrated that the wild-type mycoplasma produced an EPS (EPS-I) composed of equimolar amounts of glucose and galactose that was lacking in the mutants. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the mutants had an increased propensity to form a biofilm on glass surfaces, colonized mouse lung and trachea efficiently, but had a decreased association with the A549 lung cell line. Confounding the interpretation of these results is the observation that the mutants missing EPS-I had an eightfold overproduction of an apparent second EPS (EPS-II) containing N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:19432800

Daubenspeck, James M; Bolland, Jeffrey R; Luo, Wenyi; Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

2009-06-01

402

Resistance to antimicrobial peptides and stress response in Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides are widely distributed in nature, and in vertebrates, they play a key function in the innate immune defense system. It is generally agreed that these molecules may provide new antibiotics with therapeutic value. However, there are still many unsolved questions regarding the mechanisms underlying their antimicrobial activity as well as the mechanisms of resistance evolved by microorganisms against these molecules. The second point was addressed in this study. After determining the activity of 10 antimicrobial peptides against Mycoplasma pulmonis, a murine respiratory pathogen, the development of resistance was investigated. Following in vitro selection using subinhibitory concentrations of peptides, clones of this bacterium showing increased resistance to melittin or gramicidin D were obtained. For some of the clones, a cross-resistance was observed between these two peptides, in spite of their deep structural differences, and also with tetracycline. A proteomic analysis suggested that the stress response in these clones was constitutively activated, and this was confirmed by finding mutations in the hrcA gene; in mycoplasmas, bacteria which lack alternative sigma factors, the HrcA protein is supposed to play a key role as a negative regulator of heat shock proteins. By complementation of the hrcA mutants with the wild-type gene, the initial MICs of melittin and gramicidin D decreased to values close to the initial ones. This indicates that the resistance of M. pulmonis to these two antimicrobial peptides could result from a stress response involving HrcA-regulated genes. PMID:16189093

Fehri, Lina Fassi; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gourgues, Géraldine; Jan, Gwenaël; Wróblewski, Henri; Blanchard, Alain

2005-10-01

403

[Prevalence of Mycoplasmas in commercial layer flocks during laying period].  

PubMed

Within this study's range, laying hens from different housing systems were investigated on prevalence of Mycoplasma sp. for the duration of one laying period, with an emphasis on the two clinically relevant species M. synoviae and M. gallisepticum. Tracheal swabs were analysed for mycoplasms by genus- and species-specific amplification after DNA extraction. Of 919 collected tracheal swabs, 84% were positive for the genus-specific test, while 75% turned out positive for M. synoviae. Mycoplasms were detected at some time during the laying period in all 19 flocks included in this investigation. Using a species-specific PCR, only one flock of a free-range system was free of M. synoviae. On the contrary, PCR analysis did not detect M. gallisepticum in any of the collected samples. Individual and flock examinations revealed no correlation between clinical symptoms and the presence of M. synoviae in hens and flocks, respectively. As the majority of the examined flocks were already positive for M. synoviae upon entry, the establishment of a control regime for Mycoplasma sp. would be advisable for parent stock and rearing facilities. PMID:19517932

Köhn, Stefanie; Spergser, Joachim; Ahlers, Christine; Voss, Matthias; Bartels, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

2009-01-01

404

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an underutilized model for bacterial cell biology.  

PubMed

In recent decades, bacterial cell biology has seen great advances, and numerous model systems have been developed to study a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell division, motility, assembly of macromolecular structures, and biogenesis of cell polarity. Considerable attention has been given to these model organisms, which include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus, and Myxococcus xanthus. Studies of these processes in the pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its close relatives have also been carried out on a smaller scale, but this work is often overlooked, in part due to this organism's reputation as minimalistic and simple. In this minireview, I discuss recent work on the role of the M. pneumoniae attachment organelle (AO), a structure required for adherence to host cells, in these processes. The AO is constructed from proteins that generally lack homology to those found in other organisms, and this construction occurs in coordination with cell cycle events. The proteins of the M. pneumoniae AO share compositional features with proteins with related roles in model organisms. Once constructed, the AO becomes activated for its role in a form of gliding motility whose underlying mechanism appears to be distinct from that of other gliding bacteria, including Mycoplasma mobile. Together with the FtsZ cytoskeletal protein, motility participates in the cell division process. My intention is to bring this deceptively complex organism into alignment with the better-known model systems. PMID:25157081

Balish, Mitchell F

2014-11-01

405

Can American goldfinches function as reservoirs for Mycoplasma gallisepticum?  

PubMed

We performed experiments to test if American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) could be a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and play a role in the epidemic spread of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis among House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in North America. We infected one of two individuals housed together in a cage and determined if transmission occurred to the second bird. Probability of transmission between an American Goldfinch and a House Finch (in either direction) was similar to that between two House Finches. In a second experiment small groups of birds (6-8) were housed in large aviaries. Two source birds were inoculated with M. gallisepticum, and transmission to the naive birds in the aviary was recorded. Transmission occurred among House Finches, among American Goldfinches, and from House Finches to American Goldfinches. Transmission was more likely between House Finches than among American Goldfinches, and between House Finches and American Goldfinches. We conclude that American Goldfinches are a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and could have played a role in the spread of the epidemic as they are more migratory than House Finches. PMID:23307371

Dhondt, André A; Dhondt, Keila V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Schat, Karel A

2013-01-01

406

Mycoplasma Contamination of Cell Cultures: Vesicular Traffic in Bacteria and Control over Infectious Agents  

PubMed Central

Cell cultures are subject to contamination either with cells of other cultures or with microorganisms, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is of particular importance. Since cell cultures are used for the production of vaccines and physiologically active compounds, designing a system for controlling contaminants becomes topical for fundamental science and biotechnological production. The discovery of extracellular membrane vesicles in mycoplasmas makes it necessary to take into consideration the bacterial vesicular traffic in systems designed for controlling infectious agents. The extracellular vesicles of bacteria mediate the traffic of proteins and genes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions, as well as in the pathogenesis and development of resistance to antibiotics. The present review discusses the features of mycoplasmas, their extracellular vesicles, and the interaction between contaminants and eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, it provides an analysis of the problems associated with modern methods of diagnosis and eradication of mycoplasma contamination from cell cultures and prospects for their solution. PMID:25349713

Chernov, V. M.; Chernova, O. A.; Sanchez-Vega, J. T.; Kolpakov, A. I.; Ilinskaya, O. N.

2014-01-01

407

Influence of mycoplasma contamination on the concentration and composition of extracellular RNA.  

PubMed

Kinetics of extracellular RNA accumulation in culture medium and at the cell surface along with their composition and distribution among cell-free and cell-surface-bound fractions were investigated in mycoplasma-contaminated and mycoplasma-free HeLa cells. It was shown that the mycoplasma infection influenced the concentration and kinetics of accumulation of total extracellular RNA and the distribution of specific RNA fragments among cell-free and cell-surface-bound fractions. Fragments of immature rRNA were found in culture of mycoplasma-infected HeLa cells. The data obtained indicate the existence of selective mechanisms providing binding of RNA with cell surface and their excretion out of cells. PMID:17108230

Morozkin, Evgeniy S; Rykova, Elena Y; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P

2006-09-01

408

Natural Strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

Freed, Alan D.

1997-01-01

409

The Effect of Multiple Evolutionary Selections on Synonymous Codon Usage of Genes in the Mycoplasma bovis Genome  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen causing arthritis, respiratory disease and mastitis in cattle. A better understanding of its genetic features and evolution might represent evidences of surviving host environments. In this study, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in M. bovis (three strains’ genomes) were analyzed. The overall nucleotide content of genes in the M. bovis genome is AT-rich. Although the G and C contents at the third codon position of genes in the leading strand differ from those in the lagging strand (p<0.05), the 59 synonymous codon usage patterns of genes in the leading strand are highly similar to those in the lagging strand. The over-represented codons and the under-represented codons were identified. A comparison of the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis and cattle (susceptible host) indicated the independent formation of synonymous codon usage of M. bovis. Principal component analysis revealed that (i) strand-specific mutational bias fails to affect the synonymous codon usage pattern in the leading and lagging strands, (ii) mutation pressure from nucleotide content plays a role in shaping the overall codon usage, and (iii) the major trend of synonymous codon usage has a significant correlation with the gene expression level that is estimated by the codon adaptation index. The plot of the effective number of codons against the G+C content at the third codon position also reveals that mutation pressure undoubtedly contributes to the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis. Additionally, the formation of the overall codon usage is determined by certain evolutionary selections for gene function classification (30S protein, 50S protein, transposase, membrane protein, and lipoprotein) and translation elongation region of genes in M. bovis. The information could be helpful in further investigations of evolutionary mechanisms of the Mycoplasma family and heterologous expression of its functionally important proteins. PMID:25350396

Zhou, Jian-hua; Ding, Yao-zhong; He, Ying; Chu, Yue-feng; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Li-ya; Wang, Xin-jun; Li, Xue-rui; Liu, Yong-sheng

2014-01-01

410

The Genome of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: New Insights into Microsporidian Genome Dynamics and Reductive Evolution  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of reductive genome evolution for eukaryotes living inside other eukaryotic cells are poorly understood compared to well-studied model systems involving obligate intracellular bacteria. Here we present 8.5 Mb of sequence from the genome of the microsporidian Trachipleistophora hominis, isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient, which is an outgroup to the smaller compacted-genome species that primarily inform ideas of evolutionary mode for these enormously successful obligate intracellular parasites. Our data provide detailed information on the gene content, genome architecture and intergenic regions of a larger microsporidian genome, while comparative analyses allowed us to infer genomic features and metabolism of the common ancestor of the species investigated. Gene length reduction and massive loss of metabolic capacity in the common ancestor was accompanied by the evolution of novel microsporidian-specific protein families, whose conservation among microsporidians, against a background of reductive evolution, suggests they may have important functions in their parasitic lifestyle. The ancestor had already lost many metabolic pathways but retained glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway to provide cytosolic ATP and reduced coenzymes, and it had a minimal mitochondrion (mitosome) making Fe-S clusters but not ATP. It possessed bacterial-like nucleotide transport proteins as a key innovation for stealing host-generated ATP, the machinery for RNAi, key elements of the early secretory pathway, canonical eukaryotic as well as microsporidian-specific regulatory elements, a diversity of repetitive and transposable elements, and relatively low average gene density. Microsporidian genome evolution thus appears to have proceeded in at least two major steps: an ancestral remodelling of the proteome upon transition to intracellular parasitism that involved reduction but also selective expansion, followed by a secondary compaction of genome architecture in some, but not all, lineages. PMID:23133373

Heinz, Eva; Williams, Tom A.; Nakjang, Sirintra; Noël, Christophe J.; Swan, Daniel C.; Goldberg, Alina V.; Harris, Simon R.; Weinmaier, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie; Becher, Dörte; Bernhardt, Jörg; Dagan, Tal; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John M.; Schweder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Hall, Neil; Hirt, Robert P.; Embley, T. Martin

2012-01-01

411

Electron microscopic observation of the respiratory tract of SPF piglets inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.  

PubMed

Seven hysterectomy derived piglets were repeatedly challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during the first week of life. Samples of trachea, bronchi and lung tissue collected 2-11 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) were examined using light and electron microscopy. Autoradiography was used to study in more detail the site of M. hyopneumoniae multiplication. Gross lesions were observed in lung tissue and were characterized by hyperplasia of the epithelium and an increased mononuclear cell accumulation in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas. Mild lesions of the trachea and the bronchi, including epithelial hyperplasia and infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells, were noted. Electron microscopy showed that, 2-6 weeks p.i., changes in the mid-trachea and bronchi surface consisted of the loss of cilia. Mycoplasmas covered tufts of cilia remaining on the epithelial cell surface. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that they were predominantly found closely associated with the top of cilia. No specialized terminal structure could be seen and no mycoplasma cells were identified lying free in the lumen nor in close contact with the plasma membrane of cells or microvilli. Some fine fibrils radiating from one mycoplasma to another or to cilia were seen at higher magnification by scanning electron microscopy. Six to eleven weeks p.i., a disrupted epithelial surface lacking cilia was observed. Cells were desquamated and shed into the lumen with cellular remains containing droplets of mucus. Autoradiography revealed that label corresponded to the observed mycoplasma distribution. At the top of cilia, a high density of labeling was visible in the zone of high mycoplasma concentration. Therefore, incorporation of the label in the mycoplasma is proof or their multiplication in the trachea. The intimate association between the mycoplasma and cilia may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae (swine enzootic pneumonia). PMID:1533978

Blanchard, B; Vena, M M; Cavalier, A; Le Lannic, J; Gouranton, J; Kobisch, M

1992-03-01

412

Cholesterol requirement of mycoplasmas as determined by microtiter test using polyene antibiotics.  

PubMed Central

A microtiter metabolic inhibition test was used to determine the effect of filipin and lucensomycin on the growth of representative species of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The cholesterol-requiring species tested were found to be very susceptible to the two antibiotics, whereas the cholesterol nonrequiring species were not.The utilization of this method for differentiation between the Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species is suggested and its advantages are discussed. PMID:1254708

Grabowski, M W; Rottem, S; Barile, M F

1976-01-01

413